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6, September 2010

**A Pilot Based RLS Channel Estimation for LTE SC-FDMA in High Doppler Spread
**

M. M. Rana

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Khulna University of Engineering and Technology Khunla, Bangladesh

Email: mrana928@yahoo.com

Abstract—Main challenges for a terminal implementation are efficient realization of the inner receiver, especially for channel estimation (CE) and equalization. In this paper, pilot based recursive least square (RLS) channel estimator technique is investigate for a long term evolution (LTE) single carrierfrequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system in high Doppler spread environment. This CE scheme uses adaptive RLS estimator which is able to update parameters of the estimator continuously, so that knowledge of channel and noise statistics are not required. Simulation results show that the RLS CE scheme with 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB better performances compared with 1.5 kHz Doppler frequency. Keywords— Channel estimation, LTE, RLS, SC-FDMA.

I. INTRODUCTION The 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) members started a feasibility study on the enhancement of the universal terrestrial radio access (UTRA), to improve the mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. This project was called long term evolution (LTE) [1], [2]. LTE uses orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) for downlink and single carrier-frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) for uplink transmission [1]. A highly efficient way to cope with the frequency selectivity of wideband channel is OFDMA. OFDMA is an effective technique for combating multipath fading and for high bit rate transmission over mobile wireless channels. Channel estimation (CE) has been successfully used to improve the system performance. It can be employed for the purpose of detecting received signal, improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), channel equalization, cochannel interference (CCI) rejection, and improved the system performance [3-5]. In general, CE techniques can be divided into three categories such as pilot CE, blind CE, and semi-blind CE [10], [11]. Pilot CE techniques offer low computational complexity and good performance [12]. The blind CE techniques exploit the statistical behavior of the received signals and require a large amount of data [13]. Semi-blind CE methods are used a combination of data aided and blind methods [11]. The pilot CE algorithm requires probe sequences; the receiver can use this probe sequence to reconstruct the transmitted waveform

[6-8]. Pilot symbols can be placed either at the beginning of each burst as a preamble or regularly through the burst. Pilot sequences are transmitted at certain positions of the SCFDMA frequency time pattern, in its place of data. Adaptive CE has been, and still is, an area of active research topics, playing imperative roles in an ever growing number of applications such as wireless communications where the channel is rapidly time-varying. Signal processing techniques that use recursively estimated, time varying models are normally called adaptive. Different adaptive CE algorithms have been proposed over the years for the purpose of updating the channel coefficient. The least mean square (LMS) method, its normalized version (NLMS), the affine projection algorithm (APA), as well as the recursive least square (RLS) method are well known examples of such CE algorithms. The well known LMS/NLMS CE algorithms are attractive from a computational complexity point of view but their convergence behavior for highly correlated input signals is poor. The RLS CE method resolves this trouble, but at the expense of increased complexity. A very large number of fast RLS CE methods have been developed over the years, but regrettably, it seems that the better a fast RLS CE method is in terms of computational efficiency and numerical stability. In addition, the RLS algorithm has the recursive inversion of an estimate of the autocorrelation matrix of the input signal as its cornerstone, problems arise, if the autocorrelation matrix is rank deficient. In this paper, we investigate the adaptive RLS CE method in the LTE SC-FDMA systems in high Doppler spread environment. This CE method uses adaptive estimator which is able to update parameters of the estimator continuously so that knowledge of channel and noise statistics are not required. Simulation results show that the RLS CE scheme with 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB better performances compared with 1500 Hz Doppler frequency. We use the following notations throughout this paper: bold face lower letter is used to represent vector. Superscripts x* and xT denote the conjugate and conjugate transpose of the complex vector x respectively. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: section II describes wireless communication systems and LTE SCFDMA systems model is describes in section III. The RLS CE scheme is presented in section IV, and its performance is

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010

analyzed in section V. Finally, some concluding remarks are given in section VI. II. WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

III. LTE SC-FDMA SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION In this section, we briefly explain LTE SC-FDMA system model, fading channel statistics, and received signal model.

Nowadays, cellular mobile phones have become an A. Baseband system model important tool and part of daily life. In the last decade, cellular systems have experienced fast development and there are A baseband block diagram for the communications system currently about two billion users over the world. The idea of under investigation is shown in Fig. 2. cellular mobile communications is to divide large zones into small cells, and it can provide radio coverage over a wider area than the area of one cell. This concept was developed by researchers at AT & T Bell laboratories during the 1950s and 1960s. The initial cellular system was created by nippon telephone & telegraph (NTT) in Japan, 1979. From then on, the cellular mobile communication has evolved. The mobile communication systems are frequently classified as different generations depending of the service offered. The first generation (1G) comprises the analog communication techniques, and it was mainly built on frequency modulation (FM) and frequency division multiple accesses (FDMA). Digital communication techniques appeared in the second generation (2G) systems, and main access schemes are time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA). The two most commonly accepted 2G systems are global system for mobile (GSM) and interim standard-95 (IS-95). These systems mostly offer speech communication, but also data communication limited to rather low transmission rates. The concept of the third generation (3G) system started operations on October, Fig. 2. Block diagram of a LTE SC-FDMA system. 2002 in Japan. The 3GPP members started a feasibility study on the enhancement of the universal terrestrial radio access At the transmitter, a baseband multiple phase shift keying (UTRA) in December 2004, to improve the mobile phone modulator takes binary sequence and produces the signaling standard to cope with future requirements. This project was waveforms called LTE. LTE uses SC-FDMA for uplink transmission and 2E OFDMA for downlink transmission. Fig. 1 summarizes the mi (t) = cos(ωt + αi ), 0 < t < T evolution path of cellular mobile communications systems. T

**2E [cos(αi ) cos(ωt) - sin(αi ) sin(ωt)] T = a i b(t) + ci d(t), (1) where T is the symbol duration, E is the energy of mi (t), =
**

ω = 2πf, f is the carrier frquency, phase anagle

**2π i α= , M is the alphabate size, α i = E cos α i M 2 inphasse basis , b(t) = cos(ωt), ci = E sinαi , and T
**

quadrature basis,

d(t) = -

2 cos(ωt). CE is often achieved T

Fig. 1. Evolution path in mobile communication systems.

by multiplexing known symbols, so called, pilot symbols into data sequences [1]. These modulated symbols and pilots perform N-point discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to produce a frequency domain representation:

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010

Since, the channel coefficient is usually unknown to the receiver, it needs to be efficiently estimated. The impulse response of multipath fading channel can be represented by a where j is the imaginary unit. It then maps each of the N-point tap-delayed line filter with time varying coefficients and DFT outputs to one of the orthogonal sub-carriers mapping that symbol-rate spaced coefficients. can be transmitted. There are two principal sub-carrier mapping modes: localized mode, and distribution mode. In distributed sub-carrier mode, the outputs are allocated equally spaced subcarrier, with zeros occupying the unused sub-carrier in between. While in localized sub-carrier mode, the outputs are confined to a continuous spectrum of sub-carrier. Interleaved sub-carrier mapping mode of FDMA (IFDMA) is another special sub-carrier mapping mode [13], [14]. The difference between DFDMA and IFDMA is that the outputs of IFDMA are allocated over the entire bandwidth, whereas the DFDMAs Fig. 3. L-tapped delay line filter of a fading channel. outputs are allocated every several subcarriers [15], [16]. Finally, the inverse DFT (IDFT) module output is followed At the receiver, the opposite set of the operation is by a cyclic prefix (CP) insertion that completes the digital stage performed. After synchronization, CP samples are discarded of the signal flow. The CP is used to eliminate ISI and preserve and the remaining samples are processed by the DFT to the orthogonality of the tones. Assume that the channel length retrieve the complex constellation symbols transmitted over of CP is larger than the channel delay spread [17]. the orthogonal sub-channels. The received signals are demapped and equalizer is used to compensate for the radio B. Channel model channel frequency selectivity. After IDFT operation, these received signals are demodulated and soft or hard values of Channel model is a mathematical representation of the the corresponding bits are passed to the decoder. The decoder transfer characteristics of the physical medium. These models analyzes the structure of received bit pattern and tries to are formulated by observing the characteristics of the received reconstruct the original signal. signal. According to the documents from 3GPP, a radio wave propagation can be described by multipaths which arise from IV. RLS ADAPTIVE CE METHOD reflection and scattering [17]. The received signal at the mobile terminal is a superposition of all paths. If there are L distinct An adaptive CE technique is a process that changes its paths from transmitter to the receiver, the impulse response of parameters as it gain more information of its possibly the multipath fading channel can be represented as [17]: changing environment. Among many iterative techniques that L exist in the open literature, the well-liked classes of ω(m,τ) = ωj (m) δ[m - τj (m)], (3) approaches which are achieve from the minimization of the j =1 mean square error (MSE) between the output of the adaptive filter and desired signal to perform CE as shown in Fig. 4. where ω j (m) and τ j (m) are attenuations and delays for each

si (t) =

-j2π mt 1 N-1 mi (t) e N , ∑ N t=0

(2)

∑

path at time instant m, and δ(.) is the Dirac delta function. The fading process for the mobile radio channel is given by

ω(v) = ω j 1- (v/f d ) ,

(4)

where Doppler frquency f d = s/λ, s is the speed of the mobile, and λ is the wavelength of the transmitted carrier. In order to do simulations as close to the reality as possible, it is essential to have a good channel model. This model is used to describe the fast variations of the received signal strength due to changes in phases when a mobile terminal moves. In case of wideband modeling, each path of the impulse response can be modeled as Rayleigh distributed with uniform phase except line of sight (LOS) component cases [17]. C. Received signal model The transmitted symbols propagating through the radio channel can be modeled as a circular convolution between the CIR and the transmitted data block i.e., [s(m)*ω (m,τ )] .

Fig. 4. Scheme for adaptive CE.

The signal s(m) is transmitted via a time-varying channel w(m), and corrupted by an additive noise estimated by using any kind of CE method. The main aim of most channel estimation algorithms is to minimize the MSE i.e., between the received signal and its estimate, while utilizing as little

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010

computational resources as possible in the estimation process. In the Fig. 4, we have unknown multipath fading channel, that has to be estimated with an adaptive filter whose weight are updated based on some criterion so that coefficients of adaptive filter should be as close as possible to the unknown channel. The RLS CE requires all the past samples of the input and the desired output is available at each iteration. The objective function of a RLS CE algorithm is defined as an exponential weighted sum of errors squares:

n

δc(m) = 0 = -2 δw (m)

n

n

∑λ

m =1

n-m

s(m)e H (m) + 2δλ n w (m)

= -2 ∑ λ n-m s(m)[h(m) - w H (m)s(m)]H + 2δλ n w (m)

m=1 n n

w (m)[ ∑ λ n-ms(m)s H (m) + δλ n I ] =

m=1

∑λ

m =1

n-m

s(m)h H (m)

c(m) =

∑λ

m=1

n-m H

e (m)e(m) + δλ n w H (m)w (m),

(5)

R s (m)w (m) = R sh (m) w (m) = R −1 (m) R sh (m) s

where

where δ is a positive real number called regularization parameter, e(m) is the prior estimation error, and λ is the exponential forgetting factor with 0 < λ < 1. The λ is used to ensure that data in the distant past are paid less concentration in order to provide the filter with estimating facility when it operates in a time varying environment. When λ = 1, the algorithm has growing memory because the values of the filter coefficients are a function of all the precedent input. In this case, all the values of the error signal, from the time the filter starts its process to the present, have the same influence on the cost function. Consequently, the adaptive filter losses its estimating ability, which is not important if the filter is used in a stationary environment. In contrast, when 0 < λ < 1, the algorithm has exponentially decaying memory as the recent values of the observations have greater influence on the formation of the filter coefficients and tends to forget the old ones as shown in Fig. 5.

(8)

**R s (m) is the transmitted auto-correlation matrix
**

n

R s (m) =

and i.e.,

∑λ

m=1 n

n-m

s(m)s H (m) + δλ n I = λR s (m-1) + s(m)s H (m)

is the cross correlation matrix

R sh (m)

R sh (m) = ∑ λ n-ms(m)h H (m) = λR sh (m-1) + s(m)h H (m) .

m=1

**According to the Woodbury identity , the above be written as
**

-1 -1 R sh (m) = λ -1R sh (m-1) -

R sh (m) can

-1 -1 λ -2 R sh (m-1)s(m)s H (m)R sh (m-1) (9) -1 1+ λ -1s H (m)R sh (m-1)s(m)

For convenience of computing, let D(m) = Rsh(m) and

α0

K (m) =

λ -1D(m-1)s(m) 1+λ -1s H (m)D(m-1)s(m)

(10)

α1

The K(m) is referred as a gain matrix. We may rewrite (9) as:

αm

( m − m)

(m − 1) (m − 0) (m + 1)

D(m) = λ -1D(m-1) - λ -1K (m)s H (m)D(m-1)

So simply (10) to

-1 K (m) = D(m)s(m) = R sh (m)s(m)

(11)

(12)

Fig. 5. Exponential weighting of observations at different time index.

The prior estimation error is the difference between the desired response and estimation signal:

Substituting (11), (12) into (8), we obtain the following RLS CE formula

**w (m) = w (m-1) + K (m)[h(m) - w H (m-1)s(m)]H = w (m-1) + K (m)ε H (m), where ε(m) is a prior estimation error as ε(m) = h(m) - w H (m-1)s(m)
**

(13)

(14)

e(m) = h(m) - w H (m) s(m)

(7)

The objective function is minimized by taking the partial derivatives with respect to w(n) and setting the results equal to zero.

Therefore equation (13) is the recursive RLS CE algorithm to update channel coefficient.

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V. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS A. Complexity Analysis The complexity of CE algorithm is of vital importance especially for time varying wireless communication channels, where it has to be performed periodically or even continuously. Table I summarizes the computational complexity of the RLS CE technique, where L is the channel length, and real number indicates scalar operation. Here we assume that each iteration requires the evaluation of the inner product D(m)h(m) between two vectors of size L each. This calculation requires L multiplications and L-1 additions. Also assumed that the evaluation of the scalar addition or subtraction needs one real addition and multiplying the scalar by the vector requires L multiplications.

TABLE I COMPLEXITY PER ITERATION

versus SNR for the RLS CE method with different Doppler frequencies 500Hz and 1.5kHz. One can observed that the RLS CE method with 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB better performances compared with 1.5kHz Doppler frequency as desired. This CE scheme uses adaptive RLS estimator which is able to update parameters of the estimator continuously, so that knowledge of channel and noise statistics are not required. The similar behavior can be observed for BER performance in Fig. 7.

10

0

**For Doppler frequency 1500Hz For Doppler frequency 500Hz
**

-1

10

MSE

Operation Division Multiplication Addition

Complexity 1 L2 + 5L+1 L2 + 3L

10

-2

10

-3

B. Experimental results The error performance of the aforementioned iterative estimation algorithm is explored by performing extensive computer simulations. All simulation parameters of the LTE SC-FDMA system in Doppler spread environments are summarized in Table II. Table II

THE SYSTEMS PARAMETERS FOR SIMULATION

10

-4

0

5

10

15 SNR [dB]

20

25

30

Fig. 6. MSE performance comparisons of the LMS CE method.

10

0

Systems parameters System bandwidth Sampling frequency Sub-carrier spacing Modulation data type FFT size Sub-carrier mapping scheme IFFT size Data block size Cyclic prefix Channel Forgetting factor Equalization Doppler frequency

Assumptions 5 MHz 7.68 MHz 9.765 kHz BPSK 16 IFDMA 512 32 4µs Rayleigh fading 0.99 ZF 100, and 1.5 kHz

**For Doppler frequency 1500Hz For Doppler frequency 500Hz
**

-1

10

BER

10

-2

10

-3

In practice, the perfect channel coefficient is unavailable, so estimated channel coefficient must be used instead. The more correct estimated channel coefficient is, the better MSE performance of the CE will achieve. Fig. 6 shows the MSE

10

-4

0

5

10

15 SNR [dB]

20

25

30

Fig.7. BER performance comparisons of the LMS CE method.

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VI. CONCLUSION In this paper, we explore the performance of RLS CE method for LTE SC-FDAM wireless communication systems with different Doppler frequencies. The complexities, MSE and BER performance of the RLS CE method, are analyzed and compared with the different Doppler frequencies. We can come to the conclusion that the RLS CE method with 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB superior performances compared with 1.5 kHz Doppler frequency.

REFERENCES [1]

[2] B. Karakaya, H.Arslan, and H. A. Cirpan, ”Channel estimation for LTE uplink in high Doppler spread,” Proc. Int. Con. on WCNC, pp. 1126-1130, April 2008. J. Berkmann, C. Carbonelli, F.Dietrich, C. Drewes, and W. Xu, ”On 3G LTE terminal implementation standard, algorithms, complexities and challenges,” Proc. Int. Con. on WCMC , pp. 970975, August 2008. A. Ancora, C. Bona, and D.T.M. Slock, ”Down-sampled impulse response least-squares channel estimation for LTE OFDMA,” Proc. Int. Con. ASSP, Vol. 3, pp. 293-296, April 2007. L. A. M. R. D. Temino, C. N. I Manchon, C. Rom, T. B. Sorensen, and P. Mogensen, ”Iterative channel estimation with robust wiener filtering in LTE downlink,” Proc. Int. Con. on VTC, pp. 1-5, September 2008. S. Y. Park, Y.Gu. Kim, and C. Gu. Kang, ”Iterative receiver for joint detection and channel estimation in OFDM systems under mobile radio channels,” IEEE Trans. On Comm., vol. 53, iIssue 2, pp. 450-460, March 2004. S. Haykin, ”Adaptive Filter Theory,” Prentice-Hall International Inc, 1996. J. J. V. D. Beek, O. E. M. Sandell, S. K. Wilsony, and P. O. Baorjesson, ”On channel estimation in OFDM systems,” Proc. Int. Con. on VTC, vol. 2, pp. 815-819, July 1995. O. Edfors, M. Sandell, J. V. D. Beek, and S. Wilson, ”OFDM channel estimation by singular value decomposition,” IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 931-939, July 1998. M.H. Hsieh, and C.H. Wei, ”Channel estimation for OFDM systems based on comb-type pilot arrangement in frequency selective fading channels,” IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, vol. 44, issue 1, pp. 217-225, February 1998. P. Hoeher, S. Kaiser, and P. Robertson, ”Two-dimensional pilot symbol aided channel estimation by wiener filtering,” Proc. Int. Con. on ASSP, pp. 1845-1848, vol.3, April 1997. M. M. Rana, J. Kim, and W. K. Cho,”Low complexity downlink channel estimation for LTE systems,” in Proc. Int. Con. On Advanced Commun. Technology, February 2010, pp. 1198-1202. M. M. Rana, J. Kim, and W. K. Cho,” Performance Analysis of Sub-carrier Mapping in LTE Uplink Systems,” in Proc. Int. Con. On COIN, August 2010. F. Adachi, H. Tomeba, and K. Takeda, “Frequency-domain equalization for broadband single-carrier multiple access,” IEICE Trans. on Commun., vol. E92-B, no. 5, pp. 1441–1456, May 2009. S. Yameogo, J. Palicot, and L. Cariou, “Blind time domain equalization of SC-FDMA signal,” in Proc. Vehicular Technology Conference, pp. 1–4, September 2009. S. H. Han and J. H. Lee, “An overview of peak to average power ratio reduction techniques for multicarrier transmission,” IEEE Trans. on Wireless Commun., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 56–65, 2005. H. G. Myung, J. Lim, and D. J. Goodman, “Peak-to-average power ratio of sngle carrier FDMA signals with pulse shaping,” in Proc. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Commun., September 2006. W. C. Jakes, Ed., Microwave mobile communications. New York: Wiley-IEEE Press, Jan. 1994.

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[9]

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[11]

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[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

166

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

Abstract — Main challenges for a terminal implementation are efficient realization of the inner receiver, especially for channel estimation (CE) and equalization. In this paper, pilot based recursi...

Abstract — Main challenges for a terminal implementation are efficient realization of the inner receiver, especially for channel estimation (CE) and equalization. In this paper, pilot based recursive least square (RLS) channel estimator technique is investigate for a long term evolution (LTE) single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system in high Doppler spread environment. This CE scheme uses adaptive RLS estimator which is able to update parameters of the estimator continuously, so that knowledge of channel and noise statistics are not required. Simulation results show that the RLS CE scheme with 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB better performances compared with 1.5 kHz Doppler frequency.

Keywords— Channel estimation, LTE, RLS, SC-FDMA.

Keywords— Channel estimation, LTE, RLS, SC-FDMA.

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