Diabetes mellitus often simply referred to as diabetes—is a condition in which a person has a high blood sugar (glucose) level as a result of the body either not producing enough insulin, or because body cells do not properly respond to the insulin that is produced. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas which enables body cells to absorb glucose, to turn into energy. If the body cells do not absorb the glucose, the glucose accumulates in the blood (hyperglycemia), leading to various potential medical complications. There are many types of diabetes, the most common of which are: Type 1 diabetes results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. Type 2 diabetes results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. Gestational diabetes is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM. Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.

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Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease. diabetes population.S. diabetic ketoacidosis. Pancreas transplants have been tried with limited success in type 1 DM. This type of diabetes can be further classified as immunemediated or idiopathic.html to get diabetes medication and diabetes related products at low prices ! 2 . gastric bypass surgery has been successful in many with morbid obesity and type 2 DM. as well as blood pressure control and lifestyle factors such as smoking cesation and maintaining a healthy body weight. or 2. Diabetes without proper treatments can cause many complications. where beta cell loss is a T-cell mediated autoimmune attack. Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common. but a cure is difficult. affecting 90 to 95% of the U. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults but was traditionally termed "juvenile diabetes" because it represents a majority of the diabetes cases in children. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immunemediated nature. There is no known preventive measure against type 1 diabetes.All forms of diabetes have been treatable since insulin became medically available in 1921.com/health. Adequate treatment of diabetes is thus important. Acute complications include hypoglycemia.8% of the population. chronic renal failure. Diabetes mellitus type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas leading to insulin deficiency. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal. Visit http://www. and gestational diabetes usually resolves after delivery.mallshop2u. retinal damage. Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. which causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe. or nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. especially in the early stages. As of 2000 at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes.

most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment. the specific defects are not known. As the disease progresses. In the early stage of type 2 diabetes. such as shoulder dystocia. It occurs in about 2%–5% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.mallshop2u. Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome.Diabetes mellitus type 2 Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance which may be combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion. involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. A cesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia. Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type. the predominant abnormality is reduced insulin sensitivity. and therapeutic replacement of insulin may sometimes become necessary in certain patients. the impairment of insulin secretion occurs.html to get diabetes medication and diabetes related products at low prices ! 3 . However. Hyperbilirubinemia may result from red blood cell destruction.com/health. untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or mother.Even though it may be transient. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects. The defective responsiveness of body tissues to insulin is believed to involve the insulin receptor. congenital cardiac and central nervous system anomalies. Risks to the baby include macrosomia (high birth weight). About 20%–50% of affected women develop type 2 diabetes later in life. perinatal death may occur. Visit http://www. In severe cases. and skeletal muscle malformations. Gestational diabetes is fully treatable but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy. At this stage hyperglycemia can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce glucose production by the liver. Diabetes mellitus due to a known defect are classified separately.

S. but no firm evidence has been found.. The ADA does not recommend alcohol consumption as a preventive. although none has proven definitive in all cases). How to Prevent Type 1 Type 1 diabetes risk is known to depend upon a genetic predisposition based on HLA types (particularly types DR3 and DR4). having a modest fat intake. but it is interesting to note that moderate alcohol intake may 4 . and an even lower incidence relative to those with antibodies as above. and eating sufficient fiber (e. found that more American women are entering pregnancy with preexisting diabetes. This is particularly problematic as diabetes raises the risk of complications during pregnancy.A 2008 study completed in the U. and treated with vitamin B3 (niacin). getting at least 2½ hours of exercise per week (several brisk sustained walks appear sufficient). and an uncontrolled autoimmune response that attacks the insulin producing beta cells. Children with antibodies to beta cell proteins (i.g. but who received no vitamin B3. from whole grains). In fact the rate of diabetes in expectant mothers has more than doubled in the past 6 years. an unknown environmental trigger (suspected to be an infection. Some research has suggested that breastfeeding decreased the risk in later life. had less than half the diabetes onset incidence in a 7-year time span as did the general population. at early stages of an immune reaction to them) but no overt diabetes. Type 2 Lifestyle Type 2 diabetes risk can be reduced in many cases by making changes in diet and increasing physical activity. as well as increasing the potential that the children of diabetic mothers will also become diabetic in the future. Giving children 2000 IU of Vitamin D during their first year of life is associated with reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. various other nutritional risk factors are being studied. though the causal relationship is obscure.e. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends maintaining a healthy weight.

html to get diabetes medication and diabetes related products at low prices ! 5 . incidence of diabetes was reduced by 77% though causal mechanisms are unclear. and seeds. should replace foods rich in saturated fats from meats and fat-rich dairy products. rosiglitazone. Study group participants whose "physical activity level and dietary. a similarly confused connection between low dose alcohol consumption and heart disease is termed the French Paradox. Medications Some studies have shown delayed progression to diabetes in predisposed patients through prophylactic use of metformin. There are numerous studies which suggest connections between some aspects of Type II diabetes with ingestion of certain foods or with some drugs. smoking.com/health. Breastfeeding may also be associated with the prevention of type 2 of the disease in mothers.reduce the risk (though heavy consumption absolutely and clearly increases damage to bodily systems significantly). There is inadequate evidence that eating foods of low glycemic index is clinically helpful despite recommendations and suggested diets emphasizing this approach. Diets that are very low in saturated fats reduce the risk of becoming insulin resistant and diabetic. "foods rich in vegetable oils. including nonhydrogenated margarines. nuts.mallshop2u. Consumption of partially hydrogenated fats should be minimized. or valsartan. In another study of dietary practice and incidence of diabetes. Visit http://www. In patients on hydroxychloroquine for rheumatoid arthritis. and alcohol habits were all in the low-risk group had an 82% lower incidence of diabetes. Lifestyle interventions are however more effective than metformin at preventing diabetes regardless of weightloss.

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