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Perce eres COM aes Aerts eT INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF COMPUTATION, SECOND EDITION MICHAEL SIPSER Massachusetts Institute of Technology THOMSON ‘Aashalia THOMSON Introduet ian to the Theory of Computation, Second Fait boy Michael Sipser Senior Product Manager: Alyssa Pratt Executive Editor: Mac Mendelsohn Associate Produetion Manager: Aimee Poirier Senior Marketing Manager: Karen Scie COPYRIGHT © 2006 Thomson Course Technology, a division of ‘Thomson Learning, Ine. Thomson Misa trademark used herein under license. Learn: Princed in the United States of America 23456789 QWT 09.08 07 06 05 For more information, eontact ‘Thomson Course lechnology 25 Thomson Place Boscon, Massachuseets, 02210, (Or find as on the World Wide Web a ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in ‘nny form of by any means graphic, clectrunie, or mechaneal, mclodin photacopsing, recording, taping, Web Siseribotion, or information seorsge and retrieval systems without the written permission of the publisher Associate Product Manager: Mirella Misiaseck Editorial Assistant: Jenifer Smith Senior Manufacturing Coordinator: Trevor Kallop Cover Designer: Steve Deschesne For permission to use material from this text or proaluer, submit a request apline ae htp-// Any additional questions about permissions ean be submniteed by e-mail Disclaimer Thomson Courve Technology reserves the right to revise this publication and make changes Fram vin to ite i its ‘content without nots, ISBN 0-584-95097-8,