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CiTRANS R810 Series

Mini Edge Router

Product Description
Version: B/1

Code: MN000001889

FiberHome Telecommunication Technologies Co., Ltd.

October 2014
Thank you for choosing our products.

We appreciate your business. Your satisfaction is our goal.


We will provide you with comprehensive technical support
and after-sales service. Please contact your local sales
representative, service representative or distributor for any
help needed at the contact information shown below.

Fiberhome Telecommunication Technologies Co., Ltd.

Address: No. 67, Guanggu Chuangye Jie, Wuhan, Hubei, China


Zip code: 430073
Tel: +6 03 7960 0860/0884 (for Malaysia)
+91 98 9985 5448 (for South Asia)
+593 4 501 4529 (for South America)
Fax: +86 27 8717 8521
Website: http://www.fiberhomegroup.com
Legal Notice

are trademarks of FiberHome Telecommunication Technologies Co., Ltd.


(Hereinafter referred to as FiberHome)
All brand names and product names used in this document are used for
identification purposes only and are trademarks or registered trademarks
of their respective holders.

All rights reserved

No part of this document (including the electronic version) may be


reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior
written permission from FiberHome.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
Preface

Related Documentation
Document Description

Introduces the product’s functions and features, protection


CiTRANS R810A Series Mini
principles, networking modes and applications, and
Edge Router Product Description
technical specifications.

CiTRANS R810A Series Mini Introduces the structure, functions, specifications, and
Edge Router Hardware technical parameters of the product's hardware
Description components, including cabinets, subracks and cables.

CiTRANS R810A-1A/1D Mini


Briefs the installation methods and procedure of the
Edge Router Quick Installation
equipment.
Guide
CiTRANS R810B-1A/1D Mini
Briefs the installation methods and procedure of the
Edge Router Quick Installation
equipment.
Guide
CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D Series
Briefs the installation methods and procedure of the
Mini Edge Router Quick
equipment.
Installation Guide
Introduces the installation methods, connection and layout
CiTRANS R800 Series Router of wires and cables of the CiTRANS 800 series IP RAN
Installation Guide equipment, as well as the requirement on equipment
installation environment.
Introduces the rules and methods for the configuration of
CiTRANS R800 Series Router various functions and performance parameters in the
Configuration Guide subnet-level mode through the OTNM2000; gives some
typical configuration examples and operation procedures.

Introduces the methods for the configuration of various


CiTRANS R800 Series Router
protocols, services and functions supported by the
Configuration Guide-CLI
CiTRANS R800 Series Router through the CLI.

Gives a detailed description of items and procedures of


routine maintenance on a daily, monthly, quarterly and
CiTRANS R800 Series Router
yearly basis; introduces routine operation methods and
Routine Maintenance
instructs users to perform basic operation based on
hardware and the network management system.

I
Document Description

Gives a detailed introduction to notices of fault


CiTRANS R800 Series Router
management, fault isolating methods as well as
Troubleshooting Guide
procedures and methods of fault management.

Describes classification and category of alarm and


CiTRANS R800 Series Router
performance indicators and their suppressing
Alarm and Performance
relationships, and lists definitions, causes and
Reference
management of each alarm and performance.

Includes four manuals, i.e., product description, operation


e-Fim OTNM2000 Element guide, routine maintenance and installation guide, all of
Network Management System which are aimed at introducing common and fundamental
Manual Set contents of the OTNM2000 for a better understanding and
proficient use of the network management system.

II
Version
Version Description

A Initial version.
Adds the relevant descriptions on the CiTRANS R810A-
B
2A/2D series.

Intended Readers

This manual is intended for the following readers:

u Planning and designing engineers

u Commissioning engineers

u Operation and maintenance engineers

To utilize this manual, these prerequisite skills are necessary:

u IP/MPLS technology

u Data communication technology

u SDH communication technology

u Ethernet technology

III
Conventions

Terminology Conventions

Terminology Convention

FiberHome CiTRANS R810A Mini Edge Router, 4GE/FE


CiTRANS R810A-1A
(Optical)+4GE/FE (Electrical), Indoor AC Type

FiberHome CiTRANS R810A Mini Edge Router, 4GE/FE


CiTRANS R810A-1D
(Optical)+4GE/FE (Electrical), Indoor DC Type

FiberHome CiTRANS R810B Mini Edge Router, 4GE/FE


CiTRANS R810B-1A
(Optical)+4GE/FE (Electrical), Outdoor AC Type

FiberHome CiTRANS R810B Mini Edge Router, 4GE/FE


CiTRANS R810B-1D
(Optical)+4GE/FE (Electrical), Outdoor DC Type

FiberHome CiTRANS R810A Mini Edge Router, 4GE/FE


CiTRANS R810A-2A-S
(Optical)+4GE/FE (Electrical) +16E1 (75Ω), Indoor AC Type

FiberHome CiTRANS R810A Mini Edge Router, 4GE/FE


CiTRANS R810A-2D-S
(Optical)+4GE/FE (Electrical) +16E1 (75Ω), Indoor DC Type

FiberHome CiTRANS R810A Mini Edge Router, 4GE/FE


CiTRANS R810A-2A-T
(Optical)+4GE/FE (Electrical) +16E1 (120Ω), Indoor AC Type

FiberHome CiTRANS R810A Mini Edge Router, 4GE/FE


CiTRANS R810A-2D-T
(Optical)+4GE/FE (Electrical) +16E1 (120Ω), Indoor DC Type

OTNM2000 FiberHome e-Fim OTNM2000 Element Management System

Symbol Conventions

Symbol Meaning Description

Note Important features or operation guide.

Possible injury to persons or systems, or cause traffic


Caution
interruption or loss.

Warning May cause severe bodily injuries.

➔ Jump Jumps to another step.

Cascading
→ Connects multi-level menu options.
menu

IV
Symbol Meaning Description

Bidirectional
↔ The service signal is bidirectional.
service
Unidirectional
→ The service signal is unidirectional.
service

V
Contents

Preface...................................................................................................................I

Related Documentation ...................................................................................I

Version ..........................................................................................................III

Intended Readers ..........................................................................................III

Conventions ................................................................................................. IV

1 Overview .....................................................................................................1-1

1.1 Brief Introduction............................................................................1-2

1.2 Product Feature .............................................................................1-3

1.3 Product Positioning........................................................................1-5

2 Function ......................................................................................................2-1

2.1 Routing and Switching Capability ...................................................2-2

2.2 Service Type and Processing Capability.........................................2-2

2.2.1 Service Type....................................................................2-2


2.2.2 Processing Capability ......................................................2-2

2.3 Interface Type................................................................................2-3

2.3.1 Service Interface..............................................................2-3


2.3.2 Management Interfaces ...................................................2-3

2.4 Protection Capability ......................................................................2-4

2.4.1 Network-Level Protection .................................................2-4


2.4.2 Network Management Information Protection ...................2-5

2.5 Carrier-Class Network Management...............................................2-5

2.5.1 Support Centralized Configuration Management...............2-5


2.5.2 Support of Performance and Alarm Management .............2-6
2.5.3 DCN Construction............................................................2-6

2.6 Monitoring and Maintenance Function ............................................2-8

2.6.1 Remote Upgrade Function ...............................................2-9


2.6.2 Power Supply Monitoring Function ...................................2-9

3 Product Features .........................................................................................3-1


3.1 QoS Feature..................................................................................3-2

3.1.1 QoS Overview .................................................................3-2


3.1.2 QoS Feature of the Equipment .........................................3-2

3.2 OAM Feature .................................................................................3-4

3.2.1 Introduction to OAM .........................................................3-4


3.2.2 MPLS-TP OAM................................................................3-6
3.2.3 Introduction to BFD ..........................................................3-7

3.3 Clock Feature ................................................................................3-9

3.3.1 Clock Signal Synchronization...........................................3-9


3.3.2 Introduction to Clock and Time Synchronization..............3-10
3.3.3 Clock and Time Synchronization Function ......................3-15
3.3.4 Reference......................................................................3-16

3.4 VPN ............................................................................................3-17

3.4.1 Introduction to VPN........................................................3-17


3.4.2 VPN Functions Supported by the Equipment ..................3-18
3.4.3 Reference......................................................................3-21

3.5 EMC / EMI Regulatory Compliance and Safety Design .................3-22

4 Dynamic Routing Feature ............................................................................4-1

4.1 Overview .......................................................................................4-2

4.2 RIP................................................................................................4-2

4.3 OSPF ............................................................................................4-3

4.4 IS-IS Protocol ................................................................................4-7

4.5 BGP-4 Protocol............................................................................4-11

4.6 IPv6 Dynamic Routing Protocol....................................................4-14

4.7 RSVP ..........................................................................................4-16

4.8 LDP.............................................................................................4-17

5 Product Architecture ....................................................................................5-1

5.1 Logical Structure............................................................................5-2

5.2 Hardware Structure of the CiTRANS R810A-1A/1D ........................5-3

5.2.1 Code ...............................................................................5-3


5.2.2 Appearance and Dimensions ...........................................5-4

5.3 Hardware Structure of the CiTRANS R810B-1A/1D ........................5-5


5.3.1 Code ...............................................................................5-5
5.3.2 Appearance and Dimensions ...........................................5-5

5.4 Hardware Structure of the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D Series .............5-6

5.4.1 Code ...............................................................................5-6


5.4.2 Appearance and Dimensions ...........................................5-6

5.5 Software Architecture.....................................................................5-7

5.5.1 Overview .........................................................................5-7


5.5.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces .........................5-8
5.5.3 BMU Software .................................................................5-9
5.5.4 NMU Software .................................................................5-9
5.5.5 Network Management Software .....................................5-10

6 Service and Network....................................................................................6-1

6.1 Ethernet Service ............................................................................6-2

6.1.1 Service Type....................................................................6-2


6.1.2 Service Example..............................................................6-2
6.1.3 Application Scenario ........................................................6-6

6.2 CES Service ..................................................................................6-7

6.2.1 Emulation Mode...............................................................6-7


6.2.2 Service Clock ..................................................................6-8
6.2.3 Application Scenario ......................................................6-10

6.3 Network Capability.......................................................................6-11

6.3.1 Typical L2VPN Network .................................................6-11


6.3.2 Typical Network of CES Services ...................................6-14
6.3.3 Typical L3VPN Network .................................................6-15
6.3.4 L2/L3 Hybrid Network ....................................................6-19
6.3.5 MS-PW Network ............................................................6-20
6.3.6 Hierarchical VPLS Network ............................................6-21

7 Protection Implementation ...........................................................................7-1

7.1 Network-Level Protection ...............................................................7-2

7.1.1 1:1 Protection for Tunnels ................................................7-2


7.1.2 PW Redundancy Protection .............................................7-4
7.1.3 MPLS TE FRR Protection ................................................7-5
7.1.4 VPN FRR Protection ........................................................7-6
7.1.5 IP FRR Protection............................................................7-8
7.1.6 IP FRR Protection..........................................................7-10

7.2 Network Management Information Protection ...............................7-10

8 Security Management ..................................................................................8-1

8.1 Network Security Protection ...........................................................8-2

8.1.1 ACL.................................................................................8-2
8.1.2 Traffic Policing .................................................................8-2
8.1.3 Attack Defense ................................................................8-3

8.2 Security Protection for the OTNM2000 ...........................................8-5

8.2.1 Access Control ................................................................8-6


8.2.2 User Level and Permission Management .........................8-6
8.2.3 Data Security ...................................................................8-8
8.2.4 Log Management.............................................................8-8

9 Technical Specifications...............................................................................9-1

9.1 Technical Specifications of Integrated Equipment ...........................9-2

9.2 System Performance Specifications ...............................................9-2

9.3 Interface Performance Specifications .............................................9-4

9.3.1 GE Interface Specifications ..............................................9-4


9.3.2 FE Interface Specifications...............................................9-4
9.3.3 E1 Interface Specifications...............................................9-5

9.4 Clock Specifications.......................................................................9-6

9.5 Environmental Requirement...........................................................9-7

9.5.1 Storage Environment .......................................................9-7


9.5.2 Operating Environment ....................................................9-8
9.5.3 Transport Environment.....................................................9-8

9.6 Standard........................................................................................9-9

9.6.1 EMC Standard .................................................................9-9


9.6.2 Safety Standards ...........................................................9-10
9.6.3 Availability .....................................................................9-10

Appendix A Abbreviation............................................................................ A-1


Figures

Figure 1-1 Comprehensive Service Access.....................................................1-6


Figure 2-1 The In-band DCN Network Diagram ...............................................2-7
Figure 2-2 Out-of-band DCN Network .............................................................2-8
Figure 3-1 Difference Between Time Synchronization and Clock
Synchronization ...........................................................................3-11
Figure 3-2 Synchronous Ethernet Principle ...................................................3-12
Figure 3-3 Time Synchronization Solution of IEEE 1588v2 ............................3-13
Figure 3-4 Time Synchronization Principle of IEEE 1588v2 ...........................3-14
Figure 3-5 Hierarchical VPLS Network Diagram ............................................3-20
Figure 4-1 OSPF Packet Structure..................................................................4-5
Figure 4-2 Typical Application of OSPF Protocol .............................................4-7
Figure 4-3 Typical Application of IS-IS Protocol .............................................4-10
Figure 4-4 Typical Application of BGP Protocol .............................................4-13
Figure 5-1 System Architecture Diagram.........................................................5-2
Figure 5-2 Appearance of the CiTRANS R810A-1D ........................................5-4
Figure 5-3 Appearance of the CiTRANS R810A-1A.........................................5-4
Figure 5-4 Appearance of Outdoor Device ......................................................5-5
Figure 5-5 Appearance of the CiTRANS R810A-2D-S/T ..................................5-6
Figure 5-6 Appearance of the CiTRANS R810A-2A-S/T ..................................5-7
Figure 5-7 The System Software Architecture .................................................5-8
Figure 5-8 The OTNM2000 Software Architecture .........................................5-10
Figure 6-1 Example of E-Line Service .............................................................6-3
Figure 6-2 Example of E-LAN Service.............................................................6-4
Figure 6-3 Example of E-Tree Service.............................................................6-5
Figure 6-4 Ethernet L3VPN Basic Network Diagram........................................6-6
Figure 6-5 Application Scenario ......................................................................6-7
Figure 6-6 Implementation Principle Diagram of System Clock Recovery ........6-9
Figure 6-7 Implementation Principle Diagram of Differential Clock Recovery....6-9
Figure 6-8 Implementation Principle Diagram of Adaptive Clock Recovery.....6-10
Figure 6-9 Application Scenario of CES Service............................................6-11
Figure 6-10 Typical Network of the CiTRANS R810 Series in the E-Line
Service ........................................................................................6-13
Figure 6-11 Typical Network of the CiTRANS R810 Series in the E-LAN
Service ........................................................................................6-13
Figure 6-12 Typical Network of the CiTRANS R810 Series in the E-Tree
Service ........................................................................................6-14
Figure 6-13 Typical Network of the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D Series in the CES
Service ........................................................................................6-15
Figure 6-14 Ethernet L3VPN Basic Network Diagram......................................6-17
Figure 6-15 Ethernet L3VPN Extranet Network Diagram .................................6-18
Figure 6-16 Ethernet L3VPN Hub-Spoke Network Diagram.............................6-18
Figure 6-17 L2/L3 Hybrid Network Diagram ....................................................6-19
Figure 6-18 MS-PW Network Diagram ............................................................6-20
Figure 6-19 Hierarchical VPLS Network Diagram ............................................6-21
Figure 7-1 Tunnel 1:1 Protection .....................................................................7-3
Figure 7-2 FRR in the Bypass Mode ...............................................................7-6
Figure 7-3 Schematic Diagram of VPN FRR Protection ...................................7-7
Figure 7-4 Schematic Diagram of IP FRR Protection .......................................7-8
Figure 7-5 Backing up Network Management Information Channel of Ring
Network (Transmission of a Section Fails) ....................................7-11
Figure 7-6 Backing up Network Management Information Channel (Normal)..7-12
Figure 7-7 Backing up Network Management Information Channel (Active
Channel Fails) .............................................................................7-12
Tables

Table 2-1 Routing and Switching Capability ...................................................2-2


Table 2-2 Service Type..................................................................................2-2
Table 2-3 Access Capability ..........................................................................2-3
Table 2-4 Service Interface............................................................................2-3
Table 2-5 Management Interfaces .................................................................2-4
Table 2-6 Network-level Protection ................................................................2-4
Table 3-1 Supported OAM Standards ............................................................3-7
Table 3-2 Applicable Standards of BFD .........................................................3-9
Table 3-3 Standards Applicable to the Clock Synchronization Signal Design 3-16
Table 3-4 Applicable Standards of Clock Features .......................................3-17
Table 3-5 Applicable Standards of the VPN Function ...................................3-21
Table 3-6 EMC Standards ...........................................................................3-22
Table 3-7 Applicable Security Standards .....................................................3-23
Table 4-1 Applicable Standards of RIP ..........................................................4-3
Table 4-2 Applicable Standards of OSPF.......................................................4-7
Table 4-3 Applicable Standards of IS-IS.......................................................4-10
Table 4-4 Applicable Standards of BGP .......................................................4-13
Table 4-5 Applicable standards of IPv6 Dynamic Routing Protocols .............4-16
Table 4-6 Applicable standards of RSVP .....................................................4-17
Table 4-7 Applicable Standards of LDP .......................................................4-18
Table 6-1 Application Scenarios of Ethernet Services ..................................6-12
Table 6-2 Application Scenario of CES Service............................................6-14
Table 6-3 Application Scenarios of Ethernet L3VPN Services ......................6-15
Table 7-1 Parameters of Tunnel 1: 1 Protection..............................................7-4
Table 7-2 Parameters of PW Redundancy Protection.....................................7-5
Table 9-1 Technical Specifications.................................................................9-2
Table 9-2 System Performance Specifications of the CiTRANS R810A/R810B-
1A/1D ............................................................................................9-2
Table 9-3 System Performance Specifications of the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D
Series............................................................................................9-3
Table 9-4 GE Optical Interface Specifications ................................................9-4
Table 9-5 FE Optical Interface Specifications .................................................9-5
Table 9-6 E1 Interface Specifications.............................................................9-5
Table 9-7 Clock Interface Specifications ........................................................9-6
Table 9-8 Drift at Constant Temperature (MTIE) .............................................9-7
Table 9-9 Drift at Constant Temperature (TDEV) ............................................9-7
Table 9-10 EMC Standards .............................................................................9-9
Table 9-11 Safety Standards .........................................................................9-10
1 Overview

The CiTRANS R810 Series mini edge router is an IP/MPLS router product of
FiberHome Telecommunication Technologies Co., Ltd. (FiberHome) designed for
edge access of a mobile backhaul network or multi-service MAN.

Brief Introduction

Product Feature

Product Positioning

Version: B/1 1-1


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

1.1 Brief Introduction

Following the boom of IP-based telecom services, data service networks are
witnessing a change. IP services outpace TDM services on the transport network
and new services are flourishing, which challenges the data bearer capability of the
transport network.

The CiTRANS R810 series includes two categories: the CiTRANS R810A
equipment and the CiTRANS R810B equipment. Two categories are applicable for
different installation environment.

As the indoor equipment, the CiTRANS R810A includes the sub-equipment such as
the CiTRANS R810A-1A/1D series and the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series.

As the outdoor equipment, the CiTRANS R810B includes the sub-equipment such
as the CiTRANS R810B-1A/1D.

Note:

Compared to the CiTRANS R810A-1A/1D and the CiTRANS R810B-1A/


1D, the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series adds 16 E1 services and
supports the measurement of MPLS-TPY.1731.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router is a feature-packed IP/MPLS router product


offered by FiberHome, designed to address the needs of a next-generation
transport network for high rate, multi-service bearer and high performance. Its
features include wire speed forwarding, sound QoS mechanism, carrier-class
reliability, abundant service processing capability and convenient service
configuration and management, accommodating the requirements of data services
and IP RAN services.

With routing and switching as the core, the CiTRANS R810 Series router provides
operators with the Ethernet data service and E1 service to help them deliver full-
service access.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router is located at the access / edge layer of a mobile
backhaul network or multi-service MAN to connect to base stations and systems of
key accounts.

1-2 Version: B/1


1 Overview

1.2 Product Feature

The main features of the CiTRANS R810 Series router are as follows:

u Service capability

4 A wide variety of L2 service features, such as L2VLAN, selective QinQ,


and QinQ termination.

4 Rich IPv6/IPv4 unicast and routing protocols and comprehensive MPLS /


MPLS TE support.

4 Support for abundant VPN services. Support for L2VPN and L3VPN
services such as VPLS and VPWS.

u QoS capability

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides hierarchical end-to-end QoS


management and high-quality differentiated transmission services, and also
has a mature QoS scheduling mechanism.

u Multi-service transmission capability

The PWE3 technology encapsulates services and provides end-to-end


transparent transmission paths for service forwarding, transmitting services
such as Ethernet services.

u Low cost of commissioning and maintenance

Plug and play without onsite commissioning. Supports remote software


upgrade in a batch manner.

u Supports multiple management and maintenance mechanisms such as LSP


Ping and Traceroute function.

u Carrier-class protection

4 Tunnel 1:1 protection.

4 PW redundancy protection.

4 Ethernet LAG protection.

4 MPLS TE FRR protection.

4 VPN FRR protection, supporting VPN ECMP.

4 IP FRR protection.

Version: B/1 1-3


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

4 LDP FRR protection.

4 Support for system-level GR such as OSPF GR, IS-IS GR, BGP GR, and
LDP GR.

u Security design

With comprehensive security protection mechanisms, the CiTRANS R810


Series router provides operators and end users with network data protection.
The security features are as follows:

4 Allows ACLs to be set based the forwarding and control planes.

4 Supports data traffic control and monitoring.

4 Provides queue buffering management, queue scheduling, port rate


limiting, malformed packet protection, suppression of broadcast / multicast
/ flooding packets, and IP address spoofing protection.

4 Supports allocation and management of user levels and rights and user
access control.

4 Has multiple security mechanisms to ensure network management data


security, protect data integrity and confidentiality, and implement database
security management.

4 Provides a comprehensive log management function to allow users to


query logs when system security is damaged.

u Carrier-class OAM capabilities

4 Supports high-performance hierarchical OAM mechanisms so that faults


can be located in a real-time and accurate manner in a complicated
network.

4 Supports multiple management and maintenance mechanisms such as


LSP Ping and Traceroute function.

u Low transmission cost per bit

Compared with the SDH, the router based on the IP performs inbuilt statistical
multiplexing capability and provides connection-oriented flexible bearing
tunnels with high efficiency, which greatly reduces the transmission cost per bit.

u Routing capability and service forwarding capability

4 Provides routing protocols such as RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, BGP, and multicast
routing protocols and provides the fast convergence function.

1-4 Version: B/1


1 Overview

4 Supports full-duplex forwarding of FE / GE interfaces and Ethernet


switching.

4 Supports 8G nonblocking wire speed forwarding.

4 Supports Ethernet module 9600 Jumbo Frame.

u Management traffic statistics and monitoring functions

4 Supports second level real-time traffic monitoring.

4 Supports statistics of bandwidth utilization, 15-minute traffic and 24-hour


traffic.

4 Supports querying the maximum and minimum traffic of the monitored


object.

4 Supports monitoring performance of each layer in the NE, including port,


LSP and PW second level performance query.

1.3 Product Positioning

The CiTRANS R810 Series router is located at the access / edge layer of a multi-
service MAN or mobile backhaul network. It can work with CiTRANS R830E,
CiTRANS R820, CiTRANS R845, CiTRANS R860, and CiTRANS R865 to provide
the network accessing from edge layer to distribution layer, to provide an IP network
solution with complete structure and clear hierarchy, and to meet the full-service
access requirement of operators.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router can connect to the FE / GE interface of a base
station to provide the base station with access and bearer services.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router uses MPLS to carry Ethernet mobile services and
provide mobile service functions such as QoS assurance, protection and restoration,
bearer network time and clock synchronization, and end-to-end service
configuration and management.

As Figure 1-1 shows, the CiTRANS R810 Series is located in the access layer. It is
connected with the upper-level router upwards, and accesses the client equipment
and the base station equipment downwards.

Version: B/1 1-5


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Figure 1-1 Comprehensive Service Access

1-6 Version: B/1


2 Function

As a carrier-class transmission equipment, the CiTRANS R810 Series router


supports multiple service types and provides abundant functions to guarantee
service transmission quality and efficiency. The functions of the CiTRANS R810
Series router are as follows:

Routing and Switching Capability

Service Type and Processing Capability

Interface Type

Protection Capability

Carrier-Class Network Management

Monitoring and Maintenance Function

Version: B/1 2-1


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

2.1 Routing and Switching Capability

The CiTRANS R810 Series router rests on the routing and switching core.
Table 2-1 describes its switching capability.

Table 2-1 Routing and Switching Capability

Product Code Switching Capacity Packet Forwarding Rate

CiTRANS R810 Series 8G 11.904Mpps

2.2 Service Type and Processing Capability

The following introduces the service type and processing capability of the CiTRANS
R810 Series router.

2.2.1 Service Type

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides L2VPN and L3VPN services, as shown
in Table 2-2.

Table 2-2 Service Type

Service
Service Type
Category

E-Line
E-LAN
L2VPN services
E-Tree
E-CES (only applicable to CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series)

L3VPN services MPLS L3VPN

2.2.2 Processing Capability

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the Ethernet service and E1 service.
Table 2-3 shows the service types and processing capabilities supported by each
type of router.

2-2 Version: B/1


2 Function

Table 2-3 Access Capability

Service Category Service Type Maximum Access Capacity (Channel)

FE 8
GE 8
Ethernet service
16 (only applicable to CiTRANS R810A-
E1
2A/2D series)

2.3 Interface Type

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides external interfaces such as service
interfaces and management interfaces.

2.3.1 Service Interface

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides abundant service interfaces, as shown
in Table 2-4.

Table 2-4 Service Interface

Interface Type Description

Electrical interface: 10M/100M/1000M auto


GE interface negotiation

Optical interface: 1000BASE-SX/LX/VX/ZX1/ZX2

Electrical interface: 10M/100M auto negotiation


FE interface
Optical interface: 100BASE-FX (15/40/80km)

Electrical interface: RJ-45 (use the special adapter


E1 interface (provided by the CiTRANS cable to provide the 75Ω / 120Ω coaxial interface,
R810A-2A/2D series only) refer to Hardware Description for introduction of
cables)

2.3.2 Management Interfaces

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides abundant management interfaces, as


shown in Table 2-5.

Version: B/1 2-3


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Table 2-5 Management Interfaces

Connec-
Interface Type Description
tor Type

Network management interface.


Management F interface Generally connects with the OTNM2000 RJ-45
interface host.
SIG interface Router console login port. RJ-45
External clock Input / output interface of external clock.
interface Used for clock synchronization (namely
CKIO interface RJ-45
(CiTRANS frequency synchronization) and clock
R810A) signal input and output.

External time Input / output interface of external time.


interface 1PPS&TOD Used for time synchronization and time
RJ-45
(CiTRANS interface signal input/output. It is adaptable to
R810A) 1PPS +TOD time signals.

2.4 Protection Capability

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides the network-level protection and
network management information protection.

2.4.1 Network-Level Protection

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides abundant network-level protections, as


shown in Table 2-6.

Table 2-6 Network-level Protection

Protection Type Protection Mode


Tunnel protection 1:1
PW protection PW redundancy protection

FRR protection PW FRR, IP FRR, VPN FRR, MPLS TE FRR protection

LAG protection for


Port aggregation
Ethernet access links

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2.4.2 Network Management Information Protection

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides a protection channel for network
management information. The NEs whose network management information should
be protected is accessed into the data communication network (DCN), and
connected with the network management system host to establish the protection
channel of the network management information.

When the network is normal, network management information is transmitted on the


working channel. When the working channel fails, an NE automatically switches to
the protection channel to transmit network management information, which allows
the network management system to monitor and operate the entire network.

2.5 Carrier-Class Network Management

The CiTRANS R810 Series router uses the e-Fim OTNM2000 Element
Management System (hereinafter referred to as the OTNM2000). The OTNM2000 is
the subnet of the TMN (Telecommunication Management Network) and designed in
line with the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) standard of ISO.

The OTNM2000 offered by FiberHome can implement the integrated management


on various types of FiberHome’s transmission and access equipment with one
platform, so as to facilitate better user experience and lower the maintenance
budget.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports logging in the OTNM2000 via PPPoE.

2.5.1 Support Centralized Configuration Management

The CiTRANS R810 Series router uses the OTNM2000 to perform unified
configuration management at the central office, with a large control scope, high
management efficiency, and low maintenance cost.

Configuration management includes network configuration and NE configuration.

u Network information configuration: includes setting up, modifying and deleting


physical links and service channels of a network, and reconfiguring physical
links and channels and recovering routes when faults occur on the network.

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The connection relationships in network topology supports displaying


hierarchical topology view as shown below:

4 Supports displaying the network topology of physical connection.

4 Supports displaying the network topology of LSP.

4 Supports displaying the network topology of PW.

4 Supports displaying the network topology of service layer.

u NE information configuration: indicates managing (creating, deleting, and


modifying) NEs that constitute a communication network, including NE
initialization and function configuration (adding or deleting NEs, subracks, or
cards).

2.5.2 Support of Performance and Alarm Management

The CiTRANS R810 Series router uses the OTNM2000 to perform performance
management and alarm management and implements operations such as real-time
collection, prompt, browsing, filter, confirmation, clearing, and statistics collection
related to performance data and alarms, as well as alarm relevance analysis and
fault diagnosis.

u Performance management: The OTNM2000 provides the performance


management function, produces reports and evaluation on the transport
performance parameters of the communication equipment and networks. It
collects quality data and statistics on the actual operation of equipment in
communication networks and monitors the status and performance of networks
and equipment. This provides an evidence for the maintenance personnel to
evaluate, analyze, predict and plan the network.

u Alarm management: The OTNM2000 supports alarm management, implements


real-time monitoring on abnormal operation of the equipment and the network
channels, performs monitoring, report, storage of alarmed signals, and fault
diagnosis, isolation and troubleshooting.

2.5.3 DCN Construction

As part of network management, the DCN is used to transmit network management


information.

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2 Function

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports multiple DCN construction modes and
isolation of management communication networks and signaling communication
networks, and implements both in-band and out-of-band DCN network modes.

2.5.3.1 In-band DCN Network

In an in-band DCN, the service channel provided by the managed equipment is


used to perform network equipment management. In this mode, network
management information is transmitted via the service channel of the equipment.

This network mode is flexible and requires no additional equipment.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the following interfaces of an in-band
DCN:

u GE interface

u FE interface

See Figure 2-1 for the in-band DCN network for the CiTRANS R810 Series router.

Figure 2-1 The In-band DCN Network Diagram

2.5.3.2 Out-of-band DCN Network

In an out-of-band DCN, channels other than service channels are used to transmit
network management information to implement network management.

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Compared with an in-band DCN, an out-of-band DCN provides management


channels that are more reliable. When service channels of an out-of-band DCN are
faulty, network management information can be obtained in a timely manner and
real-time network monitoring can be implemented.

An out-of-band DCN requires dedicated communication channels independent of


service channels.

In out-of-band DCN network mode, the network management center can set up a
DCN with the managed equipment in multiple modes. The out-of-band DCN network
mode supports by the CiTRANS R810 Series router is Ethernet mode.

See Figure 2-2 for the out-of-band DCN network for the CiTRANS R810 Series
router.

Figure 2-2 Out-of-band DCN Network

2.6 Monitoring and Maintenance Function

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides features including remote upgrade and
power supply monitoring.

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2.6.1 Remote Upgrade Function

Remote login is one of the most original services provided by the Internet for the
convenience in controlling the computer in the remote end of the network. Remote
login is widely used for transport network maintenance, especially in large-scale
project start-up, equipment upgrade, and network monitoring and maintenance.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router allows you to use a computer to upgrade the
hardware FPGA and BMU software remotely, which facilitates engineering start-up
and maintenance and addresses future needs for system upgrade.

2.6.2 Power Supply Monitoring Function

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides the monitoring function for the faults and
alarms of power supply .

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3 Product Features

The CiTRANS R810 Series router has the following features:

QoS Feature

OAM Feature

Clock Feature

VPN

EMC / EMI Regulatory Compliance and Safety Design

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3.1 QoS Feature

The following introduces basic concepts of QoS and the QoS feature of the
CiTRANS R810 Series router.

3.1.1 QoS Overview

QoS is referred to as performance of data flows on a network and proposed to


ensure end-to-end service quality.

QoS does not contribute to increase of bandwidth but it can be used to allocate and
monitor network resources properly to minimize network delay and jitter and ensure
the quality of key services.

QoS can be measured using the following indicators:

u Service availability: time in which service running is guaranteed.

u Delay: time spent in transmitting a packet between two reference points.

u Jitter: time deviation in arrival of packets in a group transmitted via the same
route.

u Throughput: packet transmission rate, indicated by the average rate or peak


rate.

u Packet loss rate: maximum proportion of discarded packets.

3.1.2 QoS Feature of the Equipment

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides hierarchical end-to-end QoS


management and high-quality differentiated transmission services. Besides, the
CiTRANS R810 Series router has a mature QoS scheduling mechanism.

Traffic Bandwidth Control

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports hierarchical incoming/outgoing traffic


bandwidth control policies.

u Traffic bandwidth control based on Tunnel

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u Traffic bandwidth control based on PW

u Traffic bandwidth control based on virtual service ports of L2VPNs or L3VPNs

u Traffic bandwidth control based on physical ports

u Traffic bandwidth control based on logical ports

Service Priority Mapping

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports DiffServ. It completely implements PHB
defined in the standard on the network so that carriers can provide services of
differentiated QoS levels for users.

When forwarding data, the CiTRANS R810 Series router maps user priority and PW
layer priority carried in received packets to PHBs and maps PHBs in the transmitted
packets to the PW / LSP layer priority.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router can set PHBs for virtual service ports of L2VPNs
and L3VPNs, physical ports and logical ports. Users can either choose from the
existing mapping table for the PHB and PW priority level, or set a specific PHB
service level.

Queue Buffer Management

When network congestion occurs, the CiTRANS R810 Series router employs
certain queue buffering management policies to preferentially ensure the QoS of
services with high priorities.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports two types of queue buffering
management policies:

u Tail drop

When the queue is filled to its maximum capacity, the newly arriving packets
are dropped until the queue has enough room to accept inbound traffic.

u WRED

4 When the number of packets stored in the output buffer area does not
exceed the threshold specified by Start, no packet is discarded.

4 When the number of packets stored in the output buffer area exceeds the
threshold specified by End, all packets are discarded.

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4 When the number of packets stored in the output buffer area is between
the START and the END, all packets face a probability of being dropped
based on an average-queue-length function.

Queue Scheduling

When congestion occurs, the CiTRANS R810 Series router uses different queue
scheduling policies to guarantee the QoS of services with high priority.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the following two queue scheduling
modes:

u SP queue scheduling

Packets in queues are scheduled based on the queue priority. In this case,
packets in a lower-priority queue are sent only when those in higher-priority
queues are all sent.

u WFQ queue scheduling

Queues are fairly scheduled based on their weights assigned. Queues with
higher priority are assigned higher weights and therefore occupy more
bandwidth. Similarly, queues with lower priority are assigned lower weights and
therefore occupy less bandwidth.

3.2 OAM Feature

The following introduces the OAM features that the CiTRANS R810 Series router
supports.

3.2.1 Introduction to OAM

Based on carriers' network operation requirements, the management of a network is


usually classified into operation, administration, and maintenance, that is, OAM.

u Operation and administration: routine analysis, prediction, planning, and


configuration for a network and services.

u Maintenance: routine activities such as performing network and service tests


and fault management.

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The ITU-T defines the following OAM functions:

u Monitors performance, generates maintenance information and evaluates


network reliability according to the maintenance information.

u Checks for network faults periodically and generates related maintenance and
alarm information.

u Bypasses the failed entity via scheduling or switching to other entities, so as to


guarantee the normal operation of the network.

u Transmits fault information to the management entity.

MPLS-TP OAM

MPLS-TP OAM can effectively detect and isolate defects in an MPLS-TP network
and monitor the network performance.

The equipment can trigger the protection switching using the detecting status of
OAM, so as to implement quick fault detection and service protection, and
guarantee the carrier-class QoS in the packet switched network.

The OAM mechanism of the MPLS-TP complies with the standard GACh+Y.1731. It
provides abundant service overhead, similar to the feature of the SDH network. It
also implements the functions of automatic network fault detection, protection
switching, performance monitoring and fault isolation for hierarchical network,
performing the OAM monitoring for each layer of the MPLS-TP.

Supports such functions as LB, LT, CC, LM, DM and AIS/RDI.

BFD

BFD is a simple hello protocol that in many respects is similar to the detection
components of well-known routing protocols. A pair of systems transmit BFD
packets periodically over each path between the two systems, and if a system stops
receiving BFD packets for long enough, the path between the two systems is
assumed to have failed.

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3.2.2 MPLS-TP OAM

Compared to the OAM function of SDH, the traditional packet based network
management and maintenance functions are relatively weak and cannot provide
end-to-end service management, fault detection and performance monitoring.
Based on the function of the traditional IP router, the CiTRANS R810 Series is
added with some MPLS advantages and provides hierarchical OAM function.

The OAM function features of the CiTRANS R810 Series router are as follows:

u Supports hierarchical OAM function. The MEG provides up to eight


maintenance levels (0 to 7); the larger of the number, the higher of the level and
the wider of the range of the maintenance domain. Different maintenance levels
can be adjacent or nested between each other but cannot be crossed. If case
of nesting, users can only use the maintenance domain with a higher level to
nest that with a lower level. Each level supports independent OAM function for
different network deployment strategies.

u Provides the OAM functions related to fault management, performing the


functions of automatic network fault detection, checking, fault isolation and
notification. Performs the end-to-end fault management within the MPLS
network, such as the connectivity detection based on LSP layer and PW layer.

u Provides the OAM functions related to performance monitoring, so as to


implement the network performance online measuring and performance report.
For example, the PW layer single-ended packet loss statistics and two-way
delay statistics.

u Provides the OAM function for daily maintenance, including loopback and
locking, providing operators with more convenient maintenance operation
methods for daily network checking. For example, the LT (Looptrace) / LB
(LoopBack) function based on PW layer.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports MPLS-TP network layer OAM, which
provides the OAM management function on the client side and each network layer
of MPLS-TP, and also implements quick fault detection to trigger the protection
switching, providing carrier-class QoS in the routing switching network.

Table 3-1 lists the OAM standards supported by each network layer of the
CiTRANS R810 Series router.

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Table 3-1 Supported OAM Standards

Network Layer Corresponding OAM Standard

MPLS-TP OAM (VS/VP/VC) GACh+Y.1731

The MPLS-TP OAM mechanism can detect and isolate the defects within the
MPLS-TP network effectively, so as to implement the monitoring on the network
performance.

The equipment can trigger the protection switching using the detecting status of
OAM, so as to implement quick fault detection and service protection, and
guarantee the carrier-class QoS in the packet switched network.

The OAM mechanism of the MPLS-TP complies with the standard GACh+Y.1731. It
provides abundant service overhead, similar to the feature of the SDH network. It
also implements the functions of automatic network faukt detection, protection
switching, performance monitoring and fault isolation for hierarchical network,
performing the OAM monitoring for each layer of the MPLS-TP.

3.2.3 Introduction to BFD

BFD is a simple hello protocol that in many respects is similar to the detection
components of well-known routing protocols. A pair of systems transmit BFD
packets periodically over each path between the two systems, and if a system stops
receiving BFD packets for long enough, some component in that particular
bidirectional path to the neighboring system is assumed to have failed.

BFD Operating Mechanism

BFD provides a general and standardized fast fault detection mechanism


independent of media and protocols. It can quickly detect faults in the bidirectional
forwarding path for higher-layer protocols between two routers.

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BFD sets up a session between two routers to monitor the bidirectional forwarding
path between the routers. A BFD session is established based on the needs of the
higher-layer protocol that will be making use of it. It is up to the higher-layer protocol
to determine the need for BFD, and the addresses to use–there is no discovery
mechanism in BFD. Faults occur if no BFD control message from the opposite end
is received within the detection time after the session is established. BFD informs
the served higher-layer protocol for relevant processing.

BFD Operating Mode

A system may take either an Active role or a Passive role in session initialization. At
least one system MUST take the active role (possibly both.)

u A system taking the active role MUST send BFD Control message for a
particular session, regardless of whether it has received any BFD packets for
that session.

u A system taking the Passive role MUST NOT begin sending BFD packets for a
particular session until it has received a BFD packet for that session.

After a BFD session is established, the session operates in either asynchronous or


demand mode.

u Asynchronous mode: In this mode, the systems periodically send BFD Control
packets to one another, and if a number of those packets in a row are not
received by the other system, the session is declared to be down.

u The demand mode: In this mode, it is assumed that a system has an


independent way of verifying that it has connectivity to the other system. Once
a BFD session is established, such a system may ask the other system to stop
sending BFD Control packets.

Note:

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports only BFD sessions in the
asynchronous mode.

BFD Application

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the following BFD applications:

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u BFD for static routing

u BFD for LDP

u BFD for OSPF

u BFD for ISIS

u BFD for BGP

u BFD for LSP

u BFD for PW

Reference

See Table 3-2 for more information about BFD.

Table 3-2 Applicable Standards of BFD

Number Title
draft-ietf-bfd-base-08 Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

draft-ietf-bfd-v4v6-1hop-08 BFD for IPv4 and IPv6 (Single Hop)

draft-ietf-bfd-multihop-06 BFD for Multihop Paths

3.3 Clock Feature

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports physical-layer clock synchronization


mechanism and IEEE 1588v2 time synchronization protocol.

Note:

The CiTRANS R810B has no external clock interface and external time
interface.

3.3.1 Clock Signal Synchronization

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports physical-layer clock synchronization


and IEEE 1588v2 time synchronization.

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Physical-layer Clock Synchronization

In physical-layer clock synchronization, clock information is extracted from the


signals transmitted on physical channels for frequency synchronization.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router can extract clock information from the following
links:

u FE interface

u GE synchronous Ethernet interface

The CiTRANS R810A router supports input and output of external clocks. It may
use 75Ω or 120Ω clock interfaces to provide stratum-3 2048 kHz or 2048 kbit/s (HDB3)
clock sources.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router may work in locked, holdover, or free running
clock mode, and can process and transmit SSMs.

IEEE 1588v2 Time Synchronization

IEEE 1588v2 is a time synchronization protocol that provides an accuracy of


nanoseconds and can meet the requirement of 3G base stations.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the following features of 1588v2:

u Supports time synchronization using the IEEE 1588v2 protocol.

u Supports two clock modes. Each station can be configured to work in desired
mode.

4 Boundary clock mode

4 Ordinary clock mode

3.3.2 Introduction to Clock and Time Synchronization

Synchronization includes clock synchronization and time synchronization.

u Frequency synchronization, or clock synchronization, refers to: (1) the attaining


of synchronism between the frequencies or phases of two or more signals; (2)
the obtaining of a desired, fixed relationship among corresponding significant
instants of two or more signal; (3) the valid moment occurs at the same rate.

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u Time synchronization indicates that the internal clock and time of a device are
controlled based on the received time. Time synchronization controls both clock
frequency and phase and represents clock phase with a value, that is, time of
the day (ToD).

The synchronization technologies of the IP RAN are as shown below:

u Synchronous Ethernet technology (for clock synchronization)

u 1588V2 technology (for time synchronization)

Figure 3-1 Difference Between Time Synchronization and Clock Synchronization

Figure 3-1shows the difference between time synchronization and clock


synchronization.

u Digital watches 1 and 2 maintain time consistency at every moment. This status
is called time synchronization.

u Digital watches 1 and 2 maintain a constant time difference, for example, one
hour. This status is called clock synchronization.

Note:
The consistency of time difference between Digital watches 1 and 2
cannot be maintained if Digital watches 1 and 2 have different
frequencies. Therefore, clock synchronization is the prerequisite for time
synchronization.

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3.3.2.1 Synchronous Ethernet Technology

The synchronous Ethernet technology, simplified as SyncE, implements clock


recovery by using Ethernet link code streams. The coding of the Ethernet physical
layer uses the 4B / 5B (FE) and 8B / 10B (GE) technologies. Every four bits are
inserted with a spare bit. In this way, the data code streams transmitted at the
physical layer do not contain four consecutive 1s or 0s, which allows those streams
to carry clock information effectively. On the Ethernet, a high-precision clock is used
to transmit data on the source interface. The clock is recovered and extracted at the
receive end, which maintains high-precision clock performance.

Figure 3-2 shows the principle of the synchronous Ethernet technology. As a


technology of clock frequency synchronization, it uses physical-layer signals of the
Ethernet to transmit clocks, which is similar to that on the synchronous digital
hierarchy (SDH) networks.

Figure 3-2 Synchronous Ethernet Principle

u The equipment (node A) at the Tx end imports a high-precision clock to the


PHY chip of the Ethernet. The PHY chip uses the high-precision clock to
transmit data.

u The PHY chip of the equipment (node B) at the Rx end extracts the clock from
the data code stream without deteriorating the clock precision, ensuring precise
clock synchronization with the source end.

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The synchronous Ethernet technology is mature and easy to implement and hardly
affected by network damages. The clock synchronization quality approximates to
that of SDH. The architecture of the synchronous Ethernet technology is similar to
that of the SDH solution. It is applicable to network frequency synchronization.

3.3.2.2 Time Synchronization of IEEE 1588v2

The basic function of IEEE 1588v2 is to make the most precise time of a distributed
network the same as other time. IEEE 1588v2 defines a PTP that is able to
synchronize the clocks of sensors, performers, other terminal devices in Ethernet or
other distributed bus systems using the multicast technology at submicrosecond
level. In IEEE 1588, four types of packets, that is, Sync, Follow_up, Delay-Req, and
Delay-Resp, are used for time alignment and delay compensation.

Figure 3-3 shows the time synchronization solution of IEEE 1588v2.

Figure 3-3 Time Synchronization Solution of IEEE 1588v2

Figure 3-4 shows the time synchronization principle of IEEE 1588v2.

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Figure 3-4 Time Synchronization Principle of IEEE 1588v2

According to Figure 3-4:

t1 + TSlaveoffset + TDelay (m->s) = t2; (1)

t3 - TSlaveoffset + TDelay (s->m) = t4; (2)

When (1) and (2) are added, the following formula is obtained: TDelay (m->s)+ TDelay (s->m)
= (t2 - t1) + (t4 - t3)

Assume that TDelay (m->s) = TDelay (s->m) = TDelay. The formula for calculating the latency
on the master and slave ports is as follows:

TDelay = [(t2- t1) + (t4- t3)]/2

The master and slave ports send PTP packets continuously. The slave port
synchronizes its time with TDelay so that its time is synchronous with that of the
master port.

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IEEE 1588V2 delivers high synchronization precision, accurate to submicroseconds.


IEEE 1588V2 complies with the industrial standard and is applicable to time
synchronization over networks.

3.3.3 Clock and Time Synchronization Function

The following introduces the internal clock unit and clock and time synchronization
capabilities of the equipment.

3.3.3.1 Internal Clock Unit

The internal clock unit of the CiTRANS R810 Series router is to provide a system
clock.

The clock unit meets the requirements defined by the ITU-T G.8261 standard for
SyncE. It can provide SyncE devices with a system clock that meets G.8262
specifications, and accept multiple timing reference resources. The CiTRANS
R810A provides an external stratum-3 clock externally, so that the equipment is
adaptable to different networking environments.

The internal clock unit has the following features:

u Provides stable frame alignment pulse and multiframe alignment pulse for
system clock.

u Automatically selects and traces proper clock reference sources.

u Provides multiple input interfaces for clock sources.

u The CiTRANS R810A provides a 2048 kHz or 2048 kbit/s (HDB3) stratum-3
clock source externally.

u Provides a complete monitoring and management system.

3.3.3.2 Clock and Time Synchronization Technology

Clock signals of the CiTRANS R810A are synchronized in in-band (via the IEEE
1588 interface) or out-of-band (via the 1PPS&TOD interface). The clock signals of
the CiTRANS R810B are synchronized only in the in-band mode (via the IEEE 1588
interface). Specifications of the two modes are as follows:

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u In-band (IEEE 1588 protocol interface) mode

4 Supports OC and BC2. A port can be set to Master or Slave.

4 Supports the BMC algorithm. SSMs can be transmitted using IEEE


1588V2 message.

4 Supports compensation for asymmetric path delay (the compensation step


is no more than 10ns); supports the configurable message transmitting
interval and supports PTP parameter setting.

u Out-of-band (TOD interface) mode

4 TOD information: The default baud rate is 9600 without parity check. There
is one start bit (shown in low level) and one stop bit (shown in high level).
Idle frames are high level and contain eight data bits each. The TOD
information transmission occurs at 1ms after the rising edge of the 1 pps
and completes within 500ms, and the TOD information labels the rise time
of the current 1PPS. The transmitting frequency of the TOD protocol
message is once per second.

4 1PPS: The rising edge is used as the on-time edge. The rise time is less
than 50 ns. The pulse width is about 180 ms.

The clock synchronization signal design of the CiTRANS R810 Series router
complies with the standards and specifications listed in Table 3-3.

Table 3-3 Standards Applicable to the Clock Synchronization Signal Design

Number Title
Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for
IEEE 1588-2008
Networked Measurement and Control Systems

3GPP TR 25.836
(applicable only to CiTRANS NodeB synchronization for TDD
R810A)

3.3.4 Reference

The following introduces the reference standards for time and clock synchronization
of the CiTRANS R810 Series router.

For details about time and clock synchronization, see the standards listed in
Table 3-4.

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Table 3-4 Applicable Standards of Clock Features

Number Title
Standard for A Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked
IEEE 1588v2
Measurement and Control Systems

G.813 Timing characteristics of SDH equipment slave clocks

The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based
G.823
on the 2048 kbit/s hierarchy

G.8262 Timing characteristics of a synchronous Ethernet equipment slave clock

G.8264 Timing and Synchronization Aspects in Packet Networks

3.4 VPN

The following introduces the basic concept of the VPN and the VPN features
supported by the CiTRANS R810 Series router.

3.4.1 Introduction to VPN

The following describes the background and basic features of the VPN.

3.4.1.1 Background

With social development, IT technologies are widely applied in service processes of


modern enterprises. IT technologies such as resource planning, and IP network-
based voice, conference, and education technologies are employed to build an
architecture for automated office and information retrieval.

As the network industry develops, many enterprises are becoming increasingly


large in scale, more cooperators are available, and the mobility of employees
increases. This poses an urgent need to connect the headquarters and branches to
form an enterprise network with the help of carriers' telecom networks, allowing the
staff of an enterprise to connect to the enterprise network in other locations.

To address these issues, the VPN solution is introduced.

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3.4.1.2 Features of VPN

The VPN has the following two features:

u Private: A VPN is similar to a traditional private network. Resources for VPNs


are independent from the underlying bearer network. That is, resources for a
VPN will not be used by users that do not belong to this VPN. In addition, users
on VPNs are protected against external networks.

u Virtual: Users on a VPN communicate with each other on the public network,
which is also used by non-VPN users. The VPN is a logical private network.
This public network is called the VPN backbone network.

The existing IP network can be divided into logically isolated networks based on
these features. This type of logically isolated network (VPN) can be widely used. A
logically isolated network can be used for internal interconnection within an
enterprise or between departments. It can also be used to provide new services. For
example, a VPN can be assigned for the IP telephony service to address problems
such as IP address shortage, QoS guarantee, and new value-added service
provisioning.

VPN is becoming increasingly popular in implementing interconnection within


enterprises and providing new services. It is widely used by carriers to provide
value-added services on IP networks.

3.4.2 VPN Functions Supported by the Equipment

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports L2VPN and L3VPN.

3.4.2.1 L2VPN

L2VPN includes VPWS and VPLS.

With the development of network technologies, carrier networks become


increasingly complex. This poses a need for new technologies to integrate
traditional switching networks (such as the ATM and FR) with IP or MPLS networks.
MPLS L2VPN emerges to provide L2VPN services on the MPLS network so that
operators can provide L2VPN services based on different data link layers on an
MPLS network.

3-18 Version: B/1


3 Product Features

VPWS

The VPWS is an emulated leased line service. It uses the IP network to emulate
leased lines and provides asymmetric and low-cost DDN services. For users at the
two ends of a virtual leased line, the virtual leased line resembles a traditional
leased line.

VPWS is compatible with traditional private networks such as the ATM and FR.
Carriers can have their traditional private networks upgraded to VPWS smoothly.

VPLS

In VPLS, LANs are interconnected over virtual private network segments. It is the
extension of LANs on IP public networks.

VPLS is also called the transparent LAN service. Unlike the point-to-point service of
common L2VPNs, VPLS enables SPs to provide Ethernet-based multipoint services
over the MPLS backbone network.

On the VPLS backbone network, full-mesh connection and horizontal split are used
to eliminate loops. Unknown unicast and multicast frames may be discarded, locally
processed, or broadcast. VPLS extends the application of VLANs across the world.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the hierarchical VPLS. In a VPLS
network, full-mesh LSP tunnels (N x (N-1)/2) need to be established between N PE
routers in each VPLS instance, which generates large amounts of signaling
overhead. In addition, PE routers need to replicate packets for every PW. As a result,
routers are heavily loaded. Hierarchical VPLS is a solution to this problem.

Because of the hierarchical VPLS, the VPLS network is divided into two layers: core
layer and access layer. As shown in Figure 3-5, NPEs at the core layer are fully
connected, and UPEs virtually connect to only the closest NPE for service switching
with peer sites. The hierarchical VPLS reduces the number of virtual connections
and improves the scalability of a network.

Version: B/1 3-19


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Figure 3-5 Hierarchical VPLS Network Diagram

MS-PW

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the MS-PW technology. MS-PW refers
to that two PE establish an end-to-end PW through a S-PE, which divides the PW
into multiple dynamic or static segments. These PW segments work together to
provide end-to-end connectivity, troubleshooting, and maintenance.

MS-PW has the following advantages:

u MS-PW aggregates PWs and suits to hierarchical networks. It makes a network


more flexible and facilitates layered control and management.

u MS-PW creates a protection path for each PW segment to implement


segmented protection and improve reliability.

u Because of different routing protocols and signaling protocols, end-to-end


services cannot be deployed between data transport networks.

MS-PW uses PW segments to connect to different types of tunnels at the S-PE


to provide dynamic or static tunnels of varied structures. As a result, data
services can be transmitted between heterogeneous networks.

3-20 Version: B/1


3 Product Features

3.4.2.2 L3VPN

L3VPN is also called virtual private routing network (VPRN). L3VPN differs from
other types of VPNs in that VPRN packets are forwarded at the network layer. The
VPN node on the public network needs to establish a dedicated routing and
forwarding table for each VPN. The routing and forwarding table contains routing
information about the network layer. Data flows are forwarded between the VPN
node on the public network and user sites based on the dedicated routing and
forwarding table.

L3VPN forwards IP packets in a way similar to traditional routing. After a router


receives an IP packet, the router queries the forwarding table for the destination
address of the IP packet and then forwards the IP packet across the carrier's
backbone along the pre-established LSP. The carrier's provider edge (PE) router
exchanges routing information with the customer edge (CE) router so that routers on
the carrier network can detect routing information about the user network. The PE
can exchange routing information with the CE over a static route, or over dynamic
routing protocols, such as RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the L2/L3 bridge service and terminates
L2 VCs within a network. In addition, it classifies VCs by IP address segment,
converges VCs on each segment, and forwards them in static L3VPN mode. The
L2/L3 bridge technology helps construct an LTE backhaul network where L2VPN
and L3VPN are mixed.

3.4.3 Reference

The following introduces the reference standards of the CiTRANS R810 Series
router's VPN function.

See Table 3-5 for more information about VPN.

Table 3-5 Applicable Standards of the VPN Function

Number Title
RFC 3985 Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Architecture

RFC 3916 Requirements for Pseudo-Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3)

RFC 4364 BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

Version: B/1 3-21


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Table 3-5 Applicable Standards of the VPN Function (Continued)

Number Title
Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) Using Label Distribution Protocol
RFC 4762
(LDP) Signaling

RFC 4905 Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS

RFC 4906 Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS

draft-kompella-
Layer 2 VPNs Over Tunnels
ppvpn-l2vpn-04

3.5 EMC / EMI Regulatory Compliance and Safety


Design

The EMC / EMI standards of the CiTRANS R810 Series router are shown in
Table 3-6.

Table 3-6 EMC Standards

Number Title
Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM);
ETSI EN 300 386 Telecommunication network equipment; Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC) requirements

Information technology equipment - Radio disturbance characteristics


EN 55022
- Limits and methods of measurement
Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics - Limits
EN55024
and methods of measurement
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-2: Electrostatic
EN 61000-4-2
discharge immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-3: Testing and


EN 61000-4-3 measurement techniques-Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic
field immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-4: Testing and


EN 61000-4-4
measurement techniques-Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-5: Testing and


EN 61000-4-5
measurement techniques-Surge immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-6: Testing and


EN 61000-4-6 measurement techniques-Immunity to conducted disturbances,
induced by radio-frequency fields

Information technology equipment - Radio Disturbance characteristics


CISPR 22
- Limits and methods of measurement

3-22 Version: B/1


3 Product Features

Table 3-6 EMC Standards (Continued)

Number Title
Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics - Limits
CISPR 24
and methods of measurement
Resistibility of telecommunication equipment installed in a
ITU-T K.20
telecommunications centre to overvoltages and overcurrents

Resistibility of Telecommunication Equipment installed in Customer


ITU-T K.21
Premises to Overvoltages and Overcurrents

ITU-T K.43 Immunity requirements for telecommunication equipment

Resistibility of telecommunication equipment to overvoltages and


ITU-T K.44
overcurrents

The applicable security standards of the CiTRANS R810 Series router are shown in
Table 3-7.

Table 3-7 Applicable Security Standards

Number Title
Safety of laser products - Part 1: Equipment classification and
EN 60825-1
requirements

Safety of laser products - Part 2: Safety of optical fibre


EN 60825-2
communication
Information technology equipment - Safety - Part 1: General
EN 60950-1
Requirements

Safety of laser products - Part 1: Equipment classification and


IEC 60825-1
requirements

Safety of laser products - Part 2: Safety of optical fibre


IEC 60825-2
communication
Safety of Information technology equipment including Electrical
IEC 60950
Business Equipment

Information Technology Equipment - Safety - Part 1: General


UL 60950-1
Requirements

Version: B/1 3-23


4 Dynamic Routing Feature

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports a wide range of routing protocols to
meet different network requirements. The following introduces these routing
protocols including RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP.

Overview

RIP

OSPF

IS-IS Protocol

BGP-4 Protocol

IPv6 Dynamic Routing Protocol

RSVP

LDP

Version: B/1 4-1


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

4.1 Overview

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the following routing protocols and
functions:

u IPv4 routing protocols: RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP

u IPv6 routing protocols: RIPng, OSPFv3, IS-ISv6, and BGP4+

u Routing signaling and control protocols: RSVP and LDP

u A large number of routing entries to effectively support MAN operation

u A complete set of routing policies for determining the optimal route

u BGP next-hop separation and dynamic update peer-groups

4.2 RIP
Basic Concept

RIP is used to transmit routing information. It applies to small-scale networks such


as campus networks and regional networks with a simple structure.

RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol. In RIP, routing information is exchanged


as UDP packets using port 520. Each router broadcasts its routing table at 30-
second intervals to maintain location information about neighboring routers. Also,
each router calculates its own routing table based on received routing information.

The distance to the destination is measured based on the number of hops to the
destination. In RIP, the number of next hops from a router to a directly connected
network is 0. The number of next hops from a router to the other network through a
directly connected router is 1, and so on and so forth. According to RIP, the number
of hops is an integer ranging from 0 to 15 to limit the route convergence time. If the
number of hops is more than or equal to 16, the destination network or host is
unreachable.

RIP supports split horizon and poison reverse to enhance performance and prevent
route loops.

4-2 Version: B/1


4 Dynamic Routing Feature

Reference

See Table 4-1 for more information about RIP.

Table 4-1 Applicable Standards of RIP

Number Title
RFC 2082 RIP-2 MD5 Authentication
RFC 2453 RIP Version 2

4.3 OSPF
Basic Concept

OSPF is an IGP defined by the IETF. It is one of the most commonly used routing
protocols.

There are two OSPF versions: OSPFv1 (RFC 1131) and OSPFv2 (RFC 2328).

OSPF uses the link state route selection technology and the SPF algorithm. Routers
exchange information about direct links and links to other routers. Each OSPF
router maintains the same database that describes the topology of the autonomous
system (AS). Each OSPF router constructs an SPT (shortest path tree) to calculate
the routing table based on the database.

When the topology changes, OSPF quickly recalculates routes and only a small
amount of routing protocol traffic is generated. Identity authentication is required for
exchanging route selection protocols.

OSPF consists of three subprotocols: Hello protocol, switching protocol, and


flooding protocol.

u The Hello protocol checks whether links are available and specifies the DR
(designated router) and BDR (backup designated router).

u The switching protocol specifies the master and slave routers and enables the
routers to exchange the information in their respective routing database.

u The flooding protocol maintains the synchronization of the routing databases of


routers.

OSPF has the following features:

Version: B/1 4-3


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

u Supports variable length subnet masks (VLSMs).

u Supports area division and applies to large-scale networks.

u Supports equal-cost routing sharing.

u Supports authentication to avoid attacks to routers and routing protocols.

u Supports fast convergence.

u Has no restrictions on the number of hops.

u Supports variable length subnet masks (VLSMs).

u Applies to the large-scale and complex Internet.

u Overcomes the drawbacks of RIP and other distance-vector routing protocols.

u Triggers route convergence in a very short time to avoid routing loops and
therefore applies to mesh networks and LANs that are connected using
bridges.

u Implements interconnection between devices of different manufacturers as an


open standard.

Protocol Algorithm

The core of OSPF is SPF. OSPF generates the minimum spanning tree using the
Dijkstra algorithm.

In OSPF, routes are calculated using the SPF algorithm as follows:

1. Each router advertises its LSA that describes its own link state information.

2. Each router summarizes the received LSAs and generates a LSDB.

3. Each router calculates the minimum spanning tree based on the link costs, with
itself as the root node.

4. Each router obtains the route entries based on the minimum spanning tree and
stores them in the routing table.

Packet Structure

Figure 4-1 shows the structure of an OSPF packet.

4-4 Version: B/1


4 Dynamic Routing Feature

Figure 4-1 OSPF Packet Structure

There are five types of OSPF packets.

u Hello packet

4 Hello packets are OSPF packet type 1.

4 These Hello packets are sent periodically by the router running the OSPF
in order to establish and maintain neighbor relationships and elect the DRs
and BDRs.

u Database description packet

4 Database Description packets are OSPF packet type 2.

4 These packets are exchanged when an adjacency is being initialized. Its


main functions are as follows:

¡ Determines the master / slave relationships of routers when they


exchange LSDB information.

¡ Determines the initial sequence number when routers exchange


LSDB information.

¡ Exchanges all LSA headers.

u Link state request packet

4 Link state request packets are OSPF packet type 3.

4 After exchanging Database Description packets with a neighboring router,


a router may find that parts of its link-state database are out-of-date. The
Link State Request packet is used to request the pieces of the neighbor's
database that are more up-to-date.

Version: B/1 4-5


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

u Link state update packet

4 Link State Update packets are OSPF packet type 4.

4 These packets implement the flooding of LSAs and respond to received


link state updates. If a flooded LSA is not acknowledged, the link state
update packet is retransmitted at 5-second intervals by default.

u Link state acknowledgment packet

4 Link state acknowledgment packets (LSA-Acknowledgement) are OSPF


packet type 5.

4 This type of packet is used to acknowledge received LSAs. This packet is


transmitted in the multicast mode. A DR or BDR sends LSAck packets to
the multicast address 224.0.0.5 of OSPF routers. Other routers send
LSAck packets to the multicast address 224.0.0.6 of OSPF routers.

Typical Application

Figure 4-2shows a typical AS established over OSPF. The AS is divided into three
areas, which are respectively numbered 0, 1, and 2. The internal router maintains
an LSDB about links between routers within this area. The area border router
maintains the LSDBs of the connected areas and sends LSA-Update messages
between the two areas. The autonomous system boundary router exchanges
routing information with routers belonging to other Autonomous Systems.

4-6 Version: B/1


4 Dynamic Routing Feature

Figure 4-2 Typical Application of OSPF Protocol

Reference

See Table 4-2 for more information about OSPF.

Table 4-2 Applicable Standards of OSPF

Number Title
RFC 2328 OSPF Version 2
RFC 3623 Graceful OSPF Restart
OSPF as the Provider/Customer Edge Protocol for BGP/MPLS IP
RFC 4577
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

RFC 4915 Multi-Topology (MT) Routing in OSPF

4.4 IS-IS Protocol


Basic Concept

According to the ISO, a router is defined as an intermediate system (IS). ISs


communicate with each other over the IS-IS routing protocol.

Version: B/1 4-7


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

To suit a large-size routing network, IS-IS uses a two-layer structure in the routing
domain. A routing domain is partitioned into areas. Routes within an area are
managed by a level-1 router, and routes between areas are managed by a level-2
router. A router is uniquely identified by a system ID. Routers with the same area ID
belong to the same area. If a router belongs to multiple areas, it may have different
area IDs but the same system ID.

u Level-1 router

A level-1 router is responsible for routing within an area. It establishes


adjacencies with other level-1 routers or level-1-2 routers in the same area. In
addition, it maintains a level-1 LSDB that contains all routes in the area. The
routes are calculated using the SPF algorithm. Packets bound for devices
outside this area are forwarded by the level-1 router to the nearest level-2
router.

u Level-2 router

A level-2 router is responsible for routing between areas. It establishes


neighbor relationships with level-2 routers or level-1-2 routers in other areas. In
addition, it maintains a level-2 LSDB that contains routes between areas. The
routes are calculated using the SPF algorithm. All level-2 routers form the
backbone network in the routing domain. The level-2 routers in a routing
domain must be contiguous to ensure the continuity of the backbone network.

u Level-1-2 router

A level-1-2 router is both a level-1 router and a level-2 router. Each area has at
least one level-1-2 router. An area connects to the backbone network through
the level-1-2 router. A level-1-2 router maintains two LSDBs: a level-1 LSDB for
intra-area routing and a level-2 LSDB for inter-area routing.

Packet Structure

IS-IS packets are directly encapsulated into frames at the data link layer. The IS-IS
packets include:

u Hello packet

4-8 Version: B/1


4 Dynamic Routing Feature

Hello packets are used to initialize and maintain adjacencies between


neighboring routers. Level 1 LAN IS to IS Hello PDUs are used by level 1
routers on roadcast LANs. Level 2 LAN IS to IS Hello PDUs are used by Level
2 routers on broadcast LANs. Point-to-Point IS to IS Hello PDUs are used on
non-broadcast media, such as point-to-point links.

u LSP

LSPs are used to exchange link state information. LSPs are classified into
Level-1 LSPs and Level-2 LSPs. Level-1 LSPs are transmitted by level-1
routers and level-2 LSPs are transmitted by level-2 routers. A level-1-2 router
can transmit both sorts of LSPs.

u SNP

An SNP is used to acknowledge the latest LSP received by a router from its
neighbor. SNPs include CSNPs and PSNPs, which are further classified into
Level-1 CSNPs, Level-2 CSNPs, Level-1 PSNPs, and Level-2 PSNPs.

4 A partial sequence number packet lists the most recent sequence number
of one or more LSPs. A partial sequence number packet may
acknowledge multiple LSPs at once. When a router finds that its LSDB is
not synchronized with that of its neighbor, a PSNP may act as a request for
information.

4 A CSNP contains the summary information about all LSPs in an LSDB and
therefore can be sent to synchronize LSDBs between neighboring routers.
On a broadcast network, the DIS periodically sends CSNPs at 10-second
intervals by default. On a P2P channel, a CSNP is sent only when a link
first comes up.

Version: B/1 4-9


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Typical Application

Figure 4-3 Typical Application of IS-IS Protocol

Figure 4-3shows an AS established over IS-IS. The AS is divided into four parts.
NEs within an AS and in different ASs communicate with each other over dynamic
routing protocols. Routes within an area are managed by a level-1 router, and routes
between areas are managed by a level-2 router. A router is uniquely identified by a
system ID.

Reference

See Table 4-3 for more information about IS-IS.

Table 4-3 Applicable Standards of IS-IS

Number Title
RFC 1195 Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual Environments

RFC 2763 Dynamic Hostname Exchange Mechanism for IS-IS

RFC 2966 Domain-wide Prefix Distribution with Two-Level IS-IS


Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) Transient
RFC 3277
Blackhole Avoidance
Three-Way Handshake forIntermediate System to Intermediate System
RFC 3373
(IS-IS)Point-to-Point Adjacencies

Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) Cryptographic


RFC 3567
Authentication
Restart Signaling for Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-
RFC 3847
IS)

4-10 Version: B/1


4 Dynamic Routing Feature

4.5 BGP-4 Protocol


Basic Concept

BGP is an exterior gateway protocol. The ISO defines BGP to maintain the
individual interests of ISPs. BGP is short for Border Gateway Protocol and is
responsible for routing and forwarding among ISPs. Different from IGPs such as
OSPF and RIP, which focus on discovering and calculating routes, BGP focuses on
controlling route transmission and optimal route selection. The earliest released
three BGP versions are BGP-1 (RFC1105), BGP-2 (RFC1163), and BGP-3
(RFC1267). The currently used version is BGP-4 (RFC4271).

BGP has the following features:

u BGP is an inter-Autonomous System routing protocol.

u BGP transmits routing information among ASs.

u BGP is a distance-vector routing protocol and avoids routing loops in design.

u BGP uses TCP as its transport protocol.

u Supports CIDR.

u BGP provides abundant route filtering and routing policies.

u BGP delivers powerful routing capacity.

Protocol packet

BGP provides the following four types of packets:

u Open: Open message is used to establish initial BGP connections, including


the Hold-time and Router-id.

u Keepalive: KEEPALIVE messages may be transmitted periodically to ensure


that the connection is live. The default validity period of a session is 60
seconds.

u Update: BGP peers exchange Network Layer Reachability Information by


sending Update packets. Update packets carry feasible and unfeasible routes,
as well as routing attributes.

Version: B/1 4-11


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

u Notification: NOTIFICATION messages are sent in response to errors or


special conditions. If a connection encounters an error condition, a
NOTIFICATION message is sent and the BGP connection is closed.

BGP ECMP

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports BGP ECMP in load balancing. When
there are multiple links destined for the same address, BGP-enabled routers
calculate multiple routing entries and add them to the routing table. If a path fails
due to failure of a neighboring node, BGP ECMP allows data to be fast switched to
another path.

BGP Next-hop Separation

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the BGP next-hop separation and
separates the VPN routing table according to the far end nex-hop of the VPN router.
The original VPN routing table is divided into the remote next hop and direct routes
of the remote next hop, which reduces route iteration and accelerates route
convergence.

Use of BGP

The usage guidelines are as follows:

u When there are multiple routes, the BGP speaker uses the most preferred one.

u The BGP Speaker advertises to its peers only those routes that it uses itself.

u The BGP Speaker does not advertises the routes learns from IBGPs to its
IBGP peers to avoid intra-domain routes.

u The BGP Speaker determines whether to advertise the routes learned from
IBGPs to its EBGP peers based on the synchronization conditions between
IGP and BGP.

u After establishing a connection with a new peer, the BGP Speaker advertises
all its BGP routes to the peer.

4-12 Version: B/1


4 Dynamic Routing Feature

Typical Application

Figure 4-4 Typical Application of BGP Protocol

As shown in Figure 4-4, BGP is an IBGP when running within an AS, and is an
EBGP when running between ASs.

Reference

See Table 4-4 for more information about BGP.

Table 4-4 Applicable Standards of BGP

Number Title
RFC 1997 BGP Communities Attribute
RFC 1998 An Application of the BGP Community Attribute in Multi-home Routing

RFC 2439 BGP Route Flap Damping

RFC 2858 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4

RFC 2918 Route Refresh Capability for BGP-4

RFC 3107 Carrying Label Information in BGP-4

RFC 3392 Capabilities Advertisement with BGP-4

Version: B/1 4-13


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Table 4-4 Applicable Standards of BGP (Continued)

Number Title
RFC 4271 A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)

RFC 4456 BGP Route Reflection:An Alternative to Full Mesh Internal BGP (IBGP)

4.6 IPv6 Dynamic Routing Protocol


RIPng

RIP is a distance-vector IGP proposed by the IETF. RIP features simple


configuration, easy management, and easy operation, and is widely used on small-
and medium-sized IPv4 networks.

The IETF customizes RIP specific for IPv6 networks, that is, RIPng, with the
advantages of RIP inherited. RIPng provides routing functions on IPv6 networks
and is an important routing technology for IPv6 networks.

RIPng resembles RIP in the working mechanism. Compared with RIP, RIPng has
the following differences:

u Packet

The length, format, and transmission method of RIPng messages based on


IPv6 are different from those of RIPv2.

u Security authentication

RIPng does not provide authentication. The validity of RIPng messages is


ensured by using the security mechanism provided by IPv6. Therefore, the
authentication RTE in RIPv2 messages is removed from RIPng messages.

u Compatibility with network layer protocols

RIP can run on both IP and IPX networks whereas RIPng can run only on IPv6
networks.

OSPFv3

The IETF customizes OSPFv2 specific for IPv6 networks, that is, OSPFv3, with the
advantages of OSPFv2 inherited. OSPFv3 provides routing functions on IPv6
networks and is a mainstream routing technology for IPv6 networks.

4-14 Version: B/1


4 Dynamic Routing Feature

OSPFv3 is improved so that it can run on IPv6 networks and guide IPv6 packet
forwarding. In this way, OSPFv3 can run independent of network-layer protocols. It
can be compatible with various protocols after being customized, which enhances
the scalability of OSPFv3.

Compared with OSPFv2, OSPFv3 has the following differences:

u Runs based on links.

u Uses link-local addresses.

u Supports multi-instance multiplexing for links.

u Identifies neighbors uniquely with router IDs.

u Uses a different authentication mode.

u Supports stub areas.

u Uses different packets.

u Uses a different "Option" field.

u Uses different LSAs.

IS-IS for IPv6

IS-IS provides high scalability. It can discover and generate IPv6 routes to support
IPv6 network-layer protocols. The IS-IS protocol that supports IPv6 is also called the
IS-ISv6 dynamic routing protocol.

IS-ISv6 can process IPv6 routing information. Compared with IS-IS, IS-ISv6 has the
following differences:

u Adds CLVs.

4 Adds a reachable IPv6 CLV.

4 Adds an IPv6 interface address CLV.

4 Adds a CLV supporting protocols.

u Extends Hello packets for supporting IPv6 routing and establishes IPv6
adjacencies.

4 Adds a 8-bit NLPID whose value is 0x81 in the CLV supporting protocols to
indicate that the current router supports IS-ISv6.

Version: B/1 4-15


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

4 Adds an IPv6 interface address CLV that enables IS-ISv6 in Hello packets,
in which the Interface Address field is set to a local IPv6 link address of the
interface where IS-ISv6 is enabled.

BGP4+

Currently BGP-4 is capable of carrying routing information only for IPv4.

The IETF defines extensions to BGP4+ to enable it to carry routing information for
multiple Network Layer protocols. The related standard for the extensions is
RFC2858 MP-BGP (Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP4+).

The extensions are backward compatible - a router that supports the extensions can
interoperate with a router that doesn't support the extensions.

Reference

See Table 4-5 for more information about IPV6.

Table 4-5 Applicable standards of IPv6 Dynamic Routing Protocols

Number Title
RFC 2080 RIPng for IPv6

RFC 2545 Use of BGP-4 Multiprotocol Extensions for IPv6 Inter-Domain Routing

RFC 5308 Routing IPv6 with IS-IS

RFC 5340 Routing IPv6 with IS-IS

4.7 RSVP
Basic Concept

RSVP is a signaling protocol that runs at the network layer. It allows any router to
establish a reserved-bandwidth path. It ensures the QoS (Quality of Service) for
data flows on a network. Dynamic tunnels are established over RSVP.

RSVP has the following features:

4-16 Version: B/1


4 Dynamic Routing Feature

u Supports resource reservation. Resource requests are transmitted as RSVP


signaling between network nodes. After a network node receives a resource
request, the network node needs to reserve resources. The network node
checks the available resources and determines whether to accept the request
based on actual conditions. It can reject the request when resources are
insufficient.

u Supports priority setting. Different priorities can be set for requests. When
network resources are insufficient, resource requests with higher priority can
preempt the resources reserved for resource requests with lower priority.

Reference

See Table 4-6 for more information about RSVP.

Table 4-6 Applicable standards of RSVP

Number Title
RFC 2205 Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP)

RFC 2209 Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP)

RFC 3209 RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels


Encoding Long Options in the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
RFC 3396
(DHCPv4)

RFC 4090 Fast Reroute Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP Tunnels

4.8 LDP
Basic Concept

As a control protocol in MPLS, the LDP classifies FECs, distributes labels, transmits
label distribution results, and establishes and maintains LSPs. Dynamic tunnels and
VCs are established over LDP.

LDP defines the messages required during label distribution and related processing
processes. It is mainly used by LSRs to negotiate label distribution and establish
LSPs. LSRs combine the inbound label, next-hop node, and outbound label that
map a specific FEC to form an LSP that crosses the entire MPLS domain.

Reference

See Table 4-7 for more information about LDP.

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CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Table 4-7 Applicable Standards of LDP

Number Title
RFC 3035 MPLS using LDP and ATM VC Switching

RFC 3036 LDP Specification

4-18 Version: B/1


5 Product Architecture

The following introduces the product architecture of the CiTRANS R810 Series from
the aspects of the logical architecture, hardware architecture, and software
architecture of the system.

Logical Structure

Hardware Structure of the CiTRANS R810A-1A/1D

Hardware Structure of the CiTRANS R810B-1A/1D

Hardware Structure of the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D Series

Software Architecture

Version: B/1 5-1


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

5.1 Logical Structure

The CiTRANS R810 Series router's system structure consists of the management
plane, control plane, forwarding plane, and equipment functional modules.
Figure 5-1 shows each functional module.

Figure 5-1 System Architecture Diagram

Forwarding Plane

u The forwarding plane performs non-blocking switching.

u The forwarding plane identifies, terminates, encapsulates, unicasts, multicasts,


and discards service data.

u The forwarding plane collects performance statistics on packets.

Management Plane

u Through the management plane, users can perform the configuration


management, fault management, performance management, security
management, and storage of equipment management information.

u The management plane provides the interfaces such as the F interface.

Control Plane

The control plane processes routing protocols and MPLS and generates routing
tables, IP forwarding tables, and label forwarding tables.

5-2 Version: B/1


5 Product Architecture

Protection Module

The service protection functions of the system are as follows:

u Tunnel 1:1 protection.

u PW redundancy protection.

u FRR protection.

u LAG protection for Ethernet access links

OAM Module

The system supports the following OAM functions and standards.

u BFD protocol.

u MPLS OAM function.

Clock Module

The system supports the clock module function.

u The internal system clock is provided.

u Synchronous Ethernet function is supported.

u 1588v2 time synchronization protocol is supported.

5.2 Hardware Structure of the CiTRANS R810A-


1A/1D

The following introduces the code, appearance, front panel and technical
specifications of the CiTRANS R810A-1A/1D.

5.2.1 Code

The code of the clock and cross-connect routing unit used by the CiTRANS R810A-
1A/1D is 2201430.

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CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

5.2.2 Appearance and Dimensions

The dimensions (height × width × depth, mm) of the CiTRANS R810A-1A/1D are
43.5×230×236, and its appearance is as shown in Figure 5-2 and Figure 5-3.

Figure 5-2 Appearance of the CiTRANS R810A-1D

Figure 5-3 Appearance of the CiTRANS R810A-1A

The CiTRANS R810A-1A/1D can be installed on the desktop, wall or in other


equipment cabinet.

5-4 Version: B/1


5 Product Architecture

5.3 Hardware Structure of the CiTRANS R810B-


1A/1D

The following introduces the code, appearance, front panel and technical
specifications of the CiTRANS R810B-1A/1D.

5.3.1 Code

The code of the clock and cross-connect routing unit used by the CiTRANS R810B-
1A/1D is 2201431.

5.3.2 Appearance and Dimensions

The dimensions (height × width × depth, mm) of the CiTRANS R810B-1A/1D are
356×289×120, and its appearance is as shown in Figure 5-4.

Figure 5-4 Appearance of Outdoor Device

The CiTRANS R810B-1A/1D can be installed on the wall.

Version: B/1 5-5


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

5.4 Hardware Structure of the CiTRANS R810A-


2A/2D Series

The following introduces the code and appearance of the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D
series.

5.4.1 Code

The code of the clock and cross-connect routing unit used by the CiTRANS R810A-
2A/2D series is 2069306.

5.4.2 Appearance and Dimensions

The dimensions (height × width × depth, mm) of the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series
are 43.5×360×225, and the appearances of AC type and DC type are as shown in
Figure 5-5 and Figure 5-6.

Figure 5-5 Appearance of the CiTRANS R810A-2D-S/T

5-6 Version: B/1


5 Product Architecture

Figure 5-6 Appearance of the CiTRANS R810A-2A-S/T

The CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series can be installed on the desktop, wall or in other
equipment cabinet.

5.5 Software Architecture

The following introduces the modularized software architecture of the CiTRANS


R810 Series router and functions of modules.

5.5.1 Overview

The CiTRANS R810 Series router uses a modularized software architecture and
consists of the BMU, NMU, and OTNM2000.

The software components run on functional cards and the network management
system host respectively to complete configuration, management, and monitoring of
the equipment. The system software architecture is shown in Figure 5-7.

Version: B/1 5-7


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Figure 5-7 The System Software Architecture

5.5.2 Communication Protocols and Interfaces

The communication protocols and interfaces between the software modules of the
CiTRANS R810 Series router are described as follows:

u The OTNM2000 provides the Q interface and CORBA interface.

4 The OTNM2000 interconnects with the NMU through the Q interface over
a private protocol of FiberHome.

4 The OTNM2000 communicates with the upper-level management system


through the CORBA interface or the internal interface.

u NEs (EMUs) communicate with each other over the ESC, which is a physical
channel. The applicable communication protocol is IP.

5-8 Version: B/1


5 Product Architecture

u NMUs interconnect with BMUs through the bus in a subrack.

5.5.3 BMU Software

The BMU directly controls all functional circuits and supports the NMU in card
management. The BMU has the following functions:

u Collects and processes alarms, performance data, status information of the


equipment in real time.

u Requests configurations from the NMU when the equipment is powered on so


that the equipment can enter predefined states upon being powered on.

5.5.4 NMU Software

The NMU runs in an embedded real-time multi-task operating system. The NMU
manages all cards of NEs through a unified Ethernet bus based on the manager/
agent model. The functions of modules in the NMU are as follows:

u Management / agent application module

The management / agent application module includes the manager (M) and
agent (A). At the NE layer, an NE may be designated as agent (A) or manager/
agent (M/A) (providing management functions).

4 When an NE is designated as M/A, the NE not only serves as the agent of


itself but also manages other NE objects. The management functions of an
M/A NE focus on maintenance of remote objects.

4 When an NE is designated as A, the NE collects and processes


performance data, alarm or fault data, and status data of its OMUs, and
receives and responds to related commands issued by the manager. The
EML serves as a higher-level manager for managers at the NEL.

u Network communication protocol stack software

The communication protocol stack software is responsible for exchanging


management information between the network management system and NEs,
and between NEs.

u Real-time operating system

Version: B/1 5-9


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

The NMU uses an embedded real-time operating system to manage resources


in the NMU. The operating system assists the execution of programs,
schedules tasks, performs storage management, manages peripheral devices,
and implements communication among processes.

5.5.5 Network Management Software

The OTNM2000 is developed based on Windows 2003 Server. It supports multiple


mainstream Windows operating systems and consists of the data collection module,
data processing module, graphical user interface (GUI) management module and
database. The software architecture is shown in Figure 5-8.

Figure 5-8 The OTNM2000 Software Architecture

The modules are described as follows:

5-10 Version: B/1


5 Product Architecture

u Data collection module: collects the real-time status, alarms and performance
events of managed objects.

u Data processing module: analyzes and processes data and provides fault
management, performance management, configuration management, and
security management for the GUI management module.

u Database: stores the data processed by the data processing module.

u GUI management module: consists of two parts, configuration management


and monitoring management.

4 The configuration management performs logical configuration, physical


configuration, service configuration and area configuration.

4 The monitoring management is the core of the OTNM2000 and provides


service connection configuration, alarm query, performance query, and
fault handling.

Version: B/1 5-11


6 Service and Network

The following introduces the types of services provided by the CiTRANS R810
Series router and the network application for each type of service. It covers the
following topics:

Ethernet Service

CES Service

Network Capability

Version: B/1 6-1


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

6.1 Ethernet Service

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports multiple types of Ethernet services and
provides complete L2VPN / L3VPN solutions.

6.1.1 Service Type

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides three types of the L2VPN service.

u Ethernet Private Line, i.e., E-Line service

u Ethernet Private LAN, i.e., E-LAN service

u Ethernet Private Tree, i.e., E-Tree service

The CiTRANS R810 Series router also supports multiple L3VPN network modes.

6.1.2 Service Example

The following introduces the basic network of three L2VPN services provided by the
CiTRANS R810 Series router and the L3VPN basic network with examples.

Example of E-Line Service

Figure 6-1shows an example of the E-Line service provided by the CiTRANS R810
Series router.

Company X has two branches in cities A and C, company Y has two branches in
cities B and C, and company Z has two branches in cities A and B. The branches of
each of the three companies need to exchange data.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router can provide the private line service for three
companies. Service data of different companies are distinguished using different
VPWS tags, so that the requirements for communication and service data
separation can be met at the same time.

6-2 Version: B/1


6 Service and Network

Figure 6-1 Example of E-Line Service

Example of E-LAN Service

Figure 6-2shows an example of the E-LAN service provided by the CiTRANS R810
Series router.

The headquarters of Company K is in city C. Company K has the branch 1 deployed


in cities A and B, and branch 2 deployed in cities A, B, and C. Branches 1 and 2 has
no business contact and need to be isolated from each other. The headquarters
needs to communicate with the branches and access the Internet.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router is deployed to provide the E-LAN service for
company K. Service data of different branches are labeled with different VPLS tags.
In this way, data can be shared within a branch whereas data of different branches
is isolated. The Internet access data of the headquarters is isolated from the internal
service data through VPLS.

Version: B/1 6-3


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Figure 6-2 Example of E-LAN Service

Example of E-Tree Service

Figure 6-3shows an example of the E-Tree service provided by the CiTRANS R810
Series router. The E-Tree service is a type of multipoint-to-point bidirectional
convergence service.

In the example, a 3G network is constructed for a carrier and services of key clients
need to be aggregated and transmitted to the 3G core network. The FE services of
key clients are accessed on nodes 1, 3, 5, and 9. Multiple services between key
clients and the RNC are aggregated to the 3G core network through the E-Tree
service.

6-4 Version: B/1


6 Service and Network

Figure 6-3 Example of E-Tree Service

L3VPN Basic Network

Figure 6-4 shows the basic network for Ethernet L3VPN. Users in the same VPN
can communicate with each other but users in different VPNs cannot communicate
with each other.

Version: B/1 6-5


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Figure 6-4 Ethernet L3VPN Basic Network Diagram

6.1.3 Application Scenario

Figure 6-5 shows the application scenario of the CiTRANS R810 Series router in the
network. It is generally used at the access/edge node of packet MAN to bear the
unified transmission of IP-based multi-service.

6-6 Version: B/1


6 Service and Network

Figure 6-5 Application Scenario

6.2 CES Service

With the CES (Circuit Emulation Service) technology, the TDM circuit switched data
can be transparently transmitted in the packet transport network. The CiTRANS
R810A-2A/2D series supports emulation and transparent transmission of 16 E1
services.

6.2.1 Emulation Mode

The CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series supports CES in structured emulation mode.

In structured emulation mode:

u Can identify and process the frame structure and transmit signaling in CES
frames.

Version: B/1 6-7


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

u Can identify frame structure of CES service. It may not transmit idle timeslot
channels, but only extracts useful timeslots of CE devices from the E1 traffic
stream and then encapsulates them into PW packets for transmission.

u Can identify and transmit CAS and CCS in E1 traffic streams.

In unstructured emulation mode:

u Segments all CES services as bit streams and encapsulates them for
transmission over a PW tunnel.

u Can transparently transmit CES traffic data and synchronous timing information.
SAToP completely disregards any structure, and PEs have no need to interpret
the CES data or to participate in the CES signaling.

u Is a simple way for transparent transmission of PDH bit-streams.

6.2.2 Service Clock

The CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series provides multiple CES clock synchronization


solutions to ensure the transmission of the CES clock. Below are multiple clock
synchronization solutions.

u System clock recovery

u Line clock recovery

u Differential clock recovery

u Adaptive clock recovery

The following describes working principles of these clock synchronization solutions.

System Clock Recovery

In system clock recovery, the Tx end that generates CES signals and the Rx end
that extracts CES signals use the same network reference clock as the
synchronization signal source. Figure 6-6 shows the work principle of system clock
recovery.

6-8 Version: B/1


6 Service and Network

Figure 6-6 Implementation Principle Diagram of System Clock Recovery

Differential Clock Recovery

In differential clock recovery, the service Rx and Tx ends have the same public
timing reference signal. The Tx end packetizes the synchronization signal on the
service side and transmits the signal to the Rx end over the packet switched
network. The Rx end then recovers the synchronization signal based on the public
timing reference signal available on the Rx end. Figure 6-7 shows the working
principle of differential clock recovery.

Figure 6-7 Implementation Principle Diagram of Differential Clock Recovery

Version: B/1 6-9


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Adaptive Clock Recovery

In adaptive clock recovery, no identical reference clock is required. The Timing


packet transmitted by the Tx end contains the code of the service clock. The code is
represented as Sequence number or Timestamp. The Rx end then recovers the
clock by using the recovery algorithm based on the sequence number or timestamp.
Figure 6-8 shows the working principle of adaptive clock recovery.

Figure 6-8 Implementation Principle Diagram of Adaptive Clock Recovery

6.2.3 Application Scenario

The CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series implements CES services using the PWE3
technology.

CES services are mainly applied in radio services and enterprise private line
services. The CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D is connected to the 2G / 3G station or
enterprise private line through E1. The CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series then slices
TMD signals and encapsulates them into data packets. The packets are forwarded
via the PW to the peer end over the MAN, which serves as the transport network.
See Figure 6-9.

6-10 Version: B/1


6 Service and Network

Figure 6-9 Application Scenario of CES Service

6.3 Network Capability

The CiTRANS R810 Series router is applicable to the access/edge layer of the MAN
/ LAN and forms a PTN (packet transport network) with packet equipment at the
distribution layer and core layer. It integrates the packet processing and optical
transport capabilities and provides service interfaces such as FE, GE and E1 (for
the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series only). It helps build a new-generation BTS-
oriented and full-service metropolitan area transport network, which is applicable for
the IP-based service development for carriers and provides the following services:

u Provides base station data backhaul for 2G, 3G and future LTE networks.

u Provides stable bearing of voice, data and video services for key enterprise
users.

u Provides metropolitan area transport and access for broadband access


networks such as PON and Layer 2 / Layer 3 Ethernet.

6.3.1 Typical L2VPN Network

Below are types of Ethernet services supported by the CiTRANS R810 Series router.

Version: B/1 6-11


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

u E-Line Service

u E-LAN Service

u E-Tree Service

Table 6-1 shows the application scenarios of the Ethernet service provided by the
CiTRANS R810 Series router.

Table 6-1 Application Scenarios of Ethernet Services

Item Description

Access service E-Line Service E-LAN Service E-Tree Service


Networking mode Chain, mesh Mesh Tree
Service Type GE, FE GE, FE GE, FE

Network interface
GE GE GE
type

1. Services are accessed and


1. Services are
transparently transmitted 1. Services are accessed and
accessed and
over GE or FE. QoS is transparently transmitted
transparently
provided. over GE or FE. QoS is
transmitted over GE
2. Traffic statistics collected provided.
or FE. QoS is
based on the tunnel or PW 2. Traffic statistics collected
provided.
Service scenario are provided. based on the tunnel or PW
2. Traffic statistics
3. Ethernet OAM is provided. are provided.
collected based on
4. Layer 2 multicast and Layer 3. Ethernet OAM is provided.
the tunnel or PW are
2 broadcast suppressions 4. Layer 2 multicast and Layer
provided.
are supported. 2 broadcast suppressions
3. Ethernet OAM is
5. Isolation of user data is are supported.
provided.
supported.

Figure 6-10 shows the typical network of the CiTRANS R810 Series router in the E-
Line service.

6-12 Version: B/1


6 Service and Network

Figure 6-10 Typical Network of the CiTRANS R810 Series in the E-Line Service

Figure 6-11 shows the typical network of the CiTRANS R810 Series router in the E-
LAN service.

Figure 6-11 Typical Network of the CiTRANS R810 Series in the E-LAN Service

Figure 6-12 shows the typical network of the CiTRANS R810 Series router in the E-
Tree service.

Version: B/1 6-13


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Figure 6-12 Typical Network of the CiTRANS R810 Series in the E-Tree Service

6.3.2 Typical Network of CES Services

See Table 6-2 for the application scenario of the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series in
CES service.

Table 6-2 Application Scenario of CES Service

Item Description

Access service E1 service


Application mode Packet switched
Networking mode Ring, tree, mesh

Service Type E1
Network interface type E1
Service scenario The E1 emulates the CES.

6-14 Version: B/1


6 Service and Network

See Figure 6-13 for the typical network of the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D series in the
CES service.

Figure 6-13 Typical Network of the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D Series in the CES Service

6.3.3 Typical L3VPN Network

L3VPN is a routing-based VPN solution. The L3VPN technology is described in


ITEF RFC 2547.

MPLS L3VPN is also called BGP / MPLS VPN. The CiTRANS R810 Series router
supports the following L3VPN network modes:

u L3VPN basic network

u L3VPN Extranet network

u L3VPN Hub-Spoke network

Table 6-3 shows the application scenarios of the CiTRANS R810 Series router in
L3VPN service.

Table 6-3 Application Scenarios of Ethernet L3VPN Services

Item Description

Point-to-
Network mode Point-to-point Hub-Spoke
multipoint

Service Type GE, FE GE, FE GE, FE

Version: B/1 6-15


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Table 6-3 Application Scenarios of Ethernet L3VPN Services (Continued)

Item Description

Network
GE, FE GE, FE GE, FE
interface type

u The Hub PE can exchange


u Users in the same VPN can
routes with all Spoke PEs.
forward traffic to each other but
u Spoke nodes communicate with
cannot communicate with users
each other only through the Hub
outside this VPN.
node.
u Services are accessed and
u Services are accessed and
transparently transmitted over
transparently transmitted over
GE or FE. QoS is provided.
GE or FE. QoS is provided.
u Traffic statistics collected based
Service u Traffic statistics collected based
on the tunnel or PW are
scenario on the tunnel or PW are
provided.
provided.
u Ethernet OAM and MPLS-TP
u Ethernet OAM and MPLS-TP
OAM are supported.
OAM are supported.
u Isolation of user data is
u Isolation of user data is
supported.
supported.
u FRR protection is supported.
u FRR protection is supported.
u Routing and forwarding are
u Routing and forwarding are
supported.
supported.

L3VPN Basic Network

Figure 6-14 shows the basic network for Ethernet L3VPN. Users in the same VPN
can communicate with each other but users in different VPNs cannot communicate
with each other.

6-16 Version: B/1


6 Service and Network

Figure 6-14 Ethernet L3VPN Basic Network Diagram

L3VPN Extranet Network

Figure 6-15 shows the point-to-multipoint network for Ethernet L3VPN. This network
mode has the following features:

u Users in the same VPN can communicate with each other. Users in different
VPNs cannot communicate with each other.

u A CE can belong to multiple VPNs. A user network segment belonging to a


VPN can communicate with other users in this VPN.

u A CE can simultaneously connect to multiple PEs.

Version: B/1 6-17


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Figure 6-15 Ethernet L3VPN Extranet Network Diagram

L3VPN Hub-Spoke Network

Figure 6-16 shows the network for L3VPN Hub-Spoke. After central access control
devices are configured, the monitoring and filtering functions for the devices
accessing each other at both ends of a VPN can be implemented.

Figure 6-16 Ethernet L3VPN Hub-Spoke Network Diagram

6-18 Version: B/1


6 Service and Network

6.3.4 L2/L3 Hybrid Network

Figure 6-17 L2/L3 Hybrid Network Diagram

As shown in Figure 6-17, the L2VPN service in the access and distribution network
is connected with the L3VPN routing and forwarding service in the MAN IP
backbone network by the L2/L3 bridge technology. This presents an inevitable
evolution to the IP-based network.

The L2/L3 hybrid networking provides the overall and complete service guarantee
capability, configures PW redundancy protection and LSP1:1 protection for the
L2VPN service and configures VPN FRR protection for the L3VPN service. The L2/
L3 hybrid network implements the service fast switching using the BFD fault
detection mechanism.

Version: B/1 6-19


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

6.3.5 MS-PW Network

The PWE3 technology becomes mature recently. The technology-related drafts are
standardized and become formal RFC documents one after another and are widely
applied in the carrier network. The MS-PW network resolves the defects that the
network mode of the current PWE3 is simple and lacks flexibility. Multi-Segment
Pseudo-Wires are set up between two CiTRANS R810 Series routers by the MS-
PW technology, so as to cross networks in different types and implement the correct
routing and forwarding among equipment in networks in different types.

As shown in Figure 6-18, Tunnels of different signaling are connected via the
switching PE to complete the network deployment. The switching PE supports
multiple Tunnel connections which include the dynamic RSVP Tunnel and static
MPLS Tunnel.

Figure 6-18 MS-PW Network Diagram

6-20 Version: B/1


6 Service and Network

6.3.6 Hierarchical VPLS Network

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports the hierarchical VPLS network. As
shown in Figure 6-19, Company X and Y have multiple branches and need to set up
enterprise network for branches. The hierarchical VPLS networking can implement
the interconnection of enterprise networks in different places. The hierarchical VPLS
networking saves the signaling overhead in the network and enhances the
scalability of the VPLS network deployment.

Figure 6-19 Hierarchical VPLS Network Diagram

Version: B/1 6-21


7 Protection Implementation

As telecommunication services develop and transport networks become


increasingly large in scale, network stability, security, and reliability become the
concern in the construction and operation of transport networks. These elements
also become the hot spots in competition among carriers.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides abundant protection functions to ensure
normal service operation. The following introduces the protection mechanisms of
the CiTRANS R810 Series router and includes these contents:

Network-Level Protection

Network Management Information Protection

Version: B/1 7-1


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

7.1 Network-Level Protection

The following introduces types and the implementation mode of network-level


protection offered by the CiTRANS R810 Series router.

7.1.1 1:1 Protection for Tunnels

Introduction

The 1:1 protection for tunnels is used to protect services in the LSP tunnel so that
services are not interrupted when the LSP is interrupted and the system
performance can be ensured.

Protection Principle

In the 1:1 protection for tunnels, the standby Tunnel is used to protect services
transmitted over the active Tunnel. The service is dual-fed and single-received.
Under normal condition services are transmitted over the active Tunnel. When the
active Tunnel is faulty, services are switched over to the standby Tunnel, so as to
ensure the normal service transmission.

APS used for 1:1 protection for tunnels is transmitted in the standby tunnel. The
equipment on both ends of the tunnel decide whether to switch services based on
the protocol status and switching status.

Note:

The 1:1 protection for tunnels is configured only on Node A and Node B
to protect the services transmitted between them, without caring about
service paths.

Figure 7-1 shows the protection principle of 1:1 protection for tunnels.

7-2 Version: B/1


7 Protection Implementation

Figure 7-1 Tunnel 1:1 Protection

Note:

The standby Tunnel can be used to transmit extra services. When


switchover is triggered after the active tunnel fails, extra service is
interrupted. After the active tunnel restores, the extra service also
restores.

Switching Trigger Condition

u An intermediate node is disconnected with the power.

u The active tunnel fails.

u The switchover command is manually issued.

Protection Parameter

Table 7-1describes protection parameters for 1:1 protection of tunnels.

Version: B/1 7-3


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Table 7-1 Parameters of Tunnel 1: 1 Protection

Item Description

Switchover type 1:1 Protection for Tunnels


Revert mode Revertive or non-revertive
Switchover protocol BFD for Tunnel, OAM
Switchover time (ms) ≤50
Hold-off time (ms) 0 to 255

7.1.2 PW Redundancy Protection

Introduction

PW redundancy protection is similar to the 1:1 protection for tunnels except that the
former targets at PW protection based on BFD for PW and the later focuses on
tunnel protection based on BFD for Tunnel.

Protection Principle

The PW redundancy protection protects services transmitted in the active PW via


the standby PW and services are single-fed and single-received. Below are
switchover and restoration processes.

1. After detecting faults in the working path, the sink NE performs a switching
promptly and transmits a switching request to the source NE.

2. After the source NE receives the switching request, services are switched to
the standby PW channel. The source NE transmits a confirmation message
and completes the switching.

3. After detecting the working path restoring, the sink NE transmits a switching
request to the source NE and services are switched to the working path.

4. After the source NE receives the switching request, services are switched to
the working channel. The source NE transmits a confirmation message and
completes the restoration.

Switching Trigger Condition

u BFD For PW detects faults.

u The switchover command is manually issued.

7-4 Version: B/1


7 Protection Implementation

Protection Parameter

Table 7-2 describes protection parameters for PW redundancy protection.

Table 7-2 Parameters of PW Redundancy Protection

Item Description

Switchover type PW redundancy protection

Revert mode Revertive or non-revertive


Switchover protocol BFD For PW, OAM
Switchover time (ms) ≤50
Hold-off time (ms) 0 to 255

7.1.3 MPLS TE FRR Protection

Introduction

MPLS TE FRR is a technology for implementing partial network protection. MPLS


TE FRR is a link and node protection mechanism in MPLS TE. When a link or node
fails, the LSP that is configured with FRR automatically switches over data to the
protection link.

MPLS TE FRR features quick response and timely switchover and ensures smooth
migration of service data without service interruption. The ingress node of the LSP
attempts to find a new path for re-establishing an LSP and switches over service
data to the new LSP. Before a new LSP is established, service data is forwarded
along the protection path.

Protection Principle

The components of the MPLS TE system are involved in establishing the FRR LSP
and working LSP. MPLS TE FRR is implemented based on RSVP TE and complies
with RFC 3209 and RFC 4090. Below are two modes to implement MPLS TE FRR.

u Detour mode (one-to-one backup)

In detour mode, a protection path is set up for each protected LSP. The
protection path is called Detour LSP.

u Bypass mode (facility backup)

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CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

In bypass mode, a single protection path is set up for multiple protected LSPs.
The protection path is called Bypass LSP.

In the network shown in Figure 7-2, when the link between RTB→RTC fails or
node RTC fails, data on the primary LSP is switched to the Bypass LSP. The
headers of packets transmitted from RTB use the labels allocated by RTF for
RTB and the outgoing label of RTC is encapsulated in the label stack.

On the path RTB→RTF→RTD, the LSP uses two labels. After RTD receives
packets and the label allocated by RTD for RTF is displayed, the label allocated
by RTD for RTC is still used in forwarding.

Figure 7-2 FRR in the Bypass Mode

In detour mode, each LSP is protected independently and therefore the overhead is
high. In actual service, the bypass mode is widely used.

Switching Trigger Condition

u An intermediate node is disconnected with the power.

u The working LSP fails.

u The switchover command is manually issued.

7.1.4 VPN FRR Protection

Introduction

VPN FRR protection reduces route convergence time by presetting the active next
hop and standby next hop on the PE. In this way, when the PE node fails on the CE
dual-homing network, end-to-end fast convergence of services can be implemented.

7-6 Version: B/1


7 Protection Implementation

Protection Principle

Figure 7-3 Schematic Diagram of VPN FRR Protection

As shown in Figure 7-3, PE A sets PE B to the active next hop and sets PE C to the
standby next hop. Under normal condition the access path form CE A to CE B is CE
A→PE A→PE B→CE B. After the PE node becomes unreachable when PE B or an
external tunnel of the active route fails, PE A uses the standby route for forwarding.
The access path from CE A to CE B is CE A→PE A→PE C→CE B.

Switching Trigger Condition

u The active PE fails.

u An external tunnel fails.

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CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

7.1.5 IP FRR Protection

Introduction

After a link fails, route reconvergence often takes several seconds, during which
services are interrupted. IP FRR protection fills in the time gap of route convergence
by setting a backup link so that switching time for service protection can be
shortened to less than 50ms.

Protection Principle

IP FRR protection involves primary path, sub-optimal path and backup path.

u Primary path is the optimum path. When the network is stable and routes are
converged, traffic is forwarded on the primary path.

u Sub-optimal path is a path whose routing cost is greater than that of the primary
path. When the primary path fails, routes are converged on the sub-optimal
path.

u Backup path is the designated path of the next hop.

See Figure 7-4 for the working principle of IP FRR protection.

Figure 7-4 Schematic Diagram of IP FRR Protection

7-8 Version: B/1


7 Protection Implementation

Under normal condition services are forwarded on the primary path between RTA
and RTB. When the primary path fails, the protection process is as follows:

1. Calculation of route convergence starts after BDF alarm is detected on the


primary path.

2. RTA switches the path and data message is redirected to the backup path
between RTA and RTD for forwarding.

3. Calculation of route convergence is completed. Data message is redirected to


the sub-optimal path between RTA and RTC for forwarding according to the
new routing table.

4. Route re-convergence starts after BFD detects that primary path restores and
data message is re-switched to the restored primary path for forwarding.

Note:

If the sub-optimal path is the same as the preset backup path, data
message redirection is not performed in step 3.

IP FRR protection enables services to be switched over to the preset backup path
after the primary path fails to fill in the route convergence time gap and ensure
services are not interrupted.

Switching Trigger Condition

u The active PE fails.

u The BFD alarm is detected on the primary path.

Version: B/1 7-9


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

7.1.6 IP FRR Protection

Introduction

When LDP is in the Downstream Unsolicited, ordered label control and liberal label
retention mode, the LDP FRR protection sets up a standby LSP by generating a
label forwarding table entry for the label map of the designated backup interface or
backup next-hop. When the network runs normally, the active LSP forwards; when
the active LSP fails, the standby LSP forwards. When the active LSP fails, the LDP
FRR can guarantee none stop forwarding of services before the network
convergence.

Protection Principle

When the LDP is in the DU (Downstream Unsolicited), ordered label control and
liberal label retention mode, as for any types of FECs (Forwarding Equivalence
Class), label distribution router saves all received label map but only label map
transmitted from the next-hop of the corresponding router of the FEC can generate
label forwarding table entries.

With the aid of LDP, the LDP FRR also generates a label forwarding table entry for
the designated backup interface or backup next-hop label map, the equal of setting
up a standby LSP when the standby label is saved. The label distribution router can
respond promptly to router changes and switch to the standby label, so as to
complete the switching protection when the network faults occur.

Switching Trigger Condition

The outgoing interface of LSP detects the BFD fault.

7.2 Network Management Information Protection


Introduction

On the transport network, network management information is transmitted over the


supervisory channel. Usually the supervisory channel and the main channel are the
same physical channel. When the main channel fails, the supervisory channel also
fails. Therefore, a protection channel must be provided for transmitting network
management information.

7-10 Version: B/1


7 Protection Implementation

On a ring network, when a transmission segment such as the optical fiber fails,
network management information is automatically transmitted over the supervisory
channel in the other direction. This does not affect network management. Figure 7-5
shows the automatic backup of network management information channels in a ring
network.

Figure 7-5 Backing up Network Management Information Channel of Ring Network


(Transmission of a Section Fails)

If both ends of a site on an optical fiber segment fail, or an optical fiber segment in a
point-to-point network or chain network fails, the supervisory channels for network
management information also fail. The network administrator cannot obtain
information about failed sites or operate these sites. To avoid such problems, a
protection channel must be deployed for network management information.

Function Implementation

The CiTRANS R810 Series router can provide a protection channel for network
management information through the data communication network. Between two
NEs to be protected, a router is configured and connected to the data
communication network to establish a protection channel. When the network runs
properly, network management information is transmitted over the main channel.
See Figure 7-6.

Version: B/1 7-11


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Figure 7-6 Backing up Network Management Information Channel (Normal)

When the main channel becomes faulty, the NE automatically switches over the
network management information to the protection channel. This ensures that the
network management system monitors the entire network. The switchover process
is completed automatically without manual intervention. Figure 7-7 shows backup of
network management channels.

Figure 7-7 Backing up Network Management Information Channel (Active Channel Fails)

Note:

In network planning, it is recommended that the protection channel and


main channel use different physical channels.

7-12 Version: B/1


8 Security Management

Security management involves authenticating operators that access the network


management system to prevent unauthorized operators from accessing network
resources and the equipment. The following introduces the security management of
the network management system of the CiTRANS R810 Series and includes the
following contents:

Network Security Protection

Security Protection for the OTNM2000

Version: B/1 8-1


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

8.1 Network Security Protection

The following introduces the network security protocols and functions supported by
the CiTRANS R810 Series router.

8.1.1 ACL

An ACL is a list of permit and reject statements. It applies to addresses and upper-
level protocols. ACLs are used to control traffic passing a network.

An ACL performs the following tasks:

u Limits traffic on a network to improve the network performance.

u Provides flow control.

u Ensures security for basic network access.

u Determines which types of traffic is to be forwarded and blocked on interfaces.

u Determines the network zones that a client can access.

u Shields hosts to allow or reject access to network services.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides ACLs using a standard quintuple
(source IP address, destination IP address, IP protocol, source port, and destination
port), and supports access control based on MAC addresses (including the source
and destination MAC addresses). ACLs can be configured to take effect in the entire
equipment or just on its ports.

8.1.2 Traffic Policing

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports hierarchical CAR functions. It uses two
coloring modes: color-blind and color-aware.

Traffic Bandwidth Control

By default, the principle of traffic bandwidth control discards red packets and allows
yellow and green packets to pass.

The traffic control functions of the equipment are described as follows:

8-2 Version: B/1


8 Security Management

u Measures traffic by interface or sub-interface.

u Measures packets in user flow queues, including the number of forwarded


packets, number of forwarded bytes, and number of discarded packets.
Statistics of packets of eight priorities are collected.

u Measures the number of forwarded packets, number of forwarded bytes, and


number of discarded packets by user group.

u Measures the number of forwarded packets, number of forwarded bytes, and


number of discarded packets by queue on ports. Statistics of packets of eight
priorities are collected.

u Measures the inbound and outbound traffic of access users and tunnels when
the CiTRANS R810 Series router functions as a PE on the L2VPN and L3VPN.

u Traffic statistics of all PWs in tunnels.

Service Priority Mapping

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports DiffServ. It completely implements PHB
defined in the standard on the MPLS network so that carriers can provide services
of differentiated QoS levels for users.

During data forwarding, the CiTRANS R810 Series router maps user priorities and
PW priorities carried in received packets to PHBs, and PHBs in forwarded packets
to PW or LSP priorities.

The CiTRANS R810 Series router supports setting PHBs for VPWSs, VPWS flows,
VPLS-VSs, and LAN ports emulated over VPLS. An existing mapping table
(mapping between PHBs and PW priorities) can be used. Also, a PHB service level
can be designated.

8.1.3 Attack Defense

The CiTRANS R810 Series router provides powerful attack defense capabilities.

Queue Buffer Management

When network congestion occurs or worsens, the CiTRANS R810 Series router
employs certain queue buffering management policies to preferentially ensure the
QoS of services with high priorities.

Version: B/1 8-3


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

The equipment supports two types of queue buffering management policies.

u Tail drop

When the queue is filled to its maximum capacity, the newly arriving packets
are dropped until the queue has enough room to accept inbound traffic.

u WRED

4 When the number of packets stored in the output buffer area does not
exceed the threshold specified by Start, no packet is discarded.

4 When the number of packets stored in the output buffer area exceeds the
threshold specified by End, all packets are discarded.

4 When the number of packets stored in the output buffer area is between
the START and the END, all packets face a probability of being dropped
based on an average-queue-length function.

Queue Scheduling

When congestion occurs, the CiTRANS R810 Series router uses different queue
scheduling policies to guarantee the QoS of services with high priority.

The equipment supports the following two queue scheduling modes.

u SP queue scheduling

Packets in queues are scheduled based on the queue priority. In this case,
packets in a lower-priority queue are sent only when those in higher-priority
queues are all sent.

u WFQ queue scheduling

Queues are fairly scheduled based on their weights assigned. Queues with
higher priority are assigned higher weights and therefore occupy more
bandwidth. Similarly, queues with lower priority are assigned lower weights and
therefore occupy less bandwidth.

Port Rate Limiting

Rates of the SYS/Line ports of the equipment can be limited to defend passing
traffic attacks.

8-4 Version: B/1


8 Security Management

Prevention of Malformed Packets

The maximum transmission unit (MTU) is configured to control the size of inbound
packets.

u Packets that contain less than 64 bytes are identified as fragments and
therefore are discarded. Local or remote collision fragments and short packets
with invalid FCSs are such a type of packet.

u Packets that contain invalid FCSs and more bytes than the value defined by the
MTU (1518 in general) are identified as Jabber packets and therefore are
discarded.

Broadcast, Multicast, and Flooding Packet Suppression

The equipment supports suppression of broadcast, multicast, and flooding packets.


You can choose to enable traffic suppression for three types of packets. Also, you
can set the amount of each type of traffic that is allowed to pass within a specified
period of time.

The equipment provides a policy for preventing distributed DoS attacks from
overspreading.

Prevention of IP Address Spoofing

The equipment supports the unicast reverse path forwarding (URPF) function. That
is, it checks whether the source IP address of a packet matches the source
interface based on the forwarding information base (FIB). If not, it discards the
packet.

8.2 Security Protection for the OTNM2000

The following introduces the security protection functions provided by the CiTRANS
R810 Series router for the network management system.

Version: B/1 8-5


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

8.2.1 Access Control

Access control involves user registration and login management, management area
division, access time restriction, and remote access management. Access control
aims to prevent unauthorized users from accessing network resources, including
the OTNM2000.

u To log in to the OTNM2000, an operator must enter the user name and
password. After the system confirms the user name and password, the
operator can finally log in to the system. The purpose of the access control is to
check whether an operator is an authorized user and ensure that only
authorized operators can log in to the OTNM2000.

u The managed devices are distributed in different areas, and operators are
granted permission based on management area and management function.
Only the authorized operators can access the specified area and can play the
management role only in the authorized area. Areas can be added and
modified as required.

u The access time of users can be set as required. For example, operators are
allowed to log in to the OTNM2000 at specified time periods.

u The OTNM2000 supports user management, including adding, modifying, and


deleting users. New users can be registered, and existing users can be
modified or deleted.

8.2.2 User Level and Permission Management

To prevent unauthorized operations, the OTNM2000 assigns different operation


permission to users of different levels. There are four levels of users. Users of
different levels have different management permission. Each user is assigned
proper management permission. A user of a higher level has all authorities of a user
of a lower level.

8-6 Version: B/1


8 Security Management

Advanced user

The system administrator is an advanced user and has permission to configure and
modify network resources. The system administrator manages the OTNM2000, and
can perform security management operations including controlling the network,
setting passwords for users, adding, modifying or deleting users, and performing log
management.

u Add, modify (user name and password), and delete lower-level users, and save
project configuration data.

u View and delete logs.

u Deletes alarm records.

u Grant the management scope of a user.

u Deletes historical performance records.

Intermediate user

Intermediate users are system maintenance users responsible for system routine
maintenance. They can add or delete users of a lower level and can access and
back up data in the management information library. Intermediate users are entitled
to access the connection screen.

u Maintain the OTNM2000, perform service configuration for the equipment, and
deliver commands from the OTNM2000 to the equipment.

u Access and back up data in the database, including alarms, performance data,
log reports, and documents of lower-level users.

u Set alarm filter, performance shielding, and performance threshold.

Operational user

Operational user is system operation user. They can only monitor the alarm status
of the system, observe and view performance monitoring results. Operational user
can monitor various detection results, including viewing card configuration data and
active configuration data.

Version: B/1 8-7


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Limited user

Limited user can monitor the alarm status of the system, observe and browse
performance monitoring results, and view reports. Limited user can only read data
and cannot access sensitive configuration data.

u Monitor alarms, performance, and status of the system, observe and browse
performance results. Handle alarms, such as alarm confirmation.

u Read and browse data rather than perform any operations on the OTNM2000.

8.2.3 Data Security

The security mechanism enables the OTNM2000 to ensure the data security, data
integrity and confidentiality and implement database security management.

u Data integrity: Data is transmitted to the destination without corruption or loss.


Data at a specific time can be backed up completely and used for data
restoration when necessary.

u Data confidentiality: Data is protected and unauthorized users can not obtain
the data.

u Database security management: Data or files in the database can be backed


up to peripheral storage devices to ensure security of the OTNM2000.

8.2.4 Log Management

Logs are operation records. After a security event occurs, logs can be used to trace
and inspect the event to find out the cause of the system security breach.

Logs automatically record login activities and key operations of users. Log
management supports the following functions:

u Records operator identities, login time, login location, operation type and
operation result.

u Reads, queries, backs up and deletes operation logs.

8-8 Version: B/1


9 Technical Specifications

The following introduces various technical specifications of the CiTRANS R810


Series router.

Technical Specifications of Integrated Equipment

System Performance Specifications

Interface Performance Specifications

Clock Specifications

Environmental Requirement

Standard

Version: B/1 9-1


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

9.1 Technical Specifications of Integrated


Equipment

Table 9-1 shows the technical specifications of the CiTRANS R810 Series router.

Table 9-1 Technical Specifications

Power
Dimensions (Height × Voltage Rated
Product Type Weight (kg) consump-
Width × Depth, mm) Range (V) Current (A)
tion (W)

CiTRANS R810A-1D 43.5×230×236 1.55 26 -40 to -58 0.7


CiTRANS R810A-1A 43.5×230×236 1.55 26 100 to 240 0.45
CiTRANS R810B-1D 356×289×120 4.3 26 -40 to -58 0.7
CiTRANS R810B-1A 356×289×120 4.3 26 100 to 240 0.45
CiTRANS R810A-2D-
43.5×360×225 2.28 28.5 -40 to -58 0.8
S
CiTRANS R810A-2A-
43.5×360×225 2.3 29 100 to 240 0.55
S
CiTRANS R810A-2D-
43.5×360×225 2.28 28.5 -40 to -58 0.8
T
CiTRANS R810A-2A-
43.5×360×225 2.3 29 100 to 240 0.55
T

9.2 System Performance Specifications

See Table 9-2 and Table 9-3 for the system performance specifications of the
CiTRANS R810 Series router.

Table 9-2 System Performance Specifications of the CiTRANS R810A/R810B-1A/1D

Item Description

Packet loss
Ethernet service No packet loss in 24 hours
characteristic
System switching capability 8G
Packet Forwarding Rate 11.904Mpps

Quantity of supported LSPs 128


Quantity of supported VPWS services 256
Quantity of supported VPLS services 32

MAC address capacity 32K

9-2 Version: B/1


9 Technical Specifications

Table 9-2 System Performance Specifications of the CiTRANS R810A/R810B-1A/1D


(Continued)

Item Description

Quantity of supported VRFs 32


Tunnel 1:1 protection <50 ms
PW redundancy
<50 ms
protection

Protection switching MPLS TE FRR


< 50ms
time protection

VPN FRR protection < 50ms


IP FRR Protection < 50ms
IP FRR Protection <50 ms
Whether automatic network management is
Yes
supported

Table 9-3 System Performance Specifications of the CiTRANS R810A-2A/2D Series

Item Description

Bit error / packet loss Ethernet service No packet loss in 24 hours


characteristic E1 service No bit errors in 24 hours
Packet Forwarding Rate 11.904Mpps

System switching capability 8G


Quantity of supported LSPs 500
Quantity of supported VPWS services 500
Quantity of supported VPLS services 60
MAC address capacity 5K
Quantity of supported VRFs 128
Tunnel 1:1
<50 ms
protection

PW redundancy
<50 ms
Protection switching protection
time VPN FRR
< 50ms
protection

IP FRR Protection < 50ms


IP FRR Protection <50 ms
Whether automatic network management
Yes
is supported

Version: B/1 9-3


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

9.3 Interface Performance Specifications

The following introduces the interface specifications of the CiTRANS R810 Series
router.

9.3.1 GE Interface Specifications

See Table 9-4 for the GE optical interface specifications of the CiTRANS R810
Series router.

Table 9-4 GE Optical Interface Specifications

Item Specification

Optical 1000BASE- 1000BASE- 1000BASE- 1000BASE- 1000BASE-


interface type SX LX VX ZX1 ZX2
Source type MLM MLM SLM SLM SLM
Target
0.55 10 40 80 100km
distance (km)

Mean
launched -9.5 to 0 -8 to -3 -2 to 3 -2 to 5 -2 to 5
power (dBm)

Central
wavelength 770 to 860 1270 to 1355 1275 to 1350 1500 to 1580 1500 to 1580
(nm)

Overload
optical power 0 -3 -3 -3 -9
(dBm)

Receiving
sensitivity -17 -20 -23 -23 -31
(dBm)

Minimum
extinction 9 9 9 9 9
ratio (dB)

9.3.2 FE Interface Specifications

See Table 9-5 for the FE optical interface specifications of the CiTRANS R810
Series router.

9-4 Version: B/1


9 Technical Specifications

Table 9-5 FE Optical Interface Specifications

Item Specification

Optical interface type 100BASE-FX 100BASE-FX 100BASE-FX


Target distance (km) 15 40 80
Source type SLM SLM SLM
Mean launched power
-14 to -8 -4 to 0 -4 to 0
(dBm)

Central wavelength (nm) 1265 to 1360 1265 to 1360 1480 to 1580


Overload optical power
-8 -10 -10
(dBm)

Receiving sensitivity (dBm) -31 -37 -37


Minimum extinction ratio
8.5 10.5 10.5
(dB)

9.3.3 E1 Interface Specifications

Table 9-6lists the E1 interface specifications.

Table 9-6 E1 Interface Specifications

Item Specification

Nominal bit rate 2048kbit/s


Bit rate accuracy ±50ppm (±102.4bit/s)

Code HDB3
All marks of a valid signal must conform with the mask in
Pulse type (nominal rectangular)
ITU-T Rec. G.703 irrespective of the sign.

Pair(s) in each direction One coaxial pair One symmetrical pair

Test load impedance (Ω) 75 120


Nominal peak voltage of a mark
2.37 3
(pulse) (V)

Peak voltage of a space (no pulse)


0±0.237 0±0.3
(V)

Nominal pulse width (ns) 244


Ratio of the amplitudes of positive
and negative pulses at the center of 0.95 to 1.05
a pulse interval

Version: B/1 9-5


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Table 9-6 E1 Interface Specifications (Continued)

Item Specification

Ratio of the widths of positive and


negative pulses at the nominal half 0.95 to 1.05
amplitude

Jitter at input and output interfaces ITU-T Rec. G.823 compliant

Frequency range:
Return loss at the output port (51kHz to 102kHz)≥6dB
(102kHz to 3072kHz)≥8dB

Frequency range:
(51kHz to 102kHz)≥12dB
Return loss at the input port
(102kHz to 2048kHz)≥18dB
(2048kHz to 3072kHz)≥14dB

Allowed input attenuation 0 to 6 dB (1024 kHz)

9.4 Clock Specifications


Clock Interface Specifications

The CiTRANS R810A provides input and output interfaces for external clocks.
Table 9-7 lists the clock interface specifications.

Table 9-7 Clock Interface Specifications

Clock Type Description

One 75 Ω 2048 kbit/s or 2048 kHz input


External clock synchronization source
One 120 Ω 2048 kbit/s or 2048 kHz input

One 75 Ω 2048 kbit/s or 2048 kHz output


Synchronous output clock
One 120 Ω 2048 kbit/s or 2048 kHz output

One TOD time input


External time synchronization source
One PPS time input

One TOD time output


Synchronous output time
One PPS time output

Timing and Synchronization Performance

u Frequency accuracy

The output frequency of the free-running clock is smaller than ±4.6×10-6.

9-6 Version: B/1


9 Technical Specifications

u Pull-in range and pull-out range

The minimum pull-in and pull-out range is ±4.6×10-6.

u Drift in locked mode

Table 9-8 and Table 9-9 describe the clock drift in locked mode.
Table 9-8 Drift at Constant Temperature (MTIE)

MTIE Requirement Interval of Observation (t: s)

40ns 0.1<t≤1
0.1
40t ns 1<t≤100
0.2
25.25t ns 100<t≤1000

Table 9-9 Drift at Constant Temperature (TDEV)

TDEV Requirement Interval of Observation (t: s)

3.2ns 0.1<t≤25
0.5
0.64t ns 25<t≤100
6.4ns 100<t≤1000

9.5 Environmental Requirement

The following introduces the environment requirements of the CiTRANS R810


Series router in storage, transportation, and operation respectively.

9.5.1 Storage Environment

The storage environment requirements of the CiTRANS R810 Series router are as
follows:

u Avoid water seeper and leakage in the storage place.

u Keep the package intact.

u Avoid direct sunlight for the CiTRANS R810A.

u Provide comprehensive rodent-proofing devices at location where rodents


(such as rats) travel.

Version: B/1 9-7


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

9.5.2 Operating Environment

The operating environment requirements of the CiTRANS R810 Series router are as
follows:

u Ground bearing of the equipment room: >600kg/m2.

u No corrosive and solvent gas, and no dust in the atmosphere; no strong


electromagnetic field nearby.

u Power supply can provide steady voltage, and accumulators of certain


capacitance are equipped.

u The grounding resistance should be less than 10 Ω.

u Temperature and relative humidity requirements:

4 Operating temperature: -20 to 50 ℃.

4 Operating humidity for guaranteed performance: 5% to 85% (+30℃).

4 Operating humidity: 5% to 90% (+30℃).

u Provide comprehensive rodent-proofing devices at location where rodents


(such as rats) travel.

9.5.3 Transport Environment

The transport environment requirements of the CiTRANS R810 Series router are as
follows:

u The equipment set is covered with a plastic film, and its top, middle and bottom
parts are wrapped with shock proof packing foam. A wooden case is used for
outside package.

u The equipment can be transported by vehicle, train, ship or plane.

u The transport temperature must range from -20℃ to 60℃.

u Avoid severe collision, fall, rain, and direct sunlight.

9-8 Version: B/1


9 Technical Specifications

9.6 Standard

The following introduces the standards that the CiTRANS R810 Series router
complies with.

9.6.1 EMC Standard

The CiTRANS R810 Series router complies with the EMC standards listed in
Table 9-10.

Table 9-10 EMC Standards

Number Title
Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM);
ETSI EN 300 386 Telecommunication network equipment; Electromagnetic Compatibility
(EMC) requirements

Information technology equipment - Radio disturbance characteristics -


EN 55022
Limits and methods of measurement
Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics - Limits
EN55024
and methods of measurement
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-2: Electrostatic discharge
EN 61000-4-2
immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-3: Testing and


EN 61000-4-3 measurement techniques-Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic
field immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-4: Testing and


EN 61000-4-4
measurement techniques-Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part4-5: Testing and


EN 61000-4-5
measurement techniques-Surge immunity test

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-6: Testing and


EN 61000-4-6 measurement techniques-Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced
by radio-frequency fields

Information technology equipment - Radio Disturbance characteristics -


CISPR 22
Limits and methods of measurement
Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics - Limits
CISPR 24
and methods of measurement
Resistibility of telecommunication equipment installed in a
ITU-T K.20
telecommunications centre to overvoltages and overcurrents

Resistibility of Telecommunication Equipment installed in Customer


ITU-T K.21
Premises to Overvoltages and Overcurrents

Version: B/1 9-9


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

Table 9-10 EMC Standards (Continued)

Number Title
ITU-T K.43 Immunity requirements for telecommunication equipment

Resistibility of telecommunication equipment to overvoltages and


ITU-T K.44
overcurrents

9.6.2 Safety Standards

The CiTRANS R810 Series router complies with the safety standards listed in
Table 9-11.

Table 9-11 Safety Standards

Number Title
Safety of laser products - Part 1 : Equipment classification and
EN 60825-1
requirements

EN 60825-2 Safety of laser products - Part 2 : Safety of optical fibre communication

Information technology equipment - Safety - Part 1:General


EN 60950-1
Requirements

Safety of laser products - Part 1 : Equipment classification and


IEC 60825-1
requirements

IEC 60825-2 Safety of laser products - Part 2 : Safety of optical fibre communication

Safety of Information technology equipment including Electrical


IEC 60950
Business Equipment

Information Technology Equipment - Safety - Part 1:General


UL 60950-1
Requirements

9.6.3 Availability

The availability of the CiTRANS R810 Series router complies with the National
Standard GB/T15941.

9-10 Version: B/1


Appendix A Abbreviation

AC Attachment Circuit
ACL Access Control List
APS Automatic Protection Switching

ARP Address Resolution Protocol


AS Autonomous System

ASON Automatically Switched Optical Network

ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode

BC Boundary Clock

BDR Backup Designated Router

BFD Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

BGP Border Gateway Protocol

BITS Building Integrated Timing Supply

BMC Best Master Clock


BMU Board Management Unit

BPDU Bridge Protocol Data Unit

BSC Base Station Controller


CAR Committed Access Rate
CBS Committed Burst Size
CE Custom Edge

CES Circuit Emulation Service


CFM Connectivity Fault Management

CIR Committed Information Rate


CLV Code Length Value

CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check

CSNP Complete Sequence Number Packet

CSPF Constrained Shortest Path First


CV Connectivity Verification

DCN Data Communication Network


DDF Digital Distribution Frame

DDN Digital Data Network

DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DiffServ Differentiated Services


DIS Designated Intermediate System

Version: B/1 A-1


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

DoS Denial of Service


DR Designated Router

DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point


DTE Data Terminating Entity

E2ETC End-to-end Transparent Clock

EBGP External Border Gateway Protocol

ECMP Equal-Cost Multi-Path

EFM Ethernet in the First Mile


EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility

EMI Electromagnetic Interference

EVC Ethernet Virtual Connection


FC Fiber Channel
FE Fast Ethernet
FEC Forwarding Equivalence Class

FIB Forwarding Information Base

FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array

FR Frame Relay

FRR Fast Reroute


GE Gigabit Ethernet

GR Graceful Restart
GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation

GPS Global Positioning System

GUI Graphical User Interface

HoVPN Hierarchy of VPN

IBGP Internal Border Gateway Protocol

IC Integrated Circuit

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force

IGP Interior Gateway Protocol

IP Internet Protocol
IPSec Internet Protocol Security

IPTV Internet Protocol Television


IPv4 Internet Protocol Version 4
IPv6 Internet Protocol Version 6
IS Intermediate System

IS-IS Intermediate System to Intermediate System

ISP Internet Service Provider

A-2 Version: B/1


Appendix A Abbreviation

ITU International Telecommunication Union


ITU-T ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector
IVL Independent VLAN Learning

L2VPN Layer 2 Virtual Private Network

L3VPN Layer 3 Virtual Private Network

LACP Link Aggregation Control Protocol

LAG Link Aggregation Group

LDP Label Distribution Protocol


LSDB Link State Database
LSP Label Switched Path
LSP Link State Packet
LSR Label Switching Router

LTE Long Term Evolution

MA Maintenance Association
MAC Media Access Control
MC-LAG Multi-chassis Link Aggregation Group

MD Maintenance Domain
MDF Main Distribution Frame
MEF Metro Ethernet Forum
MEN Metro Ethernet Network
MEP Maintenance End Point

MIMO Multiple-Input and Multiple-Out-put

MIP Maintenance Intermediate Point


MME Mobility Management Entity

MP-BGP Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4

MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching

MPLS-TP Multiprotocol Label Switching Transport Profile

MPLS TE Multiprotocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering

MS-PW Multi-Segment Pseudo-Wire

MSTP Multi-Service Transport Platform

MTU Maximum Transmission Unit


NPE Network Provider Edge

NSF None Stop Forwarding

NTP Network Time Protocol


OAM Operation, Administration and Maintenance

OC Ordinary Clock

ODF Optical Distribution Frame

Version: B/1 A-3


CiTRANS R810 Series Mini Edge Router Product Description

OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex

OSI Open Systems Interconnection

OSPF Open Shortest Path First

P2PTC Peer-to-peer Transparent Clock

PBS Peak Burst Size


PDP Power Distribution Panel
PE Operator Edge

PHB Per-Hop Behavior

PHP Penultimate Hop Popping

PIR Peak Information Rate


PPPoE Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
PSNP Partial Sequence Number Packet

PTN Packet Transport Network

PTP Precision Time Protocol


PW Pseudo Wire
PWE3 Emulation Edge-to-Edge

QinQ 802.1Q In 802.1Q/Double VLAN


QoS Quality of Service

RAN Radio Access Network


RD Route Distinguisher

RIP Routing Information Protocol

RIPng RIP Next Generation


RNC Radio Network Controller
RSVP Resource Reservation Protocol
RTP Real-time Transport Protocol

SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SFP Small Form-Factor Pluggable

SGW Signaling Gateway

SN Serial Number
SNCP Sub-network Connection Protection
SNP Sequence Number Packet

SONET Synchronous Optical Network

SP Strict Priority

SPF Shortest Path First


SR Service Router
SSM Synchronization Status Message

STM Synchronous Transport Module

A-4 Version: B/1


Appendix A Abbreviation

SVL Shared VLAN Learning

TC Transparent Clock

TDM Time Division Multiplexing

TPID Tag Protocol Identifier

TPS Tributary Protection Switching

UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply

URPF Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding

UPE User-Facing Provider Edge

VC Virtual Channel
VC Virtual Circuit
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
VPLS Virtual Private LAN Service
VPN Virtual Private Network
VPRN Virtual Private Routing Network

VPWS Virtual Private Wire Service


VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol

WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing

WRED Weighted Random Early Detection

XFP 10-Gigabit Small Form-factor Pluggable

Version: B/1 A-5


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