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Proceedings of ICES2006

ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2006 Spring Technical Conference
May 8-10, 2006, Aachen, Germany

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- / of alternative fuels in different prime movers, including the
Biogas derived from organic waste materials is a promising alternative extensively used internal combustion engine [2]. One of the most
and renewable gaseous fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines and effective approaches to mitigating emissions would be reducing
could substitute for conventional fossil fuels. The aims of this study consumption of fossil fuels, by substituting them with renewable
are to review the past researches on biogas fuelled IC engines and energy sources such as biomass. Rural and remote areas of developing
from this review, to identify current research needs. A detailed countries are normally non-electrified and are quite infeasible to be
analysis of the previous results of biogas fueling on the emissions and connected with the national grids because of several unavoidable
performance of spark ignition (SI) and dual fuel compression ignition constraints. Small capacity independent power plants based on
(CI) engines is presented. The literature review reveals that the biomass energy sources could be a feasible solution for rural
published research on biogas fueled IC engines are not rich in number electrifications.
and the scenario of biogas-diesel dual fuel engines is even worse.
According to the analysis, biogas fueling in IC engines causes lower Future fuels for IC engines will be derived from biomass both in liquid
power output compared to natural gas, irrespective of the engine and gaseous forms. Biomass that is easily biodegradable can be
operating conditions. However, the use of biogas allows exhaust fermented anaerobically to produce a mixed gaseous fuel, primarily
nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions to be reduced substantially. Both composed of methane and carbon dioxide, which is commonly called
experimental and computational analyses have been done in the case biogas. The technology for the production of biogas is now well
of SI engines. However, there are needs to investigate the exhaust established in China and India. In the former, nearly 7 million
emissions for the biogas-diesel dual fuel engines both experimentally household digesters were in use by the end of the year 1998, and this is
and computationally. Also the effect of H2S on engine emissions and increasing at a rate of about 300,000 households a year, while in India,
life/durability, which is neglected very often in the literature, needs to the figure for installations by March 2003 was reported to be 3.5
be investigated. million [1]. In other countries, such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka
and Thailand, there is also growing interest in biogas. Being
Key words: Alternative fuel, Biogas, IC engine, Combustion, agricultural countries and maintaining a huge number of cattle, there
Emissions. are greater potentials to produce biogas in these countries. Biogas is a
good fuel for application in IC engines, provided that it is being
. / + * + . purified. In particular, biogas as a fuel could bring substantial
Commercially, global primary energy consumption has grown at an reductions in green house gases, particles and dust or nitrogen oxide
average rate of about 2% a year over the last two centuries [1]. The (NOx) emissions [3].
growth trend in global energy consumption is expected to continue in
the future, primarily because of the expected increase in the world’s Biogas is one of the important renewable energy sources of the age
population and the anticipated economic growth of developing and it offers the multiple benefits:
countries. However, the current pattern of energy consumption, which
is heavily dependent on fossil fuels, cannot be sustained, because of it is environmentally friendly and its combustion does not
two major constraints: the environmental impact of fossil fuel uses and increase the net amount of CO2 in the atmosphere
the depletion of their reserves. The issue of environmental pollution it is produced from waste biomass materials and hence ensures
created by the use of conventional fossil fuels is becoming more the maximum availability
important, as we are getting more concerned regarding the sustainable it facilitates a better way of waste disposal along with a
environment of our planet. These concerns, as well as emission provision of energy supplies
standards enforced by legislation, have led research works for the use it possesses the potential to replace a substantial amount of
fossil fuels throughout the world and thus the emissions
it provides a rich bio-fertilizer for agricultural lands, which can

Corresponding author. Tel: (64) 9 3737599 Ext. 88176; Fax: (64) 9 3737479 replace the use of chemical fertilizers for cultivation
E-mail: r.raine@auckland.ac.nz (Robert R. raine) it can prevent deforestation especially in developing countries.

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biogas fuel and they can be switched over to diesel-only mode and vice versa without interrupting the engine operation. and traces Max. which can affect engine durability has not been addressed standard [3]. Almost all of the researchers used simulated energy recovery. CO2. a small number of analytical studies with or without operating in Europe and North America. landfill sites and other biogas installations. Analytical anaerobic digesters are operated worldwide to treat organic polluted studies include modeling of thermodynamic cycle analysis. Diesel engines operate on the dual fuel mode with the characteristics of biogas with a comparison to other fuel gases. Engine rating will depend mainly on the rate of seriously in the literature. The engine sizes at higher compression ratios. 12 kWel) on small farms up to several MW on large-scale landfill sites [3].org/about-asme/terms-of-use . carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N). landfills and industrial wastewater treatment engine operating parameters as well as on performance and emissions plants are still to be developed. Usually. hardened valves and valve The primary sources of biogas include agricultural residues and wastes seats [7]. Trace amounts in biogas causes a reduction in the values of maximum cylinder of hydrogen (H2).1 21. assuming the engine efficiency is 30% and the generator efficiency these areas. except the landfill < . been successfully demonstrated in the UK for engine sizes ranging The results are analyzed and compared. food. diesel engines have higher thermal reliable technology. depends on various operating parameters such as temperature. . with a typical composition of CH4 gas is used in combined heat and power (CHP) engines or as a (~60%) and CO2 (~40%) for their studies. Gas recovery from landfills has become and engine overhaul life. [6. Substantial research works are therefore production of the biogas from the digester. The following sections will discuss these results. But more general properties are typically 60% CH4 and 40% CO2. Inadequate research is noted from about 0.2 MJ/m3.70 0. & 8 & - :! :! : < ) =% A hydraulic retention period for biogas production normally ranges . ("< + % from 30-50 days from an anaerobic digester. H2S or H2O. As the concentration of halogenated carbohydrates and oxygen (O2) are occasionally present in the diluent in the fuel is increased. since biogas supplies may themselves have interruption problems The utilization of biogas in IC engines is a long established and a during the operation. For an engine/generator needed in order to achieve a better understanding and knowledge in set.+ & . and prediction of emissions.39 0. Also. supplement to natural gas. Increasingly the biogas instead of actual raw biogas. carbon monoxide (CO). saturated or pressure (Fig.5 mol% H2S.25 of other gases and vapors of various organic compounds (e.6 to 24. environmental and safety reasons. Utilization of biogas in diesel engines has some extra benefits over (35.org/ on 02/05/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. meat.48 a number of years before gas production. In from slaughterhouses. an SI engine operating directly on biogas – that is.21 of 60-65 mol% CH4.56 m3/hr [6]. According to the literature. requiring only the fitting of a simple gas-fuel adaptor and possibly.asme. The energy value of $4 . compared to pure CH4 ! ' ! Downloaded From: http://proceedings. However.asmedigitalcollection. Biogas is primarily composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide ! 4 The presence of the diluent. & .* 0 . . chlorinated hydrocarbons. (CO2) with smaller amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). More than 1000 high-rate computer simulation have been found in the literature. by which biogas is produced from organic Small cogeneration systems are invariably associated with the use of wastes. stabilization of sewage sludge. the effects of impurities in [5]. Table 1 shows petrol engines. The research articles published for biogas operated SI and human and animal wastes. about 70%.12].asme.8. For large scale applications (> 60 kWel) diesel engines are raw biogas.7.5 to over 4 MW.+ & - Anaerobic fermentation. a delay in the position of maximum the biogas.9. combustion analyses. industrial wastewater treatment engines mainly include studies of the overall performance. low burning velocity and low is saturated with water vapor and may contain dust particles and siloxanes [3]. The conversion of SI engines nutrients addition. The composition varies according to the types of feed biomass-materials. Biogas produced from landfills and wastewater treatment combustion pressure occurs. the gas production rate required to produce 1 kW of electricity is 0.1-0.53 3. characteristics. In developing countries biogas production biogas being a dilute gaseous fuel may have significant effects on from sewage sludge. This is important . particle size of the substrate etc [4]. Thousands of engines are operated on sewage efficiency compared to the petrol engines since they normally operate works. sources [4]. and systems. The effects can be plants may contain significant amount of H2S.71 conditions are best. to gas fuelling is a straightforward matter. ignition velocity m/s 0. of impurities such as CO2.83 5. dual fuel engines and gas turbines has performance and exhaust emissions of biogas operated IC engines. range from 45 kW (approx.82 0. organic wastes in a digester can generate a gas Dew point °C 59 60 60-160 containing up to 80% by volume of methane [6]. industrial wastewater including processors of beverages. Biogas is typically composed Density kg/m3 0. & >(? biogas ranges from about 18. Power generation from landfill gas This paper reviews published researches particularly on the using spark ignition engines. When Theor. For landfill sources it is exceptionally longer as it requires Calorific value (lower) MJ/m3 36.14 16.51 1. 0. aromatics. without the removal pH. 35-40 mol% CO2. There are now over 800 farm-based digesters addition. the method of digestion and digester retention time.10. hydraulic retention time (HRT). alcohols etc. the effects of H2S in the fuel are a standard technology in most of the industrialized countries for normally neglected. air requirement m3air/m3 gas 9. blowby flow rate pulp and paper. biomass emissions of the engines with a comparison to the conventional liquid slurries arising in the food and drink industries and biological wastes and gaseous fuels..1a) and the rate of pressure rise.g.) [5]. In addition. In the US as of 1990. nitrogen (N2). landfill management. in US) [5].7 MJ/m3) and pipeline NG (35. . and milk [3].11. 117 landfill especially in the fields of combustion and emissions analyses for methane power plants were in operation. the mixed gas explained in terms of lean mixture.7 MJ/m3. each a few megawatts in size biogas fueled diesel engines. * .

org/ on 02/05/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. diffusivity and transport properties of the mixture [17. all emissions rose and detonation started to occur.16]. used a two zone combustion model to calculate the mass fraction burnt. Alder et al. % @ % $(1$ / B % A. + % increased. # / 4 The presence of CO2 in biogas reduces the range of flammable air-fuel ratios. $ 4 ! .org/about-asme/terms-of-use . D >$"? ( ! ' ! Downloaded From: http://proceedings. > ?4 . . 4 The presence of diluent CO2 in biogas significantly affects the propagation of flame into the flowing streams of fuel-air mixtures following spark ignition. (4 2 . The engine operating point moves away from the stoichiometric mixture towards the weak-mixture flammability limit with increasing CO2 content.asme. the net effect is the substantial reduction of the adiabatic flame temperature due to CO2 presence in biogas [17].18]. [6]. Both 7 < ) = the laminar and turbulent burning velocities reduce significantly due to the reduction in reaction rates. reduces the volume flow .asme. in their experiment.asmedigitalcollection. and the combustible mixture range becomes more sensitive to the velocity level and turbulent characteristics of the mixture to be burnt [17]. As the percentage of CO2 in the fuel increases. However. Huang et al. Since $ < ) = the specific heat of CO2 increases at a higher rate with increasing temperatures. 2). . 2 ! 8 6 The lowered flame propagation rates cause a substantial increase in the ) =1 + / .15. 6 . 0 A / >$B? rate of fuel induction. . the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio decreases [7. . The model was adapted to the combustion chamber geometry of the engine under study. [18].14. Also CO2 will " < ) = tend to undergo highly endothermic dissociation reactions at such high C < ) = temperatures. being a denser gas than CH4. experienced an optimum compression ratio of 13:1 for a biogas mixture composed of about 40% CO2. 6 + . compared with 100% CH4 (Fig. higher compression ratios can improve the maximum cylinder pressures significantly (Fig. and due to the fluctuations in mixture strength. > ?4 energy input per cycle. the engine efficiency reduced. it’s share of the fraction of energy released by oxidation of fuel increases at higher combustion temperatures. 3). @ (C4B< : 8 6 8 / . The authors found a reduction of 50% in the turbulent burning velocity with a biogas mixture of 70% CH4 and 30% CO2. 4 . flame temperature. So. .1b). [15] estimated the range of flammable air fuel ratios for different fuel compositions (Fig. which enabled the turbulent burning velocity values to be obtained. @ 47" : 8 6 + . CO2. @ 47C + A. $ 4 ! . Whiston et al.13. The authors mentioned that the carburetor itself made the mixture weaker as the concentration of CO2 in biogas . Above this CO2 concentration.

17]. the combustion timing for biogas and the methane flow rate was kept constant while temperature is lower but the O2 concentration is higher. 4 The diluent CO2 in biogas reduces the volumetric heating value of the fuel and hence reduces the brake power output and increases the brake specific fuel Fuel 1: 60%NG/40%CO2 - consumption in comparison to natural gas or methane.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . suggested that such a large reduction in power output in the case of biogas 4 The formation of the nitrogen fueling could be due to the incorrect optimizations of air:fuel ratio and oxides (NOx) is strongly dependent on combustion temperature and ignition timing. [14] found a 9% reduction in power output when the fuel is changed from methane to biogas at stoichiometric operation.10. In leaner mixtures. 6 8 ! propagating flame became sufficiently intense to produce autoignition. However.14.13.13. the knock tendency will not be enhanced for most engines and operating conditions [17]. investigate the effect of dilution by CO2 in biogas on burn durations and MBT timings. led to a 20% reduction in output power. 5 6 4 Biogas is mainly composed of methane and methane is an excellent fuel for SI engines that has a high resistance to autoignition and knock. [10] estimated the effect of the presence of diluents with the fuel. The result of these two competing biogas) ignition timing (12° btdc). φ. Figure 5 shows the variation of output power and specific energy consumption (BSEC). The MBT timings are normally more advanced in the case of biogas combustion. [13] reported a 14% reduction in the brake power output 3 6 E / / for biogas (60%CH4: 40%CO2) at = 1 compared to the baseline fuel natural gas.asme. E / %φ . Whiston et al. Stone et al. 6). [14] used a spark ignition engine model with computer simulation to : < ) =% = < + .14. Stone et al. Shrestha et al. The authors found more advanced MBT timings and the prolonged 10% and 90% mass-fraction burn durations for biogas (Fig.19]. This resulted in a richer equivalence ratio and hand. gas region was inhibited by the increased presence of the diluent in The reduction in power output compared to either methane or natural biogas indicating a lower tendency to knock than the pure fuel gas ranges from 3-22% depending on the operating conditions and methane mixture for the same operating conditions (Fig. The published Fuel 2: 75%NG/25%CO2 data of engine power for biogas fueling show wide variations. Midkiff et al. .asmedigitalcollection. >$=?4 0. & (# (# - The authors concluded that the preignition reaction activity of the end D (B %3 + . the air becomes more a dominant diluent than CO2 in biogas [14].17. for biogas mixtures compared to natural gas (NG). [9. For instance. spark timing for biogas is to be advanced compared to the natural gas or gasoline to compensate for these detrimental effects . average length of the combustion period and it increases as the concentration of CO2 in biogas increases. This is perhaps due to the fact that at lower equivalence ratios. . as the mixtures become richer towards stoichiometric. According to this . This was at a controlled equivalence ratio and MBT timing.9. B4 . This means that the engine can work in a wider range of compression ratios and the biogas will not Fuel 1: 60%NG/40%CO2 cause sudden knocking. Wong [19] did not optimize ignition oxygen (O2) concentration. as a function of equivalence ratio. . : D figure BSEC increases as the CO2 content increases in the fuel and the 6 E . Stone et al. E / amount of dilution has a negligible effect on BSEC between φ = 0. [14].7. engine configurations [6. The presence of CO2 would tend to lower the Fuel 2: 75%NG/25%CO2 Fuel 3: 55%NG/35%CO2/10%N2 mixture temperature and though it reduces the burning velocity.13% point reduction in the output for every percentage point increase of CO2 in biogas. >$(?4 = ! ' ! Downloaded From: http://proceedings.org/ on 02/05/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. on the incidence of knock. .asme. ::°° 8 . methane. On the other the CO2 was added to it. =4 $ < 7 < . In order to achieve an optimum engine performance. 4). This reduction was found to be mainly due to the reduction in trapped energy inside the cylinder and also partially due to increase in the duration of combustion. [9] conducted combustion temperature increases to the maximum but the O2 tests with stoichiometric air/fuel ratios and a fixed (not optimized for concentration becomes lower [20]. The Fuel 3: 55%NG/35%CO2/10%N2 wide variations in power output are due to the variations of engine specifications and the operating air/fuel ratios and ignition timings. They found a 2.9. The model considered knock to take place when the energy released due to the preignition reaction activity of the end gas ahead of the .15.

24.asme.14. C4 . The cause of failure was found nearly always to be the mixture [11. [14] [13]. For the leaner mixtures (φ = 0. As the mixtures are composition and flowrate were measured and modeled and simulated enriched. In this simulation analysis. the dominant parameters causing increased THC are simulation analysis. [16] reported that incomplete combustion. [21] investigated the severe corrosion of biogas- For lean mixtures the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions for biogas are fuelled engines that were found to fail after 1000 to 3000 hours of found to be low and do not change with the CO2 fraction in the operation. higher compression ratios increased the NOx emissions compared to those at lower compression ratios. which leads to higher THC emissions.85<φ<0.19]. Stone et al. The formation of blowby. [13] found a CO + H2O = CO2 + H2. Stone et al. [14. the CO emissions rise rapidly with the CO2 fraction due to through a simple computer program in the study. >$(?4 47 % 7 ° >$ ?4 effects leads to the highest NOx emissions at just weak of the the exhaust. Midkiff et showed that the fuel content of blowby was subject to the complex al.asmedigitalcollection. + D . are found to be based). The level in the exhaust. The concentration of CO2 in biogas. In the case of leaner equilibrium predicted NO was found to be level in the exhaust.org/ on 02/05/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. biogas combustion produces lower NOx emissions than NG or gasoline fuels. For the biogas (60%CH4. the kinetically predicted concentration of NO mixtures. the shortage of O2 concentration in mixtures causes was above the equilibrium prediction.25].16].9 to be almost 80% greater than NG for the biogas (60%CH4. The authors explained the Unburned hydrocarbon emissions are found to be higher for biogas cause as lower burnt gas temperatures due to dilution by inert gases in than NG and it increases with the increase of CO2 fraction in biogas biogas. CO2 emissions increase proportionally to the stoichiometric point of operation for most HC fuels [14].90).asme. Since the presence of diluents in methane lowers the emissions was modified by the dissociation reactions: combustion temperature. reported emissions of NOx reduce by any means that lowers the combustion that with mixtures richer than stoichiometric. were reduced by approximately 50% (Fig. its greater by approximately 10% than NG [13]. 2 . the peak value of minimum THC is shown at around φ = 0. Figure 8 shows the variation of THC emissions 130 K compared to methane and that was sufficient to halve the NO with equivalence ratio for biogases compared to NG [13]. In this mixtures. & (# (# .88-0. D / E / E / %φ . CO failure of the small end and camshaft bearing (especially copper- emissions for a biogas mixture (60%CH4. D (B %3 + .9. the lower the engine operating hours increased. the peak NOx emissions. 7).65 – 0. 4 2 5 6 ! %5 % . the peak value of equilibrium predicted NO was quenching effects due to the lower cylinder temperature and the found to be higher than kinetically predicted value initially and after incomplete combustion due to the slower flame speed. 6 . Similar results are obtained by CO2 = CO + 12 O2 and different researchers [11.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . [13] also concluded that the increased level of CO emissions for nature of the quenching process in the combustion chamber. increase in CO2 temperature. [14]. Fuel 1: 60%NG/40%CO2 Fuel 2: 75%NG/25%CO2 Fuel 3: 55%NG/35%CO2/10%N2 . CO2 emissions were found 40%CO2). significant reduction in NOx emissions for every kind of biogas mixtures compared to NG they used. 40%CO2) range. Picken et al. The biogas appeared to be associated with decreased exhaust temperatures authors mentioned that the H2S attack could only be caused by unburnt (incomplete combustion) rather than with dissociation of the fuel CO2. which led to an increase in CO emissions. For the richer the end of combustion.19].16. analyzed analytically the formation of NOx emissions for biogas and found them lower compared to methane. 40%CO2). been published which examined the effect of biogas fueling on engine life. Huang et al. fuel entering the crankcase and the rate of ingress increased as the The study reveals that the higher CO2 fraction in biogas. The burnt gas temperature was found to be lowered by about mixtures [11. which occurred at 0.13. However. The simulation incomplete combustion as O2 becomes scarce.14. due to attack by H2S. But the peak NOx for biogas was 0 4 A very few research articles have still lower than that obtained for NG. It was also recommended that the exhaust temperature and the ultimate result is higher CO emissions in copper-based bearings should either be avoided or be protected by a B ! ' ! Downloaded From: http://proceedings. Midkiff et al.

Henam et al. and hence its ability to neutralize acids. ! ' ! Downloaded From: http://proceedings. The units of TBN are mg KOH/g [44].org/about-asme/terms-of-use . combustion and performance characteristics of CI engine as discussed below. the oil 2 becomes acidic and this causes corrosion of engine components. $ F TBN (total base number) of an engine oil is a measure of its alkaline reserve. by which one can determine. They recommended the use of a high TBN1 oil 12% reduction in heat release rate for biogas-diesel fueling has been with a careful oil monitoring to nullify the problem. >$(?4 smaller amount of pilot fuel causes erratic running and may lead to ignition failure. 74 2 8 E / . The normal diesel fuel injection system still supplies a certain amount of . but generally less than the costs associated with H2S removal. . As a result. Modeling works include the prediction of engine cartography2 Fuel 2: 75%NG / 25%CO2 Fuel 3: 55%NG / 35%CO2 / 10%N2 and NOx emissions [26]. Roubaud et al. among the owners of the digestion plants with CHP biogas operated SI engine and causes the narrowing of the installations the followings are concluded [23]: flammability limits.The SI engines are generally able to tolerate levels of H2S of up results in limited success particularly at low intake temperature [31]. The turbulent burning velocity was increased substantially and the misfire limit was greatly increased which were the main drawbacks of using biogas fuel. & (# . The extent of . . Delay periods in the dual-fuel mode are found to be always higher than that in pure positive flow of engine oil.asme.asmedigitalcollection. Several researchers have investigated engine performance and HC (grams/bhp-hr) emissions experimentally and a very few have dealt with modeling Fuel 1: 60%NG / 40%CO2 works. particularly at very low loads [30]. "4 . The mixture is then ignited by the released energy from the combustion of the diesel fuel sprayed in. biogas fuel quality also affects significantly the operating parameters. - Biogas in diesel engines is normally operated on a dual-fuel mode where biogas acts as a primary fuel and diesel is the pilot fuel. With use. and combustion analysis with a thermodynamic cycle computer simulation model [29]. the corresponding brake power decreases significantly especially with higher CO2 content biogas fuels (Fig. Like SI engines. 8 ) =A + 2 1 : ! . D (B %3 + .org/ on 02/05/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. for a given those manufactured from copper and zinc alloys. Similar problems were noted by other diesel operation and decreases with an increase in engine output [28].9) and reduces the energy release rate [17]. the ignition delay period Equivalence Ratio increases substantially (Fig. problem can be controlled by oil monitoring on the basis of TBN results.asme. [24] studied the effect of a small amount of H2 addition to the lean methane mixture. particularly Cartography or engine mapping. G ! 4( 6 A [17]. researchers [22. On the other hand efficiencies higher than 36% were achieved and the combustion process was essentially unchanged. increase in the ignition delay is found to be extremely sensitive to the intake temperature of the mixture. [25] used an unscavenged combustion prechamber instead of direct ignition as a way to a cleaner and more rational use of biogas without any major economic burden. the CO and THC emissions were reduced by 15% and 8% respectively compared to NG operation. If its alkaline reserve is exhausted. With an increase in the concentration of the diluent CO2 in biogas. diesel fuel and the engine induces and compresses a mixture of air and biogas before the injection. Lower intake temperature and a E / %φ . The increased frequency of oil changes will lead to higher operating costs. For the same rated power output and the corresponding NOx emissions. An increase in the quantity of pilot fuel results in an overall decrease in ignition delay. .23] during their investigations on biogas fueled The presence of CO2 slows down the combustion phenomena (about cogeneration systems. to 1000 ppm. several combinations between the pilot fuel (diesel) and titration technique. the primary fuel (biogas) flow rates. According to a noted during simulation [29]) as described previously in the case of questionnaire. ignition delay of the pilot fuel [28]. Tanoue et al. for instance by the effects of H2S. but advanced injection timing . TBN is measured by a engine power output.10). the TBN of the oil decreases. ASTM 2896.At H2S concentrations of 1000-2000 ppm the acidification experiment with an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine with biogas.27]. [32] found a decrease in overall efficiency during their . The amount of diesel fuel needed for sufficient ignition is between 10-30% of the amount needed for operation on diesel alone at normal working loads [26. 6 ) .

Exhaust temperature was affected more by NG substitution than by CO2 addition except at higher NG substitutions [32]. $ 42 . from Figure 12. >((?4 C ! ' ! Downloaded From: http://proceedings. while investigating the effect in Fig. could improve the engine performance substitution rather than CO2 dilution in biogas mixture [32] as shown (based on bsfc) as compared to NG fuel. $ 42 8 + be higher for dual fuel mode of operation than that for diesel only . . 8 ) =A + & D = . it can thus be speculated that the burning rate of the total gas air mixture might be accelerated for the presence of CO. The addition of CO2 affected efficiency more compared to diesel At optimum injection timing for engine performance. especially at higher speeds. The power output and efficiency is operation and about 70% of diesel replacement was attainable. substitution of diesel by natural gas (NG) and CO2 mixture does not Bhattacharya et al. ! * . compared biogas did not deteriorate the engine performance. The authors concluded that 60% diesel substitution was developed 81. These combined effects caused a better engine performance. $ ! >( ?4 F G ! 4( 6 A [17]. Karim et al. 32]).asme.32]. The author explained this effect as a result of dissociation of CO2 into CO and O2 The CO2 concentration in the exhaust increases almost proportionally at the high combustion temperatures. & # + E / . 13.12). the improvement is hard to notice and also the author does not provide any further information supporting his above explanations. a biogas-diesel substitution by NG. Cylinder peak pressure is found to . but there are effects with higher substitution optimum for efficient operation. & # + & D $B $ 4" 6 3 0 operation [29. However. $$4 2 . With higher percentage of CO2 the dissociation stopped and acted as inert gas (slower burning and incomplete combustion) and thus affected the performance.org/ on 02/05/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. particularly at light load. [33] concluded that the presence of as high as 40% CO2 in combustion and at high loads due to the dissociation of CO2. the peak lowers as the CO2 concentration 8 # ! 8 8 increases in the mixture [30]. ! .asmedigitalcollection. Also the excess O2 produced by dissociation would reduce the ignition delay period as well as enhancing the combustion of unburned carbon particles. However. and that mixtures to the diesel only operation [17] and are affected mainly by diesel containing up to 30% CO2. Up to 37% dual fuel engine is reported to be better than that of diesel engine [29]. 6 8 + 8 . [17] mentioned that the exhaust temperature lowered throughout relative to normal dual fuel operation with the increased presence of the diluent in the fuel. 4 CO emissions are always higher in the case of dual fuel operation at low loads due to degradation in Bari S. At this injection timing the engine (Fig. Since CO is a comparatively fast burning fuel gas. [34] reported an injection timing of 30°btdc as an affect performance much. reduced significantly at high loads and especially when the CO2 concentrations in the fuel mixture are beyond 30% by volume [17]. The engine ran harshly with biogas containing more than 40% CO2 in this study (lower CO2 content compared to other researchers [29. of CO2 on a biogas/diesel dual-fuel engine (Fig.11). 0 8 # 2 : ! .6% of the maximum power obtained for diesel only possible by biogas without knock.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use .

As mentioned previously. 0 8 # ! D . " ! ' ! Downloaded From: http://proceedings. 0* + . the presence of diluent in the fuel does not have a CO2 emission and the lower the efficiency. A is the pre-exponential factor. D 8 8 4$ A ! #. D 8 8 4$ A C4 C4= :>. thus decreasing the concentration of oxygen Increasing CO2 diluent in the fuel results in an increase in the in the charge and lowering the cycle temperatures. Both experimental and 8 ) =A + 2 : ! .Texh where [NOx] is the nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust gases. . According to the above extract of the literature review the following statements can be outlined as comments: . Bilcan et al. For low loads. EA is an overall activation energy and Texh is the exhaust gas temperature. ! C4" ! #. biogas-diesel stationary engine and found that the composition of biogas mixtures had little effect on NOx formation at a given pilot fuel mass flow rate (Figure 15). $(4 2 . the efficiency is increased and specific CO2 emissions decrease. + D?. C4 0 C4 4" 4 4 $= 4 $ 4 $" 4 4 4 = #$ $A % >5 ? . emissions predictions. which 14.asmedigitalcollection. [26] reported that the smaller the load. & # + & . But for higher loads. * + . in turn with the increased presence of CO2 in the fuel [17]. may be considered as adequate.asme. .Published research works in the field of biogas operated IC engines are not large in number. [26] measured the NOx temperature) and the narrowing of the effective flammability limits for emissions for different biogas mixtures in their experiment with a the mixture charge. . Also it has been found slowing down of the combustion processes (a consequence of the that a smaller pilot produces a less NOx emissions compared with the reduction of the partial pressure of oxygen and lowering overall cycle operation with larger pilots. the significant effect on such emissions. increase with increasing fraction of diluent CO2 in the fuel. especially for ratio and the lower in-cylinder temperatures and rate of flame moderate and low equivalence ratios. + .The scope of research on SI engines operated on biogas fuel 8 E / . Increased pilot quantity combustion of gaseous mixture is poor because of the small fuel to air effectively reduced the CH4 and CO emissions. $=4 2 ) = ! D .org/ on 02/05/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. CO2 being a denser gas reduces the intake air volume in the cylinder. 0 >( ?4 $B [26]. ) (1) R.asme. The authors also proposed an empirical correlation using an Arrhenius law to predict the NOx concentration in the exhaust: EA [NOx] = A.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . The number for the biogas- diesel dual fuel CI engines is even less than the biogas fuelled SI engines. Karim et al. propagation. These effects concentration of the unburnt methane in the exhaust as shown in Fig. [17] explain this effect as a reflection of the relative leads to a rapid decrease in NOx emissions [17]. + * . Bilcan et However. in this experiment it is also noticed that with higher al. engine performance optimization. Biogas is a satisfactory fuel for the IC engines provided that the engine parameters are being tuned for optimum performance. $B4 2 . + D D 8 D = .exp (. the higher the specific equivalence ratio. $ computational researches have been performed that include F G ! 4( 6 A [17].

“Prediction the Effects of diesel engine. Almost all of the researchers do not take account of the Generation”. R. Amato W. . E. Madison. However. and Wierzba I. and Karim G. available. combustion analyses with simulation software. engine oil and the use of high TBN engine oil can prevent the 2004. 77. Krishnakumar B. It is Bioresource Technology.. 7 ! ' ! Downloaded From: http://proceedings. current authors note the lack of research in the field of particulate “Spark Ignition Engine Operation on Digester Gas”... fuelling. J. 84. Lean Burn Cogeneration Biogas Engine Equipped with preparation or the burning rates. 71. the combustion analysis in details. S. Gayed R. . pp combustion or emissions are missing from the literature. 21. A.. The study also excludes pp 331-342. “Biogas Upgrading and biogas can affect the engine overhaul life since its corrosive Utilization – IEA Bioenergy Task 24: Energy from Biological effects can attack valves and bearing materials. the need for research in the field of exhaust emissions Engines. Nettelon K. C. 2003. In addition... Vol. “Biogas/Petrol Dual fuelling have not considered all the affected parameters. 66. S. 197-203. [18] Whiston P. R. J. “Spark Ignition Engine a thermodynamic cycle simulation model. “Spark Ignition Engine being sought both experimentally and analytically. any detailed [9] Whiston P. Gould J. 1994. Careful Conversion of Organic Waste”. 1987. J. exhaust using Arrhenius law. “Multi-Fuel predictions of engine blowby flow rate and overhaul engine life Performance of a Petrol Engine for Small Scale Power [35]. (especially PM emissions) for the biogas-diesel dual fuel engines is [16] Huang J. Proc. pp. Mech. and Naznin N. 187- timing. J. “Fuel for Thought – The Status of [17] Karim G.. 2005.. J. 151. The effects of varying injection Harmony with Human Society.. H.. excludes combustion analysis and is not optimized for biogas ICE Vol. 1993. example. Performance with Simulated Biogas – A Comparison with Gasoline and Natural Gas”.. I. E. and Favrat D... Moreover. “Improving Performances of a biogas dilution either in the case of mixture homogeneity. and Stone C. they are still expensive for smaller applications. Bhuiyan M. Vol. that the concentration of H2S in biogas mixtures may not have Wisconsin. I. which may have significant effects on engine Congress.. and Crookes R. with methane. J. Santosh. pp 180-187. [14] Stone C. “Analysis of Biogas Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engine.asmedigitalcollection. World. Vol. Engine Performance”. Bell S. France: 20 p. Henam et al. future research activities are needed to Bench-Scale Membrane Pilot Plant for the Upgrading of Biogas have better knowledge in this area. Vol.. Rathnam S. 2004.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . 123. Vol. The model predicted the Vol. by Means of Since biogas contains trace amounts of H2S. Pro. Transactions of the ASME. 2001. Also. [17] experimented with various diluents Vol. Experimental Data and a Computer Simulation”. 25th FISITA Congress – Automobile in the only affected parameter. Karim et al.Most of the results discussed above.) and emissions. prolonged running to conclude on the effects of raw biogas Friedman A. “Enhancement of Biogas Production from Solid corrosive effects Although H2S removal technologies are Substrates Using Different Techniques – A Review”. A. / .. fraction burnt etc. Kohli S.. and Rana V.. C. G. Journal of the Institute of Energy. R. 83-88.. pp 87-107. O. A. and amount of pilot fuel in this study. UK. [29] developed [11] Huang J. pp. and Goodwin M. They considered equivalence ratio as Engines”. However. Ladommatos N. 2001. “Combustion combustion analysis is missing from their study. 71. Therefore.. pp. R. J. Journal of dioxide (SO2) can also be a matter of concern..asme. A.. emissions of sulfur. Small effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in their research and it seems Engine Technology Conference & Exhibition. NEC. 1998.. “A Study of Combustion in Spark-Ignition normal diesel fuelling. no useful Institute of Energy. pp 2001-2007. Journal of the Institute of Energy.Complete investigation both experimentally and [6] Huang J. there is no information regarding the Presence of Diluents with Methane on Spark Ignition fuel-air equivalence ratio.. avoided) for these components and a careful monitoring of [4] Yadvika. 197-203. Mathur et al. USA. Charati S... A. compression ratio.asme. compression ratio. pp 63-74. [26] has proposed Combustion Prechambers”. Girgis N. 13. Journal of Membrane Science. . and Rallis C. September 15-18. W. injection timing. 1. and Fuess D. but it does not take account of the “Fuel Composition Effects on Emissions from a Spark-Ignited complex chemical kinetics of NOx production. Beijing – China. J. 1992. or engine load were not considered. its presence in [3] Wellinger A. 7. pp 1-10. an empirical correlation to predict NOx emissions in the [13] Midkiff K. International Energy selection of materials (such as copper materials should be Association. and even for the [2] Ehsan M. “Assessment of Simulated computationally for biogas operated CI engine performance. / . amount of pilot fuel 197.. heat release rate but it did not take account of the effects of [12] Roubaud A.. 2000. Paper C427/18/157. S and Goodwin M. Proc. but the engine operating conditions were kept as [8] Silva L. and Bhargava S. in a Waste Water Treatment Plant”. Paris. Bilcan et al. Vol. 1998. L. J. and Crookes R. “Performance of a impurities. Vol. International Conference on the Small Internal Combustion Therefore. 1989. 2003-32-0063.. 1998. 1998. Analysis of Simulated Biogas in a Four Cylinder Spark Ignition [32] experimented with an indirect injection (IDI) diesel Engine for Power Generation”. The study also Engine Operated on Simulated Biogases”. Mech. J. which did not Performance with Simulated Biogas – A Comparison with include combustion analysis (such as burning rate. Girgis N. Renewable Energy Mixtures as a Fuel”. Fuel. Applied Thermal Engineering. much effect on engine performance. Sreekrishnam T. C. pp 122-130. and Lindberg A. Biogas as a Fuel for Spark Ignition Engine”. For Fuelling on SI Engine for Rural Third World Use”. 1991. [1] Bhattachariya S. 2nd matter (PM) emissions for the biogas operated dual fuel diesel engines. SAE Technical Paper No. mass Gasoline and Natural Gas”. Vol. pp. performance and emissions compared to a direct injection (DI) [10] Shrestha S. engine speed.. Auto-tech engine. “Methane-Carbon Dioxide Biomass Energy in Developing Countries”. and Crookes R. Lane N. SAE Technical Paper No. A. Natural Gas Engines. 921557. the [15] Alder M. pp 132-138.. 95. S. Fuel. 1793-1801.. Biomass. for the biogas-diesel dual [7] Jawurek H.org/ on 02/05/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.. research has been found in the literature in this regard. Vol. and Ladommatos N. believed that insufficient evidence has been obtained from [5] Stern S.

Fox M. “Thermal Overhaul Engine Life of Internal Combustion Engines Efficiency and Environmental Performances of a Biogas-Diesel Operating on Biogas and Methane”. 2001-2009. [33] Bari S. A. 1991. and Bush G. J. Journal Applied Thermodynamics.asmedigitalcollection. “A Review of Combustion Processes in the 310. Heisler M. Polytechnics and Colleges Conference. N. 19. [34] Bhattacharya T..... pp 139-147. “Turbulent Burning Velocity of a Simulated Biogas 1165-1173. SAE Paper No.. Performance of a Dual Fuel Diesel Engine with Particular [22] Pellerin R. 1988. No. Energy in Agriculture. 575-590. C. Ramesh A. $ ! ' ! Downloaded From: http://proceedings. Vol. J. [35] Picken D. G.P. S. Estimation of Ignition Delay in a Dual Fuel Engine”. 1980. “A Method for Estimating [26] Bilcan A. Engines at Countess Wear Sewage. FISITA World 1007-1010. 9.. Journal of Agricultural Stationary Engine”. B. pp. “Operation and Performance of Biogas Fuelled Intake Charge”. Progress in Energy [23] Fulton A. and Amoozegar N. Walker L. Combustion in a Spark Ignition Engine”.. and Mishra T. and Shaik A. 2002. 1999-01-0232. Vol. in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Biogas Engines in [19] Wong J. A. Vol. 1986. [24] Tanoue K. “Examination of the Mech. and Shimada F.asme. [31] Karim G. 1988. and Delebarre A. “An Approach for Paper No. F. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals Paper No.. 861275. “Effect of Carbon Dioxide on the Performance of “Improving the Turbulent Combustion Performance of Lean Biogas/Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine. [27] Bhatia R. 5. 177-184. Universities. Internal Combustion Engine Research in Technical Paper No.. and Hassan.. J. F2000A115. 1998.. Engineering Resources. SAE Biogas Engines”. Management. Renewable Energy. “A [21] Picken D. Proc. “Study of Mixtures of Methane and Carbon India”. Chap. Vol. SAE [28] Prakash G. 295. Cogeneration Systems”. 4. No. I.. “An Investigation Thermodynamic Simulation Model for a Dual Fuel Open of Piston Ring Blowby and a Discussion of Its Impact on Combustion Chamber Compression Ignition Engine”. Hamatake T. K. P. pp. SAE [20] Heywood. [30] Karim G. Prechamber: Comparison with Natural Gas”. E... Cogeneration Biogas Engine with Unscavanged Combustion Agricultural Mechanization in Asia. Vol. pp. Dual Fuel Engine – the Gas Diesel Engine”. 24. [32] Henam A. 770796.org/ on 02/05/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. 1990. 1992. Corre O. 1983. Seoul – Korea. and Prasad Y. Babu M. B. 39. [29] Mathur H. A. N. and Farmer G. pp 169-175. 28. pp. pp. “Combustion of Simulated Journal of the Institution of Water and Environmental Biogas in a Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine”. Vol. Africa and Latin America. Vol.Treatment Works. 1991. Dioxide as Fuels in a Single Cylinder Engine (CLR)”. 3. 1977. K. Energy Conversion and Management.asme.. Reference to the Presence of Some Inert Diluents in the Engine 1988.6. 1999. Vol. “Lean-Burn Compression Ignition Engine on Biogas-Diesel Fuel”.. SAE Technical Paper No. pp Methane Mixture by Hydrogen Addition”. 6. pp 32-37... Automotive Congress... and Favrat D. 5. 2000... Institute of Vol. S.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . “Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies 922166. Kido H. Singh B. B. “The Effect of Hydrogen Sulphide on CHP and Combustion Science. New York. Environmental Technology.. 821222.. pp. Exeter”.. G. 18. McGraw-Hill.. Vol. K.. 172-177. L. 11. “A [25] Roubaud A. 1982. World Development. Röthlisberger R. pp 277-285. 2003. and Makkar M. K. Proc. 1996.