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THM

14

ENGINE INSTALLATIONS

14.1 - GENERAL NOTES
14.1.1. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ENGINES
14.1.2. GENERAL VIEW OF THE ENGINE
14.2 - ENGINE FUEL FLOW CONTROLS
14.2.1. ROLE OF THE FUEL FLOW CONTROLS
14.2.2. FUEL FLOW CONTROLS OPERATION
14.2.3. FUEL FLOW CONTROL COMPONENTS
14.3 - "COLLECTIVE PITCH - GOVERNOR" COUPLING (ANTICIPATOR)
14.3.1. ROLE OF THE ANTICIPATOR
14.3.2. ANTICIPATOR ACTION PRINCIPLE
14.4 - ELECTRIC STARTING CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS
14.4.1. ELECTRIC STARTING CIRCUITS - OPERATING PRINCIPLE
14.4.2. STARTING SYSTEM : FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM
14.4.3. ADAPTED STARTING RESISTOR
14.4.4. STARTING SYSTEM COMPONENTS
14.5 - ENGINE ROTATION SPEED MONITORING
14.5.1. SPEED DETECTION AND SPEED SIGNAL USERS
14.5.2. "NG" AND "NF" MONITORING
14.6 - EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (T4) MONITORING
14.7 - ENGINE TORQUE MONITORING
14.7.1. TORQUE MEASURING SYSTEM - OPERATING PRINCIPLE
14.7.2. TORQUEMETER SHAFT TORSION DETECTION PRINCIPLE
14.7.3. TORQUEMETER : OPERATING PRINCIPLE
14.8 - "POWER FAILURE" INDICATING SYSTEM
14.8.1. PURPOSE OF THE INDICATING SYSTEM
14.8.2. "POWER FAILURE" INDICATING SYSTEM CIRCUITS
14.8.3. POWER CALCULATOR LOGIC PRINCIPLE
14.8.4. "POWER FAILURE" INDICATING SYSTEM COMPONENT LOCATION
14.9 - LOSS OF REGULATION DATAS INDICATING SYSTEM
14.10- ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM MONITORING
14.11- BLEED VALVE CONTROL AND MONITORING
14.11.1. ROLE OF THE BLEED VALVE
14.11.2. BLEED VALVE CONTROLS AND INDICATORS - OPERATING PRINCIPLE
14.12- "FREE TURBINE OVERSPEED" SAFETY SYSTEM CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS
14.12.1. "FREE TURBINE" OVERSPEED SAFETY PRINCIPLE
14.12.2. "FREE TURBINE" OVERSPEED SAFETY SYSTEM
14.13 - ENGINE MONITORING ON SCREENS
14.13.1. DESCRIPTION OF ENGINE MONITORING DISPLAYS
14.14 - GENERAL ARCHITECTURE OF ENGINE MONITORING
14.15 - "ENGINE FLUSHING" SYSTEM
14.15.1. SYSTEM LAYOUT
14.15.2. COMPONENT LOCATIONS
14.16 - HEATING MATS FOR ENGINE AIR INTAKES
14.16.1. HEATING MATS INSTALLATION BLOCK DIAGRAM
14.16.2. OPERATION OF HEATING MATS ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT
14.16.3. INTERFACE BETWEEN HEATING MAT INSTALLATIONS
14.16.4. COMPONENT LOCATION
14.16.5. CONTROLS AND INDICATING

Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER ; il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite
d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER ; no part of it shall be reproduced or
transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. © EUROCOPTER 1998.
14.1

THM

14.1 - GENERAL NOTES
14.1.1. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ENGINES
MGB
The engines (free power turbine engine) are installed,
forward of the MGB, in separate fireproof, ventilated and
drained compartments.
- The LH engine is engine N° 1
- The RH engine is engine N° 2

The two engines are identical and interchangeable after Engine 1
reversing the tail pipe and a few electric wires. The fuel
and oil lines, the engine controls, the electric circuits are
either fireproof or protected against fire. All the firebreak
components (transmission deck, firewall, cowlings, etc...)
are made from titanium or coated with titanium. An addi-
tional thermal screen (insulating material held between
two stainless steel plates) under the engine hot areas
(turbine tail pipe) protects the transmission deck against
high thermal radiation.

Engine 2

LH AND RH ENGINES IN THEIR COMPARTMENTS
MAKILA 1A2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 • Engine attachment

The engines are secured at the front by two ball links
and at rear, on the MGB forward reduction gear casings,
by a coupling tube with a universal joint (discussed in
chapter 4). Hence, the engines, which are free to move
fore-&-aft on the links, are associated to the MGB low
amplitude vibration displacements, which tends to reduce
the stresses. The attachment on the MGB takes the fore-
&-aft, transverse and vertical loads as well as the torque.
The attachment by links takes only the vertical and
transverse loads.

• Auxiliary mounts
9
A forward mount (14), the height of which is adjustable,
10 and two aft mounts (10) support the engine when it is
"disengaged" from the MGB. The auxiliary mounts rest
11
on mounting plates (11-15) which guide the engine when
the drive shaft is disengaged and engaged in the MGB
16 15 14 13 12 power takeoff.

1 - Axial firewall 10 - Aft auxiliary mount (2 off opposite hand)
2 - Starter wiring 11 - Aft auxiliary mount support and guide
3 - Starter mounting plate
4 - Safety rod (supports the engine in 12 - Engine electric circuits junction box
«disengaged» position from the MGB) 13 - Attachment link
5 - Fuel inlet self-sealing union 14 - Forward auxiliary mount
6 - Starting resistor 15 - Forward auxiliary mount support and guide
7 - Inclined firewall mounting plate
8 - Engine-to-MGB coupling tube 16 - P2 line for inflatable seal between engine air
9 - Thermal shield under engine hot area intake and air intake fairing

Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER ; il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite
d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER ; no part of it shall be reproduced or
transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. © EUROCOPTER 1998.
14.3

THM

14.1.2. GENERAL VIEW OF THE ENGINE

The purpose of this section is not to study the engine,
the engine manufacturer’s literature is available for this,
Gas generator Free turbine
but to obtain the correct interface between the aircraft
controls and indicators and the engine systems. This
brings us to encroach on the engine itself, but in a very
simplified way.

MGB

( 1 ) Simplified view of the engine and its main
specification data
Air Centrifugal
intake Power
• Main specification data compressor
turbine
Combustion (2 stages)
- Free power turbine engine : the gas generator and power Axial
turbine shafts are fully independent. compressor chamber
- A digital fuel flow governor system maintains the free (3 stages) Generator
turbine rpm constant (irrespective of the power required turbine
for flight) by acting on the gas generator rpm, hence on (2 stages)
the power developed by the engine. Provision is made
for manual governing control should the governor fail.
- Automatic starting mechanism with provision for manual POWER FROM EACH ENGINE IN STANDARD
starting should the automatic system fail. ATMOSPHERE HP= 0
RATING TWO ENGINES ONE ENGINE
OPERATION OPERATION
MAX CONTINUOUS
1236 KW 1417 KW
• Self-contained lubrication system (no time limit)

MAX TAKEOFF
- Modular design : by replacing a module the return of 1373 KW /
(limited to 5 minutes)
the complete engine to the works is avoided (economi-
cal) MAX CONTINGENCY
- Engine weight : / 1464 KW
(limited to 2 minutes)
bare engine ....................................................... 176 kg
total weight ........................................................ 243 kg SUPER CONTINGENCY 1569 KW
/
(limited to 30 seconds)

( 2 ) Functional levels of the engine parameters and the gas generator and free turbine RPM

• Levels :
NG variable Nf constant
Each characteristic level of the gas flow is indicated by a (according to the (nominal value
figure which identifies the gas flow pressure tempera- collective pitch) 23000 rpm)
ture and speed parameters throughout the engine (e.g.
P1' is the axial compressor output pressure, T4 is the
"generator" turbine output temperature).

• Gas generator rotation speed NG :

This speed varies according to the power required, i.e.
according to the collective pitch. It is related to the power
developed.
0 1 1' 2 3 4 5
• Free turbine rotation speed Nf

Nominal Nf : 23000RPM which corresponds to the nomi-
nal NR : 265 RPM. This speed is maintained virtually Gas flow
constant by the fuel governor. characteristic levels

Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER ; il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite
14.4 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER ; no part of it shall be reproduced or
transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. © EUROCOPTER 1998.

THM

14.2 - ENGINE FUEL FLOW CONTROLS

14.2.1. ROLE OF THE FUEL FLOW CONTROLS SYSTEM IS SHOWN IN "ENGINE SHUTDOWN"
CONFIGURATION
There is a fuel flow control lever (10) for
each engine. This lever actuates: ENGINE FUEL
1
- The engine main fuel flow valve (2) GOVERNOR
- The emergency fuel flow valve (3) Injection
wheel
- The acceleration controller cam (1)
Fuel pump Metering
It enables: unit
- Automatic (or manual) starting 2
Level valve
- The increase power rating after starting
- Manual fuel flow control in the event of
governor failure
3
7 5 4 Solenoid
valve
THRT
Starting
Starting
"Manual" injectors
starting valve
8 6
12 AUTOMATIC
T4 STARTING Ng
MECHANISM
9

11

10 1 - Acceleration controller cam
2 - Main fuel flow valve
3 - Emergency fuel flow valve
ENG.2 4 - Flexible mechanical control
ENG.2
STARTING 5 - Microswitch inhibiting "OIL P", "PWR" and "DIFF
DECU 1 NG" indicator light when the engine is shut down
THRT
6 - Microswitch controlling indicator light (7)
"Flight" detent 7 - Light indicating that fuel flow levers are not in
ENG.1
"FLIGHT" detent (both levers must be in the flight
STARTING
DECU 2 detent for the light to go out)
ENG.1
8 - Fuel flow control lever guide
9 - Overrideable stop the pilot must clear to reach the
The main valve (2) opens progressively from position A positive manual governing range or the B and A
to position D. Within this same range, the emergency 10 - Fuel flow control lever
valve (3) remains closed. Beyond position D, the emer- 11 - Starting control push-button
gency valve opens progressively. 12 - Automatic starting microswitch

CHARACTERISTIC LEVER POSITIONS

Positive manual
E
governing range

"FLIGHT" detent D
Negative manual
governing range Manual starting
Reduction detent C range
(without engine flame-out)

Automatic starting detent B

Engine shut down detent A

Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER ; il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite
d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER ; no part of it shall be reproduced or
transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. © EUROCOPTER 1998.
14.5

The basic fuel flow rate is determined by the position of the throttle lever : main valve (2) starts to open. The engine is self-sustained and accelerates. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. initiate the starting sequence. .2bar 3 5 Solenoid valve THRT Starting Starting injectors "Manual" starting valve AUTOMATIC 12 T4 STARTING Ng 13 MECHANISM 11 10 . During the first phase (igniting phase). .The governor metering unit is held closed by cam (1) and the engine is taken over by its governing system. . the level valve is To start the first engine the fuel flow control lever (10) is closed and the two starting injectors diffuse the fuel which moved from position A to position B. A . this is the "idle" governed by the starting servo-valve.for NG = 45 % the starter cuts out.The fuel flow rate is monitored by the starting servo- B valve ACCORDING TO THE "T4" AND "NG" PARAM- ETERS (automatic function) B .The starter runs. thorizing the tripping of the electric sequences.for NG = 65 % the starting phase is completed . The servo-valve closes . THM 14. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . the fuel flow control le- Starting injector Igniter ver intervenes only to determine the basic fuel flow rate required for starting and enables control of the starting circuit electric components.The starting injectors solenoid valve is open. However. Microswitch (5) is is ignited by two igniters. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.2. Microswitch (12).2. controlled by boss (13) trips. au. The pilot now just has to move the fuel flow control lever forward into the FLIGHT detent. it is interesting to extend the explanation to the "engine" proper function in order to fully understand the role of the throttle in the starting context (the electric section will be studied separately). During the second phase (ac- reversed : the "Engine oil pressure" indicator light comes celeration phase) the level valve opens (P > 2.2 bar) and on. © EUROCOPTER 1998.6 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. FUEL FLOW CONTROLS OPERATION ( 1 ) Automatic starting In automatic starting mode. the solenoid valve on. pressing push-button (11) is all that is required to closes. From then . This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . fuel flows from the injection wheel. Ng Injection wheel T4 ENGINE FUEL 1 GOVERNOR "NG"AND"T4": FUEL FLOW MONITORING Injection PARAMETERS ON STARTING wheel Fuel pump Metering unit 2 Level valve 2.

the metering unit increases . The "preset" Nf signal is a reference signal with which When the rotor reaches its nominal speed the engine is the "true" Nf signal is compared.the engine power rating increases. FOR REFERENCE ONLY : the electric signal which con- . the metering unit in- fuel flow.If the control signal is positive. As it does so the trols the fuel metering unit is determined by the relation- governor fuel metering unit opens taking over from the ship : "preset" Nf . no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. taken over by its electronic governing system : The governor fuel metering unit increases or reduces the . which tended to decrease.7 .if the pitch is increased. At the fuel flow and the NR. At "D" the cam no the fuel flow."true" Nf = Control signal starting servo-valve which closes. is "D" it is fully open.If the control signal is negative. FUEL FLOW CONTROLS OPERATION (Cont'd) ( 2 ) Flight position and Nf governing principle D "FLIGHT" ENGINE B "NF PRESET "NF TRUE SPEED" SPEED" SIGNAL SIGNAL FUEL GOVERNOR 1 Metering Injection unit wheel Fuel pump The "THRT" indicator light goes out when both engine fuel flow control 2 Level valve levers are in the FLIGHT detent.2. Power Required = Power Supplied Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . creases the fuel flow according to the collective pitch) in order to retain the Nf . Indicator light "THRT" on : TAKE OFF FORBIDDEN Solenoid valve THRT Starting Starting "Manual" injectors starting valve AUTOMATIC STARTING MECHANISM "FLIGHT" D position From the automatic starting position "B" to the "FLIGHT" position "D" : Hence : .the main fuel flow valve (2) opens progressively. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . longer has any effect on the metering unit operation.THM 14.e. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. 14.2. © EUROCOPTER 1998.the acceleration controller cam (1) resists less and less . the metering unit reduces to the opening of the metering unit. according to the power required for flight (i. the metering unit re- (hence NR) constant according to the balance law : duces the fuel flow. re-established .if the pitch is decreased.

il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14. The pilot will seek the lever posi- governing range tion to the power required. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . . NG and T4 values will be ex- ceeded. . the pilot. • Manual Governing in the (+) Range FUEL GOVERNOR CAUTION : When in manual (+) Manual governing mode check closely E Metering the first limitation indication on governing range unit "Navigation and mission display" D screen (NMD) 2 3 THRT If the fuel metering unit is blocked "closed". © EUROCOPTER 1998. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . FUEL FLOW CONTROLS OPERATION (Cont'd) ( 3 ) Manual Governing Manual governing will be used in the event of an auto. the governor me- . The detent retains the lever in 10 the selected position. governing mode to restore the power required.metering unit closed : engine is going to loose power. The pilot controls the fuel flow (hence the power) by (—) Manual gradually closing the main fuel flow valve (2) : fuel flow C 10 governing range control lever (10) moved aft of the FLIGHT detent. The emergency valve (3) gradually opens overriding the (+) Manual E governor metering unit. In both cases of failure.8 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. 3 THRT Should the governing system failure block the fuel me- tering unit fully open. the engine will supply too much 9 power and maximum NR. Note that in the event of either an electric power supply Failures can be of two types : failure or a governing "major failure". after 9 clearing the overrideable FLIGHT detent (9).2. the pilot may switch to manual matic fuel governor failure (the governing system redun.metering unit too far open : engine is going to provide tering unit automatically adopts a position giving an NG too much power of 85% corresponding to the cruising power range. • Manual Governing in the (—) Range FUEL GOVERNOR Metering unit D 2 (—) Manual C governing range The "THRT" indicator light comes on again in manual governing. moves the fuel flow control lever (10) into the manual (+) governing range. THM 14. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.2. dancy makes these failures purely hypothetical).

Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. It is by adjusting the metering flow control lever may be moved forward to the FLIGHT unit opening that the pilot will control the fuel flow through. When the NG reaches 45 % (15 000 rpm) the pilot must release the push-button (11) cutting off the power supply Moving the fuel control lever opens the main fuel flow to the starter. out the starting phase. detent.close the manual starting valve which isolates the . . by rotating cam (1).2. servo-valve is ignited by the igniters. The lever displacement should valve no longer controls the fuel flow required for start. © EUROCOPTER 1998. . the servo. The engine is now self-sustaining and the fuel governor metering unit.2 bar). The fuel sprayed by the injectors. Fuel flows through the in- matic starting detent (the electric control self-holding jection wheel (level valve opens when the fuel pressure microswitch (12) has moved beyond its boss).2bar Solenoid valve THRT Starting injectors "Manual" starting valve AUTOMATIC 12 T4 STARTING Ng MECHANISM 11 "Manual" 10 starting range (KEEP AN EYE ON T4) Should the automatic starting mechanism fail. reaches 2.9 . possible controlling the fuel flow by displacing the fuel flow control lever (10) within the manual starting range. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .THM 14. 14. The rest of circuit operates in the same way as during the automatic starting sequence : Starting procedure : . FUEL FLOW CONTROLS OPERATION (Cont'd) ( 5 ) Manual starting "FLIGHT" Manual ENGINE FUEL starting 1 GOVERNOR range Injection Metering wheel Fuel pump unit 2 Level valve 2. be neither too slow (NG stagnation) nor too fast (sudden ing (it may be open or closed).2.2nd Stage : Acceleration. to the starting solenoid valve and to the valve (2) and.press the starting push-button (11) and hold it "in" throughout the starting phase.move the fuel flow control lever slightly over the auto.1st Stage : Ignition. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. However starting remains rise in T4 temperature). . slightly opens the igniters.

2. THM 14.Emergency fuel flow valve lever lights when the fuel flow control lever is set to OFF 6 .Engine 1 fuel flow control lever 12 -Microswitch controlling indicator light (1) 4 .Main fuel flow valve lever detent Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . © EUROCOPTER 1998.3. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .Quadrant graduated in degrees for control 14 -Fast reduction stop adjustment 15 -Spring catch making it possible to override FLIGHT 7 .10 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.C HTG BLEED 4 5 CRANK 1 CRANK 2 OFFSET 1 6 13 7 8 12 9 11 Flexible mechanical control 10 8 3 14 15 2 FUEL FLOW CONTROL LEVERS 1 . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.Light indicating that at least one fuel flow 8 -Flexible mechanical control swivel bearing retainer control levers is not engaged in the FLIGHT 9 -Transmission deck feed-through connector boot detent 10 -"Starting" control push-button 2 .Engine governor 13 -Microswitch which inhibits the engine indicator 5 . FUEL FLOW CONTROL COMPONENTS POWER CONTROL QUADRANT ENG 2 3 THRT 1 2 PWR. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.Engine 2 fuel flow control lever 11 -Starting electric control self-holding microswitch 3 . .

( 1 ) Static droop elimination G(collective pitch) ANTICIPATOR EFFECT : The static droop (phenomenon inherent in the type of the NR increases when the governor used) results in a slight reduction in the Nf (i. crease in mechanical stresses. From negative it Increase in NR becomes as it were positive. Moreover. pitch collective pitch increases. The nominal speed of 265 rpm corresponds to the mean power ratings. The power expression W = Cw (C : torque . anticipating its reaction. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . For reference. an increase in torque means an increase in pitch stresses. the engine is a bit "lifeless". the son that the "collective pitch-governor" coupling is called initial NR is not restored but a slightly lower NR (static the "anticipator". the NR of the SA 330 PUMA.e. i. in the NR) when the load.3 .e. G1 A B At instant A the pilot Seconds increases the pitch from q1 to q2. The WITHOUT ANTICIPATOR : reduction in NR in the high loads envelope is unfavour. The response time due to the detection is not negligible . This is also where the anticipator comes in as it makes tect the variation in NR due to variation in the collective the response time virtually "nil". High aircraft without anticipator. Note that if the collective pitch increases. w : rotation speed) shows clearly that if w decreases. Static droop ( 2 ) Reduction in Engine Response Time on Variation of Collective Pitch When there is no anticipator the governor must first de. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. Response time Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . From then on. 14. © EUROCOPTER 1998. NR WITH ANTICIPATOR : the governor immediately receives a "pick up" order signal.1. Mean the NR decreases when the able for several reasons. the torque must be increased in the same proportions to re-establish the power required. NR increase Static droop WITHOUT ANTICIPATOR : After detection of the drop in NR.3.GOVERNOR" COUPLING (ANTICIPATOR) 14. Of Low course.11 . In order to have a more highly responsive engine. it is for this rea- the NR. It results particularly in an in. droop effect). ROLE OF THE ANTICIPATOR The "collective pitch-governor" (or "anticipator") elimi- nates the governor static droop and reduces the engine response time when the collective pitch is changed. collective pitch increases.THM 14. changes from 272 rpm at low pitch pitch. from the col- lective pitch lever. it modifies the fuel flow in order to lever itself which then gives the order directly to the gov- modify the power in the direction which will re-establish ernor. to 256 rpm at high pitch. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed."COLLECTIVE PITCH . It is the collective pitch pitch. the collective pitch. The anticipator which connects the governor NR (or Nf) Nominal NR to the collective pitch lever not only eliminates the static droop but also overcompensates it. in- creases. G2 the engine responds at instant B. the response time must be reduced as much as possible.

2.12 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. on the opening of the governor metering unit. In case of use of the ILS systems the engine RPM is tentiometer signal (Vq) modifies the reference speed slightly modified by the pilot on acting on NR/ILS switch. ANTICIPATOR ACTION PRINCIPLE Preset theoretical Towards main rotor Nf value Variable signal True Nf (VG) signal DECU Anticipator potenti. . Note : in case of loss of the anticipator signal the "DECU" outputs a "default setting" value corresponding to 16° of collective pitch. During take off and landing the pilot may increase the The electronic unit measures the difference between the rotor RPM by 10 RPM to store kinetic energy of the rotor reference signal and the true Nf speed signal and acts to anticipate a possible engine failure in this critical phase. which outputs an electric sig- nal depending on the collective pitch position."T" Nf "T" Nf (one per engine) Vq¯ Governor FUEL control signal NR/ILS GOVERNOR q­ Metering NR + 10 unit Collective pitch lever q¯ The anticipator comprises a potentiometer actuated by • NR / ILS RPM correction the collective pitch control. Anticipator control rod Collective pitch ANTICIPATOR LOCATION bellcrank Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. Vq­ ometer Vq + "P" Nf Vq + "P" Nf . This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . The po. THM 14. signal in the engine electronic unit in order to increase the fuel flow on a pitch increase and reduces it on a pitch • NR + 10 RPM correction reduction. © EUROCOPTER 1998. The NR + 10 control switch is located on the engine control panel. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.3.

starting contactor (11) closes : starter (1) runs driving the generator which supplies the air • Starting Monitoring System : . when fuel has accumulated at the bottom of meters the exact amount of fuel required with no danger the combustion chamber. SUPPLIES The system ensures the "starting" and "cranking" func.2. • Cranking function : The starting servo-valve (8). DECU (7) in accordance with NG and T4 parameters. . • Manual Starting : tions : In the event of failure of servo valve (8). ELECTRIC STARTING CIRCUITS . 14. controlled by electronic unit Cranking dries the engine gas flow after a "false" start.SET ONCE .solenoid valve (6) is energized and opens : injectors The illumination of light (10) indicates that starting con- (2) spray "ignition" fuel. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. © EUROCOPTER 1998. . On cranking.OPERATING PRINCIPLE The figure shows the system in "automatic starting" configuration.1. fuel flows tactor (11) is closed.THM 14. starting detent 12 10 PRESSING S THE STARTING PUSH-BUTTON CRANK 1 9 R. the electronic unit cuts off the generator by pressing push-button (12). for example. 1). in the starting phase. the trigger on the starting sequences : pilot must release push-button (13) and move the fuel flow control lever to the "flight" detent.. only starter (1) is supplied to drive the gas When NG reaches 45 %. the pilot may start the engine by metering the fuel using the fuel flow • Automatic Starting : control lever (refer to paragraph 14. starting push-button (13) "in" (loss of self-holding func- pressing push-button (13) once is all that is required to tion ensured by microswitch (14)). When NG = 45 %.2) and by holding When the fuel flow control lever is in the starting detent. In the second stage. that the contactor is uncoupled following a defect.13 .ELECTRIC STARTING CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS 14.2.2. The illumination of light (9) indicates. control circuit : the engine is self-sustaining. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . used during compressor descaling operations. from injection wheel (4) ensuring the acceleration of the generator (refer to paragraph 14.4. The "cranking" function is also of exceeding the maximum T4 limit.4 . 4 Level valve from fuel Injection flow valve wheel Solenoid valve Starting control Servo 6 self-holding valve microswitch 2 3 8 When NG reaches 45% DECU 7 5 (15000 rpm) the electronic unit 14 automatically cuts off the power IGNITION IGNITION supply to the starting circuits UNIT UNIT Ng T4 13 2 3 B 1 Automatic 11 START..ignition units (5) are supplied and the igniters (3) ig. nite the air/fuel mixture.

Engine 2 starting circuit is iden- tical. . the electronic unit 1KK1 module (8) breaks cuit breaker relay 33K is energized : contactor 31K1 un- off the control circuit. the starting solenoid valve (10) and the ignition units • Protection test (12). il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14. When the NG When the "TEST" push-button (1) is pressed once cir- reaches 45 %. relay 33K is self-energized by one of its "work" contacts.SET MASTER BOX 31K1 2 31K2 3 33K R. excited directly. Item (1) and relays 32K-33K are common to In the event of overcurrent (i >1200 A). starting contactor cally and module (9) cuts off the negative from starting 31K1. energizing the cutout relay 33K. The system must be reset after the test.14 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. Push-button is pressed once it energizes starting relay. The starting sequence is completed. START.2. which cuts off the ground from contactor 31K1.2 1 Cranking 169VU 9KK1 DIRECT BAT Start ENGINE 1 8 6 2KK1 12 10 IGNITION 1KK1 NG > 45% 7 UNIT 27EQ1 11 Starting Rotor brake IGNITION OVERSPEED detent UNIT 0b / 105b 9 The figure shows engine 1 starting circuit (during starting sequence). overcurrent loop both circuits. STARTING SYSTEM : FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM 1 PP2 Test 1PA 32K S 1200A AEP TR1 ELECTRICAL 56VU START R. • Role of the electronic unit "overspeed" module (9) • Cranking In the event of overspeed. which remains (2) must be pressed to reset the system (33K excitation self-energized from microswitch (7). The starting sequence operates automatically moni- tored by the servo-valve discussed above. Further details in generator. Relay supplies : the current cut). starter contactor 31K1 (coupling indicator light (4) comes on). When control push-button (6) it remains energized if the fault disappears. Microswitch (7) is closed. couples. 32K trips to "work" position. Since The fuel flow control lever is in the "starting" detent. © EUROCOPTER 1998. The • Starting contactor uncouples : indicator light (4) goes out and in- dicator light (3) comes on indicating the uncoupling. THM 14.4. the engine stops automati- With cranking switch (5) set to "ON". no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. page 14-31 • Starter power circuit protection Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . The servo valve monitors the idle stabilized at 65 % NG. closes : the starter drives the gas control relay inhibiting any restarting. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .SET 4 S 11VU Towards ESS 5 START.

© EUROCOPTER 1998.4. hence the battery discharge .e.Starting on Ground Power Unit or TRUs : Logic cir- level is reduced (more power is drawn from the battery cuits L1 and L2 cut off the excitation current to relay 5KK.15 . it runs quicker. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .THM 14. In fact. if the engines are Contactor 6KK1 opens bringing the entire resistor into started on a ground power unit or the transformer rectifi. the starting phase is shorter.2 starter 2 1 9KK1 5KK Resistor TRU 2 COUPLED center point TRUs CONTACTORS OR TRU 1 COUPLED OR 6KK1 GROUND GROUND RECEPTACLE POWER During starting on battery ENERGIZED from control relay 2KK1 half the resistor is shunted RECEPTACLE L2 (starting in progress) Starting resistor 9KK1 limits the current absorbed by the • Adapter resistor operating principle starter thus reducing any possible overheating and dete- rioration. ADAPTED STARTING RESISTOR Battery power supply configuration (Review) ALT 1 ALT 2 THE SYSTEM IS SHOWN IN "STARTING ENGINE 1 ON BATTERY" CONFIGURATION. ers. logic circuit L2. However. COUPLED Stage for START. when starting on logic circuits L1 and L2 are closed. to increase the current drawn by the HALF THE RESISTOR IS SHUNTED. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . TRU 1 TRU 2 PP3 PP2 1PA SEC ESS PP2 1200A ELECTRICAL MASTER BOX BAT GND PWR 31K2 31K1 SEC 16WW Y3 L1 Towards SEC. starter : the starter is more powerful. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. there is no current problem and it is preferable to increase the starting resistance in order to reduce the Note that logic circuit L1 just confirms the conditions of starter heating (fatigue) as much as possible. When starting on the battery the latter must be . relay 5KK and con- the battery it is preferable to have a lower starting tactor 6KK1 are energized : resistance. but during a shorter time). START.Starting on Battery : Engine / Hydraulic PCB 16WW Y3 "saved" as much as possible. operation.3. i. 14. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.

NR+10 push-button with built-in indicator light 4 . © EUROCOPTER 1998. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.4. STARTING SYSTEM COMPONENTS POWER CONTROL QUADRANT NR ILS 1 2 7 56 VU PP2 VENT P2 BLEED AEP TR1 ELEC FAN TEMP START TR2 SLING BAT.Starting resistor 6 .SET Starter" uncoupling indicator lights 10 8 Axial firewall 6KK1 9KK1 1KK2 3 4 5 6 1KK1 1 .Starting control push-buttons 9 .Ignition units 10 .Starting control holding microswitches 8 .4. .Igniter (2 opposite hand igniters) 6KK1 ."Engine" electronic units 5 .Overcurrent protection circuit "test" push-button Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .Starting solenoid valve 9KK1 .Starting resistor contactor 7 . THM 14. PP3 BAT1 BAT2 9 S Starter coupling indicator lights R. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.Starting contactor reset push-buttons 3 ."Cranking" control switches 2 .16 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.Starter 1KK1 1KK2 .

The signals from sensor F’1 are used The NG speed signals are induced in two sensors F and by the Nf speed indicator (7) and by the power computer F’ by a toothed wheel driven by the engine accessories (3). SPEED DETECTION AND SPEED SIGNAL USERS Current ( 1 ) Speed detection principle 1 A toothed wheel (2).5. rotate in front of three pairs of sensors (F1.ENGINE ROTATION SPEED MONITORING 14. 4 NG Nf GOVERNING SYSTEM F F1 F2 F' 3 F'1 F'2 F'3 5 1 2 POWER NF COMPUTER OVERSPEED BLEED AUTOMATIC VALVE STARTING CONTROL 6 2nd engine Nf signal 7 NR signal . F’2 .2 separate channels for the governing system In this case. The frequency of the current is propor- tional to the rotation speed. The signals from sensor F’ are used by the D NG the "Nf overspeed" safety device (5).THM 14.1. This "frequency" signal is used to measure the gas gen. shaft. F’3). 2 Seconds magnetic sensor (1). The passage of the teeth modifies the magnetic flux and induces an alternating current in "Speed" signal shape the sensor coil. three toothed wheels. SIGNAL FREQUENCY erator rotation speed (NG) and the free turbine rotation speed (Nf). no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. F’1 . on the free turbine . The signals from sensors F1 and F2 are used by the engine govern- from sensor F are used by the automatic starting fuel ing system (4).5 . rotates in front of an electro.2 separate channels for the overspeed safety system. Both systems are particularly reliable. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. Note the redundancy of the "speed" data used by the governing and "overspeed" safety systems : • "Nf speed" signals .F3. flow monitoring system (1) and by the bleed valve clos- ing threshold offset control (2).17 . driven by the shaft for which the speed is to be measured. The signals from sensors F’2 and F’3 are used by gearbox. © EUROCOPTER 1998. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . Finally. 14. NG Nf1+Nf2+NR The electric control modules (1-2-4-5) are grouped in the engine electronic unit Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . the signals indicator (6) and by the power computer (3). F = (n x N) / 60 n : number of teeth on the wheel N : wheel rpm ( 2 ) Speed detection assembly and speed signal users • "NG" speed signals F2.

• . When the pointer reads zero the engine NG corresponds to the maximum takeoff power com. in normal power curve signal corresponding to the atmospheric flight the pilot refers to "Navigation and Mission Display" conditions at the time and compares this signal to the screen for power limitations. In normal operation. the three pointers are superimposed diate power and limitations of the moment. THM 14. second one 30" (30 seconds). NG with aircraft single engine (failure) Nf REMAINS CONSTANT. Of course.Zero marking corresponding to 100% :Max takeoff power 1 2 3 4 3 .2 240 NR+NF 300 NG2 220 320 I 200 II RPM /min 340 Nf2 100 0 SEC ( 1 ) Variable NG power rating control As you know. "NG" AND "NF" MONITORING . Desynchronization may also occur The latter has two markings for emergency ranges. Nf2 and NR are synchronized (freewheels also bears on the RH side an index corresponding to + engaged) and remain synchronized even if the engine 1. the atmospheric conditions represented is identified 2' (2 minutes).Bleed valve indicating flag 6 .Twin engine range. power varies. NG indicator The information to the NG read-out comes directly from NG sensor. Green arc : cruise power range (from -8 to -2. be desynchronized. Con.1 NG1 6 NG 2 DIRECT BAT.Red LED OEI 30" (One Engine Inoperative.5. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . . true NG is indicated in a read-out.7 to 0%) 2 . first one hypothetical): the free turbine is no longer loaded and races (but the overspeed system then cuts off the engine). ONLY THE TORQUE VARIES. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.NR) puted.NG digital read-out O 7 .3% which is the max twin engine transitory. the engine manufacturer has drawn a vari- able power rating curve at maximum takeoff power for • Reading of true NG the Makila 1A2 engine generator with continuous inte- gration of ambient parameters. ( 2 ) Triple Indicator (Nf . Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . At the bottom of the instrument. © EUROCOPTER 1998. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.Max twin engine transitory index 4 .7%) Yellow arc : takeoff power range (from -2. should the power fail on one engine. NG INDICATOR 1 . true NG signal. An engine whose power varies remains synchronized : • Reading of . Limitation". The negative range shows the margin D between imme.2. 30 Seconds) NG 1 NR Nf1 Nf2 8 5 P0 DECU 7 T0 ENG. ESS O NR signal P0 Nf1 DECU ESS T0 260 280 ENG. its Nf will On the RH side of the indicator is the single engine range. This range since the Nf1.Red LED OEI 2' (One Engine Inoperative. in the event of "engine-to-MGB" shaft failure (purely nected to each of these markings is a red LED. The computer (DECU) generates the maximum takeoff Note: This indicator is a secondary instrument.Single engine range 5 . 2 Minutes) 8 .18 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. Therefore. by temperature and air pressure determine the air flow More details will be given with the "Indication of First and consequently the engine performance.

il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. which is representative of the thermal load.6 .19 . Four of them are applied to the The role of homogenization resistors R1 .R2 is to modify T4 indicator and the others inform the "DECU" of the "true the "True T4" signal in order to obtain the same T4. The voltage of this current is proportional to the T4 given T3. 14. As it cannot be measured (technological prob- lem). The resistors R1 and R2 are adjusted at the engine works. for a T4".THM 14. Pyrometric probes Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (T4) MONITORING The temperature T3 represents the thermal load of an T3 T4 engine. the T4 is measured. Hot weld 1 Chromel Alumel 2 DECU R1 R2 4 "True T4" STARTING signal SERVO VALVE 3 7 "True T4" 6 8 OEI signal modification T4 5 9 ESS 4 0 1 -T4 detection probes C° x 100 1 2 -Digital engine control unit 3 2 3 -T4 indicator SEC 4 -Engine junction box with homogenization resistors Towards 2nd engine indicator The measuring current is produced by 8 thermocouples Note : dipped into the gas flow. whatever being the engine : temperature. Indicated T4 = k T3 (k depending on R1 and R2) It should be remembered that T3 temperature is more T4 engine 1 T4 engine 2 representative of the engine thermal load than T4 tem- perature. © EUROCOPTER 1998. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.

the rotor ENG.ENGINE TORQUE MONITORING 14. The CALCULATOR signals from the sensor. are 1 4 processed by a calculator (4) which outputs a voltage MGB proportional to the torque towards the indicator (5). Pulses representative of ment modifies the width of the gaps : if the torque in.20 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. hence of the creases. proportional to the torque. It 4 TORQUE is an important control parameter : there is a stress limit CALCULATOR for the power transmission system components and the 2 torquemeter ensures that the acceptable stress values Towards are not exceeded. it is also representa- tive of the power W delivered by the engine (W = Cw). the torsion.OPERATING PRINCIPLE Cm Image of shaft torsion To measure the engine torque Cm.7.7 . THM 14. of the torque.1.7.1 rotors In front of an electromagnetic sensor (3) a mechanism TORQUE (2) reproduces the torsion on the ends of the shaft. The torsion of the shaft results in a relative displacement of the two wheels. The calculator transforms these signals into a DC voltage proportional to the engine torque. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . Since. TORQUE MEASURING SYSTEM . torque e2 e1 3 e2 e1 e2 e1 CALCULATOR Cm Engine end A B Rotor end Low torque High torque 1 8 9 10 1 Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . © EUROCOPTER 1998. 1 R The engine torque Cm represents the mechanical load 1 2 3 applied to the drive shafts and pinions. The gaps pass in front of sen. hence a reflection (10). 14. . by a sleeve pulses is a reflection of the gap width. Wheel (9) includes 4 teeth which mesh with the notches in wheel (8). il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. "e1" is reduced. The torque values of engines 1 and 2 or the sum of both engine torque values may be read on the indicator.2 rotation speed w is virtually constant. The teeth and notches determine gaps of width e1 and e2. the tor.2. This displace. TORQUEMETER SHAFT TORSION DETECTION PRINCIPLE The mechanism which reproduces the torsion includes a sor (3) (Hall effect probe) causing variations in the mag- wheel (8) attached at the power shaft (1) and a wheel netic field inducing electric pulses. (proportional to torque) sion of the MGB power shaft (1) is meas- ured under the opposed effect of the torque and the drive resistance R (rotors side). 5 ENG. The shape of the (9) which is attached to the end B of the shaft.

no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.Notched wheel (simulated torque reading) 5 . 3500 rpm (corresponding to NR=116 rpm). ( 2 ) Measuring system operation (Illustration on opposite page) The calculator logic circuits 1. The simulated torque value is engraved on the shaft. To check the torquemeter measuring line. -Simulated torque reading : Notched wheel (4) acts as a reference.Sleeve bearing notched wheels (4-5) "Rotor" end 3 .LED lit when switch 6 in position (1) : pointer 1+2 reading engine 1 torque 8 .3. logic circuit portional to the torque) to the indicator servomotors (M).Sleeve bearing toothed wheel (6) 2 3 7 6 5 Shaft simulated torque (CS) and calculator switch positions are "Engine" end 4 engraved between the 2 wheels • Detection system operation 1 Sensor in "normal" position . TORQUEMETER : OPERATING PRINCIPLE ( 1 ) Torque detection 1 . 3 and 4 process the If the torquemeter shaft rotation speed is less than pulses from the sensor and transmit a DC voltage (pro. 2. Below 3500 rpm the measurement is not proportional to Selector (6) in "1+2" position : the torque and the "false" indication is inhibited. and the simulated torque 4 value must be read on the indicator.Temperature compensation thermistor Selector (6) in "1" position (blue light (7) on) : R2 . the width e of which is proportional to 6 the torque.Reading selector switch and test push-button Pointer (2) indicates torque 2 7 . © EUROCOPTER 1998."Torquemeter" shaft 4 . the sensor must be turned through 180° in order to face the notches of simulated torque wheel Simulated torque signal (4). The sensor then transmits constant width signals e=constant independent of the shaft torsion. Pointer (1+2) indicates the sum of torque 1 and torque 2 Pointer (2) indicates torque 2 R1 . (5) cuts out the measuring system. 1 line checking position) termined for each shaft at the works. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . the sensor (1) transmits e : variable = f(Cm) 5 pulses of variable widths representative of the torque. de.21 .Actual torque reading : The teeth of wheel (6) and the notches of wheel (5) de- Actual torque signal termine the gaps.THM 14. The notch width Sensor reversed (measuring is constant and simulates a constant known torque.Notched wheel (actual torque reading) 6 .7. 14.Electromagnetic effect sensor 1 2 . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. As these gaps pass.Toothed wheel (actual torque reading) 7 ."Sensor-calculator" adapting resistor Pointer (1+2) indicates torque 1 6 .Red flag : power supply failure Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .

1 % 2 + 90 30 (ENGINE 2 SYSTEM IS IDENTICAL).Flag (8) appears in the event of a power supply fail. TORQUEMETER : OPERATING PRINCIPLE (Cont'd) Push-button (6) enables the measuring system to be A well defined switch position corresponds to each tested : push-button "pushed in". This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . both pointers should shaft (these positions are engraved on the shaft next to return to zero the simulated torque value CS ). RH and LH sides (refer to chapter 4).g.Calibration switches are used to adapt the torque cal- CS 119. . . 1 e. 0 0123456789 t° R1 Torque 1 R2 1 2 3 4 sensor PULSE TO DC SENSOR TEMPERATURE CALIBRATION CONVERTER COMPENSATION COMPENSATION 5 N>3500 RPM TORQUE CALCULATOR 1 16WWY1 Toward torque calculator 2 8 6 Test AMPLIFIER M ESS Torque 1+2 or 1 POWER SUPPLY (1) (1+2) M Torque 2 SEC 7 AMPLIFIER TORQUE INDICATOR From torque calculator 2 (16WWX1) 0 110 10 100 20 ILLUSTRATION : ENGINE 1 TORQUE MEASURING SYSTEM. : read on shaft associated with calculator logic circuit (4).The "torquemeter" shaft elasticity variations. are compensated by a thermistor R1. 0 0% = 1.7 ure. 100% . accord- ing to temperature.3. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.9 mdaN (at 22°C) culator to the elastic characteristics of each shaft. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.7.1 . 1 0% 100% = 0. © EUROCOPTER 1998. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . 1 80 40 OE I 50 70 1 60 7 1 + 2 6 8 Torquemeter calculators Torque sensors are on the MGB.22 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. THM 14.

2 cases are possible : 1. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . © EUROCOPTER 1998. In extreme conditions. PURPOSE OF THE INDICATING SYSTEM NR ( 1 ) Engine solidarity In the event of a power failure on one engine.23 . The NR was stabilized. the NR tends to drop and engine 2 (operative engine) governor starts to act : the drop in NR opens engine 2 fuel metering unit so that NG1¯ W1¯ NG2­ W2­ the power increase on engine 2 tends to compensate for the power loss on engine 1.1 ENG.1.Engine 2 power reserve is not sufficient to com- sate for Engine 1 power loss (at the considered col. Prior to the Metering Metering failure.Engine 2 power reserve is sufficient to compen. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. • if W1 ¯ + W2 ­ = WN ® NR is not modified • if W1 ¯ + W2 ­ < WN ® NR decreases ( 2 ) A governing system failure may result in a reduction or in an increase in the engine power A governing system failure (erratic electric control sig.8 . both the power and NR collective pitch) NR decreases. 14. mal closing or abnormal opening of the fuel metering unit."POWER FAILURE" INDICATING SYSTEM 14. FAILED CLOSED FAILED OPEN GOVERNOR GOVERNOR O O E E I I -5 +5 -5 +5 NG%RPM NG%RPM NG¯ W¯ NG­ W­ Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .THM 14.8. are restored. 2. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. the power was equal on the 2 engines (W1 = W2) unit unit and balanced the power required for the flight (W1 + W2 = WN). q®WN The figure shows a power drop on engine 1 (a governor GOVERNOR GOVERNOR failure has closed the fuel metering unit). the metering unit may close at nals or fuel metering unit jammed) may result in abnor. minimum flow rate or open at maximum. the other engine will automatically compensate for the power vari- ation of the failed engine. Now. pensate for Engine 1 power loss (at the considered lective pitch) : no problem.2 As soon as the power loss is felt. ENG.

2 FAIL PITOT ELEC XMSN ENG BATT IHUMS WSCRN GPU HYD FUEL DC ADELT DEICE DOOR COWL RB ON AIR COND MGB P O AVAD GRD FLT RB ARM FIRE DET O E DIM N C FIRE E I MGB FIRE I MGB FIRE -5 +5 TEST PWR 1 OIL P 1 DIFF NG OIL P 2 PWR 2 -5 +5 FIRE 1 FIRE 2 NG%RPM NG%RPM In this case.8. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. the NG reading is not enough The "power failure" indication (PWR indicator lights lo- to know which engine has failed.1. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14. If the NR does not vary. cated on central warning panel 10WW) shows the failed engine and the pilot must apply the manual fuel flow con- • If NG1 ¯.an increase in the engine power (hence in NG) INCREASE IN THE ENGINE TORQUE The operative engine will compensate for the power (hence the NG) variation. Engine 2 has failed (it supplies too much power).1 PWR. NG2 ­ Which engine has failed ? trol procedure by moving the fuel flow control lever in the • If NG1 ­. If the NR varies. PWR. it is clear the failed engine is that for which the NG varies in the same direction as the NR. © EUROCOPTER 1998.a reduction in the engine power (hence in NG) A GOVERNING SYSTEM FAILURE MAY RESULT IN A REDUCTION OR AN .24 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. . THM 14. it is not clear. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . PURPOSE OF THE INDICATING SYSTEM (Cont'd) ( 3 ) Determining which Engine has Failed Since a governing system failure may result in : . NG2 ¯ (+) emergency range if the NR decreases and in the (-) emergency range if the NR increases.

25 . This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .NG indicator light control signals are then inhibited and the PWR indicator lights illuminate in case of a gov- erning system "major" failure only. "Engine 2" and the tions.Engine / Hydraulic PCB 6-7 .NG indicator lights • DIFF. The PWR and . • Power calculator 16WWX3 test ."Calculator test" push-button 1KK1-1KK2 . These signals control the illumination of the PWR1. an auto test The "PWR" indicator lights are also controlled by the sequence is initiated from the DECU.Loss of PPNG (Piston Position of Ng) DIFF. • TEST INCORRECT : "FAIL" amber light comes on. (The computer logic is discussed separately). DECU.NG . Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .Digital Engine Control Unit (DECU) 2 to 5 .The illumination of the DIFF.NG" and "PWR" indicator lights.The illumination of a PWR light indicates that the corre.Loss of governor servo valve • PWR . "POWER FAILURE" INDICATING SYSTEM CIRCUITS TEST NF1 NG1 NR NG2 NF2 F N PWR. 14.THM 14."Calculator failure" indicator light control levers PWR1 or 2 ."Power failure" indicator light 16WWX3 .NR) a power compu.NG indicator light inhibition From the "speed" signals (NG .Loss of the 2 Nf lanes . In case of "major" failure of the DECU's (failure Refer to the flight manual for interpretation of results. . no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.Nf . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. pensated by the second engine. enough power). illumination of "DIFF.2. simultaneously the NG of • "Major failure" conditions the defective engine returns to a preset value of 85%. the At the end of test sequence if : NR must have varied : power failure has not been com. When switching on the main battery switch.Power calculator / Aural warning PCB DIFF. When the fuel flow control levers are in shutdown posi- ter 16WWX3 outputs the "Engine 1".Microswitches controlled by fuel flow PWR C .NG light indicates a differ- ence in the NG values denoting a power failure even if • Auto-test of the DECU this failure has not affected the NR yet. the microswitches (6-7) are closed and inhibit the "NG difference" (NG1 and NG2 values differ) signals.C A O I R 16WWX3 POWER COMPUTER / AURAL 16WWX2 L M WARNING PCB DECU 1KK1 DECU 1KK2 1 2 3 4 MAJOR POWER 1 DIFFERENCE POWER 2 MAJOR FAILURE FAILURE OF NG FAILURE FAILURE ENG2 6 LEVER 2 FULLY BACK 7 5 LEVER 1 ENG1 FULLY BACK 16WWY3 Fuel control levers 16WWY6 16WWX6 PWR 1 DIFF NG PWR 2 1 . PWR2 which would have no signification in this configuration. Push-button (1) is provided to check the correct opera- sponding engine has a power failure (too much or not tion of the computer. indicator lights as well as a DIFF. © EUROCOPTER 1998. involving safety) the "PWR" light might come on before the pilot notices any trouble. For the indicator light to come on.Control logic circuits 16WWY3 .NG indicator light. .Internal failure of the DECU This light indicates a computer failure."Difference of NG" indicator light • PWR1. • TEST CORRECT : "NORM" green light comes on.8.C indicator light . PWR2 and DIFF.

Note that. The logic operation can be checked for other hypotheses. races. DIFF. according to the hypothesis. NG and the NR detection thresholds Engine 2 power reaches its maximum power and engine have been determined so as to illuminate the indicator 1 reduces its rating to compensate for the power increase.26 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. NG > 2490 rpm NR : the "Nf > NR + 5" logic (8 or 9) closes its circuit .NG DIFF.MGB" coupling Computer action in this hypothetical failure : failure. . But.1 PWR.As there is too much power. NG>2490 rpm 16WWX3 1 OEI rates release Toward the DECU 3 NR<250 rpm NR>285 rpm 2 4 7 NG1<NG2 NG1>NG2 NG1>NG2 NG1<NG2 5 6 Nf1>NR+5 Nf2>NR+5 9 8 16WWY3 16WWY3 16WWY6 16WWY6 PWR. at the same time. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14. Follow the logic circuit functional diagram supposing a failure.g.The closure of logic 7 illuminates "PWR 2" indicator light which. Engine 2 fuel metering unit seizes "fully open". © EUROCOPTER 1998. There is no longer synchronization between its Nf and . Note that the DIFF. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . automatically shuts down the engine.Logic 1 closes its circuit for DIFF. In the hypothesis of a "free turbine . the failed engine is that whose engine indicator light. E.2 Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . Logic circuits 4 and 7 close only logic reasoning : circuit 7 is active since logic 4 is on the output of logic 3 which is open. THM 14. is the failed . lights on actual failures only. the "free closes its circuit turbine overspeed" safety system. the free turbine. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. the total power of both engines is greater than the power required : NR Role of the "Nf > NR + 5" logic circuits INCREASES. . the NR increases and which directly illuminates the "PWR" indicator light of the exceeds the detection threshold (NR > 285 rpm) : logic 2 concerned engine.to .8. which is no longer loaded.If the NR increases.If the NR decreases the failed engine is that whose power (hence the NG) decreases.It is known that engine 2 supplies too much power which engine has failed based on the following simple hence NG1 < NG2. with engine 1 at minimum power. power (hence the NG) increases. .3. POWER CALCULATOR LOGIC PRINCIPLE The computer logic 16WWX3 removes any doubt as to .

© EUROCOPTER 1998. "POWER FAILURE" INDICATING SYSTEM COMPONENT LOCATION 6 5 TRAINING P2 VALVE PWR OVSP 1 IDLE 2 O T F N F N F E A O T A O I R I R F S L M E L M T S NG1 T NG2 OEI OEI 1 2 THRT 1 2 PWR."Power computer failure" indicator light Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .8.27 . This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .C G BLEED CRANK 1 CRANK 2 OFFSET HYD XMSN 0 20 4 6 10 2 4 1 FAIL PITOT ELEC XMSN ENG BATT IHUMS WSCRN GPU HYD FUEL DC ADELT DEICE DOOR COWL RB ON AIR COND MGB P DIM N AVAD GRD FLT RB ARM FIRE DET C FIRE SMOKE MGB FIRE MGB FIRE TEST PWR 1 OIL P 1 DIFF NG OIL P 2 PWR 2 FIRE 1 FIRE 2 3 2 3 1 ."ENG" repeating light for any engine failure 5 -"Power computer test" push-button 2 . 14.4.THM 14."Difference of NG" indicator light 6 -Indicator light inhibiting microswitch on lever 3 . no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué."Engine power failure" indicator light "fully back" position 4 .

THM 14. use of shelter values dant informations from the helicopter (Po H) and the In case of loss of such data the "GOV" light illuminates engine (Po M). Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . lation mode of the engine.28 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.9 .LOSS OF REGULATION DATAS INDICATING SYSTEM Nf LOSS OF REDUNDANCY LOSS OF DATA Nf Loss of 1 T°1 M lane Nf Loss of T4 T°1 H Default setting Loss of T1 M 780° Servo-valve coil N°1 Servo-valve coil N°2 Loss of Loss of Po H + Po M Po H 1 DC supply Default setting Po M 75 0 mb NG Loss of 1 servo-valve coil Loss of T4 T1 H + T1 M Starting SV Default setting ENGINE STOPPED + 15°C Anticipator Loss of anticipator Default setting 16°C DIRECT BATT 4PP toward Loss of Po H regulation Loss of SEC NG sensor 3PP Loss of starting servo-valve FAILURE ON START-UP GOV GOV 1KK2 CHIP CHIP ENGINE 2 DECU T1 M -Air intake T° (engine probe) T1 H -Air intake T° (A/C probe) Po M -Static pressure (engine DECU) Po H -Static pressure (A/C Pressure Sensor Unit) The "GOV" indicator light informs the pilot that the regu- lation system is defective . This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . • Loss of data. tem declares the loss of Po H as being a "minor failure" • Loss of data during engine start up and illuminates the "GOV" light in flight and makes it flash In case of loss of such data during start-up the "GOV" after engine shut down. this kind of defect is called "Minor failure". "GOV" light flashes after engine stop. and a "shelter" value is sent to allow a down-graded regu- Due to the lower accuracy of the engine probe the sys. © EUROCOPTER 1998. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. Note : In flight the data of pressure comes from redun. light illuminates. . 3 types of defects may occur : • Loss of redundancy In case of loss of one of the lanes of redundant systems. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.

Pressure relief valve 2 -Pressure transmitter 8 .7 bar.Oil/Fuel Heat exchanger 6 -Scavenge pumps 16WWY3 .P=3bar A double indicator for each engine.P=0. reads the oil tem- perature and pressure. 14. A "pressure drop" indicator light GOV GOV (4) comes on when the oil pressure drops below 1. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.THM 14.8bar bearings turbine bearing bearings f l o w Input cone anti-icing 8 Clogging indicator 9 30µ 10 6 8bar 7 . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.29 .Engine / Hydraulic PCB Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . © EUROCOPTER 1998.Filter 5 -Indicator light inhibiting microswitch 11 .ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM MONITORING 4 OIL P1 (or P2) 100 ESS 80 90 6 70 °C BAR 60 4 SEC 50 40 2 16WWY3 O 30 I 5 20 10 L 0 Fuel flow 0 control lever "fully back" 1.10.7bar 2 3 1 11 F u "Generator" Free turbine e Accessories Compressor l . This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .Oil tank 3 -"Pressure drop" switch 9 . 1 -Temperature probe 7 .Pressure pump Pressure transmitter and pressure switch 4 -"Pressure drop" warning light 10 . CHIP CHIP This indicator light is inhibited when the fuel flow control lever is set to "Shut down".

Bleed valve (7) is controlled from detector (9) which compares the pressure values P0 and P2. cramming effect.30 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. IGE) the pilot may offset the closing threshold. via a flip flop . under the The offset threshold control.1 ( 1 ) Operation as normal closing threshold the leakage of P2 : the pressure increases on the bleed valve piston : the valve closes. This is the offset clos- . Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . THM 14. © EUROCOPTER 1998. .11. valve is open. IGE. ROLE OF THE BLEED VALVE The bleed valve creates an air leak between the axial deflected to the air intakes may be recycled in the en- compressor and the centrifugal compressor. surging of the axial compressor which may occur : In the first case (surging at low NG) the bleed valve closes . the bleed valve is open. Pressing a control push-button (1-2) energizes threshold (NG approx. For NG values less than 95%.at NG above 85 % low speed. BLEED VALVE CONTROLS AND INDICATORS . This surging is caused by the automatically for NG = 85 %. When the bleed valve as long as the NG is less than 95 %.2. valve (6) opens : the bleed valve opens and indicator light (3) comes on.BLEED VALVE CONTROL AND MONITORING 14. This is the normal closing air slowing down at the centrifugal compressor inlet by threshold. Note that the valve opens for NG = 83 % on deceleration. 14. (At the low NG’s the axial compressor outputs more than the centrifugal compressor).11. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.11. resulting in a partial stall of the axial compressor.OPERATING PRINCIPLE T NORMAL CLOSING THRESHOLD ESS 1 2 NR C NG = 85 % BLEED 1 2 CRANK 2 OFFSET N OFFSET CLOSING THRESHOLD 3 NG = 95 % SEC 6 2 toward engine 2 NG>95% DECU 1KK1 7 P0 P2 4 8 9 5 P0 P2 OE NG I -5 +5 P0 . unit 1KK logic circuit is When the values of P2 and P0 correspond to the closing closed. In the second case (surging low speed. Hence the pilot may open the bleed leakage created by the venting valve (8). and prevents gines. NG%RPM ENG. At low NG values. indicator flag (4) is visible (microswitch (5) closed).1. ( 2 ) Operation as offset closing threshold Solenoid valve (6) is closed for the normal closing thresh- old. 85 %) the venting valve (8) closes the solenoid valve (6). which opens the solenoid action of a return spring the setting of which is higher valve (6) neutralizes the "normal threshold" closing con- than the opposing P2 pressure which is reduced by the trol (P2 is vented).at low NG (below 85 %). the exhaust gases ing threshold : NG = 95 %. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .

1. B ( 2 ) "Overspeed" safety system operating NF principle When the Nf reaches 121. Once the failure has been corrected. indicator light (4) should come on (and not flash).5 % OF NOMINAL NF ENGINE SUPPLIED 6 • Resetting."FREE TURBINE OVERSPEED" SAFETY SYSTEM CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS 14. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .THM 14. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. the system must be reset : actuate resetting push-button (1). It should go out during the starting phase. when the Nf reaches 25 % (Action of logic 3).5 % of its nominal speed. the detection logic (2) closes the engine solenoid valve (6) circuit.P" and "ALARM" THE FIGURE SHOWS THE SYSTEM 8 7 indicator lights IN "OVERSPEED" CONFIGURATION. G bine speed reaches 121. 14.5 %. When the system has operated. logic (2) remains Vent locked. logic (2) closes the indicator light (4) circuit via an oscillator (5) (the indicator light flashes) and inhib- its the shutting down of the second engine and restarting of the engine shut down.5% NF>25% The indicator 2 3 light flashes Shut down of the 2nd engine and restarting 4 of the shutdown engine inhibited. the free Free turbine Drive shaft turbine rotating with no load races. 7 • Automatic Testing of the Nf Detection Circuits.12. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . Nf sensors Moreover. F'2 F'3 NF DETECTION NF>121. causing the bleed and overspeed valve (8) to close : fuel is cut off (injection wheel (7) is no longer supplied) THE ENGINE STOPS.NG".31 . and under the effect races breaks of very high centrifugal forces is likely to burst.12. 8 • System Control Test (Refer to next page). Since the pilot does not have time to react or even realize what is happening. "OIL. come on ENGINE AUTOMATICALLY SHUT DOWN FOR NF 121. As soon as the power system is energized. "FREE TURBINE" OVERSPEED SAFETY PRINCIPLE ( 1 ) Need for "overspeed" safety Should the engine-to-MGB drive shaft break. 6 5 Vent OVSP Oscillator RESET 1 Engine "shut down" "DIFF. © EUROCOPTER 1998. the solenoid valve opens. a safety system automatically and M immediately shuts down the engine when the free tur.

"FREE TURBINE" OVERSPEED SAFETY SYSTEM (Figure on page opposite) ( 1 ) System operation The operation is simple and has already been explained.5% Nf" threshold • Indicator light automatic testing : and starts the following sequence resetting. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . ( 2 ) Component location NORM."System failed" test indicator light TRAINING P2 VALVE PWR OVSP 1 IDLE 2 O T F N F N F E A O T A O I R I R F S L M E L M T S NG1 T NG2 OEI OEI 1 2 OVSP 1 and OVSP 2 .the "NORM" indicator light comes on the Nf detection circuits are operating correctly.The system operates correctly if : the indicator light and light off for Nf > 25% indicate that .inhibits the excitation of engine 1 starting relay 2KK1 (it cannot be restarted after overspeed) • System testing . THM 14. .32 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. • Logic L6 operation Take."System correct" test indicator light FAIL . . In this case. © EUROCOPTER 1998. . no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. .the "FAIL" indicator comes on.supplies solenoid valve (3) : fuel cut off ® Engine shut which energizes the logic in the opposite direction.on for Nf < 25% OVSP . logic engine inhibited when the other engine is already shut L5 is energized.The system has failed if : ..flash if the overspeed system has operated. tection at rest energize L6 which : The system must be reset by pressing push-button (1) . overspeed test. re- down turning it to "rest" position.12. . the indicator light comes on (logic cir.2.both "OVSP" indicator light flash once then remain lit continuously. When energized it remains locked in "working" position.closes the OVSP.1 indicator light circuit via an oscilla- tor (2) : THE INDICATOR LIGHT FLASHES The test logic (7) supplies 2 oscillators the frequency of which is greater than that of the "121. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . cuits L1 and L2 are closed) and remains lit until Nf > When push-button (6) is pressed : 25% when logic circuits L1 and L2 open. Illumination of . overspeed on engine 1 : Logic circuits L3 and L4 close. mutual monitoring test of 2 circuits (shut down of an As soon as the aircraft power system is energized. for example. down). one of the "OVSP" lights flashes indicating the failed system. and through engine 2 de.

Injection wheel 6 FAIL 5 .1 L5 L6 NF < 25% OVERSPEED ENGINE 1 SYSTEM 1 shown in rest position RESET Reset 2 3 Oscillator Vent ESS 2KK1 Starting 4 5 CIRCUITS TEST 1KK1 1 . "FREE TURBINE" OVERSPEED SAFETY SYSTEM ENGINE 1 ENGINE 2 Nf1 Nf2 F'2 F'3 1KK1 1KK2 L1 L2 L3 L4 ENGINE 2 NF ENGINE 2 NF NF < 25% NF < 25% NF>121.Overspeed solenoid valve 4 .12. 14.Nf<25% logic OVSP.THM 14.OVERSPEED logic 2KK1 .5% NF>121.5% DETECTION DETECTION OVSP.Bleed and overspeed valve 6 . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.Test push-button Test logic 7 7 .5%"» detection logic 1KK2 circuits SEC Eng.2 2 .Oscillator ESS electronic unit OVSP. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .33 .Test logic circuit Test L1-L2 .1 electronic unit L6 ."Nf > 121.1 L5 . © EUROCOPTER 1998.Resetting push button Eng. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed."Nf< 25%" detection logic circuits NORM L3-L4 .2 3 .2.Engine 1 "starting" control relay 1KK1-1KK2 -Digital engine control units Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .

13 . The pilot may "pull" nuttily the "Max takeoff" stop is met. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.Twin-engine limitation function 100 21200 1008 .ILS indicator .radio-altimeter indicator .power margin indicator NMD (NAVIGATION AND MISSION PFD (PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY) DISPLAY) LIMITATION WARNING INDICATOR LMT CAT2 Flashes when : twin-engine maximum FAN OEI HI takeoff rating or single-engine OEI/L rat. LMT If by mistake the pilot "pulls" beyond this limits the gas generator RPM (NG) does not go any further and rotor MESSAGE ZONE RPM (NR) drops.HSI . ENGINE MONITORING ON SCREENS 14. Collective pitch scale Power informations are displayed on the power margin indicator (left side of the NMD).Collective pitch scale CHECK . limitation between AFCS1 and AFCS2 Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . It informs the pilot of the Engine power stop relation between the immediate power consumption and the first power limitation criteria met (NG.basic flight parameters . DESCRIPTION OF ENGINE MONITORING DISPLAYS There are two screens in front of pilot and copilot : .13. © EUROCOPTER 1998. .PFD (Primary flight display) displays : . cross check As soon as the takeoff phase has ended the pilot must with conventional instruments lower the collective in order to have the Max continuous LMT DISC (limitation discrepancy) : discrepancy of stop higher than the index. Torque. Max takeoff power On scale : 0 = 6° of pitch 10 = 19° of pitch Takeoff power range • Twin engine limitation function (normal mode) Max continuous On takeoff the pilot pulls on collective lever.34 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. He may for a short time (20 seconds) go up to the "Max transient power" CHECK stop. CHECK LMT : loss of some parameters.1. simultaneously the dif- ferent limitations marks slides downwards.Single-engine limitation function LMT DH 80 ALTA hPa AFCP1 PSU1 DH/A FDC1 DCU1 E 12 15 9800 The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) computes permanently the power available according to engine and flight conditions and outputs the warning signals. Max transient (20 seconds) • Collective pitch scale (permanently displayed) Index graduated from 0 to 10. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. THM 14.autopilot status PFD NMD NMD PFD . 160 ing exceeded 140 POWER MARGIN INDICATOR 120 . scrolls in front of the index to deliver a proportion of pitch. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . the pitch scale moves in front of the index. T4).NMD (Navigation and mission system) displays : .

Nevertheless if the valve remains open (loss of engine During this procedure the T symbol appears in the low- power) the corresponding symbol is displayed on the est control light of the active engine control panel as on NMD.THM 14. inviting the pilot to close it manually. providing that the weights have been reduced accordingly. a red light "OEI 1" or "OEI 2" on engine auxiliary panel (overhead panel) remains. . the "OEI" rates are released for the remaining engine.1. "OEI/HI" (30 seconds) is first selected. read in true failure conditions. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. This action enables the following operations to be per- formed simultaneously : • Simulation of an engine failure by reducing the power of that engine to idle rating. . NMD display. 14. tive engine delivers an order to close the heating valve The indications read on the NMD are those the pilot would for the "OEI/H" and "OEI/L" ratings. "2-min" OEI rating The engine power stop now goes to the "OEI/LO" stop and the display shows "OEI/LO" amber. Heating electrovalve As soon as an engine has entered one of the 30 seconds open "OEI" rates. rating rating As soon as one engine fails. the HI HI Power stop LO pilot must not go passed the OEI/HI stop. On com- pletion of the 2 minutes and 30 seconds of the total time T T Training mode the writing OEI/LO and the frame turn red and flash. OEI OEI On the top of the display. © EUROCOPTER 1998. 1 IDLE 2 O T F N F N F E A O T A O I R I R F S L M E L M T S NG1 T NG2 OEI OEI 1 2 Lights of use of OEI/HI • Training mode This system enables OEI flight training to be conducted using non-damaging power levels.35 . the writing OEI/HI is sur- rounded with an amber flashing frame. • Heating electrovalve open symbol • Derating the OEI stops of the other engine by approxi- mately 5% in order to limit the Ng to a value not exceed- When one engine fails the DNG indicator of the opera.After 2 minutes and 25 seconds of the total time (HI + "Max continuous OEI" LO) "OEI/LO" is surrounded with amber frame. "OEI/HI" amber is visible. ing the takeoff power rating. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . Engine failure simulation requires the pilot to operate OEI/LO change "TRAINING IDLE" switch 1 or 2 after the guard has been push button folded back. At the end of the LO Power stop 30 seconds the writing OEI/HI and the frame turn red and flash. The pilot has now to go below the "Max continuous stop". with the Nf being governed at a value close to 245 rpm equivalent NR. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. The pilot has now to lower the collective and go to the "30-sec" OEI rating "OEI/LO" (2 minutes) by pressing the push-button on col- lective pitch lever. DESCRIPTION OF ENGINE MONITORING DISPLAYS (Cont'd) OEI/HI One Engine Inoperative OEI/LO • Single-engine limitation function 30 sec indications 2 min.After 25 seconds of this rate.13. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . To get rid of it TRAINING P2 VALVE PWR OVSP an action of maintenance is needed.

NG1+OEI/HI+OEI/LO TRIPLE FLI FLI INDICATOR T4 /1 T4 /2 NF1 NF2 NR NR NG1 NG2 T°4 / 1 T°4 / 2 A NF1 NF2 A F F C C S S 16WWX3 1 POWER COMPUTER 2 / AURAL WARNING T°1M1 T°1M2 NR PoM1 PoM2 OEI release OEI release T°4 1 T°4 2 DIFF. Navigation and Mission Display FLI . no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. .2 PWR. GENERAL ARCHITECTURE OF ENGINE MONITORING HEATING VALVE .14 . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.NG 2 . THM 14. Pressure Sensor Unit Po H1 DECU . First Limitation Indication Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . © EUROCOPTER 1998.NG PWR .NG2+OEI/HI+OEI/LO .36 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.NG PWR.C FDC 1 FDC 2 PSU 1 PSU 2 A FEW ABBREVIATIONS AFCS .1 PWR.2 T°1M1 1KK1 1KK2 T°1M2 OEI/HI D D OEI/HI E E OEI/LO C C OEI/LO FLI U 16WWY3 U FLI T°1 H1 ENGINE / T°1H2 1 2 Po H1 HYDRAULIC PoH2 Torques Torques VG1 VG2 16WWY6 16WWX6 16WWX2 LH RED ALARM PCB RH RED LH AMBER ALARM PCB ALARM PCB PWR. Automatic Flight Control System FDC .NG 1 NMD 1 CLOSURE NMD 2 . Digital Engine Control Unit Po H2 NMD . Flight Data Computer T°oH1 T°oH2 PSU . This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .C PWR.1 DIFF.

On each of the engines. oil. 14. It can be carried out ei. Recommended Treatments WASHING SCALING PROTECTIVE TREATMENT Injection of a washing product to re. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER ..15 .37 . © EUROCOPTER 1998. SYSTEM LAYOUT 1 2 ENGINE 2 4 5 ENGINE 1 3 NOTE : a dry run is required after each treatment IN ALL CASES. during a scaling or protective treatment operation it is collected in a collector (5) and is automatically evacuated during the next starting opera- 5 4 tion. Injection of a degreasing product in the Injection of a water-repellent in- move salty and corrosive deposits in air duct using cranking operation to re.1.THM 14. 14. the sprayed product is directed into : 1 • A scaling diffuser (1) fitted with 3 injectors (2) (cleaning the air duct) • An injector located on the borescope inspection orifice 2 (4) RH blanking plug (cleaning the compressors). cranking. aft coupling for LH engine). This document is the property of EUROCOPTER ..15. During a washing operation the liquid is ejected through the exhaust pipe. ther using cranking or engine idling. in cranking or idling mode. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. hibitor in the air duct using the air duct. SWITCH OFF THE AIR CONDITIONING (P2 bleed) SPRAYING FACILITY With the engines operating. insects. the spraying facility is con- nected to quick-release coupling (3) (forward coupling for RH engine. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. etc. loss of performance). Refer to the engine manufacturer’s Maintenance Manual rities is open to damage (material embrittlement caused for cleaning intervals and procedures. "ENGINE FLUSHING" SYSTEM An engine operating in an atmosphere heavy with impu. move dust. by corrosion. according to the treatment.

15. COMPONENT LOCATIONS 1 -Injectors 2 -Scaling diffuser 3 -Self-sealing. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. quick-release couplings 1 2 3 Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . . This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . THM 14. © EUROCOPTER 1998.2.38 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.

14. here we only show one circuit. in icing condi- tions.Safety shielding of power cables.16 . 6 . © EUROCOPTER 1998.1.THM 14.Lower heating mat 8 . The interface between the two circuits is described subsequently.Phase order detector supply to the mats when the engine is shutdown.Test phase selector 5 . TEST 28V The circuits for the 2 engines are identical. which could obturate the engine air intakes.Upper heating mat 7 .Test switch 2 . Heating mats Each heating mat is equipped with 2 heating resistors supplied by the three-phase AC system.400Hz A 1 B 12 C 2 PHASE ORDER DETECTOR 11 3 R2 R1 R3 OFF 10 4 8 DEICE ON TEST FAIL 6 5 9 ON OFF Engine 7 Indicating O. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . HEATING MATS INSTALLATION BLOCK DIAGRAM 115V .P.39 . 1 ."Engine oil pressure" pressure switch prevents power 11 .Power relay 9 . To simplify matters.Control switch 3 .Auxiliary relay 10 .16. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . 14. HEATING MATS FOR ENGINE AIR INTAKES The heating mats prevent ice accretion.Amber "FAIL" light 4 . il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué.Green "TEST" light indicating continuity of phases and heating resistors. 12 .

OPERATION OF HEATING MATS ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT ( 1 ) Normal operation 115V .P. THM 14. • If the engine is running. The heating mats are supplied. TEST 28V The control switch (8) is put to ON. © EUROCOPTER 1998. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. The heating mats are no longer supplied. which when energized make pre- vents excitation of the power relay. • If the engine is not running. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER .2.16.40 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. we will come back to it later). the "oil pressure" pressure switch (5) is open and the auxiliary relay (4) is at break position allowing excitation of power relay (3). pressure switch (5) is closed and en- sures grounding of auxiliary relay (4). il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.400Hz A 1 B 12 C 2 PHASE ORDER DETECTOR 11 3 R2 R1 R3 10 4 8 DEICE ON TEST FAIL 6 5 9 ON OFF Engine 7 Indicating O. (TEST switch (7) is presently OFF. .

thus grounding the "FAIL" light. • If power relay (3) goes back to rest.41 . • If a power line breaks : the phase order detector is activated and grounds the "FAIL" light which comes on. 14. 115V .power line breaking (breaking of a cable or resistor).accidental cut-out of power relay (3) . . the shielding braid touches the structure.16. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . TEST 28V The "FAIL" light (9) together with the "DEICE" light on warning panel monitors : .P.interference between safety shielding (12) and the structure.THM 14. © EUROCOPTER 1998.400Hz A 1 B 12 C 2 PHASE ORDER DETECTOR 11 3 R2 R1 R3 10 4 8 DEICE ON TEST FAIL 6 5 9 ON OFF Engine 7 Indicating O. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER . OPERATION OF HEATING MATS ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT (Cont'd) ( 2 ) Operating fault Case illustrated Breaking of a resistor in the upper heating mat.2. the light comes on through the rest contact • If the insulating sleeve of the harness supplying the mats gets damaged.

400Hz A 1 B 12 C 2 PHASE ORDER DETECTOR 11 3 R2 R1 R3 OFF 10 4 8 DEICE ON TEST FAIL 6 5 9 ON Engine Indicating O. .2. R2 and R3.16. the green test light (6) should come on. THM 14. On each of these positions. The "TEST" switch must be "ON".P. TEST 7 28V The control switch must be set to "OFF". OPERATION OF HEATING MATS ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT (Cont'd) ( 3 ) Power line continuity test 115V . and phase selector (10) is suc- cessively put to R1. Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .42 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. indicating that there is no break on the cables and resistors downstream of the power relay. © EUROCOPTER 1998. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14.

115V - 400Hz 400Hz A R1 Selector R3 A R2 R2 B B R3 R1 C C PHASE PHASE ORDER ORDER DETECTOR DETECTOR OFF OFF Power Power relay relay ON ON TEST 1 TEST 2 FAIL 1 FAIL 2 DEICE TEST +28V +28V ESS ESS Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . 14. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed. © EUROCOPTER 1998.43 .THM 14. INTERFACE BETWEEN HEATING MAT INSTALLATIONS ENGINE 1 ENGINE 2 AIR INTAKE AIR INTAKE INSTALLATION INSTALLATION ENGINE 1 ENGINE 2 HEATING HEATING MAT MAT NETWORK 1 NETWORK 2 115V .16.3. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .

4.Lower heating mat (bonded) 5 4 Heating mats Phase order detector Relay box Control unit 14. il ne peut être communiqué à des tiers et/ou reproduit sans l'autorisation préalable écrite 14. THM 14.16.Engine air intake stub frame 3 .16. .44 d'EUROCOPTER et son contenu ne peut être divulgué. © EUROCOPTER 1998. COMPONENT LOCATION 1 2 3 1 .Engine air intake housing 5 . CONTROLS AND INDICATING CONTROL UNIT 1 2 3 4 1 -Amber FAIL indicator light on ENGINE 1 installation 2 -Green correct operation light for testing of ANTI-ICING ENGINE AIR INTAKES ENGINE 1 installation ENGINE 1 TEST ENGINE 2 3 -Green correct operation light for testing of ON ENGINE 2 installation 4 -Amber FAIL indicator light on ENGINE 2 OFF installation ON R2 ON 5 -ON/OFF switch for ENGINE 2 heating mats R1 R3 6 -ON/OFF switch for TEST sequence 7 -TEST selector for mat heating resistors OFF OFF 8 -ON/OFF switch for ENGINE 1 heating mats 8 7 6 5 Ce document est la propriété d'EUROCOPTER . This document is the property of EUROCOPTER .Upper heating mat (bonded) 4 .5. no part of it shall be reproduced or transmitted without the express prior written authorization of EUROCOPTER and its contents shall not be disclosed.Air intake screen 2 .