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Synthesis and characterisation of MIL-100 (Fe

1. Introduction
The uncontrolled effluent disposal in waste streams from hospitals and pharmaceutics manufacturing units, has
caused the portion to be discharged into the environment in the original or metabolized form [1,2]. Through the drinking
water supply, antibiotics enter into the food chain affecting both human and animals and causes irreversible problems in the
medical field. The presence of robust, non-biodegradable compounds in the surface water has led in exponential rise in the
toxicity in surface water, ground water, drinking water and wastewater effluent [3]. On the other hand, the global reports of
U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) indicates that excessive intake of pharmaceutical compounds results into muscle
weakness, respiratory disorders, myasthenia gravis symptoms and spontaneous tendon ruptures [6]. Nonetheless, the
proposed methods are ineffective for drug removal and require advance methods for the eradication of antibiotics from water
and wastewater by exploring other potential technologies.
The conventional methods like chlorination, ozonation, UV irradiation and permagnate oxidation are mostly
capable of removing microbes and less robust compounds from wastewater streams. Eventually, the presence of emerging
contaminants in the traces concentration led to the development of nanomaterials thus showing immense potential for
eradicating these pollutants from wastewater streams [8]. Therefore, an upcoming and attractive alternative for water
purification is the efficient use of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as an adsorbent for smaller organic molecules.[9].
MOFs are assembled using metal ions and organic ligands. They possess outstanding physical properties like porosity,
tunability, large surface to volume ratio etc., and hence shows latest developments in the adsorptive removal of metal cations,
inorganic acids, oxyanions/cations, nuclear astes and other inorganic anions – and organic – pharmaceuticals and personal care
products, artificial sweeteners, food additives, agricultural products and organic dyes [10,11].
Since 2012, MOFs have witnessed huge number of publications and its rising exponentially which broadens its avenues for
the utilization as adsorbent for water and wastewater treatment [12]. HKUST-1, MIL-53, MIL-100, MIL-101, UiO-66 and ZIFs
have significantly attracted attention for the adsorption applications. Various reports have discussed efficient functioning of
MOFs as adsorbent.
In a recent study, Aslam and co-workers have successfully synthesized Fe3O4@MIL-100 (Fe) by in-situ hydrothermal
synthesis which was further employed for MB removal from wastewater.Also, Fe3O4@MIL-100 (Fe) shows outstanding
magnetism allowing easy separation [14]. The traditional synthesis method is tedious and includes the extensive use of
strong acids hence, Jabbari et al. proposed a sustainable method for the fabrication of MOF@GO and MOF@CNT
nanocomposites where GO and CNT acted as platforms to load nanostructures [15]. Some of the work also includes the
removal of fluorine from drinking water, Ke et al. fabricated MIL-88(A)by conventional solvothermal synthesis [7].
In this work, we report rapid, economical and green synthesis of MIL-100(Fe). Furthermore, the as synthesized MOF was
characterized in detail with several spectroscopic techniques. Nevertheless, the literature reports good efficiency of iron based MOFs
for the adsorptive removal of several malevolent pollutants. However, the fabrication of Fe-MOF is cumbersome process and
involves the use of harmful chemicals. Hence, there is a need to find some novel and faster methods for the upscaling of the MOF so
that it can be employed at large scale water treatment ]plants.