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techniques using Subblock retransmission for wireless networks
A.N.Kemkar, Member, ISTE and Dr. T.R.Sontakke Member,ISTE
Abstract—In this paper we mainly focus our
investigation on the throughput performance in
conjugation with subblock transmission scheme.
The throughput of a wireless data
communications system depends on a number of
variables, one of it is length of the message
blocks. Over a noisy communication medium like
wireless medium used for mobile adhoc network,
our propose scheme performs effectively. In
propose scheme random length of the message is
divided in to fixed length blocks and applying
ARQ techniques if the error occurs. A threshold
model is used for fading channel, estimation and
CRC detection codes are used. Comparison of
transmission efficiency of proposed scheme with
varying channel condition is shown. .
.Index Terms— FEC, Hybrid ARQ, BER.
1. INTRODUCTION:
Wireless channels are highly affected by
unpredictable factors such as cochannel
interference, adjacent channel interference,
propagation path loss, shadowing and multi path
fading. The unreliability of media degrades the
transmission quality seriously. Automatic Repeat
ReQuest (ARQ) and Forward Error Correction
(FEC) schemes are frequently used in wireless
environments to reduce the high bit error rate of
the channel.
As we have seen, the throughput efficiencies of
all the basic ARQ schemes are functions of the
packet size n. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5]. Our main result
is a mathematical technique for determining the
block size as a function of the other variables like
BER, signaltonoise ratio.

A.N.Kemkar
1
,S.R.T.M.U,Nanded.
+919819150392,ankemkar@gmail.com
Dr.T.R.Sontakke
2
Ex.Director – S.G.G.S.I.T.E. Nanded
Principal,Sidhant college of Engineering
Pune.+91
9822392766,trsontakke@gmail.com
In an attempt to improve throughput
performance, we have included an analysis using
forward error correcting (FEC) block codes (used
in Hybrid ARQ). The optimum amount of FEC
coding was found to be dependent upon the Block
length. As the Block length increases, the number
of correctable errors to optimize the throughput
also increases, mathematical expression is shown
in 2.2.
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2
.Summary on the Related work and basic concept.
In section 3.scheme description and system
model. We consider the performance analysis of
the proposed scheme for simulation study in
section 4. followed by conclusion in Section 5
2.RELATED WORK :
2.1: Related Work The efficiency of HARQ
scheme is compared with GBN schemes using
different lengths of IP Blocks. Further show that
usage of smaller Blocks and hybrid schemes leads
to an improved throughput. Differences between
pure and hybrid GBN schemes are also discussed.
[1]
When the channel is quiet the subblock
retransmission scheme behaves like a
conventional ARQ or hybrid ARQ scheme. As
the channel becomes increasingly noisy, the data
block is divided into smaller subblocks for
transmission. Each subblock is encoded for error
control by an appropriate shortened code of
which the code length is adapted to the
corresponding channel BER.[2] Further optimum
block size in accordance with the channel
conditions [4] A single code HARQ scheme was
proposed in which transmitter is operating in any
one mode with the degree of errors encounter.
The operating state is selected based on the
channel BER. Data bits are divided in blocks and
are encoded with shortened codes. During the
retransmission new coded blocks are combined
and at the receiver end proper decoding
techniques are used to separate retransmitted
blocks from the new blocks.
2.1. BASIC CONCEPT 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
234 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 19475500
Analytical expression how Throughput
performance of the system varies with the size of
the block length and FEC. :Consider the
following two cases to verify the Throughput
performance of the system.
Case 1. Blocks are transmitted without FEC.
Case 2. Blocks are transmitted with FEC.
Our analysis includes the following simplifying
assumptions:1. The CRC decoder detects all
errors in the output of the FEC decoder.2.
Transmission of acknowledgments from the
receiver to the transmitter is error free and
instantaneous.
System throughput
( ) T
is the number of payload
bits per second received correctly:
= ( )
K
T Rf
L
γ (1)
where
KR
L
 `
. ,
b/s is the payload transmission rate
Where
( ) = f γ
Block success rate defined as
probability of receiving block correctly.
Probability is a function of signal to noise ratio.
=
E
b
N
o
γ
(2)
In which
P
E
b
R
· joules in received energy per bit.
where R = Transmission rate. Probability is a
function of signal to noise ratio.
P E
b
R
N N
o o
γ · ·
(3)
Each Block, of length L bits, is a combination
of a payload
( ) K
and overhead
( )  L K
. Because
the Block success rate,
( ) f γ
is a decreasing
function of, L there is an optimum Block length,.
L
•
. When
L L
∗
p excessive overhead in each Block limits
the throughput. When > L
L
∗
Block errors limits
the throughput.
For case 1. When there is no forward error
correction coding. In this case
( ) ( ) ( ) 1
L
f
P
e
γ γ · − (4)
where
( ) = f γ
block success rate defined as
probability of receiving block correctly.
( ) e P γ
is block error rate.
Therefore, in a system without FEC, the
throughput as a function of L ,from (1)
( ) ( ) 1

=
L
P
L C
T R
e
L
γ − (5)
Case 2.: Now instead of transmitting those L bits
with no error correction capability, we will now
add B error correcting bits and transmit a total of
bits + L B .Using a block code forward error
correction scheme, the minimum number of B
bits required to correct
t
errors is given by [5]
+
log
2
=0
L B t
B
n
n
]  `
] ≥ ∑
]
. , ]
(6)
Now that we can correct‘
t
’ errors, our block
success rate,
( ) f γ
should be larger than its
previous value with no error correction. Recall
that
( ) f γ
with
t
= 0 is given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) 1
L
f
P
e
γ γ · − where
( ) e P γ
is the probability
of a bit error as a function of the SNR. Now, with
error correction capability, the Block success rate
for some arbitrary value of t is [7]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
+
+ 
1
t
=0
L B t
L B n
n
f P P
e e
n
n
γ γ γ
 `
· − ∑
. ,
(7)
Our new equation for the throughput as a function
of the signal to noise ratio is:
( ) ( )

+
P
L C N
o
T f
t
L B
γ γ
γ
 `
 `
·
. ,
. ,
(8)
From (5) and (8) it is clear that throughput of the
system is a function of message block length.
Further (5) and (8) are used for pure and hybrid
ARQ techniques.
3. SCHEME DISCRIPTION AND SYSTEM
MODEL :
This paper presents a subblock retransmission
scheme for ARQ . The data block is divided into
smaller subblocks for transmission. Each sub
block is encoded by an appropriate error detection
codes. The encoded block is then transmitted. The
received block is checked for errors subblock by
subblock. The proposed scheme provides
improved throughput by retransmitting only the
subblocks in the occurrence of errors.
3.1 SYSTEM MODEL :
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
235 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 19475500
We consider an adhoc network with V nodes
and assume that each node is equipped with only
one antenna. A Point to Point protocol is used at
the medium access control layer. A Selective
repeat request ARQ mechanism is used.
Particularly, the source node transmits a data
packet with a Cbit CRC attached. The
destination node detects CRC and then sends an
acknowledgement that is either positive (ACK) or
negative (NACK) back to the source node. If the
packet is correctly detected by the destination
node (with ACK feedback), the source node
continues to transmit a new data packet and the
above process is repeated. Otherwise,
retransmission will start. A threshold model for
channel characterization is used for fading
channel.
4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THE
PROPOSE SCHEME:
The performance analysis of the scheme is
measured in terms of throughput of the proposed
scheme. Further we show the comparison of
throughput with sub block and without sub block
transmission schemes.
Expression of throughput for ARQ for present
scheme:
[ ]
K
E T
η ·
(9)
where K =information bits in a block. [ ] . E
=Expectation of number of transmitted bits in a
given block.
1
i
i
T Mn
T
∞
·
· +
∑
(10)
where M =number of sub blocks,
n
=number of
bits in a sub block, i T =number of transmitted bits
for
th
i
transmission.
[ ] [ ]
1
i
i
E T Mn E
T
∞
·
· +
∑
(11)
where [ ] E T
=Average number of transmitted
bits.
Out of M sub blocks if L sub blocks are
transmitted at the
th
i
retransmission ,then random
variable, i T takes the value Ln ,if L out of M
subblocks are retransmitted at the
th
i
retransmission.
SIMULATION RESULTS: We evaluate the
performance of the proposed scheme
implemented with Matlab. We run the simulation
for two schemes i.e. with sub block transmission
and without sub block transmission. The
simulation parameters are shown in the table
1.Simulation run for 5000 total blocks. Result is
the average of independent experiments where
each experiment uses different randomly
generated uniform parameters. We use mean
values which are obtained independent
experiments as a basic data to get the result.
Simulation results are shown Table 2
Table 1: System Parameters:
Parameters Notaion Values
Signal to Noise Ratio
γ
Varied
Total number of blocks  5000
Total sub block
M
32
Information bits in a block
K
16
Packet length
n
5000*32*16
Max. number of
Retransmissions
 3
Number of sub blocks
retransmitted
L
Varied
Cyclic Redundancy Check CRC Varied
Bit error rate BER Varied
Packet error rate PER Varied
Throughput efficiency
η
Varied
Table 2 : Simulation Results: Following
Simulation results shows the comparison of
Throughput efficiency verses varied block size
verses changing channel condition in terms of
PER.
Table 2:
Block length Packet error rate Throughput
Without
sub block
With
sub
block
Without
sub
block
With
sub
block
Without
sub
block
With
sub
block
Whole
block is
transmitted
with out
sub
division.
Whole
block
is
divided
into
sub 4
blocks
0.1 0.1 0.9 0.99
0.3 0.3 0.86 0.96
0.5 0.5 0.66 0.94
0.7 0.7 0.59 0.93
0.9 0.9 0.57 0.9
1 1 0.5 0.89
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
236 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 19475500
5. CONCLUSION:
From the Fig.1 shown below performance of the
proposed scheme. This paper has presented a sub
block retransmission scheme for
1. With micro block ARQ
2. Without micro block ARQ
Proposed subblock retransmission schemes
showed better overall performance compared to
the other competitive schemes by retransmitting
without subblocks in the occurrence of errors.
From Table 2 and the Fig.1 it is clear that as the
packet error rate increases i.e. channel condition
gets deteriorated the throughput performance
goes down by more than 40% as compare to
proposed scheme. There fore we proposed sub
block retransmission scheme with ARQ is more
reliable than existing i.e. without sub block
transmission scheme.
Fig.1: Performance of proposed scheme vs.
existing schemes.
0 0 . 1 0 . 2 0 . 3 0 . 4 0 . 5 0 . 6 0 . 7 0 . 8 0 . 9 1
0 . 5
0 . 5 5
0 . 6
0 . 6 5
0 . 7
0 . 7 5
0 . 8
0 . 8 5
0 . 9
0 . 9 5
1
P a c k e t E r r o r R a t e
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t
T h r o u g h p u t V s . P a c k e t E r r o r R a t e
W i t h M i c r o b l o c k
W i t h o u t M i c r o b l o c k
6. REFERENCES:
[1] W.W. Chu. Optimalmessage block size
for computer communications with error
detection and retransmission strategies.
IEEE Transactions on Communications,
COM22:1516– 1525, October 1974.
[2] J.S. DaSilva, H.M. Hafez, and S.A.
Mahmoud. Optimal packet length for
fading land mobile data channels. In
Proceedings of ICC 1980, pages 61.3.1–
61.3.5, June 1980.
[3] R.L. Kirlin. Variable block length and
transmission efficiency. IEEE
Transactions on Communication
Technology, COM17:350–355, June
1969.
[4] E. Modiano. An adaptive algorithm for
optimizing the packet size used in
wireless ARQ protocols. Wireless
Networks, 5:279–286, July 1999.
[5] J.M.Morris. Optimal block lengths for
ARQ error control schemes. IEEE
Transactions on Communications, COM
27:488–493, February 1979
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
237 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 19475500
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