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# Seminar presentation

on

## CARNOT CYCLE OR CARNOT HEAT ENGINE

2018-19
Mechanical Engineering department
BANSAL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY, LUCKNOW
Guided by- Presented by
Neeraj Singh Omprakash Kumar
Roll no 1642240081
Content
● INTRODUCTION
● HISTORY OF CARNOT CYCLE
● PRICIPAL OF CARNOT CYCLE
● EFFICIENCY OF A CARNOT ENGINE
● REFRENCE
INTRODUCTION

## . Carnot cycle is an ideal reversible heat

engine cycle, proposed by Sadi Carnot, a
young French scientist, in the year 1824.
It comprises of two reversible isothermal
processes. Carnot cycle is a
hypothetical cycle and it cannot be
achieved in the practical situations
HISTORY OF CARNOT CYCLE
● The Carnot cycle is a
theoretical thermodynamic
cycle proposed by French
and expanded upon by others
in the 1830s and 1840s. ...
When a system is taken
through a series of different
states and finally returned to
its initial state, a
thermodynamic cycle is said to
have occurred.
PRICIPAL OF CARNOT
CYCLE
● Carnot's theorem, developed in 1824 by
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, also called
Carnot’s rule, is a principle that specifies
limits on the maximum efficiency any
heat engine can obtain. The efficiency of
a Carnot engine depends solely on the
difference between the hot and cold
temperature reservoirs.
Efficiency of a Carnot engine
p

b
4

2 TH

d 3 TL
c
0
0 V

## |Q1| expand |W1|

at temperature TH

compression: expansion:
temperature rises temperature falls

compress
at temperature TL
|Q3| |W3|
THE CARNOT HEAT ENGINE CYCLE
CONSISTS OF FOUR REVERSIBLE
PROCESSES IN A SEQUENCE:

## 1:Reversible isothermal expansion(1-2).

Heat transfer from HTR (+) and
boundary work (+) occur in closed
system

Work output (+), but no heat transfer
3:Reversible isotherma compression(3-4).
Heat transfer (-) and boundary work (-)
occur in closed system

Work input (-), but no heat transfer
AND Wout >>> Win

Efficiency

.
=
On this isothermal expansion leg, the temperature is TH so
.
……………………….(2)

## work done by The the gas is then

…………………….(3)
The heat absorbed merely counteracts the effect of the
work done, so
|Q1| = |W1|. ……………………………………… (4)
On this adiabatic expansion leg, the pressure and volume
are related through
pV γ = constant = pbVbγ = pcVcγ…………………(5)

………(6)
With this piece of bookkeeping out of the way, we go
ahead and find the work done by the gas:

= constant

……..(7)
In the isothermal compression leg, the calculation of work
.
done by the gas is performed exactly , but of course with
different variables plugged in. Referring to equation (3) we
find
…………..(8)

## Because Vd < Vc, this quantity — the work done by the

gas — is negative. The work done on the gas is

.
…………..(9)

## |Q3| = |W3|. …………..(10)

. In the adiabatic compression leg, the calculations are
performed exactly as they were in leg 2, but of course with
different variables plugged in. Referring to equations (6)
and (7) we find

…………..(11)

and
…………..(12)

…..(13)
Efficiency

=
|W2| = |W4|.
Efficiency .

=1

Our final result for the efficiency of an ideal Carnot engine using an
ideal gas as a working fluid is the remarkably simple

Efficiency
=1 …………..(14)
.
Refrence