(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No.

6, September 2010

Hybrid Fingerprint Image compression and Decompression Technique
*Dr.R.Seshadri, ,B.Tech,,M.E,Ph.D **Yaswanth Kumar.Avulapti ,M.C.A, M.Tech, (PhD) ***Dr.M.Usha Rani M.C.A,PhD *Director, S.V.U.Computer Center S.V.University, Tirupati **Research Scholar, Dept of Computer Science, S.V.University, Tirupati
E-mail:yaswanthkumar_1817@yahoo.co.in

***Associate Professor, Dept. of Computer Science,, SPMVV, Tirupati Abstract In this paper a biometric authentication system based on Fingerprint. A fingerprint is the representation of the epidermis of a finger. It consists of a pattern of interleaved ridges and valleys. Like every thing in the body fingerprint ridges form through a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Finger prints are fully formed at about seven months of fetus development. Fingerprint ridges don’t change throughout the life of an individual except incase of accidents such as cuts on the fingertip (or) burns on the fingertip. In this paper we proposed a hybrid model to compress the fingerprints. Keywords:Biometrics,Enrollment Authentication, compression, Decompression. Introduction The term Biometrics is derived from the Greek word bio (life) and metrics (to measure). Basically it is a method of identifying a person based on his/her physiological or behavioral characteristics such as Fingerprints, Iris, Face, Hand geometry, Retinal scan,,DNA,Signature,Key Stroke, Voice,Gait,Ear,Palm print, Dental radiographs. Among all the biometric techniques, fingerprint recognition is the most popular method and is successfully used in many applications Biometrics is a rapidly evolving wonderful technology which has been widely used in forensics applications such as criminal identification and prison security. Biometrics(Fingerprints) can be used to prevent unauthorized access to a computer. The main objective of the fingerprint image compression is to reduce the number of bits as much as possible by keeping the resolution and quality of the fingerprint while decompressed as same as to the original fingerprint image. Fingerprint Identification System A finger print system works in two different modes they are Enrollment mode and Authentication mode as shown in figure.1

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010

Enrollment mode in which fingerprint system is used to identify and collect the related information about the person and his/her fingerprint image. Authentication mode in which fingerprint system is used to identify the person who is declared to be him/her. Enrollment Mode
Feature Extraction Template

Spatial resolution Data capacity per image Data rate 30 images 30 MB/Sec per seconds Media one film 4-CDs

Film Digital 4 1024 by linepairs/mm 1024 pixels 1MB

Fig.2.Replacement of cine film by digital Imaging with high resolution In this scenario the enormous data rate of 30 Megabyte per second has to be supported. This is much faster than even advanced ATM networks (offering less than 20 MB/s or 160 Mbit/s).

Finger print Acquisition

Authentication Mode
Feature Extraction Matching

Finger Print Acquisition

Matching Score Fig.1.Enrollment and Authentication of a Fingerprint system Need for fingerprint compression Let us see this scenario the spatial resolution of the cinefilm is generally assumed to be equivalent to a digital matrix of at least 1000 by 1000 pixels, each with up to 256 gray levels (8 bit or one byte) of contrast information. The Figure.2 derives from this principal parameter some examples for requirements on digital image communication and archival in a 135 catheterization laboratory with low to medium volume.

Looking for existing off-line media real-time display from CD-R would require a CD-R player with a data rate of 200X, while the fastest players available presently deliver 50X (1X stands for a data rate of 150 KB/sec). The total amount of data required in this scenario is even more frightening. To store these images and make them available over network (e.g. the internet), compression techniques are needed. Steps involved in Fingerprint compression 1) Specifying the rate (bits available) and distortion parameters for the target fingerprint image 2) Dividing the fingerprint data into various classes based on their importance 3) Dividing the available bit budget among these classes such that the distortion is minimum. 4) Quantize each class separately using the bit allocation 5) Encode each class separately and write to the file http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010

Steps involved in Fingerprint decompression Steps in Proposed Fingerprint compression 1) Read the fingerprint quantized data from file using the decoder 2)Dequantize the fingerprint data(Recerse of step 4) 3)Rebuild the Fingerprint Image(Reverse of step 2) Proposed Fingerprint Image Compression System We proposed a Fingerprint image compression system in which the fingerprint images are compressed by Lossless compression technique called Run length Encoding and Decompressed by Huffman coding.It is also called as Hybrid technique. A Fingerprint compression system consists of two blocks namely Encoder and Decoder as shown in the fig.3 Fingerprint Compression
Original Finger print

1) Specifying the bits available and distortion parameters for the target fingerprint image 2) Dividing the fingerprint data into various classes based on their importance 3) Dividing the available bit budget among these classes such that the distortion is minimum. 4) Quantize each class separately using the bit allocation 5) Encode each class separately using an Run Length encoder and write to the file

Steps involved in Fingerprint decompression 1) Read the fingerprint quantized data from file using the Huffman decoder 2)Dequantize the fingerprint data(Reverse of step 4) 3)Reconstructed the Fingerprint image(Reverseof step 2) In the Run length encoding the Fingerprint images with repeating grey values along rows or columns can be compressed by storing "runs" of identical grey values as shown in the fig.4 & fig 4.b
Finger print Grey value 1 Repetition 1

Fingerprint Decompression
Reconstructed Finger print

Run Length Encoding

Huffman Encoding

Finger print Grey value 2

Quantizer

De-Quantizer Repetition 2

Encoder

Decoder

Fig.4.aRun length encoding the Fingerprint Images This a very simple fingerprint compression method used for chronological http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ data.The run length 1947-5500 ISSN encoding replaces the sequences of identical pixels called the runs

Fig.3.Fingerprint image compression using136 Run length Encoding & Decompressed using Huffman coding

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010

by tiny symbols. The run length code for fingerprint image is represented by a sequence of {A,B} where a is the intensity of the pixel and B is the number of consecutive pixels with the intensity A as shown in the figure .If both A and B are represented by 8-bits this span of 12 pixels is coded using eight bytes yielding a compression ratio 1:5. For Example 23,23,23,23,23,67,67,89,89,78,78 {23,5}{67,2}{89,2}{78, 2} Fig.4.bRun length encoding the Fingerprint Images Huffman encoding is performed that is mapping of the code words to the corresponding symbols will result in a compressed data. The original image is reconstructed i.e. decompression is done by using Huffman decoding. Generate a tree equivalent to the encoding tree. Read input character wise and left table until last element is reached in the table. Output the character encodes in the leaf and returnto the root, and continues until all the codes of corresponding symbols. Advantages of Fingerprint Compression: a) It reduces the storage space at the time of processing the fingerprints b) It not only reduces the storage requirements but also overall execution time c)It also reduces the probability of transmission errors since fewer bits are transferred d) It also provides a level of security against criminal monitoring

Conclusion This paper presents different steps involved in the development of fingerprint authentication system. The proposed fingerprint image compression and decompression technique uses both the Run length encoding and Huffman coding. This hybrid fingerprint compression and decompression technique are good for certain applications like the security technologies. These two compression and decompression techniques are lossless ones. Using this hybrid technique which leads to less storage of memory and reducing the execution time. References 1.A. K. Jain,Patrick Flynn,Arun A.Ross . “Handbook of Biometrics”. 2. The Henry Clas sification System Copyright © 2003 International Biometric Group 3.Compression Using Fractional Fourier Transform A Thesis Submitted in the partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the degree of M.E Electronics &Communication. By Parvinder Kaur. 4. RL-Huffman Encoding for Test Compression and Power Reduction in Scan Applications-MEHRDAD NOURANI and MOHAMMAD H. TEHRANIPOUR, The University of Texas at Dallas 5.A.B.Watson,“Image Compression using the DCT” ,Mathematica Journal, 1995,pp.81-88. 6. DAVID A. HUFFMAN, Sept. 1991, profile Background story: Scientific American, pp. 54-58.
7. Efficient Huffman decoding by MANOJ Aggarwal and Ajai Narayana A NEW LOSSLESS METHOD OF IMAGE COMPRESSION AND DECOMPRESSION USING HUFFMAN CODING TECHNIQUES by JAGADISH H. PUJAR, 2LOHIT M. KADLASKAR Faculty, Department of EEE, B V B College of Engg. & Tech. India 2 Student, Department of EEE, B V B College of Engg. & Tech. India 8. D. Monro and B. Sherlock. Space-frequency http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500 balance in biorthogonal wavelets. transactions

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of the IEEE Int.Conf. on Image Processing, 1:624{627, 1997. 9. A. Said and W. Pearlman. A new fast and e_cient image codec based on set partitioning in hierarchical trees. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 6:243{250, June 1996. 10. W. Sweldens. The lifting scheme: A custom-design construction of biorthogonal wavelets.
Authors Profile

papers in national and international conferences, seminars. He attends Number of work shops in different fields.

Dr.R.Seshadri was born in Andhra Pradesh, India, in 1959. He received his B.Tech degree from Nagarjuna University in 1981. He received his M.E degree in Control System Engineering from PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore in 1984. He was awarded with PhD from Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati in 1998. He is currently Director, Computer Center, S.V.University, Tirupati, India. He has Published number of papers in national and international conferences, seminars and journals. At present 12 members are doing research work under his guidance in different areas Mr.YaswanthKumar .Avulapati received his MCA degree with First class from Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati. He received his M.Tech Computer Science and Engineering degree with Distinction from Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur.He is a 138 research scholar in S.V.University Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.He has presented number of

Dr. M. Usha Rani is an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer Science and HOD for CSE&IT, Sri Padmavathi Mahila Viswavidyalayam(SPMVV Womens’ University), Tirupati. She did her Ph.D. in Computer Science in the area of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems. She is in teaching since 1992. She presented more than 34 papers at National and Internal Conferences and published 19 articles in national & international journals. She also written 4 books like Data Mining - Applications: Opportunities and Challenges, Superficial Overview of Data Mining Tools, Data Warehousing & Data Mining and Intelligent Systems & Communications. She is guiding M.Phil and Ph.D. in the areas like Artificial Intelligence, DataWarehousing and Data Mining, Computer Networks and Network Security etc.

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