6 views

Uploaded by Lolei Garnace

- 9-4 07
- Abbott-TeachYourselfCalculus_text.pdf
- Silibus_QQM_1023_S10910
- Algebra Handout
- visualizing st
- ca mod01 les01
- frege_fac
- daqfactory usersguide
- Homocides in Chicago, 1965-1995
- BOTG Lesson - Change
- algebraic-identities.pdf
- 213912788-Sid-SigSys-1-Introduction-to-Signals-and-Systems.pdf
- ch12-key
- July DLL in Empowerment
- g8m5l5- graphing linear functions and equations
- (a) (b) (c) (d)
- Syllabus Tle g10
- conceptual foundations expressions and inequalities
- conceptual foundations expressions and inequalities
- Shifting a Graph AVF

You are on page 1of 960

intentionally left

blank

Copyright © 2004, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers

Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers

No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm,

xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval

system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher.

All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com

NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS

4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002

Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com

Preface v

Preface

As the title of the book ‘How to learn calculus of one variable’ Suggests we have tried to present the entire

book in a manner that can help the students to learn the methods of calculus all by themselves we have felt that

there are books written on this subject which deal with the theoretical aspects quite exhaustively but do not

take up sufficient examples necessary for the proper understanding of the subject matter thoroughly. The

books in which sufficient examples are solved often lack in rigorous mathematical reasonings and skip accurate

arguments some times to make the presentation look apparently easier.

We have, therefore, felt the need for writing a book which is free from these deficiencies and can be used as

a supplement to any standard book such as ‘Analytic geometry and calculus’ by G.B. Thomas and Finny which

quite thoroughly deals with the proofs of the results used by us.

A student will easily understand the underlying principles of calculus while going through the worked-out

examples which are fairly large in number and sufficiently rigorous in their treatment. We have not hesitated to

work-out a number of examples of the similar type though these may seem to be an unnecessary repetition. This

has been done simply to make the students, trying to learn the subject on their own, feel at home with the

concepts they encounter for the first time. We have, therefore, started with very simple examples and gradually

have taken up harder types. We have in no case deviated from the completeness of proper reasonings.

For the convenience of the beginners we have stressed upon working rules in order to make the learning all

the more interesting and easy. A student thus acquainted with the basics of the subject through a wide range

of solved examples can easily go for further studies in advanced calculus and real analysis.

We would like to advise the student not to make any compromise with the accurate reasonings. They should

try to solve most of examples on their own and take help of the solutions provided in the book only when it is

necessary.

This book mainly caters to the needs of the intermediate students whereas it can also used with advantages

by students who want to appear in various competitive examinations. It has been our endeavour to incorporate

all the finer points without which such students continually feel themselves on unsafe ground.

We thank all our colleagues and friends who have always inspired and encouraged us to write this book

everlastingly fruitful to the students. We are specially thankful to Dr Simran Singh, Head of the Department of

Lal Bahadur Shastri Memorial College, Karandih, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, who has given valuable suggestions

while preparing the manuscript of this book.

Suggestions for improvement of this book will be gratefully accepted.

MD ANWARUL HAQUE

This page

intentionally left

blank

Contents vii

Contents

Preface v

1. Function 1

2. Limit and Limit Points 118

3. Continuity of a Function 151

4. Practical Methods of Finding the Limits 159

5. Practical Methods of Continuity Test 271

6. Derivative of a Function 305

7. Differentiability at a Point 321

8. Rules of Differentiation 354

9. Chain Rule for the Derivative 382

10. Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Functions 424

11. Differential Coefficient of Mod Functions 478

12. Implicit Differentiation 499

13. Logarithmic Differentiation 543

14. Successive Differentiation 567

15. L’Hospital’s Rule 597

16. Evaluation of Derivatives for Particular Arguments 615

17. Derivative as Rate Measurer 636

18. Approximations 666

viii Contents

20. Rolle’s Theorem and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem 781

21. Monotonocity of a Function 840

22. Maxima and Minima 870

Bibliography 949

Index 950

Function 1

1

Function

To define a function, some fundamental concepts are 2. The position of a point moving in a circle is a

required. variable.

Definition: 2. (Set theoritic): In the language of set

Fundamental Concepts theory, a variable is symbol used to represent an

unspecified (not fixed, i.e. arbitrary) member (element

Question: What is a quantity?

or point) of a set, i.e., by a variable, we mean an element

Answer: In fact, anything which can be measured or

which can be any one element of a set or which can

which can be divided into parts is called a quantity.

be in turn different elements of a set or which can be

But in the language of mathematics, its definition is

a particular unknown element of a set or successively

put in the following manner.

different unknown elements of a set. We may think of

Definition: Anything to which operations of a variable as being a “place-holder” or a “blank” for

mathematics (mathematical process) such as addition, the name of an element of a set.

subtraction, multiplication, division or measurement Further, any element of the set is called a value of

etc. are applicable is called a quantity. the variable and the set itself is called variable’s

Numbers of arithmetic, algebraic or analytic domain or range.

expressions, distance, area, volume, angle, time, If x be a symbol representing an unspecified

weight, space, velocity and force etc. are all examples element of a set D, then x is said to vary over the set

of quantities. D (i.e., x can stand for any element of the set D, i.e., x

Any quantity may be either a variable or a constant. can take any value of the set D) and is called a variable

Note: Mathematics deals with quantities which have on (over) the set D whereas the set D over which the

values expressed in numbers. Number may be real or variable x varies is called domain or range of x.

imaginary. But in real analysis, only real numbers as Example: Let D be the set of positive integers and x

values such as –1, 0, 15, 2 , p etc. are considered. Î D = {1, 2, 3, 4, …}, then x may be 1, 2, 3, 4, … etc.

Question: What is a variable? Note: A variable may be either (1) an independent

Answer: variable (2) dependent variable. These two terms have

Definitions 1: (General): If in a mathematical discus- been explained while defining a function.

sion, a quantity can assume more than one value, Question: What is a constant?

then the quantity is called a variable quantity or sim- Answer:

ply a variable and is denoted by a symbol. Definition 1. (General): If in a mathematical

Example: 1. The weight of men are different for dif- discussion, a quantity cannot assume more than one

ferent individuals and therefore height is a variable.

2 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

vale, then the quantity is called a constant or a 1. Absolute constants (or, numerical constants).

constant quantity and is denoted by a symbol. 2. Arbitrary constants (or, symbolic constants).

Examples: 1. The weights of men are different for Each one is defined in the following way:

different individuals and therefore weight is a variable. 1. Absolute constants: Absolute constants have the

But the numbers of hands is the same for men of same value forever, e.g.:

different weights and is therefore a constant. (i) All arithmetical numbers are absolute constants.

2. The position of a point moving in a circle is a Since 1 = 1 always but 1 ¹ 2 which means that the

variable but the distance of the point from the centre value of 1 is fixed. Similarly –1 = –1 but –1 ¹ 1 (Any

of the circle is a constant. quantity is equal to itself. this is the basic axiom of

3. The expression x + a denotes the sum of two mathematics upon which foundation of equations

quantities. The first of which is variable while the takes rest. This is why 1 = 1, 2 = 2, 3 = 3, … x = x and

second is a constant because it has the same value a = a and so on).

whatever values are given to the first one. (ii) p and logarithm of positive numbers (as log2, log

Definition: 2. (Set theoritic): In the language of set 3, log 4, … etc) are also included in absolute constants.

theory, a constant is a symbol used to represent a 2. Arbitrary constants: Any arbitrary constant is

member of the set which consists of only one member, one which may be given any fixed value in a problem

i.e. if there is a variable ‘c’ which varies over a set and retains that assigned value (fixed value)

consisting of only one element, then the variable ‘c’ throughout the discussion of the same problem but

is called a constant, i.e., if ‘c’ is a symbol used to may differ in different problems.

represent precisely one element of a set namely D, An arbitrary constant is also termed as a parameter.

then ‘c’ is called a constant. Note: Also, the term “parameter” is used in speaking

Example: Let the set D has only the number 3; then of any letter, variable or constant, other than the

c = 3 is a constant. coordinate variables in an equation of a curve defined

Note: Also, by a constant, we mean a fixed element by y = f (x) in its domain.

of a set whose proper name is given. We often refer to Examples: (i) In the equation of the circle x2 + y2 =

the proper name of an element in a set as a constant. a2, x and y, the coordinates of a point moving along a

Moreover by a relative constant, we mean a fixed circle, are variables while ‘a’ the radius of a circle may

element of a set whose proper name is not given. We have any constant value and is therefore an arbitrary

often refer to the “alias” of an element in a set as a constant or parameter.

relative constant. (ii) The general form of the equation of a straight line

Remark: The reader is warned to be very careful put in the form y = mx + c contains two parameters

about the use of the terms namely variable and namely m and c representing the gradient and y-inter-

constant. These two terms apply to symbols only not cept of any specific line.

to numbers or quantities in the set theory. Thus it is

meaningless to speak of a variable number (or a Symbolic Representation of Quantities,

variable quantity) in the language of set theory for Variables and Constants

the simple reason that no number is known to human In general, the quantities are denoted by the letters a,

beings which is a variable in any sense of the term. b, c, x, y, z, … of the English alphabet. The letters from

Hence the ‘usual’ text book definition of a variable as “a to s” of the English alphabet are taken to represent

a quantity which varies or changes is completely constants while the letters from “t to z” of the English

misleading in set theory. alphabet are taken to represent variables.

Question: What is increment?

Kinds of Constants

Answer: An increment is any change (increase or

There are mainly two kinds of constants namely: growth) in (or, of) a variable (dependent or

Function 3

independent). It is the difference which is found by Hence, increment in y = f (x + ∆x) – f (x) where

subtracting the first value (or, critical value) of the 1

variable from the second value (changed value, f (x) =

x

increased value or final value) of the variable.

That is, increment 1

⇒ ∆ y = x + ∆x –

1

=

x − x + ∆x a f =

= final value – initial value = F.V – I. V. x x + ∆x a f

x

Notes: (i) Increased value/changed value/final value/

second value means a value obtained by making –∆ x

addition, positive or negative, to a given value (initial a

x x + ∆x f

value) of a variable. 4. Let y = log x = given value.

(ii) The increments may be positive or negative, in Then, y + ∆ y = log (x + ∆ x)

both cases, the word “increment” is used so that a

negative increment is an algebraic decrease.

and ∆ y = log (x + ∆ x) – log x = log

FG x + ∆ x IJ =

H x K

Examples on Increment in a Variable

1. Let x1 increase to x2 by the amount ∆ x. Then we log 1 +

FG ∆x IJ

can set out the algebraic equation x1 + ∆ x = x2 which

H x K

⇒ ∆ x = x2 – x1. 5. Let y = sin θ, given value

2. Let y1 decrease to y2 by the amount ∆ y. Then we Then, y + ∆ y = sin (θ + ∆ θ)

can set out the algebraic equation y1 + ∆ y = y2 which FG 2 θ + ∆ θ IJ ·

⇒ ∆ y = y2 – y1. and ∆ y = sin (θ + ∆ θ) – sin θ = 2cos H 2 K

Examples on Increment in a Function

sin

FG ∆ θ IJ .

1. Let y = f (x) = 5x + 3 = given value … (i) H2K

Now, if we give an increment ∆ x to x, then we also

Question: What is the symbol used to represent (or,

require to give an increment ∆ y to y simultaneously.

denote) an increment?

Hence, y + ∆ y = f (x + ∆ x) = 5 (x + ∆ x) + 3 = 5x +

Answer: The symbols we use to represent small

5∆ x + 3 … (ii)

increment or, simply increment are Greak Letters ∆

∴ (ii) – (i) ⇒ y + ∆ y – y = (5x + 5∆ x + 3) – (5x + 3)

and δ (both read as delta) which signify “an increment/

= 5x + 5∆ x + 3 – 5x – 3 = 5∆ x

change/growth” in the quantity written just after it as

i.e., ∆ y = 5∆ x

it increases or, decreases from the initial value to

2. Let y = f (x) = x2 + 2 = given value,

another value, i.e., the notation ∆ x is used to denote

then y + ∆ y = f (x + ∆ x) = (x + ∆ x)2 + 2 = x2 +

a fixed non zero, number that is added to a given

∆ x2 + 2x ∆ x + 2

number x0 to produce another number x = x0 + ∆ x. if

⇒ ∆ y = x2 + ∆ x2 + 2x ∆ x + 2 – x2 – 2 = 2x ∆ x +

y = f (x) then ∆ y = f (x0 + ∆ x) – f (x0).

∆ x2

Hence, increment in y = f (x + ∆ x) – f (x) where Notes: If x, y, u. v are variables, then increments in

f (x) = (x2 + 2) is ∆ y = x2 + ∆ x2 + 2x ∆ x + 2 – x2 – 2 them are denoted by ∆ x, ∆ y, ∆ u, ∆ v respectively

= 2x ∆ x + ∆ x2 signifying how much x, y, u, v increase or decrease,

i.e., an increment in a variable (dependent or

1

3. Let y = = given value. independent) tells how much that variable increases

x or decreases.

1 Let us consider y = x2

Then, y + ∆ y = x + ∆ x When x = 2, y = 4

x = 3, y = 9

4 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

⇒ as x increases from 2 to 3, y increases from 4 Law”.

to 9.

1. The term “rule” means the procedure (or

⇒ as x increases by 1, y increases by 5.

procedures) or, method (or, methods) or, operation

Question: What do you mean by the term “function”? (or, operations) that should be performed over the

Answer: In the language of set theory, a function is independent variable (denoted by x) to obtain the

defined in the following style. value the dependent variable (denoted by y).

A function from a set D to a set R is a rule or, law

Examples:

(or, rules, or, laws) according to which each element

1. Let us consider quantities like

of D is associated (or, related, or, paired) with a unique

(i) y = log x (iv) y = sin x

(i.e., a single, or, one and only one, or, not more than

(ii) y – x3 (v) y = sin–1x

one) element of R. The set D is called the domain of

the function while the set R is called the range of the (iii) y = x (vi) y = ex, … etc.

function. Moreover, elements of the domain (or, the In these log, cube, square root, sin, sin–1, e, … etc

set D) are called the independent variables and the are functions since the rule or, the law, or, the function

elements of the range (or, range set or, simply the set

R) are called the dependent variables. If x is the f = log, ( )3, , sin, sin–1 or, e, … etc has been

element of D, then a unique element in R which the performed separately over (or, on) the independent

rule (or, rules) symbolised as f assigns to x is termed variable x which produces the value for the dependent

“the value of f at x” or “the image of x under the rule variable represented by y with the assistance of the

f” which is generally read as “the f-function of x” or, “f rule or the functions log, ( )3, , sin, sin–1 or, e, …

of x”. Further one should note that the range R is the

set of all values of the function f whereas the domain etc. (Note: An arbitrary element (or point) x in a set

D is the set of all elements (or, points) whose each signifies any specified member (or, element or point)

element is associated with a unique elements of the of that set).

range set R. 2. The precise relationship between two sets of

Functions are represented pictorially as in the corresponding values of dependent and independent

accompanying diagram. variables is usually called a law or rule. Often the rule

is a formula or an equation involving the variables

D R but it can be other things such as a table, a list of

ordered pairs or a set of instructions in the form of a

statement in words. The rule of a function gives the

x y = f (x ) value of the function at each point (or, element) of the

domain.

Examples:

One must think of x as an arbitrary element of the

1

domain D or, an independent variable because a value af

(i) The formula f x = 2 tells that one should

f of x can be selected arbitrarily from the domain D as 1+ x

well as y as the corresponding value of f at x, a square the independent variable x, add unity and then

dependent variable because the value of y depends divide unity by the obtained result to get the value of

upon the value of x selected. It is customary to write the function f at the point x, i.e., to square the

y = f (x) which is read as “y is a function of x” or, “y is independent variable x, to add unity and lastly to

f of x” although to be very correct one should say divide unity by the whole obtained result (i.e., square

that y is the value assigned by the function f of the independent variable x plus unity).

corresponding to the value of x.

Function 5

(ii) f (x) = x2 + 2, where the rule f signifies to square (iv) Image, functional value and value of the function

the number x and to add 2 to it. are synonymes.

(iii) f (x) = 3x – 2, where the rule f signifies to multiply Notations:

x by 3 and to subtract 2 from 3x.

f

(iv) C = 2 π r an equation involving the variables C We write 1. " f : D → R" or " D → R" for “f is a

(the circumference of the circle) and r (the radius of function with domain D and range R” or equivalently,

the circle) which means that C = 2 π r = a function “f is a function from D to R”.

of r.

(v) y = 64 s an equation involving y and s which

f

2. f : x → y or, x → y or, x → f x af for “a

function f from x to y” or “f maps (or, transforms) x

means that y = 64 s a functions of s. into y or f (x)”.

3. f : D → R defined by y = f (x) or, f : D → R by

3. A function or a rule may be regarded as a kind of

y = f (x) for “(a) the domain = D, (b) the range = R, (c)

machine (or, a mathematical symbol like , log, sin, the rule : y = f (x).

cos, tan, cot, sec, cosec, sin–1, cos–1, tan–1,

cot–1, 4. D (f) = The domain of the function f where D

–1 –1

sec , cosec , … etc indicating what mathematical signifies “domain of”.

operation is to be performed over (or, on) the elements 5. R (f) = The range of the function f where R signifies

of the domain) which takes the elements of the domain “range of”.

D, processes them and produces the elements of the Remarks:

range R. (i) When we do not specify the image of elements of

Example of a function of functions: the domain, we use the notation (1).

Integration of a continuous function defined on some (ii) When we want to indicate only the images of

closed interval [a. b] is an example of a function of elements of the domain, we use the notation (2).

functions, namely the rule (or, the correspondence) (iii) When we want to indicate the range and the rule

that associates with each object f (x) in the given set of a function together with a functional value f (x), we

z af

use the notation (3).

b

(iv) In the language of set theory, the domain of a

of objects, the real number f x dx . function is defined in the following style:

a

k p

D (f): x: x ∈ D1 where, D 1 = the set of

by simple formulas. One should think of a formula as independent variables (or, arguments) = the set of all

a rule for calculating f (x) when x is known (or, given), those members upon which the rule ‘f ’ is performed

i.e., of the rule of a function f is a formula giving y in to find the images (or, values or, functional values).

terms of x say y = f (x), to find the value of f at a (v) In the language of set theory, the range of a

function is defined in the following way:

a f laf af q

number a, we substitute that number a for x wherever

x occurs in the given formula and then simplify it. R f = f x : x ∈ D , f x ∈ R = the set of all

af

(ii) For x ∈ D , f x ∈ R should be unique means images.

that f can not have two or more values at a given (vi) The function f n is defined by f n (x) = f (x) · f (x) …

point (or, number) x. n. times

(iii) f (x) always signifies the effect or the result of = [f (x)]n, where n being a positive integer.

applying the rule f to x. (vii) For a real valued function of a real variable both

x and y are real numbers consisting of.

(a) Zero

6 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

(b) Positive or negative integers, e.g.: 4, 11, 9, 17, 2. If R = C, i.e., if the range set equals the co-domain,

–3, –17, … etc. then the function is said to be an “onto function”.

9 −17 3. If one is given the domain D and the rule (or

(c) Rational numbers, e.g.: , , … etc. formula,) then it is possible (theoretically at least) to

5 2

state explicitly a function as any ordered pair and one

(d) Irrational numbers e.g.: 7 , − 14 , … etc. should note that under such conditions, the range

(viii) Generally the rule/process/method/law is not need not be given. Further, it is notable that for each

given in the form of verbal statements (like, find the specified element ' a' ∈ D , the functional value f (a)

square root, find the log, exponential, … etc.) but in is obtained under the function ‘f’.

the form of a mathematical statement put in the form 4. If a ∈ D , then the image in C is represented by f

of expression containing x (i.e. in the form of a formula)

(a) which is called the functional value (corresponding

which may be translated into words (or, verbal

to a)and it is included in the range set R.

statements).

(ix) If it is known that the range R is a subset of some Question: Distinguish between the terms “a function

set C, then the following notation is used: and a function of x”.

f : D → C signifying that Answer: A function of x is a term used for “an image

of x under the rule f” or “the value of the function f at

(a) f is a function (or, for) x” or “the functional value of x” symbolised

(b) The domain of f is D as y = f (x) which signifies that an operation (or,

(c) The range of f is contained in C. operations) denoted by f has (or, have) been performed

Nomenclature: The notation " f : D → C" is read f on x to produce an other element f (x) whereas the

is a function on the set D into the set C.” term “function” is used for “the rule (or, rules)” or

“operation (or, operations)” or “law (or, laws)” to be

C

performed upon x, x being an arbitrary element of a

D f

set known as the domain of the function.

x5 x1 y1 y5 R Remarks: 1. By an abuse of language, it has been

x6 x2 y2 y6

x3 y3 customary to call f (x) as function instead of f when a

x4 y4 particular (or, specifies) value of x is not given only

for convenience. Hence, wherever we say a “function

f (x) what we actually mean to say is the function f

N.B: To define some types of functions like “into whose value at x is f (x). thus we say, functions x4, 3x2

function and on to function”, it is a must to define a + 1, etc.

function " f : D → C" where C = codomain and n

2. The function ‘f’ also represents operator like ,

hence we are required to grasp the notion of co-

domain. Therefore, we can define a co-domain of a ( )n, | |, log, e, sin, cos, tan, cot, sec, cosec, sin–1, cos–

1, tan–1, cot–1, sec–1 or cosec–1 etc.

function in the following way:

3. Function, operator, mapping and transformation

Definition of co-domain: A co-domain of a function are synonymes.

is a set which contains the range or range set (i.e., set 4. If domain and range of a function are not known, it

of all values of f) which means R ⊆ C , where R = the is customary to denote the function f by writing y = f

set of all images of f and C = a set containing images (x) which is read as y is a function of x.

of f.

Question: Explain the terms “dependent and

Remember: independent variables”.

1. If R ⊂ C (where R = the range set, C = co-domain) Answer:

i.e., if the range set is a proper subset of the co-domain, 1. Independent variable: In general, an independent

then the function is said to be an “into function”. variable is that variable whose value does not depend

Function 7

a mathematical expression whose value determines 1. Any other letter besides f , φ , F etc may be used

the value of the whole given expression is called an

just for indicating the dependence of one physical

independent variable: in y = f (x), x is the independent

quantity on an other quantity.

variable.

2. The value of f /functional value of f corresponding

In set theoretic language, an independent variable

to x = a / the value of the dependent variable y for a

is the symbol which is used to denote an unspecified

particular value of the independent variable is

member of the domain of a function.

symbolised as (f (x))x = a = f (a) or [f (x)]x = a = f (a) while

2. Dependent variable: In general a dependent

evaluating the value of the function f (x) at the point

variable is that variable whose value depends upon

x = a.

any other variable or variables, i.e., a variable (or, a

3. One should always note the difference between

mathematical equation or statement) whose value is

“a function and a function of”.

determined by the value taken by the independent

4. Classification of values of a function at a point x

variable is called a dependent variable: in y = f (x), y is

= a.

the dependent variable.

There are two kinds of the value of a function at a

In set theoretic language, a dependent variable is

point x = a namely

the symbol which is used to denote an unspecified

(i) The actual value of a function y = f (x) at x = a.

member of the range of a function.

bg

e.g.: In A = f r = π r 2, r is an independent variable

(ii) The approaching or limiting value of a function y

= f (x) at x = a, which are defined as:

and A is a dependent variable. (i) The actual value of a function y = f (x) at x = a:

Question: Explain the term “function or function of when the value of a function y = f (x) at x = a is

x” in terms of dependency and independency. obtained directly by putting in the given value of the

Answer: When the values of a variable y are independent variable x = a wherever x occurs in a

determined by the values given to another variable x, given mathematical equation representing a function,

y is called a function of (depending on) x or we say we say that the function f or f (x) has the actual value

that y depends on (or, upon) x. Thus, any expression f (a) at x = a.

in x depends for its value on the value of x. This is (ii) The approaching value of a function y = f (x) at x

why an expression in x is called a function of x put in = a: The limit of a function f (x) as x approaches some

the form: y = f (x). definite quantity is termed as the approaching (or,

Question: What are the symbols for representing the limiting) value of the function y = f (x) at x = a. This

terms “a function and a function of a variable”? value may be calculated when the actual value of the

Answer: Symbols such as f, F, φ etc are used to function f (x) becomes indeterminate at a particular

denote a function whereas a function of a variable is value ‘a’ of x.

a f af af

denoted by the symbols f (x), φ x , f t , F t ,

5. When the actual value of a function y = f (x) is

af af

φ t and can be put in the forms: y = f (x); y = φ x ; 0

af

y = f (t); y = F (t); y = φ t , that y is a function of

anyone of the following forms:

0

, 00 , 0 × ∞ ,

(depending on) the variable within the circular bracket

∞ any real number

( ), i.e., y depends upon the variable within circular , ∞ − ∞ , ∞ 0 , 1∞ , imaginary,

bracket. ∞ 0

i.e., y = f (x) signifies that y depends upon x, i.e., y for a particular value ‘a’ of x, it is said that the function

is a function of x. f (x) is not defined or is indeterminate or is meaningless

S = f (t) signifies that s depends upon t, i.e., s is a at x = a.

function of t. 6. To find the value of a function y = f (x) at x = a

af

C = φ r signifies that c depends upon r, i.e., c is

means to find the actual value of the function y = f (x)

at x = a.

a function of r.

8 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

C = codomain

Domain and Range.

x1 y1

1. Domain: A domain is generally represented by x2

y3

x3

any closed curve regular (i.e., circle, ellipse, rectangle, x4 y2 y4 y6

y5

square etc) or irregular (i.e. not regular) whose

members are represented by numbers or alphabets or

Fig. 1.3 Does not represent a function

dots.

2. Range: A range is generally represented by

C = codomain

another closed curve regular or irregular or the some D = domain

closed curve regular or irregular as the domain. R = range

3. Rule: A rule is generally represented by an arrow x1 y1 y4

x2 y2 y5

or arc (i.e., arc of the circle) drawn from each member x3

x4 y3 y6

of the domain such that it reaches a single member or

more than one member of the codomain, the codomain

being a superset of the range (or, range set).

Fig. 1.4 Represents a function

Remarks:

2. In the pictorial representation of a function the

1. We should never draw two or more than two arrows

word “rule” means.

from a single member of the domain such that it reaches

(i) Every point/member/element in the domain D is

more than one member of the codomain to show that

the venn-diagram represents a function. Logic behind a f af

joined by an arrow → or arc ∩ to some point in

it is given as follows. range R which means each element x ∈ D

If the domain are chairs, then one student can not

sit on more than one chair at the same time (i.e., one corresponds to some element y ∈ R ⊆ C .

student can not sit on two or more than two chairs at (ii) Two or more points in the domain D may be joined

the same time) to the same point in R ⊆ C (See Fig. 1.4 where the

points x2 and x3 in D are joined to the same point y2 in

D = domain R = range

R ⊆ C.

f = rule =

a function (iii) A point in the domain D can not be joined to two

x y or more than two points in C, C being a co-domain.

(See Fig. 1.3)

(iv) There may be some points in C which are not

Fig. 1.1 Represents a function joined to any element in D (See Fig. 1.4 where the

points y4, y5 and y6 in C are not joined to any point in

D.

f = rule = a function

C = codomain Precaution: It is not possible to represent any

D = domain

function as an equation involving variables always.

x1 y1 At such circumstances, we define a function as a set

x2 y2 R = range

x3 y3 of ordered pairs with no two first elements alike e.g., f

y4 = {(1, 2), (2, 4), (3, 6), (4, 8), (5, 10), (6, 12), (7, 14)}

y5 whose D = domain = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}, R = range = {2,

4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14} and the rule is: each second element

Fig. 1.2 Represents a function is twice its corresponding first element.

But f = {(0, 1), (0, 2), (0, 3), (0, 4)} does not define a

function since its first element is repeated.

Function 9

Note: When the elements of the domain and the range Classification of Functions

are represented by points or English alphabet with

We divide the function into two classes namely:

subscripts as x 1 , x 2 , … etc and y 1 , y 2 , … etc

(i) Algebraic

respectively, we generally represent a function as a

(ii) Transcendental which are defined as:

set of ordered pairs with no two first elements alike,

i.e., f: {x, f (x): no two first elements are same} or, {x, f (i) Algebraic function: A function which satisfies

(x): no two first elements are same} or, {(x, y): x ∈ D the equation put in the form:

af

Ao [f (x)] m + A1 [f (x)] m – 1 + A2 [f (x)] m – 2 + … + Am

and y = f x ∈ R } provided it is not possible to = 0, where A0, A1, … Am are polynomials is called an

represent the function as an equation y = f (x). algebraic function.

Question: What is meant whenever one says a Notes:

function y = f (x) exist at x = a or y = f (x) is defined at 1. A function f: R → R defined by f (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn

(or, f or) x = a? –1+ … + a

m – 1 x + am where a0, a1, a2, … am are

Answer: A function y = f (x) is said to exist at x = a or, constants and n is a positive integer, is called a

y = f (x) is said to be defined at (or, f or) x = a provided polynomial in x or a polynomial function or simply a

the value of the function f (x) at x = a (i.e. f (a)) is finite polynomial. One should note that a polynomial is a

which means that the value of the function f (x) at x = particular case of algebraic function as we see on

a should not be anyone of the following forms taking m = 1 and A0 = a constant in algebraic function.

0 0 ∞ 2. The quotient of two polynomials termed as a

, 0 , 0 × ∞, , ∞ – ∞ , ∞ 0 , 1∞ , imaginary rational function of x put in the form:

0 ∞

n n –1

a real number a0 x + a1 x + ... + am −1 x + am

value, . n

0 b0 + b1 x + ... + bm x

Remarks: is also an algebraic function. It is defined in every

(i) A symbol in mathematics is said to have been interval only in which denominator does not vanish.

defined when a meaning has been given to it. If f1 (x) and f2 (x) are two polynomials, then general

(ii) A symbol in mathematics is said to be undefined

af f1 x af

rational functions may be denoted by R x =

af

or non-existance when no meaning is attributed to

the symbol. f2 x

e.g.: The symbols 3/2, –8/15, sin–1(1/2), log (1/2) where R signifies “a rational function of”. In case f2

are defined or they are said to exist whereas the (x) reduces itself to unity or any other constant (i.e., a

−1 term not containing x or its power), R (x) reduces

symbols −9 , cos 5 , 5 ÷ 0 , log (–3), 5 2 are

itself to a polynomial.

undefined or they are said not to exist. 3. Generally, there will be a certain number of values

(iii) Whenever we say that something exists, we mean of x for which the rational function is not defined and

that it has a definite finite value. these are values of x for which the polynomial in

e.g.: denominator vanishes.

(i) f (a) exists means f (a) has a finite value.

af

(ii) lim f x exists means lim f x has a finite

x→a x→a

af af

e.g.: R x = 2

2

2 x − 5x + 1

is not defined when x

x − 5x + 6

value.

(iii) f ' (a) exists means f ' (a) has a finite value. = 2 or x = 3.

z af z af

b b 4. Rational integral functions: If a polynomial in x is

(iv) f x dx exists means that f x dx has a in a rational form only and the indices of the powers

a a of x are positive integers, then it is termed as a rational

finite value. integral function.

10 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

5. A combination of polynomials under one or more (B) One should remember that exponential functions

radicals termed as an irrational functions is also an obeys the laws of indices, i.e.,

algebraic function. Hence, y = af

x = f x ; y=

(i) xe · ey = ex + y

(ii) xe / ey = ex – y

x

53

af

= f x ; y=

x

2

serve as examples for

(iii) (ex)m = emx

−x 1

x +4 (iv) e = x

e

irrational algebraic functions.

6. A polynomial or any algebraic function raised to (C)

any power termed as a power function is also an (i) log 0 = − ∞

n

algebraic function. Hence, y = x , n ∈ R = f x ; a f af (ii) log 1 = 0

(iii) log ∞ = ∞

y= x +1 e 2

j

3

af

= f x serve as examples for power

Further Classification of Functions

functions which are algebraic.

The algebraic and the transcendental function are

Remarks: further divided into two types namely (i) explicit

1. All algebraic, transcendental, explicit or implicit function (ii) implicit function, which are defined as:

function or their combination raised to a fractional (i) Explicit function: An explicit function is a

power reduces to an irrational function. Hence, function put in the form y = f (x) which signifies that a

af a f af

53 1 relation between the dependent variable y and the

y= x = f x ; y = sin x + x 2 = f x serve independent variable x put in the form of an equation

as examples for irrational functions. can be solved for y and we say that y is an explicit

function of x or simply we say that y is a function of x.

2. All algebraic, transcendental, explicit or implicit

hence, y = sin x + x = f (x); y = x2 – 7x + 12 = f (x) serve

function or their combination raised to any power is

as examples for explicit function of x’s.

always regarded as a power function. Hence, y = sin2

Remark: If in y = f (x), f signifies the operators (i.e.,

x = f (x); y = log2 | x | = f (x) serve as examples for power

functions) sin, cos, tan, cot, sec, cosec, sin–1, cos–1,

functions.

tan–1, cot–1, sec–1, cosec–1, log or e, then y = f (x) is

Transcendental function: A function which is not called an explicit transcendental function otherwise it

algebraic is called a transcendental function. Hence, is called an explicit algebraic function.

all trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential

(ii) Implicit function: An implicit function is a

and logarithmic (symoblised as “TILE”) functions are

function put in the form: f (x, y) = c, c being a constant,

transcendental functions. hence, sin x, cos x, tan x,

which signifies that a relation between the variables y

cot x, sec x, cosec x, sin–1 x, cos–1 x, tan–1 x, cot–1 x,

and x exists such that y and x are in seperable in an

sec–1 x, cosec–1 x, log |f (x) |, log | x |, log x2, log (a + x2),

equation and we say that y is an implicit function of x.

ax (for any a > 0), ex, [f (x)]g (x) etc serve as examples

Hence, x3 + y2 = 4xy serves as an example for the

for transcendental functions.

implicit function of x.

Notes: (In the extended real number system) Remark: If in f (x, y) = c, f signifies the operators (i.e.,

(A) functions) sin, cos, tan, cot, sec, cosec, sin–1, cos–1,

tan–1, cot–1, sec–1, cosec–1, log, e and the ordered

(i) e = ∞ when x = ∞

x

pain (x, y) signifies the combination of the variables x

(ii) ex = 1 when x = 0 and y, then f (x, y) = c is called an implicit algebraic

(iii) ex = 0 when x = − ∞ . function of x, i.e., y is said to be an implicit algebraic

function of x, if a relation of the form:

Function 11

af

ym + R1 ym – 1 + … + Rm = 0 exists, where R1, R2, … 1

Rm are rational function of x and m is a positive integer. Let y = f x =

x

Note: Discussion on “the explicit and the implicit ∴ xy = 1 which is the equation of a rectangular

functions” has been given in detail in the chapter hyperbola, i.e., the reciprocal of an identity function

“differentiation of implicit function”. represents a rectangular hyperbola.

Also, D (f) = {real number except zero} = R – {0}

On Some Important Functions and R (f) = {real numbers}

Some types of functions have been discussed in 4. The linear function: A function put in the form: f

previous sections such as algebraic, transcendental, (x) = mx + c is called a “linear function” due to the fact

explicit and implicit functions. In this section definition that its graph is a straight line.

of some function used most frequently are given. Also, D (f) = {real numbers except m = 0} and R (f)

1. The constant function: A function f: R → R = {real number except m = 0}

defined by f (x) = c is called the “constant function”. Question: What do you mean by the “absolute value

Let y = f (x) = c function”?

∴ y = c which is the equation of a straight line Answer: A function f: R → R defined by f (x) = | x |

parallel to the x-axis, i.e., a constant function

represents straight lines parallel to the x-axis. RS x , x ≥ 0 is called absolute value (or, modulus or,

Also, domain of the constant function = D (f) =

{real numbers} = R and range of the constant function

=

T−x , x < 0

norm) function.

= R (f) = {c} = a singleton set for examples, y = 2; y = 3 Notes: (A) A function put in the form | f (x) | is called

are constant functions. the “modulus of a function” or simply “modulus of a

Remarks: function” which signifies that:

(i) A polynomial a0 xn + a1 xn – 1 + … a m – 1 x + am

(whose domain and range are sets of real numbers)

af

(i) | f (x) | = f (x), provided f x ≥ 0 , i.e., if f (x) is

positive or zero, then | f (x) | = f (x).

reduces to a constant function when degree of

(ii) | f (x) | = –f (x), provided f (x) < 0, i.e., if f (x) is

polynomial is zero.

negative, then | f (x) | = –f (x) which means that if f (x)

(ii) In particular, if c = 0, then f (x) is called the “ zero

is negative, f (x) should be multiplied by –1 to make f

function” and its graph is the x-axis itself.

(x) positive.

2. The identity function: A function f: R → R (B) | f (x) | = sgn f (x) × f (x) where sgn

defined by f (x) = x is called the “identity function”

af a f , f axf ≠ 0

f x

f a xf

whose domain and range coincide with each other, f x =

i.e., D (f) = R (f) in case of identity function.

Let y = f (x) = x = 0, f (x) = 0

∴ y = x which is the equation of a straight line i.e., sgn f (x) = 1 when f (x) > 0

passing through the origin and making an angle of = –1 when f (x) < 0

45° with the x-axis, i.e., an identity function represents = 0 when f (x) = 0

straight lines passing through origin and making an where ‘sgn’ signifies “sign of ” written briefly for the

angle of 45° with the x-axis. word “signum” from the Latin. Also, domain of abso-

3. The reciprocal of identity function: A function lute value function = D (f) = {real numbers} and range

of absolute value function = R (f) = {non negative real

f: R – {0} → R defined by f x = af 1

is called the numbers} = R+ ∪ {0}.

a f

x

reciprocal function of the identity function f (x) = x or (C) 1. (i) | x – a | = (x – a) when x − a ≥ 0

simply reciprocal function.

a

| x – a | = –(x – a) when x − a < 0 f

12 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

| –3 | = –(–3) since –3 is negative. For this reason,

af

12. | f x | ≥ 0 always means that the absolute value

of a functions is always non-negative (i.e., zero or

we have to multiply –3 by –1.

positive real numbers)

2. If the sign of a function f (x) is unknown (i.e., we

13. | f (x) = | –f (x) |

do not know whether f (x) is positive or negative),

then we generally use the following definition of the af

14. | f x | ≥ f x af

absolute value of a function. 15. | f 1 (x) · f 2 (x) |

af af a xf

= | f 1 (x) | · | f 2 (x) |

2

a f = f a xf , f a xf ≠ 0

2

f x = f x = f

f1 x

a f f a xf

1

3. Absolute means to have a magnitude but no sign. 16. 2

f2 x 2

4. Absolute value, norm and modulus of a function

are synonymes. 17. f a x f + f a xf ≤ f a xf + f a x f

1 2 1 2

5. Notation: The absolute value of a function is

denoted by writing two vertical bars (i.e. straight lines) 18. f a x f − f a xf ≥ f a xf − f a xf

1 2 1 2

within which the function is placed. Thus the notation

19. | 0 | = 0, i.e. absolute value of zero is zero.

to signify “the absolute value of” is “| |”.

20. Modulus of modulus of a function (i.e. mod of | f

6. | f 2 (x) | = f 2 (x) = | f (x) |2 = (–f (x))2

(x) | ) = | f (x) |

7. In a compact form, the absolute value of a function

Remarks: When

may be defined as f x af = f

2

a xf (a) | x | = x, when x ≥ 0 ⇔ x = x , ∀ x ∈ 0 , ∞ a f

af

= f (x), when f x ≥ 0 and | x | = –x, when x < 0 ⇔ x = − x,

= –f (x), when f (x) < 0

a

∀ x ∈ −∞ , 0 . f

8. af

f1 x af af

= f 2 x ⇔ f1 x = ± f 2 x af (b) | x | = | –x | = x, for all real values of x

e.g.: x − 2 = x + 3 ⇔ a x − 2 f = ± a x + 3f

which is solved as under this line. a x − 2 f =

2

(c) x = x

a x + 3f ⇒ − 2 = 3 which is false which means this (d) x ≤ a ⇔ − a ≤ x ≤ a and x ≥ a ⇔ x ≥ a

equation has no solution and a x − 2 f = − a x + 3f ⇒ and x ≤ − a .

x − 2 = − x − 3 ⇒ x + x = 2 − 3 ⇒ 2x = − 1 ⇒

1 Geometric Interpretation of Absolute Value

x=− .

2 of a Real Number x, Denoted by | x |

9. af

f x af

≤ k ⇔ − k ≤ f x ≤ k which signifies The absolute value of a real number x, denoted by | x

f a xf ≥ − k af

| is undirected distance between the origin O and the

the intersection of and f x ≤ k , point corresponding to a (i.e. x = a) i.e, | x | signifies

∀k > 0. the distance between the origin and the given point x

a f ≥ k ⇔ f axf ≥ k or f a xf ≤ − k which

= a on the real line.

10. f x Explanation: Let OP = x

signifies the union of f a x f ≥ k and f a x f ≤ − k , If x > o, P lies on the right side of origin ‘O’, then

the distance OP = | OP | = | x | = x

∀k > 0.

11. | f (x) |n = (f (x)n, where n is a real number. –a a

x′ P (x) 0 P (x) x

Function 13

If x = O, P coincides with origin, the distance OP = 3. To indicate both positive square root and negative

|x|=|o|=o square root of a quantity under the radical sign, we

If x > O, P lies on the left side of origin ‘o’, then the write the symbol ± (read as “plus or minus”) before

distance OP = | OP | = | –OP | = | –x | = x the radical sign.

Hence, | x | = e.g.: ± 1 = ± 1

x, provided x > o means that the absolute value

of a positive number is the positive number ± 4 = ±2

itself.

o, provided x = o means the absolute value of ± 16 = ± 4

zero is taken to be equal to zero. Remember:

–x, provided x < o means that the absolute value 1. In problems involving square root, the positive

of a negative number is the positive value of square root is the one used generally, unless there is

that number.

a remark to the contrary. Hence, 100 = 10 ;

Notes:

1. x is negative in | x | = –x signifies –x is positive in | 2

x | = –x e.g.: | –7| = –(–7) = 7. 169 = 13 ; x = x .

2. The graphs of two numbers namely a and –a on 2 2 2 2 2

the number line are equidistant from the origin. We 2. x + y = 1 ⇔ x = 1 − y ⇔ x =

call the distance of either from zero, the absolute value

2 2 2

of a and denote it by | a |. 1− y ⇔ x = 1− y ⇔ x = ± 1− y

3. x = a ⇔ x = ±a

e.g.: cos2 θ = 1 − sin 2 θ ⇔ cos θ =

2 2 2 2

4. x = a ⇔ x = a ⇔ x = a ⇔ x= 2 2

1 − sin θ ⇔ cos θ = ± 1 − sin θ

2 2

±a ⇔ x = ± a ⇔ x = a . one should note that the sign of cosθ is

determined by the value of the angle ' θ' and the

2

5. x = x signifies that if x is any given number, value of the angle ' θ' is determined by the quadrant

then the symbol 2 in which it lies. Similarly for other trigonometrical

x represents the positive square

2

root of x and be denoted by | x | whose graph is functions of θ , such as, tan2 θ = sec2 θ – 1 ⇔ tan

symmetrical about the y-axis having the shape of 2 2

English alphabet 'V '. which opens (i) upwards if y =

θ= ± sec θ − 1 ⇔ tan θ = sec θ − 1

| x | (ii) downwards if y = – | x | (iii) on the right side if 2 2

cot θ = cosec θ − 1 ⇔ cot θ =

x = | y | (iv) on the left side if x = – | y |.

2 2

An Important Remark ± cosec θ − 1 ⇔ cot θ = cosec θ − 1

2 2

1. The radical sign " n " indicates the positive root sec θ = 1 + tan θ ⇔ sec θ =

± 1 + tan θ ⇔ sec θ = 1 + tan θ , w h e r e

it (radical sign) e.g.:25 = + 5 . the sign of angle ' θ ' is determined by the quadrant in

2. If we wish to indicate the negative square root of a which it lies.

quantity under the radical sign, we write the negative 3. The word “modulus” is also written as “mod” and

sign (–) before the radical sign. e.g.: − 4 = − 2 . “modulus function” is written as “mod function” in

brief.

14 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

On Greatest Integer Function This is why in particular y = [x] means that for a

particular value of x, y has a greatest integer which is

Firstly, we recall the definition of greatest integer

not greater than the value given to x.

function.

4. The function y = [x], where [x] denotes integral

Definition: A greatest integer function is the function part of the real number x, which satisfies the equality

defined on the domain of all real numbers such that x = [x] + q, where 0 ≤ q < 1 is discontinuous at every

with any x in the domain, the function associates integer x = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , ... and at all other points, this

algebraically the greatest (largest or highest) integer function is continuous.

which is less than or equal to x (i.e., not greater than 5. If x and y are two arbitrary real numbers satisfying

x) designated by writing square brackets around x as the inequality n ≤ x < n + 1 and n ≤ y < n + 1 ,

[x].

where n is an integer, then [x] = [y] = n.

The greatest integer function has the property of

6. y = [x] is meaningless for a non-real value of x

being less than or equal to x, while the next integer is

because its domain is the set of all real numbers and

greater than x which means x ≤ x < x + 1 . the range is the set of all integers, i.e. D [x] = R and R

[x] = {n: n is an integer} = The set of all integers, …

Examples:

LM OP

–3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …, i.e., negative, zero or positive

3 3 integer.

(i) x =

2

⇒ x =

2 NQ

= 1 is the greatest integer in

af af

7. f x = 0 ⇔ 0 ≤ f x < 1 . Further the solution

3 af

of 0 ≤ f x < 1 provides us one of the adjacent

. intervals where x lies. The next of the a adjacent intervals

2

(ii) x = 5 ⇒ [x] = [5] = 5 is the greatest integer in 5. is determined by adding 1 to the left and right end

af

point of the solution of 0 ≤ f x < 1 . This process

of adding 1 to the left and right end point is continued

till we get a finite set of horizontal line segments

integer in 50 .

representing the graph of the function y = [f (x)]

(iv) x = 2.5 ⇒ [x] = [–2.5] = –3 is the greatest integer

in –2.5. More on Properties of Greatest Integer

(v) x = 4.7 ⇒ [x] = [–4.7] = –5 is the greatest integer Function.

in –4.7.

(vi) x = –3 ⇒ [x] = [–3] = –3 is the greatest integer (i) x + n = n + x , n ∈ I and x ∈ R

in –3.

(ii) − x = − x , x ∈ I

To Remember:

1. The greatest integer function is also termed as (iii) − x = − x − 1, x ∉ I

“the bracket, integral part or integer floor function”.

2. The other notation for greatest integer function is (iv) x ≥ n ⇒ x ≥ n , n ∈ I

NQ or [[ ]] in some books inspite of [ ].

3. The symbol [ ] denotes the process of finding the

(v) x ≤ n ⇒ x < n + 1, n ∈ I

greater than the real number put in [ ]. (vii) x < n ⇒ x < n , n ∈ I and x ∈ R

Thus, in general y = [f (x)] means that there is a

greatest integer in the value f (x) but not greater than (viii) x + y ≥ x + y , x , y ∈ R

the value f (x) which it assumes for any x ∈ R .

LM x OP = L x O , n ∈ N and x ∈ R

(ix)

N n Q MN n PQ

Function 15

of x , ∀ x ∈ R

af 2

f x = x + 2,

1

3

≤x≤

2

3

f a xf = 4 x

(xi) x − 1 < x ≤ x , ∀ x ∈ R 2 2

− 1, ≤ x ≤ 1

(xii) x ≤ x < x + 1 for all real values of x. 3

2. A function y = f (x) may not be necessarily defined

Question: Define “logarithmic” function. by a single equation for all values of x but the function

b g

Answer: A function f : 0 , ∞ → R defined by f (x) = y = f (x) may be defined in different forms in different

log a x is called logarithmic function, where

b g

parts of its domain.

a ≠ 1 , a > 0 . Its domain and range are 0 , ∞ and R 3. Piecewise function is termed also “Piecewise defined

respectively. function” because function is defined in each piece.

Question: Define “Exponential function”. If every function defined in adjacent intervals is linear,

Answer: A function f: R → R defined by f(x) = ax, it is termed as “Piecewise linerar function” and if every

where a ≠ 1 , a > 0. Its domain and range are R and function defined in adjacent intervals is continuous,

b g

0 , ∞ respectively. it is called “piecewise continuous function.”

Question: What do you mean by the “real variables”?

Question: Define the “piece wise function”.

Answer: If the values assumed by the independent

Answer: A function y = f (x) is called the “piece wise

variable ‘x’ are real numbers, then the independent

function” if the interval (open or closed) in which the

variable ‘x’ is called the “real variable”.

given function is defined can be divided into a finite

number of adjacent intervals (open or closed) over Question: What do you mean by the “real function

each of which the given function is defined in different (or, real values of function) of a real variable”?

forms. e.g.: Answer: A function y = f (x) whose domain and range

af

1. f x = 2 x + 3 , 0 ≤ x < 1 are sets of a real numbers is said to be a real function

(or more clearly, a real function of a real variable) which

f (x) = 7, x = 1 signifies that values assumed by the dependent

af 2

f x = x ,1 < x ≤ 2 variable are real numbers for each real value assumed

by the independent variable x.

2. f (x) = x2 – 1, 0 < x < 2

af

f x = x + 2, x ≥ 2

Note: The domain of a real function may not be

f a xf = 1 + x , − 1 ≤ x < 0

necessarily a subset of R which means that the domain

3. of a real function can be any set.

2

f (x) = x – 1, 0 < x < 2 Examples:

f a xf = 2 x , x ≥ 2 l k p k p k pq

1. Let A = θ , a , b , a , b and B = {1, 2, 3,

4, 5}

Notes:

1. Non-overlapping intervals: The intervals which ma f bk p g bk p g bk p gr

∴ f = θ , 1 , a , b , 2 , a , 4 , b , 3 is

have no points in common except one of the end a real function since B is a subset of the set of real

numbers.

points of adjacent intervals are called non overlapping

intervals whose union constitutes the domain of the af

2. If f : R → R such that f x = 2 x − 1, ∀ x ∈ R ,

LM 1 OP , LM 1 , 2 OP and LM 2 , 1OP then f is a real function.

N 3Q N3 3 Q N 3 Q

piece wise function. e.g.: 0 , Remarks:

1. In example (i) The domain of f is a class of sets and

serve as an example of non-overlapping intervals

whose union [0, 1] is the domain of the piece wise in example (ii) The domain of f is R. But in both

function if it is defined as: examples, the ranges are necessarily subsets of R.

af

2. If the domain of a function f is any set other than

1

f x = 2x + 1, 0 ≤ x ≤ (i.e. different from) a subset of real numbers and the

3 range is necessarily a subset of the set of real

16 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

numbers, the function must be called a real function Question: What do you mean by the “inverse

(or real valued function) but not a real function of a function”?

real variable because a function of a real variable Answer: A function, usually written as f –1 whose

signifies that it is a function y = f (x) whose domain domain and range are respectively the range and

and range are subsets of the set of real numbers. domain of a given function f and under which the

Question: What do you mean by a “single valued image f –1 (y) of an element y is the element of which y

function”? was the image under the given function f, that is,

Answer: When only one value of function y = f (x) is

achieved for a single value of the independent variable

f

−1

a yf = x ⇔ f a xf = y .

x = a, we say that the given function y = f (x) is a D

single valued function, i.e., when one value of the f

independent variable x gives only one value of the R

x

function y = f (x), then the function y = f (x) is said to y = f (x )

be single valued, e.g.:

1. y = 3x + 2

2. y = x2 D

–1

π π f

3. y = sin –1 x, − ≤ y ≤ R

2 2 y –1

serves as examples for single valued functions be- y=f ( x)

Question: What do you mean by a “multiple valued Remarks:

function”? 1. A function has its inverse ⇔ it is one-one (or,

Answer: when two or more than two values of the one to one) when the function is defined from its

function y = f (x) are obtained for a single value of the domain to its range only.

independent variable x = a, we say that the given 2. Unless a function y = f (x) is one-one, its inverse

function y = f (x) is a multiple (or, many) valued can not exist from its domain to its range.

function, i.e. if a function y = f (x) has more than one 3. If a function y = f (x) is such that for each value of

value for each value of the independent variable x, x, there is a unique values of y and conversely for

then the function y = f (x) is said to be a multiple (or, each value of y, there is a unique value of x, we say

many) valued function, e.g.: that the given function y = f (x) is one-one or we say

2 2 2 that there exists a one to one (or, one-one) relation

1. x + y = 9 ⇒ x = ± 9 − x ⇒ y has two

between x and y.

real values, ∀ x < 3 .

2

4. In the notation f –1, (–1) is a superscript written at

2. y = x ⇒ y = x is also a multiple valued right hand side just above f. This is why we should

2 2 not consider it as an exponent of the base f which

function since x = 9 ⇒ y = 9 ⇒ y = y =

−1 1

9 ⇒ y = ± 3 (∴ | y | = y

2

= y for y > 0 and | y | means it can not be written as f = .

f

2

= y = –y for y > 0). 5. A function has its inverse ⇔ it is both one-one

Question: What do you mean by standard functions? and onto when the function is defined from its domain

Answer: A form in which a function is usually written to its co-domain.

is termed as a standard function.

e.g.: y = xn, sin x, cos x, tan x, cot x, sec x, cosec x,

sin x, cos–1 x, tan–1 x, cot–1 x, sec–1 x, cosec–1 x, log

–1

Function 17

Function 1. The notation [a, b] signifies the set of all real

numbers between a and b including the end points a

To have an arrow diagram, one must follow the

and b, i.e., the set of all real from a to b.

following steps.

2. The pharase “at the point x = a” signifies that x

1. Let f : D → R be a function such that it is one- assumes (or, takes) the value a.

one (i.e. distinct point in D have distinct images in R 3. A neighbourhood of the point x = a is a closed

under f). interval put in the form [a – h, a + h] where h is a

2. Inter change the sets such that original range of f positive number, i.e.,

is the domain of f–1 and original domain of f is the [ a – h, a + h] = { x : a − h ≤ x ≤ a + h , h is a

range of f–1.

small positive number}

3. Change f to f–1.

4. All real numbers can be represented by points on

Therefore, f : D → R defined by y = f (x) s.t it is

−1 a directed straight line (i.e., on the x-axis of cartesian

one-one ⇔ f : R → D defined by f–1 (y) = x is an coordinates) which is called the number axis. Hence,

inverse function. every number (i.e. real number) represents a definite

point on the segment of the x-axis and conversely

On Intervals every point on the segment (i.e., a part) of the x-axis

1. Values and range of an independent variable x: If represents only one real number. Therefore, the

x is a variable in (on/over) a set C, then members numbers and points are synonymes if they represent

(elements or points) of the set C are called the values the members of the interval concerned.(Notes 1. It is

of the independent variable x and the set C is called a postulate that all the real numbers can be represents

the range of the independent variable x, whereas x by the points of a straight line. 2. Neigbourhood

itself signifies any unspecified (i.e., an arbitrary) roughly means all points near about any specified

member of the set C. point.)

2. Interval: The subsets of a real line are called (b) Open interval: The set of all real numbers x subject

intervals. There are two types (or, kinds) of an interval to the condition a < x < b is called an open interval

namely (i) Finite and (ii) Infinite. and is denoted by (a, b), where a and b are two real

(i) Finite interval: The set containing all real numbers numbers such that a < b.

(or, points) between two real numbers (or, points)

including or excluding one or both of these two real a b

numbers known as the left and right and points is

said to be a finite interval. A finite interval is classified In the set theoretic language, (a, b) = {x: a < x < b,

into two kinds namely (a) closed interval and (b) open x is real}

interval mainly. Notes:

(a) Closed interval: The set of all real numbers x 1. The notation (a, b) signifies the set of all real

subject to the condition a ≤ x ≤ b is called closed numbers between a and b excluding the end points a

interval and is denoted by [a, b] where a and b are and b.

real numbers such that a < b. 2. The number ‘a’ is called the left end point of the

interval (open or closed) if it is within the circular or

square brackets on the left hand side and the number

a b b is called the right end point of the interval if it is

within the circular or square brackets on the right h

In set theoretic language, [a, b] = {x: a ≤ x ≤ b , x

and side.

is real}, denotes a closed interval.

18 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

a

circular and square brackets (i.e., ( ) and [ ] )

respectively within which end points are written In set theoretic language,

separated by a comma. aa , ∞f = {x: x > a, x is real}

or, aa , ∞ f = {x: a < x < ∞ , x is real}

(c) Half-open, half closed interval (or, semi-open, semi

closed interval): The set of all real numbers x such

that a < x ≤ b is called half open, half closed interval (c) The interval a , ∞ f : The set of all real numbers

(or, semi-open, semi closed interval), where a and b

are two real numbers such that a < b. x such that x ≥ a is an infinite interval and is denoted

by a , ∞ .f

a b

a ∞

(a, b) = {x: a < x ≤ b , x is real}

Note: The notation (a, b] signifies the set of all real In set theoretic language,

numbers between a and b excluding the left end point f

a , ∞ = {x: x ≥ a , x is real}

f

a and including the right end point b.

or, a , ∞ = {x: a ≥ x > ∞ , x is real}

(d) Half closed, half open (or, semi closed, semi open

interval): The set of all real numbers x such that a f

(d) The interval −∞ , a : The set of all real numbers

a ≤ x < b is called half-closed, half open interval x such that x < a is an infinite interval and is denoted

(or, semi closed, semi open interval), where a and b be

two real numbers such that a < b.

a

by −∞ , a . f

–∞ a

a b

In set theoretic language, [a, b) = {x: a ≤ x < b , x a−∞ , af = {x: x < a, x is real}

is real} or, a −∞ , a f = {x: −∞ < x < a , x is real}

Note: The notation [a, b) signifies the set of all real (e) The interval a −∞ , a : The set of all real numbers

numbers between a and b including the left end point

a and excluding the right end point b. x such that x ≤ a is an infinite interval and is denoted

2. Infinite interval a

by −∞ , a .

a f

(a) The interval −∞ , ∞ : The set of all real numbers

a f

x is an infinite interval and is denoted by −∞ , ∞ or

–∞ a

a−∞ , a = {x: x ≤ a , x is real}

–∞ ∞

a−∞ , a

0

= {x: −∞ < x ≤ a , x is real}

In set theoretic language,

a f

Remember:

R = −∞ , ∞ = {x: −∞ < x < ∞ , x is real} 1. In any finite interval, if a and/b is (or, more) replaced

a f

(b) The interval a , ∞ : The set of all real numbers x by ∞ and / − ∞ , we get what is called an infinite

interval.

such that x > a is an infinite interval and is denoted

a f

by a , ∞ .

Function 19

sets of values given by x ≥ a and x ≤ b .

aa , ∞f ⇔ either x <–a or x> a, a being any positive

3. x ≥ a or x ≤ b signifies the union of the two

real number and x ∈ R .

sets of values given by x ≥ a and x ≤ b .

4. The sign of equality with the sign of inequality –a 0 a x

(i.e., ≥ or ≤ ) signifies the inclusion of the specified

number in the indicated interval finite or infinite. The (iv) x ≥ a ⇔ either x ≤ − a or x ≥ a ⇔ x ∈

square bracket (i.e., [,)also (put before and/after any

specified number) signifies the inclusion of that

a−∞ , − a ∪ a,∞ . f

specified number in the indicated interval finite or

infinite. –a 0 a

5. The sign of inequality without the sign of equality

(i.e. > or <) signifies the exclusion of the specified

number in the indicated interval finite or infinite. The Evaluation of a Function at a Given Point

circular bracket (i.e. ( , ) also (put before and/after any Evaluation: To determine the value of a function y =

specified number) signifies the exclusion of that f (x) at a given point x = a, is known as evaluation (or,

specified number indicated interval finite or infinite. more clearly evaluation of the function y = f (x) at the

6. (i) : x ∈ a , b ⇔ a ≤ x ≤ b and x ∉ a,b given point x = a)

a f a f

⇔ x ∈ a , b ⇔ x ∈ −∞ , a ∪ b , ∞ where [a,

c Notation: [f (x)]x = a = (f (x))x = a = f (a) is a notation to

signify the value of the function f at x = a.

b] c = R – [a, b] complement of [a, b] =

a−∞ , a f ∪ ab , ∞f .

Type 1: To evaluate a function f (x) at a point x = a

when the function f (x) is defined by a single expression,

(ii) : x ∈ aa , b f ⇔ a < x < b a f

and x ∉ a , b ⇔ equation or formula.

x ∈ a −∞ , a ∪ b , ∞f .

Working rule: The method of finding the value of a

function f (x) at the given point x = a when the given

7. Intervals expressed in terms of modulus: Many function f (x) is defined by a single expression,

intervals can be easily expressed in terms of absolute equation or formula containing x consists of following

values and conversely. steps.

(i) | x | < a ⇔ –a < x < a ⇔ x ∈ (–a, a), where ‘a’ is Step 1: To substitute the given value of the

any positive real number and x ∈ R . independent variable (or, argument) x wherever x

occurs in the given expression, equation, or formula

containg x for f (x)

Step 2: To simplify the given expression, equation or

–a 0 x a formula containg x for f (x) after substitution of the

(ii) x ≤ a ⇔ − a ≤ x ≤ a ⇔ x ∈ −a , a where given value of the independent variable (or, argument)

‘a’ is any positive real number and x ∈ R . x.

Solved Examples

F 1I .

–a 0 x a

1. If f (x) = x2 – x + 1, find f (0), f (1) and f H 2K

Solution: ∴ f (x) = x2 – x + 1

∴ f (0) = 02 – 0 + 1 = 1

20 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

F 1I = F 1I − F 1I + 1

2 Step 1: To consider the function f (x) = f1 (x) to find

and f H 2K H 2K H 2K the value f (a1), provided x = a1 > a and to and to put

x = a1 in f (x) = f1 (x) which will provide one the value

1 1 3 f (a1) after simplification.

= − +1= Step 2: To consider the function f (x) = f2 (x) to find

4 2 4

a f af

the value f (a), provided x = a is the restriction against

af

2. If f x =

1

x

, find

f 1+ h − f 1

h

.

f2 (x) and put x = a in f2 (x). If f (x) = f2 (x) when the

restrictions imposed against it are x ≥ a , x ≤ a ,

Solution: ∴ f x = af 1

x

...(1)

a ≤ x < b , a < x ≤ b , a ≤ x ≤ b or any other

interval with the sign or equality indicating the

∴ f 1+ h = ...(2) to find the value f (a). But if f (x) = f2 (x) = constant,

1+ h

when x = a is given in the question, then f2 (x) = given

af

f 1 =

1

1

= 1 ... (3)

constant will be the required value of f (x) i.e. f (x) =

given constant when x = a signifies not to find the

value other than f (a) which is equal to the given

a f a f 1 +1 h − 1 = 1 −+hh

∴ f 1+ h − f 1 = ...(3)

constant.

Step 3: To consider the function f (x) = f3 (x) to find

a4f = f a1 + hf − f a1f

the value f (a2) provided x = a2 < a and x = a2 in f (x) =

f3 (x) which will provide one the value f (a2) after

∴

h h simplification.

=

a

−h / 1 + h

=

1 f Remember:

h 1+ h 1. f (x) = f1 (x), when (or, for, or, if) a ≤ x < a 2 signifies

that one has to consider the function f (x) = f1 (x) to

Type 2: (To evaluate a piecewise function f (x) at a

find the functional value f1 (x) for all values of x (given

point belonging to different intervals in which different

or specified in the question) which lie in between a1

expression for f (x) is defined). In general, a piece wise

and a2 including x = a1.

function is put in the form

f (x) = f1 (x), when x > a 2. f (x) = f2 (x), when (or, for, or, if) a 2 < x ≤ a 3 ,

= f2 (x), when x = a signifies that one has to consider the function f (x) =

f3 (x), when x < a, ∀ x ∈ R f2 (x),to find the functional value f2 (x) for all values of

x (given or specified in the question) which lie in

and one is required to find the values (i) f (a1) (ii) f

between a2 and a3 including x = a3.

(a) and (iii) f (a0), where a, a0 and a1 are specified (or,

3. f (x) = f3 (x), when (or, for, or, if) a4 < x < a5 signifies

given) values of x and belong to the interval x > a

that one has to consider the function f (x) = f3 (x) to

which denote the domains of different function f1 (x),

find the functional value f3 (x) for all values of x (given

f2 (x) and f3 (x) etc for f (x).

or specified in the question) which lie in between a4

Note: The domains over which different expression and a5 excluding a4 and a5.

f1 (x), f2 (x) and f3 (x) etc for f (x) are defined are intervals

Solved Examples

finite or infinite as x > a, x < a, x ≥ a , x ≤ a , a < x < 1. If f : R → R is defined by

b, a ≤ x < b , a < x ≤ b and a ≤ x ≤ b etc and f (x) = x2 – 3x, when x > 2

represent the different parts of the domain of f (x). = 5, when x = 2

= 2x + 1, when x < 2, ∀ x ∈ R

Function 21

find the values of (i) f (4) (ii) f (2) (iii) f (0) (iv) f (–3) belong to the given domain of the function f (x), then

(v) f (100) (vi) f (–500). f (a0) is undefined, i.e., we cannot find f (a0), i.e., f (a0)

Solution: 1. 3 4 > 2 , ∴ by definition, f (4) = (x2 does not exist.

f (x) = x2 – 1, when 0 < x < 2

– 3x) for x = 4 = 42 – 3 (4) = 16 – 12 = 4

(ii) 3 2 = 2, ∴ by definition, f (2) = 5 = x + 2, when x ≥ 2

(iii) 0 < 2, ∴ by definition, f (0) = 2 (0) + 1 = 1 find f (–1)

(iv) –3 < 2, ∴ by definition, f (–3) = 2 (–3) + 1 = –5 Solutions: −1 ∉ domain of f (x) represented by the

(v) 100 > 2, ∴ by definition, f (100) = (100)2 – 3 union of the restrictions 0 < x < 2 and x ≥ 2 (i.e., 0 <

(100) = 10000 – 300 = 9700

x < 2 or x ≥ 2 ). For this reason f (–1) is undefined

(vi) –500 < 2, ∴ by definition f (–500) = 2 (–500) +

1 = –1000 + 1 = –999 (i.e., f (x) is undefined at x = –1).

3. Sometimes we are required to find the value of a

2. If f (x) = 1 + x, when −1 ≤ x < 0 piecewise function f (x) for a0 ± h where h > 0, in

= x2 – 1, when 0 < x < 2 such cases, we may put h = 0.0001 for easiness to

2x, when x ≥ 2 guess in which domain (or, interval) the point

a f FH 12 IK , f FH − 21 IK

represented by x = a ± h lies.

find f 3 , f e.g.: If a function is defined as under

f (x) = 1 + x, when −1 ≤ x < 0

Solution: 3 f (x) = 2x for x ≥ 2

= x2 – 1, when 0 < x < 2

∴ f (3) = 2 ×3 = 6 (3 x = 3 ≥ 2 ) 2x, when x ≥ 2

af

3 f x = 1 + x , for − 1 ≤ x < 0 find f (2 – h) and f (–1 + h)

F 1I = 1 + F − 1I = 1 (Footnotes: 1. f (a) exists or f (a) is defined ⇔ ‘a’

H 2K H 2 K 2

∴ f − lies in the domain of f. 2. f (a) does not exist or f (a) is

undefined ⇔ ‘a’ does not lie in the domain of f.)

F3 x = − 1 ∈ [−1 , 0)I Solution: 1. Putting h = 0.001, we get 2– h = 2 – 0.001

H 2 K = 1.999 and 1.999 ∈ (0, 2) = 0 < x < 2

∴ f (2 – h) = (2 – h)2 – 1 = 22 + h2 – 4h – 1 = 4 + h2

3 f (x) = x2 – 1, for 0 < x < 2 – 4h – 1

F 1I = F 1I 2

1 3 = 3 + h2 – 4h = h2 – 4h + 3

∴ f

H 2K H 2K − 1 = −1 +

4

=−

4

2. Putting h = 0.001, we get –1 + h = –1 + 0.001 =

0.999 and 0.999 ∈ [–1, 0) = −1 ≤ x < 0

F3 x = 1 ∈ a0 , 2fI ∴ f (–1 + h) = (1 + x)x =–1 + h = 1 + h – 1 = h

H 2 K

Domain of a Function

Refresh your memory:

1. If a function f (x) is defined by various expressions Sometimes a function of an independent variable x is

f1 (x), f2 (x), f3 (x) etc, then f (a0) denotes the value of described by a formula or an equation or an expression

the function f (x) for x = a0 which belongs to the in x and the domain of a function is not explicitly

domain of the function f (x) represented by various stated. In such circumstances, the domain of a function

restrictions x > a, x < a, x ≥ a , x ≤ a , a < x < b, is understood to be the largest possible set of real

numbers such that for each real number (of the largest

a ≤ x ≤ b , a ≤ x < b , and a < x ≤ b etc. possible set), the rule (or, the function) gives a real

2. Supposing that we are required to find the value number or for each of which the formula is meaningful

of the function f (x) for a point x = a0 which does not or defined.

22 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

Definition: If f : D → R defined by y = f (x) be a the statement “f (x) is defined in the closed interval

[a, b]” means that f (x) exists and is real for all real

real valued function of a real variable, then the domain

values of x from a to b, a and b being real numbers

of the function f represented by D (f) or dom (f) is

such that a < b. Similarly, the statement “f (x) is defined

defined as the set consisting of all real numbers

in the open interval (a, b)” means that f (x) exists and

representing the totality of the values of the

is real for all real values of x between a and b (excluding

independent variable x such that for each real value

a and b)

of x, the function or the equation or the expression in

x has a finite value but no imaginary or indeterminate

af af LM f a xf = 0 , or

value.

Or, in set theoretic language, it is defined as:

3. (i) f x ⋅ g x = 0 ⇔

N ga xf = 0

If f : D → R be real valued function of the real LMRS f a xf ≥ 0

ga x f ≥ 0

(ii) f a x f ⋅ g a x f ≥ 0 ⇔ MT

variable x, then its domain is D or D (f) or dom (f)

af

= { x ∈ R : f x has finite values } MMRS f a xf ≤ 0 , or

= { x ∈ R : f a x f has no imaginary or indeterminate NT g a x f ≤ 0

value.}

To remember: LMRS f a xf ≥ 0

ga x f ≤ 0

(iii) f a x f ⋅ g a x f ≤ 0 ⇔ MT

1. Domain of sum or difference of two functions f (x)

af af

and g (x) = dom f x ± g x = dom (f (x)) ∩ dom MMRS f a xf ≤ 0 , or

(g (x)). NT g a x f ≥ 0

2. Domain of product of two functions f (x) and g (x)

af af

g (x) = dom f x ⋅ g x = dom (f (x)) ∩ dom (g (x)). LMRS f a xf ≥ 0

f a xf ga xf < 0

≥ 0 ⇔ MT

3. Domain of quotient of two functions f (x) and g (x) (iv)

ga x f MMRS f a xf ≤ 0 , or

LM f a xf OP = dom f a xf ∩ dom b ga xfg ∩ NT g a x f > 0

N ga x f Q

= dom

f a xf ga xf < 0

= dom b f a x fg ∩ dom b ga x fg − lx: ga x f ≠ 0q i.e., ≤ 0 ⇔ MT

(v)

ga x f MMRS f a xf ≤ 0 , or

the domain of a rational function or the quotient

function is the set of all real numbers with the exception

NT g a x f > 0

4. (i) e x − a j < 0 ⇔ − a < x < a

of those real numbers for which the function in 2 2

denominator becomes zero.

Notes: 1. The domain of a function defined by a

formula y = f (x) consists of all the values of x but no (ii) ex 2

−a

2

j ≤ 0 ⇔ −a ≤ x ≤ a

value of y (i.e., f (x)).

2. (i) The statement “f (x) is defined for all x” signifies (iii) ex 2

−a

2

j > 0 ⇔ x < −a or x> a

a

that f (x) is defined in the interval −∞ , ∞ . f

(ii) The statements “f (x) is defined in an interval

finite or infinite” signifies that f (x) exists and is real

e

(iv) x − a

2 2

j ≥ 0 ⇔ x ≤ −a or x≥a

Function 23

1 1 1 1 1 1

Finding the Domain of

x ∈ aa , b f

Algebraic Functions

1 1

Type 1: Problems based on finding the domains of

(ii) a x − a f a x − b f ≤ 0 ⇔ a ≤ x ≤ b aa < b f ⇔

2 2 2 2 2 2 polynomial functions.

x ∈ a 2 , b2 Working rule: One must remember that a polynomial

in x has the domain R (i.e., the set of the real numbers)

They mean the intersection of

because any function f of x which does not become

(a) x > a1 and x < b1

undefined or imaginary for any real value of x has the

(b) x ≥ a 2 and x ≤ b2 domain R. Hence, the linear y = ax + b; the quadratic

(iii)a x − a f a x − bf > 0 ⇔ x < a or x > b aa < bf y = ax2 + bx + c; and the square functions y = x2 have

⇔ x ∈ a−∞ , a f ∪ ab , ∞ f

the domain R.

Solved Examples

(iv) a x − a f a x − b f ≥ 0 ⇔ x ≤ a or x ≥ b aa < bf Find the domain of each of the following functions:

⇔ x ∈ a −∞ , a ∪ b , ∞ f

1. y = 11x – 7

Solution: y = 11x – 7 is a linear function and we know

They mean the union of that a linear function has the domain R.

(a) x < a and x > b a

Hence, domain of y (= 11x – 7) = R = −∞ , + ∞ f

(b) x ≤ a and x ≥ b 2. y = x2 – 3x + 7

Question: How to represent the union and Solution: y = x2 – 3x + 7 is a quadratic function and

intersection on a number line? we know that a quadratic function has the domain R.

Hence, domain of y = (= x2 – 3x + 7) =

Answer: Firstly, we recall the definitions of union and

intersection of two sets. a

R = −∞ , + ∞ f

Union: The union of two sets E and F is the set of 3. y = x2

elements belonging to either E or F. Solution: y = x2 is a square function and we know

Intersection: The set of all elements belonging to that a square function has the domain R.

both sets E and F is called intersection of E and F. a

Hence, domain of y = (= x2) = R = −∞ , + ∞ f

Type 2: Problems based on finding the domain of a

Method of Representation of

function put in the form:

Union and Intersection on Real Lines

af af

f x

If the set of the points on the line segment AB be the (i) y =

af

g x

,g x ≠0

af af

set E and the set of the point on segment CD be the 1

set F, then the union of E and F is the segment AD = or, (ii) y = ,g x ≠0

g x

AB + BD = sum or union and the intersection of E and

F is the segment CB = common segment. Working rule: It consists of following steps:

1. To put the function (or, expression in x) in the

common denominator = 0, i.e., g (x) = 0

segment

2. To find the values of x from the equation g (x) = 0

–∞ A C B D ∞

3. To delete the valued of x from R to get the required

Now some rules to find the domain of real valued af

f x 1

functions are given. They are useful to find the

domain of any given real valued function.

domain, i.e., domain of

af

g x

or

g x af

= R – {roots of

polynomials in x.

24 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

Note: When the roots of the equation g (x) = 0 are ∴ domain = R – {5}

imaginary then the domain of the quotient function

2x − 4

f x 1af 4. y =

2x + 4

put in the form:

g x

or

af

g x

=R

af 2x − 4

Solved Examples Solution: y =

2x + 4

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

Now, putting, 2x + 4 = 0

2

x − 3x + 2 −4

1. y = 2 ⇒ 2x − 4 ⇒ x = = −2

x + x−6 2

∴ domain R – {2}

2

Solution: y =

x − 3x + 2

2

x +x−6

a f ax − 1f1ax − 2f

5. f x =

Solution: f a x f =

Now, putting x2 + x – 6 = 0 1

⇒ x2 + 3x – 2x – 6= 0

⇒ x (x + 3) –2 (x + 3) = 0

ax − 1f ax − 2f

Now, putting (x – 1) (x – 2) = 0

⇒ (x + 3) (x – 2) = 0

⇒ x = 1, 2

⇒ x = 2, –3

∴ domain = R – {1, 2}

∴ domain = R – {2, 3}

1

2 6. y =

x − 2x + 4 x −1

2

2. y = 2

x + 2x + 4

1

2

Solution: y = 2

x − 2x + 4 x −1

Solution: y = 2

x + 2x + 4 Now, putting, x2 – 1 = 0

2

Now, putting, x2 + 2x + 4 = 0 ⇒ x = 1 ⇒ x = ±1

⇒ x2 + 2x + 4 = 0 ∴ domain = R – {–1, 1}

⇒ (x + 1)2 + 3 = 0

1

⇒ (x + 1)2 = –3 7. y =

a f

x

⇒ x +1 = ± −3

1

Solution: y =

⇒ x = − 1 ± −3 imaginary or complex numbers. x

∴ domain = R Now, putting x = 0 ⇒ x = 0 i.e. y is undefined at x

=0

x

3. y = ∴ domain = R – {0}

5− x

2

x − 3x + 2

x 8. y =

Solution: y = 2

x + x−6

5− x

Now, putting, 5 – x = 0 2

x − 3x + 2

⇒ x=5 Solution: y = 2

x + x−6

Function 25

⇒ x (x + 3) –2(x + 3) = 0 ⇒ (x – 2) (x + 3) = 0 ⇒ x =

2, –3

put in the form: af

f x .

It consists of two types when:

∴ domain = R – {2, –3}

(i) f (x) = ax + b = a linear in x.

1 (ii) f (x) = ax2 + bx + c = a quadratic in x.

9. y =

2x − 6 (i) Problems based on finding the domain of a

Solution: y =

1 function put in the form: af

f x , when f (x) = ax + b.

2x − 6 Working rule: It consists of following steps:

Now, putting 2x – 6 = 0 Step 1: To put a x + b ≥ 0

⇒x=

6

=3 Step 2: To find the values of x for which a x + b ≥ 0

2 to get the required domain.

kp a

∴ domain = R − 3 = −∞ , 3 ∪ 3 , + ∞f a f Step 3: To write the domain = [root of the inequation

a x + b ≥ 0, + ∞ )

1

10. y = 2 Notes: 1. The domain of a function put in the form

x − 5x + 6

f x a f consists of the values of x for which

f a xf ≥ 0 .

1

Solution: y = 2

x − 5x + 6

⇒ x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 2. x ≥ c ⇔ x ∈ c , + ∞f .

⇒ x2 – 3x – 2x + 6 = 0 Solved Examples

⇒ x (x – 3) –2 (x –3) = 0 Find the domain of each of the following fucntions:

⇒ (x – 3) (x – 2) = 0

1. y = x

⇒ x = 2, 3

k p a f a f

∴ domain = R − 2 , 3 = −∞ , 2 ∪ 2 , 3 ∪

Solution: y = x

square root of a function put in the forms: 2. y = 2x − 4

(i) af

f x

Solution: y = 2x − 4

f a xf 4

ga x f

(ii) Now, putting 2 x − 4 ≥ 0 ⇒ x ≥ =2

2

1 ∴ domain = 2 , + ∞ f

(iii) g xaf 3. y = x + x−1

f a xf Solution: y = x + x−1

(iv)

ga x f Putting y1 = x and y2 = x , we have

Now we tackle each type of problem one by one. y = y1 + y2

26 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

a f

∴ domain of y = dom y1 ∩ dom y2 a f β⇒ domain of

2

ax + bx + c = α ≤ x ≤ β

Now, domain of y e= x j = D asay f = 0 , + ∞ f

1 1 aα < βf .

[from example 1.] again, we require to find the domain (ii) a = coefficient of x2 = + ve (and, ax2 + bx + c =

of y2 = e x −1 . j a

a x−α f a x − βf ≥ 0) ⇒ x does not lie between α

x −1≥ 0⇒ x ≥1⇒ and β ⇒ domain of ax + bx + c = R − aα , β f =

2

Putting domain y 2

e= j a f

x − 1 = D2 say = 1 , + ∞ Hence, domain of f a−∞ , αf ∪ aβ , + ∞f .

y = D (say) = dom (y1) ∩ dom y2 a f (iii) a x + α f a x + β f should be written as

f

= 0 , + ∞ ∩ 1, + ∞ f the square root of ax + bx + c = a a x + α f a x + βf .

2

= 1, ∞ f Solved Examples

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

2

shaded portion = D1 ∩ D2

1. y = x − 3x + 4

0 1 ∞

2

Solution: y = x − 3x + 4

2

(ii) Problems based on finding the domain of a Now x − 3x + 4 ≥ 0

e j

function put in the form: 2

⇒ x − 4x + x − 4 ≥ 0

y= af

f x , when f (x) = ax2 + bx + c and α , β

2

Step 1: To put a x + b x + c ≥ 0

tween –1 and 4 ⇒ x ≤ − 1 or x ≥ 4 .

2

Step 2: To solve the in equation a x + b x + c ≥ 0

for x by factorization or by completing the square. ∴ domain = R – (–1, 4)

Step 3: To write the domain of 2

ax + bx + c = 2. y = a x − 2f a x − 5f

α ≤ x ≤ β only when the coefficient of x2 = a = – ve Solution: y = a x − 2f a x − 5f

and ax2 + bx + c = a x − α a f a x − βf and to write the Now, (x – 2) (x – 5) ≥ 0 ⇒ x does not lie between

+ bx + c = R − aα , βf only when

domain of

2 2 and 3.

ax

⇒ x ≤ 2 or x ≥ 5

the coefficient of x2 = a +ve and ax2 + bx + c =

a

a x−α f a x − βf . ∴ domain = R – (2, 5)

2

Notes: (i) a = coefficient of x2 = –ve (and, ax2 + bx + 3. y = x − 5x + 6

a

c= a x − α f a x − βf ≥ 0) ⇒ x lies between α and Solution: y =

2

x − 5x + 6

Function 27

2 2

Now, x − 5x + 6 ≥ 0 Now, −5 − 6 x − x ≥ 0

a

⇒ x−2 f a x − 3f ≥ 0 2

⇒ x + 6x + 5 ≤ 0

⇒ x ≤ 2 or x ≥ 3 2

⇒ x + 5x + x + 5 ≤ 0

∴ domain = R – (2, 3)

2 a f a f

⇒x x+5 + x+5 ≤0

4. y = − x + 5x − 6

⇒ a x + 5f a x + 1f ≤ 0

⇒ b x − a−1fg b x − a−5fg ≤ 0 ⇒ x lies between –5

2

Solution: y = − x + 5x − 6

and −1 ⇒ − 5 ≤ x ≤ − 1 .

2

Now, − x + 5x − 6 ≥ 0

2 ∴ domain = [–5, –1]

⇒ x − 5x + 6 ≤ 0

7. y = a1 − xf a x + 3f

a

⇒ x−2 f a x − 3f ≤ 0

⇒ x lies between 2 and 3 Solution: y = a1 − x f a x + 3f

⇒2≤x≤3 Now, a1 − x f a x + 3f ≥ 0

⇒ − a x − 1f a x + 3f ≥ 0

∴ domain = [2, 3]

⇒ a x − 1f a x + 3f ≤ 0

2

5. y = −16 x − 24 x

2 ⇒ a x − 1f b x − a−3fg ≤ 0

Solution: y = −16 x − 24 x

⇒ −3≤ x ≤1

Now, −16 x 2 − 24 x ≥ 0

∴ domain = [–3, 1]

2

⇒ − 2 x − 3x ≥ 0 2

8. y = 1 − x

2

⇒ 2 x + 3x ≤ 0 2

Solution: y = 1 − x

a f

⇒ x 2x + 3 ≤ 0

⇒ x b2 x − a−3fg ≤ 0

Now, 1 − x 2 ≥ 0

3

⇒ x lies between − and 0

e

⇒ − 1− x

2

j≤0

2

2

⇒ x −1≤ 0

3

⇒− ≤x≤0

2 a fa f

⇒ x − 1 x + 1 ≤ 0 ⇒ x − 1 x − −1 ≤ a f b a fg

2 LM OP 0 ⇒ x lies between –1 and +1

∴ domain = − 3 , 0

N Q ⇒ −1 ≤ x ≤ 1

2 ∴ domain = [–1, 1]

6. y = −5 − 6 x − x

2

9. y = − 4 − x

2

Solution: y = −5 − 6 x − x

2

Solution: y = − 4 − x

28 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

2

Now, putting 4 − x 2 ≥ 0 ⇒ x − 3x − x + 3 ≥ 0

2

⇒ x −4≤0 a f a f

⇒ x−3 − x−3 ≥0

a f a x + 2f ≤ 0

⇒ x−2 ⇒ a x − 1f a x − 3f ≥ 0

⇒ a x − 2f b x − a−2fg ≤ 0

⇒ x does not lie between 1 and 3

⇒ x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3

⇒ x lies between –2 and 2 ⇒ − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2

∴ domain = [–2, 2]

+∞ 0 1 3 +∞

1 2

10. y = 4−x

a f

2

∴ domain = R – [1, 3] = −∞ , 1 ∪ 3 , + ∞

1

a x − 2f a x − 3f

2

Solution: y = 4−x

2 13. y =

2

⇒ x −4≤0 Now, a x − 2 f a x − 3f ≥ 0

a f a x + 2f ≤ 0

⇒ x−2

⇒ x ≥ 2 or x ≥ 3

⇒ x does not lie between 2 and 3

⇒ a x − 2f b x − a−2fg ≤ 0 a

∴ domain = R – [2, 3] = −∞ , 2 ∪ 3 , + ∞ f

⇒ x lies between –2 and 2 ⇒ − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2 2

14. y = x + 2x + 3

∴ domain = [–2, 2]

1 2

11. y = − 4− x

2

Solution: 3 y = x + 2x + 3

2

2

Now, x + 2 x + 3 ≥ 0

1

a f

2

Solution: y = − 4− x

⇒ x+1

2

+ 2 ≥ 0, ∀ x

2

⇒ a x + 1f ≥ − 2 , which is true for all x ∈ R

2

Now, putting 4 − x 2 ≥ 0

2

∴ domain = R = −∞ , ∞ a f

⇒ x −4≤0

Type (ii): Problems based on finding the domain of

a f a x + 2f ≤ 0

⇒ x−2

af

⇒ a x − 2f b x − a−2fg ≤ 0

f x

a function put in the form : y =

af

g x

⇒ −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 While finding the domain of the square root

∴ domain = [–2, 2]

af

f x

12. y =

2

x − 4x + 3

of a quotient function (i.e; y =

af

g x

) one must

Solution: y = x − 4x + 3

Now, x 2 − 4 x + 3 ≥ 0

Function 29

af LM 2 I a f

N K

f x Hence, domain = R − −3 , = −∞ , − 3 ∪

1. The domain of y ( =

af

g x

) consists of those 3

af LM 2 , + ∞I

N3 K

f x

values of x for which

af

g x

≥0

af

or, alternatively:

2.

f x

g x af af af

≥ 0 ⇔ f x ≥ 0 , g x > 0 , or f x ≥ 0 , af x−

2

3x − 2 3 ≥ 0 ⇔ x < − 3 or

≥0⇔

g (x) < 0. 2x + 6 x+3

FG x − α IJ ≤ 0 ⇔ α ≤ x < β

3.

H x − βK or β < x ≤ α ac-

x≥

2

3

f LMN IK

a

⇔ x ∈ −∞ , − 3 ∪

2

3

,+∞

cording as α < β or β < α .

MN 3 K

2

FG x − α IJ ≥ 0 ⇔ x ≥ α or x < β if β < α and ⇔

4.

H x −βK x −1

x ≤ α or x > β if α < β . 2. y =

x +1

5. The function in the denominator ≠ 0 always. Solution: y is defined for all those x for which

Solved Examples x −1 x −1

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

x +1

≥ 0⇔

x − −1 a f

≥ 0 ⇔ x < − 1 or x ≥ 1 ⇔

1. y =

3x − 2

2x + 6

a f

x ∈ −∞ , − 1 ∪ 1 , + ∞ f

Solution: y is defined for those x for which

a

Hence, domain = −∞ , − 1 ∪ 1 , + ∞ f f

3x − 2 x−2

≥0 3. y =

2x + 6 x+2

a

⇔ (1) 3x − 2 ≥ 0 f UV 2

Solution: y is defined for all those x for which

a

2x + 6 > 0 f W

, i.e; x ≥

3

x−2

x+2

≥0⇔

x−2

x − −2 a f

≥ 0 ⇔ x < − 2 or, x ≥ 2

a2 x + 6f < 0VW , i.e; x < − 3 a f

⇔ x ∈ −∞ , − 2 ∪ 2 , + ∞ f

α β

a

Hence, domain = −∞ , − 2 ∪ 2 , + ∞ f f

−∞ –3 0 2 ∞ Type (iii): Problems on finding the domain of a

3

1

function put in the form: y =

2

(1) and (2) ⇒ x ≥ , or x < − 3 ⇔ x ∈ af

g x

3

Working rule: It consists of following steps:

1. To put g (x) > 0

2. To find the values of x for which g (x) > 0

30 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

3. To form the Domain with the help of the roots of Type (iv): Problems on finding the domain of a

the in equation g (x) > 0.

function put in the form: y =

f x af.

g axf

Note: The domain of a function put in the form

1

y=

a f consists of all those values of x for which Working rule: The rule to find the domain of a

a f is the same as for

g x

f x

function of the form y =

g axf

g (x) > 0.

Solved Examples

1. Find the domain of each of the following functions:

1

the domain of a function of the form y =

y=

1 af

g x

a2 − xf ax + 3f which means.

Solution: y is defined for all those values of x for 1. To put g (x) > 0 and to find the values of x from the

which (2 – x) (x + 3) > 0 ⇔ (x – 2) (x + 3) < 0 ⇔ x lies in equality g (x) > 0.

a

between –3 and 2 ⇔ –3 < x < 2 ⇔ x ∈ −3 , 2 hence, f 2. To form the domain with the help of obtained values

of x.

domain = (–3, 2)

Solved Examples

1 Find the domain of each of the following functions:

2. y =

a1 − xf ax + 2f x

1. y = 2

Solution: y is defined for all those values of x for x − 3x + 2

which (1 – x) (x + 2) > 0 ⇔ (x – 1) (x – (–2)) < 0 ⇔ x

lies between –2 and 1 ⇔ –2 < x < 1 ⇔ x ∈ −2 , 1 a f Solution: y is defined when x2 – 3x + 2 > 0 ⇔ x2 – 2x

– x + 2 > 0 ⇔ x (x – 2) – (x – 2) > 0 ⇔ (x – 1) (x – 2)

hence, domain = (–2, 1). > 0 ⇔ x < 1 or x > 2.

3. y =

2

1

a f a

Hence, domain = R – [1, 2] = −∞ , 1 ∪ 2 , + ∞ f

x − 5x + 6 x

2. y =

Solution: y is defined for all those values of x for

which x2 – 5x + 6 > 0 ⇔ x2 – 3x – 2x + 6 > 0 ⇔ (x –

a1 − xf ax − 2f

Solution: y is defined when (1 –x) (x – 2) > 0 ⇔ (x –

3) x – 2 (x – 3) > 0 ⇔ (x – 3) (x – 2) > 0 ⇔ x < 2 or x >

a

3 ⇔ x ∈ −∞ , 2 ∪ 3 , + ∞ f a f 1) (x – 2) < 0 ⇔ x lies between 1 and 2 ⇔ 1 < x < 2

a f

⇔ x ∈ 1, 2 .

Hence, domain a

= R − 2 , 3 = −∞ , 2 ∪f Hence, domain = (1, 2)

a3, + ∞f Finding the Domain

1 of Logarithmic Functions

4. y =

−x

There are following types of logarithmic functions

Solution: y is defined for all those values of x for whose domains are required to be determined.

which –x > 0 ⇔ x < 0 ⇔ x ∈ −∞ , 0 a f (i) y = log f (x)

Hence, domain = −∞ , 0 . a f (ii) y = log f x af

(iii) y = log | f (x) |

Function 31

y is defined when (3x 2 – 4x + 5) > 0 ⇔

(iv) y = log

H ga x f K

F 4 5I

f a xf H K

2

3 x – x+ >0

3 3

log g a x f

(v) y=

LMF x – 4 x + F 4 I − F 4 I + 5I OP > 0

2 2

MNGH 3 H 6 K H 6 K 3JK PQ

2

(vi) y = log log log f (x) ⇔3

Now we tackle each type of problem one by one.

Type 1: Problems based on finding the domain of a

LF 2 I + F 5 − 4 I OP > 0

⇔ 3M x –

2

MNH 3 K H 3 9 K PQ

function put in the form: y = log f (x).

Working rule: It consists of following steps:

Step 1: To put f (x) > 0 and to solve the in equality f 2

H 3K H 9K

(x) > 0 for x. ⇔3 x –

Step 2: To form the domain with the help of obtained

values of x.

2

Notes: 1. The domain of the logarithmic function y =

log f (x) consists of all those values of x for which f (x) H 3K 9

⇔3 x−

> 0. ∴ D a y f = R = a −∞ , + ∞ f

2. Log f (x) is defined only for positive f (x).

Notes: 1. Imaginary or a complex numbers as the

Solved Examples

2

Find the Domain D of each of the following functions: roots of an equation a x + b x + c = 0 ⇔ domain

af a f

1. y = log (4 – x)

Solution: y is defined when 4 – x > 0 ⇔ –x > –4 ⇔ of log f x = R = −∞ , + ∞ as in the above

x < 4. example roots are complex.

af a

∴ D y = −∞ , 4 f 2. The method adopted in the above example is called

“if method”.

2. y = log (8 – 2x) 3. A perfect square is always positive which is greater

Solution: y is defined when (8 – 2x) > 0 ⇔ –2x > –8 than any negative number.

⇔ x < 4. Method 2. This method consists of showing that

af a

∴ D y = −∞ , 4 f 2

a x + b x + c > 0 , ∀ x if a > 0 and discriminant = b2

3. y = log (2x + 6)

Solution: y is defined when (2x + 6) > 0 ⇔ 2x > –6 – 4ac < 0 here 3 > 0, and discriminant = 16 – 60 = – 34

a

⇔ x > –3 ⇔ x ∈ −3 , + ∞ f <0

∴ y is defined ∀ x ∈ R

Hence, D a y f = a−3 , + ∞ f

4. y = log {(x + 6) (6 – x)}

af

Therefore, D y = R = −∞ , + ∞ a f

6. y = log (x3 – x)

Solution: y is defined when (x + 6) (6 – x) > 0 ⇔ (x +

Solution: y is defined when (x3 – x) > 0 ⇔ x (x2 – 1)

6) (x – 6) < 0 ⇔ x lies between –6 and 6 ⇔ –6 < x <

> 0 ⇔ x (x + 1) (x – 1) > 0 ⇔ (x – 0) (x + 1) (x – 1) >

a

6 ⇔ x ∈ −6 , 6 f 0 ⇔ (x – (1)) (x – 0) (x – 1) > 0

Hence, D (y) = (–6, 6) Now let f (x) = (x – (–1)) (x – 0) (x – 1)

5. y = log (3x2 – 4x + 5) If x < –1, then f (x) < 0 as all the three factors are

< 0.

32 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

If –1 < x < 0, then f (x) > 0 2. To form the domain of y which is the set of all real

If 0 < x < 1, then f (x) < 0 and if x > 1, then f (x) > 0 values of x excluding those values of x at which y is

a f a f

Hence, f(x) > 0 ⇔ x ∈ −1 , 0 ∪ 1 , ∞ undefined , i.e.,

∴ D a y f = a −1 , 0f ∪ a1 , ∞ f

D (y) = R – {values of x at which f (x) =0}

Note: While finding the domain of a function of the

Type 2: Problems based on finding the domain of a form: y = log | f (x) |, one must find all those values of

f x

x at which the function f (x) (i.e., the function under

the symbol of absolute value) becomes zero and then

Working rule: One must remember that the function those values of x should be deleted from R (i.e., the

af af

set of all real numbers).

y = log f x is defined when y = f x > 0, Solved Examples

i.e., f (x) > 0 which means the domain of the function Find the domain of each of the following functions:

y = log af

f x consists of all those values of x for

1. y = log | x |

Solution: log | x | is undefined only when | x | = 0, i.e.,

which f (x) > 0. x=0

Solved Examples af

∴ D y = R− 0 kp

Find the domain of each of the following functions: 2. y = log | 4 – x2 |

1. y = log x−4 Solution: log | 4 – x2 | is undefined only when | 4 – x2

| = 0; i.e., 4 – x2 = 0 ⇔ x2 – 4 = 0 ⇔ (x – 2) (x + 2) = 0

Solution: y = log x−4 is defined when

⇔ (x – 2) (x – (–2)) = 0 ⇔ x = 2 or x = –2

a x − 4f > 0 ⇔ x > 4 af

∴ D y = R − 2, −2 k p

∴ D a y f = a4 , ∞ f Type 4: Problems based on finding the domain of a

2. y = log 6 − x FG f a xfIJ .

Solution: y = log 6 − x is defined when (6 – x) >

function put in the form: y = log

H g a xf K

0 ⇔ 6>x ⇔ x<6 Working rule: It consists of following steps:

af a f

∴ D y = −∞ , 6 af

f x

3. y = log e x − 4 + 6 − x j

1. To put

af

g x

> 0 and to solve the in equalities f

(x) > 0 and g (x) > 0 or f (x) < 0 and g (x) , 0 seperately.

Solution: y = log e x − 4 + 6 − x j is defined 2. To form the domain of y with the help of obtained

af

f x

when e x − 4 + 6 − x j > 0 ⇔ a x − 4 f and af

values of x for which > 0.

g x

b6 − xg ≥ 0 ⇔ x ≥ 4 and x ≤ 6 ⇔ 4 ≤ x ≤ 6 Notes: 1. The domain of a logarithmic function of

∴ D a yf = 4 , 6 FG f a xfIJ consists of all those

the form y = log

H g a xf K

f a xf

Type 3: Problems based on finding the domain of a

function put in the form: y = log | f (x) |

g a xf

values of x for which > 0.

Working rule: It consists of following steps:

1. To put f (x) = 0 and to find all the values of x from 2. One must test whether g (x) is positive or negative

the equation f (x) = 0. by the following scheme:

Function 33

Fx 2 I >0 ⇔

g (x) = ax2 + bx + c is < 0 (i.e., D = –ve), then g (x) = ax2

+ bx + c is positive ∀ x and in such case, one must

Solution: y is defined when GH x 2

− 5x + 6

J

+ 4x + 6K

consider only the function in numerator = f (x) > 0 to x2 – 5x + 6 > 0 ⇔ x2 – 3x – 2x + 6 > 0 ⇔ x (x – 3) –2

af

f x (x – 3) > 0 ⇔ (x – 2) (x – 3) > 0 ⇔ x does not lie

find the solution set of y =

af

g x

> 0.

between 2 and 3 ⇔ x < 2 or x > 3 ⇔ x ∈ −∞ , 2 ∪ a f

Solved Examples a3, + ∞f .

∴ D a y f = a −∞ , 2f ∪ a3 , + ∞ f

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

F 5x − x I 2

1. y = log GH 4 JK N.B.: In the above example (3), the discriminant D =

16 – 4 × 1 × 6 = 16 – 24 = –ve for the function x2 + 4x +

6 in denominator which ⇒ x2 + 4x + 6 > 0. For this

F 5x − x I > 0 ⇔ 5x –

2

GH 4 JK

reason, we considered only the function x2 – 5x + 6 in

Solution: y is defined when numerator > 0.

F I

x2 > 0 ⇔ x (5 – x) > 0 ⇔ (x – 0) (x – 5) < 0 ⇔ 0 < x

4. y = log GH x x−5

J

− 10 x + 24 K

a f

< 5 x ∈ 0, 5

2

F xI F I=

2. y = log H K

10

y is defined when GH x 2

x−5

J

− 10 x + 24 K

Solution: y is defined when

H 10 K a x − 4f a x − 6f ⇔ (x – 4) (x – 5) (x – 6) > 0

a

x ∈ 0, + ∞ f (multiplying both sides by (x – 4)2 (x – 6)2)

af a

∴ D y = 0, + ∞ f But (x – 4) (x – 5) (x – 6) > 0 when (a) all the above

factors > 0 (b) one of the three factors > 0 and each of

N.B.: In the above two examples the functions in the other two factors < 0.

denominator are positive. This is why considerable Hence, we have the following four cases:

function to be greater than zero is only the function Case (i): When (x – 4) > 0 and (x – 5) > 0 and (x – 6)

in numerator. >0

Fx 2 I ⇒ x > 4 and x > 5 and x > 5 ⇒ x ∈ 6 , ∞ a f

3. y = log GH x 2

− 5x + 6

J

+ 4 x + 6K

Case (ii): When (x – 4) > 0 and (x – 5) < 0 and (x – 6)

<0

⇒ x > 4 and x < 5 and x < 6 ⇒ 4 < x < 5 ⇒

x ∈ 4,5a f

Case (iii): When (x – 4) < 0 and (x – 5) > 0 and (x – 6)

<0

⇒ x < 4 and x > 5 and x < 6 ⇒ 5 < x < 6 ⇒ x ∈ φ

34 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

Case (iv): When (x – 4) < 0 and (x – 5) < 0 and (x – 6) this reason both the functions (x – 5) and (x2 – 10x +

>0 24) simultaneously are considerable.

⇒ x < 4 and x > 5 and x > 6 ⇒ x ∈ φ Type 5: Problems based on finding the domain of a

∴ D y = 4, 5 ∪ 6, ∞af a f a f function put in the form:

f x af

af

Method (2) y=

x−5 a x − 5f > 0 log g x

2

x − 10 x + 24

>0⇔

a x − 4f a x − 6f working rule: one must remember that a function

f x af

af

If x < 4, then (x – 4) < 0, (x – 5) < 0, (x – 6) < 0

having the form y = log g x is defined when g (x)

If 4 < x < 5, then (x – 4) > 0, (x – 5) < 0, (x – 6) < 0

If 5 < x < 6, then (x – 4) > 0, (x – 5) > 0, (x – 6) < 0

and if x > 6, then (x – 4) > 0, (x – 5) > 0, (x – 6) > 0

af

> 0 and g x ≠ 1 which means that domain of y

consists of all those values of x for which g (x) > 0

Hence,

a fa f

x−5

x−4 x−6

> 0 ⇔ 4 < x < 5 or x > 6 af

and g x ≠ 1 i.e., D (y) = D + (g (x)) – {roots of

∴ D a y f = a4 , 5f ∪ a6 , ∞f

af

g x = 1 }, where D + (g (x)) signifies the solution

set of g (x) > 0.

af af

Method (3)

For y to be defined Note: log f x ≠ log 1 ⇔ f x ≠ 1

2

(i) x − 10 x + 24 ≠ 0 ⇒ x − 4 a f a x − 6f ≠ 0 ⇒ Solved Examples

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

x ≠ 4, x ≠ 6 (A1)

x

(ii) 2

x−5

>0⇒

(i) y =

a

log 1 + x f

x − 10x + 24 Solution: y is defined when (1 + x) > 0 and log (1 +

(a) x – 5 > 0 and x2 – 10x + 24 > 0 or a f

x) ≠ 0 . 1 + x > 0 ⇔ x > − 1 ⇔ x ∈ −1, + ∞ . a f

(b) x – 5 and x2 – 10x + 24 < 0

from (a), x – 5 > 0 and (x – 4) (x – 6) > 0 a f a f

log 1 + x = 0 ⇔ log 1 + x ≠ log 1 ( ∴ log 1= 0)

⇒ x > 5 and (x < 4 or x > 6) ⇔1+ x ≠1

⇒ (x > 5 and x < 4) or (x > 5 and x > 6) ⇔x≠0

But x > 5 and x < 4 is not possible

∴ x > 5 and x > 6 ⇒ x > 6 (A2) af a

∴ D y = −1 , + ∞ − 0 f kp

from (b), x < 5 and (x – 4) (x – 6) < 0 Type 6: Problems based on finding the domain of a

⇒ x < 5 and (x > 4 and x < 6) function put in the form: y = log log log f (x)

⇒ x < 5 and (4 < x < 6) To remember: One must remember the following facts:

⇒ 4 < x < 5 (A3) 1. Inequalities of the form log a x > c, log a x < c, where

Now, combining (A2) and (A3), we get a > 0 and a ≠ 1 are called simplest logarithmic

a f a f

x > 6 or 4 < x < 5 which ⇒ x ∈ 4 , 5 ∪ 6 , ∞ inequalities.

af a f a f

∴ D y = 4, 5 ∪ 6, ∞

LM RSa > 1 ⇒

x>c⇔M T

c

N.B.: On must note that in the above example x>a

discriminant of the function x2 – 10x + 24 in the 2. log a

MMRS0 < a < 1 ⇒

denominator is 102 – 4 × 1 × 24 = 100.96 = 4 = + ve. For

NT 0 < x < a c

Function 35

x<c⇔ MT x < c ⇔ MT

c c

0< x<a 0< x<a

3. log a

MMRS0 < a < 1 ⇒ (b) log a

MM RS0 < a < 1

NT x > a c

NT x>a c

Solved Examples

LM RS g a xf > 0 Find the domain of each of the following functions:

MML Tga afx>f >1 0⇒

1

1. y = log2 log3 (x – 4)

2

af

Solution: y = log2 log3 (x – 4) exists only for log 3 (x –

4. log f a x f g1 x > log f a x f g 2

MMMM 0 < f axf < 1 ⇒ 4) > 0

1 2

⇔ (x – 4) > 3º

⇔ x–4>1

⇔ x>5

1 2

af a

∴ D y = 5, + ∞ f

2. y = log2 log3 log4 (x)

find the domain of a function put in the forms:

a f

Solution: y = log2 log3 log4 (x) is defined when log3

(i) y = log a log b f (x) a > 0 , a ≠ 1 , b > 1 log4 (x) > 0

(ii) y = log a log b log c f (x) ⇔ log3 log4 (x) > log3 1

aa > 0 , a ≠ 1 , b > 1 , c > 0 , c ≠ 1f ⇔ log4 x > 1

⇔ x > 41 ⇔ x > 4

Rule 1: log a log b f (x) exists

⇔ log b f (x) > 0

af a

∴ D y = 4, +∞ f

⇔ log b f (x) > log 1 3. y = log10 [1 – log10 (x2 – 5x + 16)]

Solution: y = log10 [1 – log10 (x2 – 5x + 16)] is defined

⇔ f (x) > 1 and solve for x

when [1 – log10 (x2 – 5x + 16)] > 0

Rule 2: log a log b log c f (x) exists

⇔ – log10 (x2 – 5x + 16) > – 1

⇔ log b log c f (x) > 0

⇔ log10 (x2 – 5x + 16) < 1

⇔ log b log c f (x) > log 1

⇔ x2 – 5x + 16 < 101 (3 loga x < c ⇔ x < ac when

⇔ log c f (x) > 1

a > 1)

⇔ f (x) > c1 if c > 1; f (x) < c if c < 1 and solve for x.

⇔ x2 – 5x + 16 – 10 < 0

Aid to memory: To find the domain of a given function ⇔ x2 – 5x + 6 < 0

put in the above mentioned form. ⇔ (x – 2) (x – 3) < 0

1. One must remove first log operator from left hand

side of the functions of the forms: y = log a log b log c ⇔ 2<x<3 ⇔ x ∈ 2, 3 a f

f (x) or log a log b f (x) and the rest log of a function ∴ D (y) = (2, 3)

(i.e., log b log c f (x) or log b f (x)) should be put > 0.

2. Use the rules: Domain of Trigonometric Functions

x>c⇔M T

c functions:

x>a

(a) log a

MMRS < a < 1

0

1. y = sin x 2. y = cos x 3. y = tan x

4. y = cot x 5. y = cosec x 6. y = sec x

NT0 < x < a c

Answer: 1. y = sin x

36 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

sin x is undefined and imaginary for no real value of x.

a f

R (tan x) = R = −∞ , ∞ = the set of all real numbers.

4. y = cot x

Hence, the domain of y = sin x is the set of all real

since, we know that the value of the function y =

numbers. Again we know that | sin x | ≤ 1 ⇔ − 1

cos x

sin x ≤ 1 for any real value of x which means that the cot x = is undefined for all those values of x

sin x

range of y = sin x is the closed interval [–1, 1].

for which the function sin x in denominator is zero

Aid to memory:

(i.e.; for sin x = 0 ⇔ x = n π = any integral multiple

a f

D (sin x) = −∞ , + ∞ = R = the set of all real numbers. of π , n being an integer). Hence, the domain of the

R ( sin x) = [–1, 1] function y = cot x is the set of all real numbers

2. y = cos x excluding n π , n being an integer. Again, we know

since we know that the value of the function y = that cot x can assume any value however large or

cos x is undefined and imaginary for no real value of small for real value of x which means that

x. Hence, the domain of y = cos x is the set of all real −∞ < tan < ∞ is the range of the function y = cot x.

numbers, again we know that | cos x | ≤ 1 ⇔ − 1

Aid to memory:

cos x ≤ 1 for any real value of x which means that the D (cot x) = R – {x: x = n π , n being an integer}

range of y = cos x is the closed interval [–1, 1]. a f

R ( cot x) = R = −∞ , ∞ = the set of all real

Aid to memory: numbers.

a f

D (cos x) = −∞ , + ∞ = R = the set of all real numbers. 5. y = cosec x

R (cos x) = [–1, 1] Since we know that the value of the function y =

3. y = tan x 1

cosec x = is undefined for those values of x for

since we know that the value of the function y = sin x

sin x which the function sin x in denominator is zero (i.e.,

tan x = is undefined for those values of x for

cos x for sin x = 0 ⇔ x = n π = any integral multiple of π ,

which the function cos x in denominator is zero (i.e., n being an integer). Hence, the domain of y = cosec x

for those values of x for which the function cos x in is the set of all real numbers excluding n π , n being an

denominator is zero (i.e.; for cos x = 0 ⇔ x = integer. Again we know that | cosec x | ≥ 1 ⇔ cosec

x ≥ 1 or cosec x ≤ − 1 , ∀ x ≠ n π . Thus, ∀ x ≠ n π ,

a2n + 1f π2 = odd multiple of π2 , n being an integer). we have cosec x ≥ 1 or cosec x ≤ − 1 . Hence, the

Hence, the domain of y = tan x is the set of all real range of y = cosec x is the set of all real numbers not

a f π2 , n being an integer.

in the open interval (–1, 1).

numbers excluding 2n + 1 Aid to memory:

Again, we know that tan x can assume any value D (cosec x) = R –{x: x = n π , n being an integer}

however large or small for real value of x which means R (cosec x) = R – (–1, 1)

that −∞ < tan x < ∞ is the range of y = tan x. 6. y = sec x

Since we know that the value of the function y =

Aid to memory:

1

D (tan x) = R = { x: x = a 2n + 1f , n being an integer}

π sec x = is undefined for those values of x for

cos x

2

which the function cos x in the denominator is zero

Function 37

a f π2 , n being an

Solved Examples

(i.e., for cos x = 0 ⇔ x = 2n + 1

Find the domain of the following:

integer). Hence, the domain of y = sec x is the set of all 1. y = sin2 x + cos4 x

and domain of cos4 x = R = {x: x ∈ R }

integer. Again we know that | sec x | ≥ 1 ⇔ sec x ≥ 1

af

∴ D y =R∩R=R

aπ

f

or sec x ≤ − 1, , ∀ x ≠ 2n + 1 , n being a integer.

2

Type 2: Problems based on finding the domain of a

function put in the form: y = a sin x ± b cos x or, y =

a

Thus ∀ x ≠ 2n + 1 f π2 , we have sec x ≥ 1 or sec x a cos x ± b sin x, where a, b, x ∈ R .

Working rule: One must remember that the domain

≤ –1. Therefore, the range of y = sec x is the set of all of the function of the form: y = a sin x ± b cos x or y

real numbers not in the open interval (–1, 1).

= a cos x ± b sin x is the set of all real numbers since

Aid to memory:

a sin x or b cos x is defined for all a, b, x ∈ R as well

a

D (sec x) = R – {x: x = 2n + 1 f π2 , n ∈ I } I = the set as a cos x or b cos x is defined for all a, b x ∈ R

which means that this sum and/difference is (or, are)

of integers = { 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , ± 3 , ...}

defined for all a, b, x ∈ R .

af a f

R (sec x ) = R – (–1, 1)

∴ D y = R = −∞ , + ∞ = − ∞ , + ∞

Refresh your memory:

1 Solved Examples

1. sin x ≤ 1 ⇔ ≥ 1 ⇔ cosec x ≥ 1

sin x

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

1 1. y = sin x – cos x

2. cos x ≤ 1 ⇔ ≥ 1 ⇔ sec x ≥ 1 Solution: y = sin x – cos x is defined for x ∈ R since

cos x

Now we consider different types or problems sin x and cos x are defined for x ∈ R

whose domains are required to be determined. af a

∴ D y = R = −∞ , + ∞ f

Type 1: Problems based on finding the domain of a

2. y = 3 cos x + 4 sin x

function put in the form: y = sinn x ± coxm x (n and m

Solution: y = 3 cos x + 4 sin x is defined for all x ∈ R

being integers) = sum or difference of power of sin x

and cos x; since 3 cos x and 4 sin x are defined for all, x ∈ R

Working rule: One must remember that domain of af

∴ D y = R = −∞ , ∞a f

the function y = sinn x ± cosm x is R = −∞ , ∞ = a f Type 3: Problems based on finding the domain of

−∞, +∞ since sin x and cos x are real valued trigonometric rational functions:

functions of the real variables x ⇔ sinn x and cosm x Working rule: It consists of following steps:

are real valued functions of the real variable x ⇔ the Step 1: To put the functional value (or, simply

sum of sinn x and cosm x are real valued functions of function) in denominator = 0 and to find the valued of

the real variable x. the independent variable.

38 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

variable from R to get the required domain, i.e., domain 1. y =

of trigonometric rational functions = R – { real values

1 + cos x

of the argument for which functional value in Solution: Putting 1 + cos x = 0

denominator = 0}. ⇒ cos x = − 1 ⇒ x = 2 n + 1 π a f

Notes: 1. If no real solution is available after putting

the functional value in denominator = 0, then domain af

∴D y =R− la2n + 1f π: n ∈ I q

a

of trigonometric rational functions is R = −∞ , + ∞ . f 2. y =

1

We face this circumstances generally when we obtain 2 − cos 3 x

cos m x or sin mx = k; | k | > 1, (after putting the Solution: Putting 2 – cos 3 x = 0

functional value in denominator = 0) from which it is ⇒ cos 3x = 2 which is not true for any real x

not possible to find out the values of x since maximum

and/minimum value of sin m x and/cos m x = +1 and – af

∴ D y = R = −∞ , + ∞ a f

1 respectively. 1

3. y =

2. sinθ = 0 ⇔ θ = n π , n ∈ I 2 − sin 3 x

⇒ sin 3x = 2 which is not true for any real x

n af

∴ D y = R = −∞ , ∞ a f

cos θ = cos α ⇔ θ = 2 n π ± α , n ∈ I Domain of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

2

sin θ = sin α U| 2 Before studying the method of finding the domain of

inverse trigonometric (or, arc) functions, we discuss

cos θ = cos α V ⇒ θ = n π ± α

2 2

tan θ = tan α |

3. (n being an the domain on which each trigonometric functions is

2

|W2 reversible.

−1 π π LM OP

integer) 1. y = sin x ⇔ sin

2 2

y = x , x∈ −

, , y ∈ −1,1

N Q

a f

4. cosn π = −1 n , n being an integer. which signifies that the function y = sin x defined on

sinn π = 0 , n being an integer. LM π π OP

5. The domain of the function put in the form:

the interval −

N ,

2 2 Q

has an inverse function defined

af af

f x 1 af

f x

on the interval [–1, 1].

y= f x ,

af

g x

,

g a xf

,

g a xf

where f Notes:

obtained by the same working rule as the case when

e

(i) D sin

−1

j

y = −1 , 1 , R sin e −1

j LMN

y = −

π π

,

2 2

OP

Q

f (x) and g (x) are algebraic functions.

e

(ii) sin sin

−1

j

y = y , ∀ y ∈ −1 ,1 and sin (sin x)

−1

Solved Examples LM

π π OP

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

= x , ∀ x∈ −

N ,

2 2

.

Q

(iii) The notation of the inverse of the sine function

is sin–1 (or, arc sin).

Function 39

(iv) y = sin x, x ∈ −

N ,

Q

, is one-one and onto function is tan–1 (or, arc tan).

F I

2 2

π π

functions. this is why it is possible to define its inverse

on the interval [–1, 1].

(iv) y = tan x , x ∈ −

H ,

2 2 K

is a one-one and on-to

2. y = cos x ⇔ cos–1 y = x, x ∈ 0 , π , y ∈ −1 , 1 on the set of al real numbers (i.e.; R).

which signifies that the functions y = cos x is defined

on the interval 0 , π has an inverse function x =

−1

4. y = cot x ⇔ cot y = x , x ∈ 0 , π , y ∈R which a f

cos–1 y defined on the interval [–1, 1]. signifies that the function y = cot x defined on the

Notes: a f

interval 0 , π has an inverse function x = cot–1 y

e j e j

−1 −1 defined on the set of all real numbers.

(i) D cos y = −1 , 1 , R cos y = 0, π .

Notes:

e −1

j

(ii) cos cos y = y , ∀ y ∈ −1 , 1 and cos (cos x)

−1

(i) D cot e −1

j a

y = R = −∞ , + ∞ , R cot f e −1

ja f

y = 0,π

= x , ∀ x∈ 0, π . e yj = y , ∀ y ∈R and cot

(ii) cot cot

−1 −1

acot xf =

(iii) The notation of the inverse of the cosine function

is cos–1 (or, arc cos). x , ∀ x ∈a0 , π f

(iv) y = cos x , x ∈ 0 , π , y ∈ −1 , 1 is a one-one (iii) The notation of the inverse of the contangent

and on-to function. this is why it is possible to define function is cot–1 (or, arc cot).

its inverse on the interval [–1, 1]. a f

(iv) y = cot x , x ∈ 0 , π , y ∈R is a one-one and on-

a f

3. y = tan x ⇔ tan y = x , x∈ −

H ,

2 2 K

, y ∈R inverse on the interval −∞ , ∞ .

which signifies that the function y = tan x defined on −1 RS π UV , y ∈R −

F− π , πI 5. y = sec x ⇔ sec y = x , x ∈ 0 , π −

T2 W

the interval

H 2 2K has an inverse function x =

a −1 , 1f which signifies that the function y = sec x is

tan–1 y defined on the set of all real numbers (i.e.; R)

Rπ U

reversible on the interval 0 , π − S V , that is, it has

Notes:

T2 W

e −1

j a

(i) D tan y = R = −∞ , + ∞ , R tan y = f e −1

j an inverse function x = sec–1 y defined on the interval

R = (–1, 1).

F− π , πI .

H 2 2K

Notes:

e −1

j a f e

(i) D sec y = R − −1 , 1 , R sec y = 0 , π −

−1

j

(ii) tan etan y j = y , ∀ y ∈R

−1

and tan

−1

a tan x f =

RS π UV .

F π πI . T2 W

H 2 2K

x , ∀ x∈ − ,

(ii) The notation of the inverse of the secant function

is sec–1 (or, arc sec).

40 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

e −1

j a f

(iii) sec sec y = y , ∀ y ∈R − −1 ,1 ;sec

−1 Working rule: It consists of following steps:

1. To put f (x) in between –1 and 1, i.e., to form the

af

inequality −1 ≤ f x ≤ 1 and to solve two

asec xf = x , ∀ x ∈ 0 , π − RST π2 UVW . af

inequalities f x ≥ − 1 and f x ≤ 1 . af

RπU

2. To find the intersection of the solution set of the

(iv) y = sec x , x ∈ 0 , π − S V , y ∈R − a −1 , 1f is f a x f ≥ − 1 and f a x f ≤ 1 to form the

T2 W

inequalities

domain of the function of the form: y = sin–1 (f (x)) or,

a one-one and on-to function, this is why it is possible y = cos–1 (f (x)).

to define its inverse in the interval R – (–1, 1).

Notes:

−1 LM π π OP a f

(i) sin x ≥ 0 ⇔ 2 nπ ≤ x ≤ 2n + 1 π , n being an

6. y = cosec x ⇔ x = cosec

N

y, x∈ − ,

2 2

−

Q integer.

k0p , y ∈R − a−1 , 1f which signifies that the function (ii) sin x > 0 ⇔ 2nπ < x < 2nπ + π , n being an

integer ⇔ x lies in the first or second quadrant.

L π πO

y = cosec x is reversible on the interval M − , P −

N 2 2Q Solved Examples

k0p that is, it has an inverse function x = cosec y –1

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

defined on the interval R – (–1, 1). −1 FG 2 IJ

Notes: 1. y = cos

H 2 + sin x K

e −1

j a f e

(i) D cosec y = R − −1 , 1 , R cosec y =

−1

j 2

Solution: y is defined when −1 ≤ ≤1

2 + sin x

LM− π , π OP − k0p

N 2 2Q ⇔ − 2 − sin x ≤ 2 ≤ 2 + sin x

⇔ − 2 − sin x ≤ 2 ...(i)

(ii) cosec ecosec y j = y , ∀ y ∈R − a −1 , 1f

−1

and

and 2 ≤ 2 + sin x ...(ii)

L π πO

cosec a cosec x f = x , ∀ x ∈ M − , P − k0p .

−1 (i) ⇒ − 2 − sin x ≤ 2 ⇔ − sin x ≤ 4 ⇔ sin x ≥ − 4

N 2 2Q which is true ∀ x ∈R ⇔ D1 = − ∞ < x < ∞ = R .

(iii) The notation of the inverse of the cosecant (ii) ⇒ 2 ≤ 2 + sin x ⇔ 0 ≤ sin x ⇔ sin x ≥ 0 ⇔

function is cosec–1 (or, arc cosec).

L π πO a f

2nπ ≤ x ≤ 2n + 1 π ⇔ D2 = 2nπ , 2n + 1 π a f

y = cosec x , x ∈ M− , P − k0p , y ∈R − a−1,1f is af

(iv)

N 2 2Q ∴ D y = D1 ∩ D2

a one-one and on-to function. This is why it is possible a f

= 2nπ , 2n + 1 π , n being an integer.

to define its inverse on the interval R – (–1, 1).

Now we discuss the method of finding the domain 2. y = cos–1 (2x + 3)

of different types of problems. Solution: y is defined when −1 ≤ 2 x + 3 ≤ 1

Type1: Problems based on finding the domain of a ⇔ − 1 ≤ 2x + 3 ...(i)

function put in the form: y = sin–1 (f (x)) or, y = cos–1

and 2 x + 3 ≤ 1 ...(ii)

(f (x)).

Function 41

Now,(i) ⇒ 2 x + 3 ≥ − 1 ⇔ 2 x ≥ − 1 − 3 ⇔ x ≥ af

∴ D y = D1 ∩ D2

−4

⇔ x ≥ − 2 ⇔ D1 = −2 , ∞ f L1 O

= M , 2P

2 N2 Q

(ii) ⇒ 1 ≥ 2x + 3 ⇔ 1 − 3 ≥ 2x ⇔ − 2 ≥ 2x ⇔

Remember:

−2

2

≥ x ⇔ − 1 ≥ x ⇔ x ≤ − 1 ⇔ D2 = −∞ , − 1 a 1. log a x > c ⇔ x < a , if 0 < a < 1 .

c

af

∴ D y = D1 ∩ D2 2. log a x > c ⇔ x < a c , if a > 1 .

function put in the form:

–∞ –2 –1 0 1 2 +∞ y = sin

−1

f x af

or y = cos

−1

f x af

D2

Working rule: It consists of following steps:

3. y = cos–1 (1 – 2x) af

1. To put f x ≥ 0 and to solve for x.

Solution: y is defined when −1 ≤ 1 − 2 x ≤ 1 2

2. To consider sin y ≤ 1 ⇔ sin y ≤ 1 ⇔

⇔ − 1 ≤ 1 − 2x ...(i)

and 1 − 2 x ≤ 1 ...(ii) {sin sin −1

a f}

f x

2

≤1⇔ o f a xf t 2

≤1⇔ f x af

Now, (i) ⇒ − 1 ≤ 1 − 2 x ⇔ − 1 − 1 ≤ − 2 x ⇔ −

≤ 1 and to solve for x.

2 ≤ − 2 x ⇔ x ≤ 1 ⇒ D1 = −∞ , 1 a af

3. (1) and (2) ⇔ 0 ≤ f x ≤ 1 , domain of y is the

(ii) ⇒ − 1x ≤ 1 ⇔ − 2 x ≤ 0 ⇔ x ≥ 0 ⇒ D2 = intersection of the solution set of (1) and (2).

0, ∞ f af

f x is defined for f x ≥ 0 af

af

Note:

∴ D y = D1 ∩ D2

= [0, 1] ∴ y = sin

−1

af

f x or cos

−1

af

f x is defined

4. y = sin–1 (log2 x) for 0 ≤ af af

f x ≤ 1 and f x ≥ 0 ⇒ 0 ≤ f x ≤ 1 , af

Solution: y is defined when −1 ≤ log 2 x ≤ 1 i.e.; domain of the function put in the form

⇔ − 1 ≤ log 2 x ...(ii) y = sin

−1

af

f x or cos

−1

af

f x consists of all

and log 2 x ≤ 1 ...(i) those values of x for which af

f x ≥ 0 and

−1

≤x⇔

1

2

≤x⇔ 0≤ af

f x ≤ 1.

1 1 LM I

K

Solved Examples

x≥

2

⇔ D1 =

2

,∞ .

N Find the domain of the following:

1

(ii) ⇒ log 2 x ≤ 1 ⇔ 2 ≥ x ⇔ x ≤ 2 ⇔ D2 = −1

1. y = sin x

−∞ , 2 f

42 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

x is defined for x ≥ 0 −∞ ∞

⇔ <x<

∴ y is defined for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and x ≥ 0 . 2 2

af

⇒ D y = 0,1

⇔ −∞ < x < ∞

∴ D (y) = [0, 1] af a

∴ D y = −∞ , + ∞ = R f

Method (2)

f

Type 4: Problems based on finding the domain of a

(1) Putting x ≥ 0 ⇔ D1 = 0 , ∞ function put in the form:

2

y = sec–1 (f (x)) or y = cosec–1 (f (x))

2 −1

2. sin y ≤ 1 ⇔ sin y ≤ 1 ⇔ sin sin x ≤ Working rule:

a

1 ⇔ x ≤ 1 ⇔ D2 = −∞ , 1

af

1. To form the inequalities − ∞ < f x ≤ − 1 and

af

∴ D y = D1 ∩ D2

af

1 ≤ f x < +∞.

= 0,1

af

2. To solve the inequalities − ∞ < f x ≤ − 1 and

af

1 ≤ f x < + ∞ for x to form the domain of the

–∞ 0 1 +∞ function of the form y = sec–1 (f (x)) or y = cosec–1

(f (x)).

Type 3: Problems based on finding the domain of a

function put in the form: y = tan–1 (f (x)) or y = cot–1 (f

af

y = f1 x ± f 2 x af

(x)). Working rule: It tells to find the domains of two

functions, say f1 (x) and f2 (x) separately whose

Working rule: It consists of following steps:

intersection is the domain of this sum or difference.

1. To put f (x) in between − ∞ and + ∞ i.e., to form

af

the inequality − ∞ < f x < + ∞ .

Notes: By considering the two domains (i.e., intervals)

on the scale, we find their intersection (i.e., the interval

2. To find the solution set of the inequality of common points).

af

− ∞ < f x < + ∞ to form the domain of the

Solved Examples

function of the form y = tan–1 (f (x)) or y = cot–1 (f (x)).

Note: y = tan–1 (f (x)) or y = cot–1 (f (x)) defined for all Find the domain of each of the following functions:

those real values of x for which − ∞ < f x < + ∞ af 1. y = 1 − x +

2 x−3

i.e.; the domain of the function of the form y = tan–1 (f 2x + 1

(x)) or y = cot–1 (f (x)) consists of all those real values

af

of x for which − ∞ < f x < + ∞ . af

Solution: Let f 1 x = 1 − x

2

2

3 f1 (x) is defined when 1 − x ≥ 0

Solved Examples

2

Find the domain of the following: ⇔ x ≤ 1 ⇔ x ≤ 1 ⇔ −1 ≤ x ≤ 1

1. y = tan–1 (2x + 1)

Solution: 3 y is defined when − ∞ < 2 x + 1 < + ∞

b a fg =

∴ D f1 x −1 , 1 = D1 (say)

Function 43

af

Again, let f 2 x =

x−3

af FG x − 2 IJ ≥ 0

2x + 1 3 f 1 x is defined when

H x + 2K

3 f2 (x) is defined when 2 x + 1 ≠ 0 ⇔ x ≠ − 2 and b x − 2gb x + 2g ≥ 0 ⇔

x ≠ − 2 and a x − 2f b x − a−2fg ≥

1

⇔x≠−

2

0 ⇔ x ≥ 2 or x < − 2

R 1U

∴ D b f a x fg = R − S− V = D (say) b a fg = a−∞ , − 2f ∪ 2 , + ∞f = D asayf

2

T 2W 2 ∴ D f1 x 1

F 1 I ∪ F − 1 , ∞I

H 2K H 2 K

= −∞ , − –∞ –2 0 2 +∞

Thus, D a y f = L−1 , − I ∪ F − , 1O = D FG 1 − x IJ ≥ 0

MN 2 K H 2 PQ

1 1

1 ∩ D2

f2 (x) is defined when

H1 + xK

–∞ –1 –

1 0 1 +∞

⇔ x ≠ − 1 and a1 − x fa1 + x f ≥ 0

⇔ x ≠ − 1 and a x − 1f a x + 1f ≤ 0

2

af

Solution: Let f 1 x = 4−x ∴ D b f a x fg = a−1 , 1 = D asayf

2 2

af

and f 2 x = x−5 Thus, D a y f = D ∩ D = ∅

1 2

b a fg a

∴ D f 1 x = −∞ , 4 = D1

–∞ –1 0 1 +∞

b a fg f a f −1 FG x − 2 IJ

∴ D f 2 x = 5 , ∞ = D2 say 4. y = 3 − x + cos

H 3 K

Thus, D a y f = D ∩ D = ∅1 2

af

Solution: Let f 1 x = 3− x

–∞ +∞

af −1 FG x − 2 IJ

H 3 K

0 4 5

and f 2 x = cos

D2

3 f1 (x) is defined when 3 − x ≥ 0 ⇔ x ≤ 3

3. y =

x−2

x+2

+

1− x

1+ x

b a fg = a−∞ , 3 = D asayf

∴ D f1 x 1

x−2

f2 (x) is defined when −1 ≤ ≤1

af

Solution: Let f 1 x =

x−2

x+2

⇔ −3≤ x − 2 ≤ 3

3

⇔ −3 + 2 ≤ x − 2 + 2 ≤ 3 + 2

⇔ −1 ≤ x ≤ 5

af

and f 2 x =

1− x

1+ x

44 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

and –)

3. | x | = x for x > 0; | x | = –x for x < 0 (where x = − ve ⇔

–∞ –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 +∞ − x = + ve , i.e; x < 0 ⇔ –x > 0).

4. | f (x) | = f (x) for f (x) > 0; | f (x) | = – f (x) for f (x) < 0

(where f (x) = –ve ⇔ –f (x) = + ve, i.e; f (x) < 0 ⇔ 0 –

af

Thus, D y = D1 ∩ D2 f (x) > 0).

a

= −∞ , 3 ∩ −1 , 5

5. x < a ⇔ − a < x < a ⇔ x ∈ −a , a a f

= [–1, 3] 6. x > a ⇔ x < − a or x > a ⇔ x ∈ R − − a , a

7. af

f x af

> a ⇔ −a < f x < a

f a xf af af

Domain of a Function Put in the Forms

8. > a ⇔ f x > a or f x < − a

(i) y = | f (x) |

af

(ii) y = f x ± g x af 9. x < a or x > b ⇔ x ∈R − a , b ⇔ x ∈ −∞ , a a f

a

∪ b, + ∞ f

f axf

(iii) y =

a x f ± f a xf

1

or ,

af

1

x ± f3 x af e.g.: x − 4 > 5 ⇔

LMx − 4 < − 5 ⇔ LMx < − 1 ⇔

N x−4>5 Nx>9

f2 3 f2

⇔ x ∈ a −∞ , − 1f ∪ a 9 , ∞ f

Working rule: To find the domain of a function

x ∈R = −1 , 9

involving absolute value function, one must remember

that:

af af

Solved Examples

(i) y = f x ± g x is the sum or difference of

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

two functions. Hence, its domain is the intersection 1. y = | sin x |

of domains of the functions f (x) and | g (x) |. Solution: 3 y = | sin x | is defined for every real value

f1 x af 1 of x (i.e.; for any value of x ∈R )

(ii) y =

af

f2 x ± f3 x af or ,

af

f2 x ± f3 x af is

af k

∴ D y = R x : x ∈R = −∞ , + ∞ p a f

a rational function. Hence, its domain is dom f1 (x) ∩ 2. y = 1 – | x |

dom f2 (x) ∩ dom | f3 (x) | – {x: f2 (x) ± | f3 (x) | = 0}. Solution: y = 1 – | x | is defined for every real value of

Notes: x (i.e.; for any value of x ∈R ).

1. When the sum of two non-negative numbers (or,

functions) is zero, then both the numbers (or,

af k

∴ D y = R x : x ∈R = −∞ , + ∞ p a f

functions) are separately zero. 2

x +3

2

e.g: x + x = 0 ⇒ x = 0 and x = 0; | x | +

2

3. y = 2

3

x + | x|

x = 0 ⇒ | x | = 0 and | x3 | = 0.

x2 + 3

2. (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) (x – 4) is > 0 for x > 4, or 2 < x Solution: y = a rational function.

< 3 or x+< 1; and –< 0 for 3 <+ x < 4 or–1 < x < 2.+ x 2 + | x|

Putting x2 + | x | = 0

1 2 3 4

⇒ x2 = 0 and | x | = 0 and from each equation, we

get

x = 0 ( 3 x = 0 ⇔ x = 0 and x = 0 ⇔ x = 0)

2

Function 45

af

∴ D y =R− 0 kp ⇒ x ≤1

2

1 ⇒ x ≤ 1 ⇒ x ∈ −1 , 1 ...(ii)

4. y = on finding the intersection of (i) and (ii), it is

x− x

1

f a

obtained D (y) = −1 , 0 ∪ 0 , 1 .

Solution: y = a rational function

x− x Problems on the Range of a Function

Putting x – | x | = 0

As discussed earlier, the range of a function defined

⇔ |x|=x by y = f (x) in its domain is the set of values of f (x)

⇔ x ≥ 0 ( ∵ x = x provided x > 0) which it attains at points belonging to the domain.

For a real function, the codomain is always a subset

af

∴ D y = R − x: x ≥ 0 k p of R, so the range of a real function f is the set of all

Domain of a Function

af

points y such that y = f (x), where x ∈D f = domain

Containing Greatest Integer Function of f.

In general, a function is described either by a single

Rule: Domains of functions involving greatest integer expression in x in its domain or by various expressions

function are obtained by using different properties of defined in adjacent intervals denoting different parts

greatest integer function. of the domain of the function and neither its domain

nor range is mentioned. In such cases, it is required

Solved Examples to be found out the domain and the range of the given

1. Find the domain of y = sin–1 [x] function.

Solution: y = sin–1 [x] is defined when –1 < [x] < 1 Already, how to find out the domains of different

Now –1< [x] < 1 types of functions has been discussed. Now the

methods of finding the range of a given function will

⇔ −1 ≤ x < 2 be explained.

⇔ x ∈ −1 , 2 f Firstly, domains and range sets of standard

functions will be put in a tabular form.

⇔ D (y) = [–1, 2]

2. Find the domain of y = sin–1 [2 – 3x2]. Funtion defined Domain Range

Solution: y = sin –1 [2 – 3x 2 ] is defined when by an expression

−1 ≤ 2 − 3 x

2

≤1 1. y = kx, k ≠ 0 (–∞, ∞) (–∞, ∞)

2. y = kx + l (–∞, ∞) (–∞, ∞)

2 k

Now −1 ≤ 2 − 3 x ≤1 3. y = ,k≠0 R – {0} R – {0}

x

4. y = x2n (–∞, ∞) (0, ∞)

2

⇔ − 1 ≤ 2 − 3x < 2 5. y = x2n + 1 (–∞, ∞) (–∞, ∞)

Again, 2 – 3 x2 < 2 6. y = x [0, ∞) [0, ∞)

⇒ –3x2 < 0 LM− D , + ∞IJ ,

⇒ –x2 < 0 7. y = ax2 + bx + c, (–∞, ∞)

N 4a K

2 a>0 D = b2 – 4ac

⇒ x > 0 ⇒ x ∈R ...(i)

8. y = ax2 + bx + c, (–∞, ∞)

FG −∞ , − D IJ ,

Next, 2 − 3x 2 ≥ − 1 H 4a K

2

⇒ − 3x ≥ − 3 a<0 D = b2 – 4ac

46 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

Now the methods to find the range of a given x ∈R i.e. given function y = f (x) does not become

function are provided, when its domain is an infinite

interval. imaginary or undefined for any value of x ∈R ⇒

domain of the given function is the set of all real

How to Find the Range of Function numbers denoted by R.

Lastly, one should find the range of the given

Step 1: Put y = f (x) functions using the axioms of inequality in

Step 2: Solve the equation y = f (x) for x to obtain x =

−∞ < x < ∞ .

g (y).

Step 3: Find the values of y for which the values of x Example worked out:

obtained from x = g (y) are in the domain of f, i.e. find 1. Find the domain and range of each of the following

the domain of g (y) in the same way as the domain of functions:

f (x) is obtained considering g (y) as inverse of f (x). (i) y = x (ii) y = x + 2

Step 4: The set of all values of y obtained in step (3) Solution: (i) y = x does not become imaginary or

is the required range, i.e. the domain of g (y) is the undefined for any x ∈R ⇒ y = x is defined for all

required range of the given function y = f (x).

x ∈R .

Remarks:

1. The method mentioned above is fruitful only when af

⇒ D y = R ⇒ −∞ < x < ∞ ⇒ −∞ < y < ∞

the domain of a given function is infinite, i.e. the (3 y = x is given)

domain of a given functions is not a closed interval af

⇒ R y = R = the set of reals.

[a, b], a , b ∈R = the set of reals. (ii) y = x + 2 does not become imaginary or undefined

2. When a function defined by a single formula y = f for and x ∈R ⇒ y = x + 2 is defined for all x ∈R ⇒

(x) does not become imaginary or undefined for any

value of independent variable x, the domain of the D (y) = R Now, af

D y = R ⇒ −∞ < x <

function y = f (x) is the set of all real numbers denoted ∞ ⇒ − ∞ < x + 2 < ∞ (on using the axiom of

by R. To obtain its range, one should consider the

inequality) ⇒ − ∞ < y < ∞ ⇒ R ( y) = R = the set of

domain −∞ < x < ∞ using the axioms of inequality

reals.

in −∞ < x < ∞ .

Note:

3. When it is possible to put a function in the form of

In case one is required to find out the range of linear

Px2 + Qx + R, where P, Q and R are linear expressions

function y = ax + b whose domain is a given subset of

in y, one should use the rule of discriminat, i.e.,

2

the set of reals namely R, the range of y = ax + b is

D = b − 4 ac ≥ 0 for real x. obtained with the help of given domain and the use

4. In case the domain of a function y = f (x) is a finite of various axioms of inequality.

set D = {a1, a2, a3, …, an}, then its range is obtained Examples: (i) Find the range of f (x) = 4x – 5 for

by forming the set whose members are the values of [f −6 ≤ x ≤ 3 .

(x)] x = a1, a2, a3, …, an.

Solution: −6 ≤ x ≤ 3

Type 1: Functions put in the forms: (i) y = ax + b (ii) y

= ax2 + bx + c whose domains are not given. ⇒ − 24 ≤ 4 x ≤ 12

Rule: When the domain of a function is not given ⇒ − 24 − 5 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 12 − 5

and the question says to determine the range of a ⇒ −29 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 7

af

functions, one is required to find out its domain at

first in the following way: ⇒ f x ∈ −29 , 7

⇒ R a f f = k y : − 29 ≤ y ≤ 7p where y = f (x)

It should be checked whether the given function

becomes imaginary or undefined for any value of

Function 47

functions:

1. Find the range of the following functions:

(ii) f 1 (x) = 2x + 3 for −1 ≤ x ≤ 7 is

(i) y = x (ii) y = x − 3 (iii) y = 3 − 2x

k y : 1 ≤ y ≤ 17p , where y = f (x).

1 1 1 1

1

(iii) g (x) = 5 – 6x for −3 ≤ x ≤ 4 is (iv) y =

x+2

k y : − 19 ≤ y

2 2 p

≤ 23 , where y2 = g (x).

Solution: (i) y = x

(iv) h (x) = 5x – 6 for −2 ≤ x ≤ 5 is

k y : − 16 ≤ y ≤ 19p , where y = h (x).

3 3 3

⇒x≥0

Again y = x

2. Find the domain and range of each of the following

functions: 2

⇔ y = x, 3 y ≥ 0 a f

(i) y = x2 (ii) y = x2 – 4.

but x ≥ 0

Solution: (i) y = x2 does not become imaginary or

2

2

undefined for any x ∈R ⇒ y = x is defined for all ⇔ y ≥0

⇔ y ≥0

x ∈R ⇒ D (y) = R Now, y = x 2 ⇒ x 2 − y = 0 ⇒

⇔ y ≥ 0 if y is non-negative which is given

a f e

D = 0 − 4 × 1 × − y = 4 y ≥ 0 3 D = b − 4 ac

2

j (since y = x ).

⇒ y ≥ 0 ⇒ y ∈ 0 , ∞f ⇒ R a yf = 0, ∞ . f a f

⇔ y∈ 0, ∞

⇒ R a yf = 0 , ∞f

(ii) y = x2 – 4 does not become imaginary or undefined

for any x ∈R ⇒ y is defined for all

af

x ∈R ⇒ D y = R .

(ii) y = x−3

Now, y = x2 – 4 ⇒ x − 3≥ 0

⇒ x2 – 4 – y = 0 ⇒x≥3

⇒ x2 – (y + 4) = 0

Again y = x−3

⇒ D = 0 − 4 ×1× − y + 4 la fq = 4 a4 + yf ≥ 0

⇒y+4≥0

2

⇔ y = x − 3, 3 y ≥ 0 a f

2

⇒ y ≥ −4 ⇔ y +3= x

⇒ y ∈ −4 , ∞ f but x ≥ 3

af

⇒ R y = −4 , ∞ f 2

⇔ y +3≥3 3x = y +3 e 2

j

Type 2: Functions put in the forms:

2

⇔ y ≥0

(i) y = f x af (ii) y =

1

af

f x ⇔ y ≥0

Rule: Find the domain of y and then express x in ⇔ y ≥ 0 if y is non-negative which is given.

terms of y. Lastly put g (y) in the domain of y and

solve it to find the range of y.

f

⇒ y∈ 0, ∞ ⇒ R y = 0, ∞ af f

48 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

(iii) y = 3 − 2x 1

⇔ x= 2

−2

⇒ 3 − 2x ≥ 0 y

⇒ − 2x ≥ − 3 But x > –2

⇒ 2x ≤ 3 1

⇔ 2

−2 > −2

y

3

⇒x≤

2 1

⇔ 2

>0

Again y = 3 − 2x y

⇔ y2 = 3 – 2x, 3 y ≥ 0 a f 2

⇔ y > 0 ⇒ | y| > 0

⇔ y2 – 3 = –2x ⇔ y > 0 if y is non-negative which is given

⇔ 3 – y2 = 2x a f

⇒ y∈ 0, ∞ ⇒ R y = 0, ∞ af a f

F3 − y I = x

⇔G

2

H 2 JK

Type 3: Functions put in the forms:

C ax + b

(i) y = (ii) y =

Ax + B Ax + B

3

but x ≤

2 Rule: Express x in terms of y by cross multiplication

F3 − y I ≤ 3 2

RS

and simplification. Lastly use the rule:

a f UV

⇒G

H 2 JK 2 af

R y = R − roots of deminator of 1

f y

af W =0

T f2 y

2

⇒3− y ≤3 Solved Examples

2 1. Find the range of the following functions:

⇒−y ≥0

1 1 x

⇒ y ≥0 (i) y = (ii) y = (iii) y =

x x −1 x+2

⇒ y ≥ 0 if y is non-negative which is given.

⇒ y∈ 0, ∞ ⇒ R y = 0, ∞ f af f (iv) y =

x

5− x

(v) y =

x −1

x+3

1

(iv) y = Solutions:

x+2 1

(i) y =

⇒ x + 2 > 0 ⇒ x > −2 x

1

1 ⇔ x= ,y≠0

Again y = y

x+2

⇒ R (y) = R – {0}

⇔ y =

2 1

x+2

, 3y≥0 a f (ii) y =

1

x−1

1

⇔ x+2= 2 ⇔ x −1=

1

,y≠0

y y

Function 49

⇒ R (y) = R – {0} 2

ax + bx + c

x y= provided its numerator and

(iii) y = , x ≠ −2 2

Ax + Bx + C

x+2

denominator do not have one common factor.

⇔ yx + 2y = x

⇔ 2y = x – xy = x (1 – y) Solved Examples

2y

⇔x= ,y ≠1 (1) Find the range of the following functions:

1− y

1

⇒ R (y) = R – {1} (i) y = 2

x −4

x

(iv) y = ,x≠5

5− x x

(ii) y = 2

⇔ 5y – xy = x 1+ x

⇔ 5y = x + xy = x (1 + y) 2

x − 2x + 4

5y (iii) y =

⇔x= , y ≠ −1 2

x + 2x + 4

1+ y

1

⇒ R (y) = R – {–1} (iv) y = 2

x − 3x + 2

x −1

(v) y = , x ≠ −3

x+3 Solutions:

⇔ xy + 3y = x – 1 1

(i) y = , x ≠ ±2

⇔ 3y + 1 = x – xy = x (1– y) x −4

2

3y + 1 ⇔ x2 y – 4y = 1

⇔x= ,y ≠1

1− y

⇒ R (y) = R – {1} ⇔x=

0± a

y 1 + 4y f,y≠0

y

Type 4: Functions put in the forms:

Now, D > 0

D ⇒ y (1 + 4y) > 0

(i) y = 2

Ax + Bx + C 1

⇒y≤− or y ≥ 0

ax + b 4

(ii) y = 2

Ax + Bx + C 1

⇒y≤− or y > 0 since y ≠ 0

4

a f FH OP a f

2

ax + bx + c 1

(iii) y = 2

Ax + Bx + C

⇒ R y = −∞ , −

4 Q

∪ 0, ∞

(ii) y = 2

where P, Q and R are functions of Y (i.e. an expression 1+ x

in y). Lastly use the rule D > 0, where D = b2 – 4ac.

Remark: The above rule is valid in ⇔ y + yx2 = x

50 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

⇔ yx2 – x + y = 0 1

⇒ ≤ y≤3

⇔x=

1± b−1g 2

−4× y× y

,y≠0

3

Also y = 1 ⇔ x = 0

a f LMN 13 , 3OPQ

2y

∴R y =

2

1 ± 1 − 4y

= ,y≠0

2y 1

(iv) y = 2

, x ≠ 1, 2

Now, D > 0 x − 3x + 2

2

⇒ 1 − 4y ≥ 0 ⇔ yx2 – 3yx + 2y – 1 = 0

a fa f

⇒ 1 + 2y 1 − 2y ≥ 0

⇔ yx2 – 3yx + (2y – 1) = 0

⇒ a2 y + 1f a2 y − 1f ≤ 0

⇔x=

a f a−3yf

− −3 y ±

2

a f,y≠0

− 4 y 2 y −1

1 1 2y

⇒− ≤ y≤ ,y≠0

2 2 Now, D > 0

L 1 1O

Also, y = 0 ⇔ x = 0. Hence, R (y) = M− , P

2

⇒ 9 y − 8y + 4y ≥ 0

2

N 2 2Q 2

⇒ y + 4y ≥ 0

2

x − 2x + 4 ⇒ y+2 ≥2

(iii) y = 2

x + 2x + 4 ⇒ either y = 2 ≤ − 2 or y + 2 ≥ 2

⇔ y (x2 + 2x + 4) = x2 – 2x + 4 ⇒ either y ≤ − 4 or y ≥ 0 but y ≠ 0

⇔ x2 y – x2 + 2xy + 2x + 4y – 4 = 0

⇔ (y – 1) x2 + 2 (y + 1) x + (4y – 4) = 0

af a

⇒ R y = −∞ , − 4 ∪ 0 , ∞ a f

Type 5: Functions put in the forms:

a f a f a fa

−2 y + 1 ± 4 y + 1 − 4 y − 1 4 y − 4

2

f, ax + b

2 a y − 1f

⇔x = (i) y = 2

Ax + Bx + C

y ≠1

2

Now, D > 0 Ax + Bx + C

(ii) y =

a f − 4 a y − 1fa4 y − 4f ≥ 0

⇒4 y+1

2 ax + b

⇒ 4 a y + 1f − 16 a y − 1f ≥ 0

2

2 2

ax + bx + c

(iii) y =

⇒ a y + 1f − 4 a y − 1f ≥ 0

2

2 2 Ax + Bx + C

⇒ l y + 1 + 2 a y − 1fq l y + 1 − 2 a y − 1fq ≥ 0 x −a

n n

(iv) y = whose numerator and denomina-

⇒ a y + 1 + 2 y − 2 f a y + 1 − 2 y + 2f ≥ 0 x−a

⇒ a3 y − 1f a3 − y f ≥ 0

tor contain a common factor.

⇒ a3 y − 1f a y − 3f ≥ 0

Rule: Cancell the common factor present in numerator

and denominator. After cancellation of common factor,

Function 51

la fq =

y = mx + c at the zero of common factor}, where R =

the set of reals. −2 ± 4−4×1 − y −4

(ii) If y = a1 x2 + b1 x + c1 (quadratic in x), then R (y) ⇒x=

2

= range of y = a1 x2 + b1 x + c – {value of y = a1 x2 + b1

x + c1 at the zero of the common factor} −2 ± 4+4 y−4 a f

a1 x + b1 2

(iii) If y = (linear rational in x), then R (y)

a2 x + b2 Now, D > 0

f1 y af l a

⇒ 4 1+ y − 4 fq ≥ 0

= R – { zero of the denominator of x =

f2 y

and

af ⇒ y −3≥0

⇒y≥3

a x + b1

the value of y = 1

a2 x + b2

at the zero of common af f

⇒ R y = 3, ∞ since (x2 + 2x + 4) for x = 2 = 4 +

4 + 4 = 12 and

af

factor}.

y = 12 gives a point x = − 4 ∈ D f

Solved Examples Since 12 – 4 = x2 + 2x ⇒ x2 + 2x – 8 = 0 ⇒ x =

1. Find the range of the following functions: −2 ± 4 − 4 × 1 −8 a f = −2 ± 6 ⇒ x = 2 , − 4

2

x −1 2 2

(i) y =

x−1 2 2

x − 3x + 2 x − 2x − x + 2

(iii) y = 2

= 2

x −8

3

x + x−6 x + 3x − 2 x − 6

(ii) y =

x−2

a

x x−2 − x−2 f ax −1 x −2 f a fa f

2

x − 3x + 2

=

a f a

x x + 3 −2 x + 3

=

x−2 x+3 f a fa f

(iii) y = 2

x + x−6 ⇒ yx + 3y = x – 1, x ≠ 2

⇒ 3y + 1 = x – xy = x (1 – y)

x −1

2

x −1 x+1 a fa f 3y + 1

Solutions: (i) y =

x − 1

=

x −1

,x≠1

a f ⇒x=

1− y

,y ≠1

⇒ y = x + 1, x ≠ 1

FG x − 1 IJ 1 1

⇒ x=y–1 Again,

H x + 3K = and x = 2 for y = 1, or y =

kp x=2

5 5

⇒ x is defined for all y ∈ R − 2

⇒ R (y) = R – {2}

af RS 1 UV

since x + 1 = 2 for x = 1 and y = 2 ⇒ x = 1

Hence, R y = R − 1 ,

T 5W

x − 8 a x − 2f e x + 2 x + 4j

2 (iv) Find the domain and range of the function defined

3

as

(ii) y=

x−2

=

a x − 2f ,x≠2

⇒ y = x2

+ 2x + 4 y=

e x + 3 x − 4j e x − 9 j

2 2

⇒ x2 + 2x – y + 4 = 0 e x + x − 12j a x + 3f

2

52 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

a x + 4f a x − 1f a x − 3f a x + 3f 11 2 F I 2

a x + 4f a x − 3f a x + 3f H K

y

Solution: y = ⇒e − =3 x− ≥0

3 3

= (x – 1) for x ≠ − 4 , − 3 , 3 y 11

⇒e ≥

One should note that denominator is zero for x = – 3

4, –3 or +3. This means that y is undefined for these

F 11I

three values of x. for values of x ≠ − 4 , –3 or 3, one

may divide numerator and denominator by common

⇒ y ≥ log

H 3K

factors and obtain y = (x – 1) if x ≠ − 4 , –3 or 3. LM 11 , ∞I

Therefore, the domain of y is the set of all real numbers N 3 K

⇒ y ∈ log

except –4, –3 and +3, i.e. D (y) = R – {–4, –3, +3} and

L 11 , ∞I

⇒ R a y f = Mlog

N 3 K

the range of y is the set of all real numbers except

those values of y = (x – 1) obtained by replacing x by

–4, –3 or 3, i.e. all real numbers except –5, –4 and 2, i.e. 2. Find the range of the function

e j

R (y) = R – {–5, –4, 2}.

y = log 2 x−4 + 6− x

Type 6: Functions put in the form: y = log f (x).

af

Rule: y = log a f x ⇔ a = f x > 0

y

af Solution: y = log 2 e x−4 + 6− x j

e j

i.e. change the given logarithmic form into the y

exponential form and then solve it using the in ⇒2 = x−4 + 6− x

y

a

equation: a > b a > 0 , a ≠ 1 ⇔ f ⇒2

2y

=x−4+6−x+2 a x − 4 f a6 − x f

(i) y > loga b for a > 1, b > 0

...(i) (on squaring)

(ii) y < loga b for 0 < a < 1, b > 0

(iii) y ∉R for a > 0, b < 0. ⇒ 2 e 2y

−2 =2 j a x − 4f a 6 − x f ≥ 0 ...(ii)

y af

g x

af 2y

Remark: For, a > 1 a > a ⇔ y > g x ...(A)(say) ⇒2 −2≥0

i.e. when it is possible to change ay + f (x) > 0 into 2y 1 1

the form ay > ag (x), one should use (A). ⇒2 ≥ 2 ⇒ 2y ≥ 1 ⇒ y ≥

2

Solved Examples

Again from (ii) 2 2 y − 1 − 1 = 2

− x + 10 x − 24

1. Find the range of the function y = log (3x2 – 4x + 5).

e j = e− x j

2 y −1 2

Solution: y = log (3x2 – 4x + 5) where 3x2 – 4x + 5 > 0 ⇒ 2 −1

2

+ 10 x − 24

4 5 F I

H K

y 2 2

⇒ e = 3x − 4 x + 5 = 3 x − x + =

e j

2 2 y −1 2

3 3 ⇒ x − 10 x + 24 + 2 −1 = 0 , which is

|RS 4 4F I − F 4I

2

|UV 2

5 a quadratic in x and whose D = b2 – 4ac is

H K H 6K

2

|T

3 x − x+

|W +

RS

a10f j UVW ≥ 0 which

3 6 3

e 2 y −1 2

− 4 24 + 2 −1

2

R|F 2 I + 11U|V = 3F x − 2 I T

= 3S x −

2 2

11

|TH 3K 9 |W H 3 K

y

⇒e +

e j

2 y −1 2

3 ⇒ 2 −1 ≤1

Function 53

⇒ 2 −1 ≤ 1

LM 2 2 2 2 OP

⇒ −1 ≤ 2

2 y −1

−1≤1 N

= − a +b , a +b

Q

2 y −1 2 2

⇒0≤2 − 1 ≤ 1 (from (ii)) a = − 1, b = 1 ⇒ a +b = 2

⇒1≤ 2

2 y −1

≤2 af

∴ R y = − 2 , 2 in the above question.

0 2 y −1 1

⇒2 ≤2 ≤2 2. Find the range of y = cos θ + 3 sin θ

⇒ 0 ≤ 2y − 1 ≤ 2 Solution: y = cos θ + 3 sin θ

⇒ 1 ≤ 2y ≤ 2

=2

LM 1 cos θ + 3 sin θOP

1

⇒ ≤ y≤1

2

N2 2 Q

L F π I cos θ + cos F π I sin θOP

⇒R y = a f LMN 12 , 1OPQ = 2 Msin

N H 6K H 6K Q

Again it is known that

Type 7: Functions put in the form: y = a cos x + b sin

F π I

x.

Rule: The range of y = a cos x + b sin x is

−1 ≤ sin θ −

H 6

≤1

K

LM− OP F π I

N

2 2

a +b , a +b

2 2

Q

i.e. −2 ≤ 2 sin θ −

H 6

≤2

K

Hence, R (y) = [–2, 2]

Solved Examples Note: In this question, a = 1, b = 3 ⇒ 1+ 3 = 4

1. Find the range of y = sin x – cos x

Solution: y = sin x – cos x hence, range of cos θ + 3 sin θ = −2 , 2 on using,

= 2

LM 1 sin x − 1 cos xOP range of a a cos θ + b sin θ =

N2 2 Q LM− 2 2 2 2 OP .

a +b , a +b

L F π I sin x − sin F π I cos xOP

2 Mcos

N Q

=

N H 4K H 4K Q Type 8: Functions put in the forms:

F πI (i) y = a ± b sin x (ii) y = a ± b cos x

=

H 4K

2 sin x −

C C

(iii) y = (iv) y = , where a,

Again, it is know that a ± b sin x a ± b cos x

F π I

−1 ≤ sin x −

H 4

≤1

K b and c are constants.

i.e. − 2 ≤ 2 sin F x − I ≤ 2

π

H 4K (i) k ≤ a ± b sin x ≤ L

Hence, range of y = R a y f = − 2 ,

(ii) k ≤ a ± b cos x ≤ L

2

54 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

(iii) k ≤ C

≤ L integer function is obtained by using different

a ± b sin x properties of greatest integer function.

C

(iv) k ≤ ≤ L where k and L are con- Solved Examples

a ± b cos x

1. Find the range of y = [cos x]

stants, by using the axioms of inequality.

Solution: −1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1

Solved Examples

R|−1, for − 1 ≤ cos x < 0

1. Find the range of y = 2 + sin x. ⇒ y = cos x = S 0 , for 0 ≤ cos x < 1

Solution: −1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1 |T 1 , for cos x = 1

⇒ 2 − 1 ≤ 2 + sin x ≤ 1 + 2

af

⇒ R y = −1 , 0 , 1

⇒ 1 ≤ 2 sin x ≤ 3 2. Find the range of y = 1 + x – [x – 2]

Solution: On using the property:

⇒1≤ y ≤ 3

t ≤ t < t + 1, it is seen that

⇒ y ∈ 1, 3 x−2 ≤ x−2< x −2 +1

af

⇒ R y = 1, 3 ⇒ x−2 − x−2 ≤ x−2− x−2 <

1 x −2 − x − 2 +1

2. Find the range of y =

2 − sin 3x

⇒0≤ x − 2 − x − 2 <1

Solution: −1 ≤ sin 3x ≤ 1

⇒ 3 ≤ x − 2 + 3 − x − 2 < 1 + 3 (adding 3 to

⇒ − 1 ≤ − sin 3x ≤ 1 each side)

⇒ 2 − 1 ≤ 2 − sin 3x ≤ 1 + 2 ⇒3≤ x +1− x − 2 < 4

⇒ 1 ≤ 2 − sin 3x ≤ 3 ⇒3≤ f x <4 af

1 1 ⇒ R (y) = [3, 4)

⇒1≥ ≥

2 − sin 3x 3 Type 10: Finding the domain and range of a piecewise

defined functions.

1 1

⇒ ≤ ≤1 1. y = f1 (x), when x < a

3 2 − sin 3x = f2 (x), when x > a

1 i.e. two or more functions of an independent

⇒ ≤ y ≤1 variable namely x defined in adjacent intervals.

3 2. y = c1, when x < a

LM1 , 1OP = c2, when a < x < b

⇒ y∈

N3 Q = c3, when b < x

i.e. two or more different functions defined in

L1 O

⇒ R a y f = M , 1P

adjacent intervals.

N3 Q 3. y = f1 (x), when x ≠ a

= f2 (x), when x = a

Type 9: Finding the range of a function containing

greatest integer function.

Function 55

Now, it will be discussed in detail how to find the 2. Find the domain and range of the function defined

domain and range of each type of piecewise function. by

Rule: The domain of each type of a piecewise

y=

RS x − 1 , if x < 3

function is the union of each given interval whereas

the range of each type of a piecewise function is the

T2 x + 1 , if 3 ≤ x

union of different range of each given function Solution: x < 3 ⇒ x ∈ a −∞ , 3f

x ≥ 3 ⇒ x ∈ 3 , ∞f

determined by considering each different given

intervals and applying the axioms of inequality to

obtain the different given functions in the form of ∴ D a y f = a ∞ , 3f ∪ 3 , ∞ f = a −∞ , ∞ f

inequalities.

Again, x < 3 ⇒ x − 1 < 3 − 1 ⇒ x − 1 < 2 ...(i)

Note: The range of a piecewise function put in the

form: Also, x ≥ 3 ⇒ 2 x ≥ 6 ⇒ 2 x + 1 ≥ 7 ...(ii)

y = c1, when x < a

= c2, when a < x < b

a f

Hence, (i) and (ii) ⇒ R (y) = −∞ , 2 ∪ 7 , ∞ = f

= c3, when b < x R – [2, 7) i.e. all real numbers not in [2, 7).

i.e. the range of a piecewise function defined by 3. Find the domain and range of the function defined

different constants in adjacent intervals is the set as

whose members are given constants (constant

y=

RSx + 3 , when x ≠ 3

functions) defined in given adjacent intervals, i.e. R

(y) = {c1, c2, c3}, where c1, c2 and c3 are different T 2, when x = 3

constants defined in adjacent intervals. Solution: x ≠ 3

a f a f

x ∈ −∞ , 3 ∪ 3 , ∞ = R − 3 kp

by Next, y = 2, when x = 3

RS3x − 2 , if x < 1 af

∴D y = R − 3 ∪ 3 = R kp kp

y=

T x , if 1 ≤ x

2 Now, x ≠ 3

Solution: x < 1 ⇒ x ∈ a −∞ , 1f

⇒ x +3≠6

x ≥ 1 ⇒ x ∈ 1, ∞f

b g

⇒ R y| x ≠ 3 = R − 6 lq

∴ D a y f = a −∞ , 1f ∪ 1 , ∞f = a −∞ , ∞ f

Also, y = 2, when x = 3

Again, x < 1

b g lq

⇒ R y| x = 3 = 2

⇒ 3x < 3 ∴ R a y f = R − k6p ∪ k2p = R − k6p

⇒ 3x – 2 < 3 – 2 i.e. the range of the given function consists of all

⇒ 3x – 2 < 1 ...(i) real numbers except y = 6.

Also, x > 1 4. Let there be a function defined as

⇒ x2 > 1 ...(ii)

R|x , if x ≠ 2

S| 7 , if x = 2

2

Hence, from (i) and (ii), it is concluded that y=

a f f a

R (y) = −∞ , 1 ∪ 1 , ∞ = −∞ , ∞ f T

find its domain and range.

Solution: x ≠ 2

56 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

a f a f

⇒ x ∈ −∞ , 2 ∪ 2 , ∞ = R − 2 kp = (b, d, a, c}

2. If A = {0, 1, –1, 2} and f : A → R is defined by f

Next, y = 7, for x = 2

af

∴D y = R − 2 ∪ 2 = R kp kp (x) = x2 + 1, find the range of f.

Solution: f (x) = x2 + 1

Now, x ≠ 2 ⇒ f (0) = 1

2 f (1) = 2

⇒x ≠4 f (–1) = 2

b

⇒ R y| x ≠ 2 g f (2) = 5

∴ f (A) = {f (0), f (1), f (–1), f (2)}

− k4p ∪ k0p ,3 x

+ 2 = (1, 2, 5}

=R ≥0

Also, y = 7, for x = 2 3. If A = {0, 1, 2, –3} and f (x) = 3x – 5 is a function

b g lq

⇒ R y| x = 2 = 7

from A on to B, find B.

Solution: f (x) = 3x – 5

∴ R a y f = R − k4p ∪ k7p ∪ k0p

+ ⇒ f (0) = –5

f (1) = –2

= R − k4p ∪ k0p

+ f (2) = 1

f (–3) = –14

i.e. the range consists of all non-negative real

∴ f (A) = B = {1, –2, –5, –14}

numbers except y = 4.

4. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and f (x) = x2 + x – 1 is a function

Note: One should note that y = c, for x = a, where c from A on to B, find B.

and a are constants, represents a point P (a, c), i.e. a Solution: f (x) = x2 + x – 1

point whose abscissa is ‘a’ and whose ordinate is ‘c’.

⇒ f (1) = 1

5. If the domain of a function is A = {x: x ∈R , -1 < x f (2) = 5

< 1} and the function is defined as f (3) = 11

∴ f (A) = B = {1, 5, 11, 19}

f a x f = S 0 , when x = 0

|T−1, when x < 0 Type 12: A function y = f (x) defined in an open

interval (a, b).

Find the range of f (x). Rule 1: a < x < b ⇒ f (a) < f (x) < f (b) if f (x) is

Solution: The range of a piecewise function whose increasing in (a, b).

each function is constant defined in its domain is the

Rule 2: a < x < b ⇒ f (a) < f (x) < f (b) if f (x) is

union of different constants.

increasing in [a, b].

Therefore, R (y) = [–1, 0, 1}

Rule 3: a < x < b ⇒ f (b) < f (x) < f (a) if f (x) is

Type 11: A function y = f (x) whose domain s a finite

set. decreasing in (a, b).

Rule: If the domain D of y = f (x) is a finite set, i.e. D = Rule 4: a < x < b ⇒ f (b) < f (x) < f (a) if f (x) is

{ a1, a2, a3,…, an}, then its range R (f) = {f (a1), f (a2), decreasing in [a, b].

f (a3), …, f (an)}. Notes:

1. When y = f (x) is an increasing function in the

Solved Examples open interval (a, b) or in the closed interval [a, b],

1. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {a, b, c, d, e} and f = {(1, b), then f (a) = L (say) is least and f (b) = G (say) is

(2, d), (3, a), (4, b), (5, c)} be a mapping from A to B, greatest value of the given function y = f (x) in (a, b)

find f (A). or [a, b].

Function 57

2. When y = f (x) is a decreasing function in the open Solution: f (x) = cos x – x (1 + x), is decreasing in

interval (a, b) or in the closed interval [a, b], then f (a)

LM0 , π OP and so in LM π , π OP

= G (say) is greatest and f (b) = L (say) is least value of

the function y = f (x) in (a, b) or [a, b]. N 2Q N6 3Q

3. Range of y = f (x) = R (f) = (least f (x), greatest f (x))

if the domain of f (x) is an open interval (a, b) where f

F π I ≤ f a xf ≤ f F π I

(x) is continuous and increasing or decreasing for

af a f

x ∈D f = a,b

∴f

H 3K H 6K

In the same fashion, R (f) = [least f (x), greatest f F π I = cos F π I − π F1 + π I = 1 − π

(x)] if the domain of f (x) is a closed interval [a, b]

where f (x) is continuous, and increasing or decreasing

Now, f

H 3K H 3K 3 H 3K 2 3

af

for x ∈ D f = a , b . π

2

is neither increasing nor decreasing but it is

continuous in its domain then its range is also F π I = cos F π I − π F1+ π I = 3 − π − π 2

f

value of the given function f (x) which will be explained

in the chapter namely maxima and minima of a function. L 1 π π , 3 − π − π OP

∴ f b Ag = M − −

2 2

Solved Examples MN 2 3 9 2 6 36 PQ

1. Find the range of the function f (x) = x3 whose Note: If y = f (x) is a continuous function whose

k

domain is D = x : x ∈R , − 2 < x < 2 . p domain D = [a, b] = [a, c) ∪ [c, b] where a < c < b and

f (x) increasing in (a, c) and decreasing in [c, b), then

Solution: f (x) = x3 is increasing in (–2, 2) to find its range R (f), one is required to find out f (a),

∴ f (–2) = (–2)3 = –8 f (b), f (c) and

and f (2) = (2)3 = 8 R (y) = (greatest f (x), least f (x))

Therefore, R (y) = (f (–2), f (2) = (–8, 8) In the same way, R (y) = [ greatest f (x), least f (x)] if

F π π I y = f (x) is defined in the domain D = [a, b] = [a, c)

2. If y = tan x defined in − H ,

2 2 K

, find its range. ∪ [c, b] such that f (x) is decreasing in [a, c) and

increasing in [c, b].

F π πI π

Solution: y = tan x is increasing in H − , K ∴− < Solved Examples

2 2 2

1. Find the range of the function f (x) = x2 + 1 in the

π

x< ⇒ − ∞ < tan x < ∞ since L tan x = ∞ domain (–5, 2).

2 π

x→ Solution: f (x) = x2 + 1 with its domain (–5, 2) and f (x)

2

is decreasing in (–5, 0) and increasing in [0, 2).

and L tan x = − ∞ . f (–5) = 26

x→ F−πI

H 2K f (0) = 1

f (2) = 5

RS π π UV and f (x) = cos x – x (1 + Therefore, it is clear that f (x) lies between 1 and 26.

3. If A = x :

T 6

≤x≤

3 W ∴ R (f) = (1, 26)

x), find f (A). 2. Find the range of the function f (x) = x2 in (–2, 2).

58 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

Solution: f (x) = x2 with its domain (–2, 2) f (x) is Working rule: The rule to compute gof (x) for two

decreasing in (–2, 0) and increasing in [0, 2). analytic expressions in x for f (x) and g (x) says.

f (–2) = 4 1. Firstly to replace f (x) by its given analytic

f (0) = 0 expression in x.

f (2) = 4 2. Secondly, in the given analytic expression in x for

Therefore, it is seen that f (x) between 0 and 4. g (x), to replace each x by the function f (x) and then

∴ R (f) = (0, 4) to put f (x) = analytic expression in x for f (x).

Thus, gof (x)

Composite Function = value of g at f (x)

= [analytic expression for g (y)]y = f (x) ,which

Definition: If given functions are f : D1 → C1 and signifies that the independent variable x in the analytic

a f

g : D2 → C2 such that f D1 ⊂ D2 , then the expression for g (x) should be replaced by the analytic

expression in x for f (x) whereas the constant in the

composite function gof is the function from D1 to D2

analytic expression in x for g (x) remains unchanged.

defined by (gof) (x) = gof (x) = g (f (x)), ∀ x ∈D1 and

Note: Very often the law establishing the relationship

af

f x ∈D2 . between the independent variable and dependent

a f

N.B.: (i) f D1 ⊂ D2 means that range of f ⊂

variable is specified by means of a formula. This

method of representation of function is called

domain of g. analytical. Further, the expression in x is called analytic

n

(ii) Dgof = x : x ∈D f and f x ∈Dg af s where gof expression.

(x) = g (f (x)) having the domain Dgof = D (gof).

1. If f (x) = x2 and g (x) = x + 1, find (gof) (x).

(iii) A function does not exist whenever its domain

Solution: On applying the definition,

is an empty set.

(gof) (x) = gof (x)

e j

f (D1) < D2 2

C2

D2 = g x

= g a yf ]

D1 C2

f g 2

f (x) y= x

= a y + 1f

x gof (x) = g (f (x)) 2

y=x

2 = x +1

af

gof

2. If f (x) = x + 3 and g x = x find (gof) (7).

Solution: (gof) (7) = gof (7)

Remember: One must remember that g (f (x)) = gof (x)

= g (3 + 7)

means that g is a function of f (x) which is itself a

= g (10)

function of x. This is why gof (x) = g (f (x)) is called a

function of a function of the independent variable x. = e xj10

Further, one should note that gof (x) signifies the

value of the function g at f (x) = given analytic = 10

expression in x (or, simply given expression in x). 3. If f (x) = x3 and g x = af 3

x find g (f (x).

Type 1: Formation of composite of two functions of Solution: g (f (x)

x whose analytic expressions in x are given. = g (x3)

= e xj

3

x

3

Function 59

3

N.B.: Whenever f (x) = an analytic expression in x

3

= x and we are required to find f [f {f (x) }], we adopt the

=x following procedure:

1. We replace x by f (x) in the given expression in x

4. If f (x) = x + 1 and g (x) = x find g (f (x)).

which provides us f {f (x)}.

Solution: g (f (x)) = gof (x) 2. Again we replace x by f {f (x)} in the given

= g ((x+1)) expression in x which provides us f [f {f (x)}].

= e x ja f

x +1

7. If f x = af 3x + 1

x−3

and ∅ x =

x−3

af

3x + 1

find

= x +1

5. If f (x) = sin x and g (x) = x2, find (gof) (x). b a fg and φ b f axfg .

f φ x

Solution: (gof) (x) = g (f (x)) = g (f (x)) = g (sin x) Solution: Given

= (sin x)2

6. If f x =afx

find f (f (f (x))).

af

f x =

3x + 1

x−3

af

, x = 3 ,φ x =

x−3

3x + 1

,x≠−

1

3

1− x

af af

3φ x + 1

Solution: Given f x = af

x

1− x

,x ≠1 ...(i)

∴ f φ x =

af

φ x −3

FG x − 3 IJ + 1

H 3x + 1K = 6 x − 8 = 4 − 3x , for

On replacing x by f (x) in (i) , we have 3

FG x IJ =

FG x − 3 IJ − 3 −8 x − 6 3 + 4 x

f b f a x fg =

f a xf H1 − xK = H 3x + 1K

1 − f a xf F x IJ

=

1−G 1 −3

H1 − xK x≠− ,

3 4

,3

FG x IJ

H 1 − x K = x , x ≠ RS1 , 1 UV function φ x = af x −1

whose independent

FG 1 − 2 x IJ 1 − 2 x T 2 W 3x + 1

af 3x + 1 FG 3x + 1IJ + 1

Again, replacing x by f (f (x)) in (i), we get ∴φ f x =

x−3

−3 3

H x − 3K

b b a fgg = 1 −f bf fbafxafxg fg

f f f x a f

3x + 1 − 3 x − 3 10 1

=

a f a f

3 3x + 1 + x − 3

= = , x ≠ − 1, 3, 0

FG x IJ

10 x x

=

1− G

F x IJ given function for f (x) and to find φ {f (x)}, we replace

H 1 − 2x K x by f (x) in the given expression for φ (x). Further we

x R 1 1U

, x ≠ S1 , , V

should note that f { φ (x)} means the value of f at φ

=

1 − 3x T 2 3W (x) and φ {f (x)} means the value of φ at f (x).

60 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

f : D1 → C1 and g : C1 → C2 , then the composite = 8x2 – 7

function gof is the function from D1 to C2 defined by ∴ (gof) (2) = (8x2 – 7)2

(gof) (x) = gof (x) for every x in D1 and f x ∈C1 af = 8 (2)2 – 7

=8×4–7

domain of g. = 32 – 7 = 25

Notes: (i) If we are required to find (fog) (x) and (fog)

f g

f (x) (–1) for the just above defined functions, then (fog)

x g f (x) (x) = f (g (x)) = f (4x – 3) ( 3 g (x) = 4x – 3)

gof

= 2 (4x – 3)2 – 1( 3 f (x) = 2x2 – 1 ⇒ f (g (x)) = 2 (f

(x))2 – 1)

= 2 (16x2 – 24x + 9) –1

Note: The working rule to fund (gof) is the same

= 32x2 – 48x + 17

provided the given functions are:

∴ (fog) –1 = 32 (–1)2 – 48 (–1) + 17

(i) f : D1 → C1 and g : D2 → C2 such that = 32 + 48 + 17 = 97

a f

f D1 ⊂ D2 . (ii) In general gof a f a xf ≠ a fog f a x f

(ii) f : D1 → C1 and g : C1 → C2 5. If the mapping f : R → R be given by f (x) = x2 +

2 and the mapping g : R → R be given by

Solved Examples

g x =1−

1

1− x

compute (gof) (x) and (fog) (x) and

by g (x) = ex find (gof) (x).

show that gof a f a xf ≠ a fogf a xf .

Solution: (gof) (x) = g (log (1 + x)); x > – 1 ( 3 f (x) = Solution: (gof) (x) = g (f (x))

log (1 + x)) = g (x2 + 2)

= elog (1 + x) ( 3 g (x) = ex) 1 1 1

= (1 + x); x > – 1 ( 3 elog f (x) = f (x)) = 1− = 1− = 1+ ...(i)

2. If f : D1 → C1 is defined by f (x) = x + 1, x ∈R e

1− x + 2

2

j 2

−x −1

2

x +1

and g : C1 → C2 is defined by g (x) = x2, find (gof) (x). (fog) (x) = f (g (x))

Solution: (gof) (x) = g (f (x)) = g (1 + x) (3 f (x) = 1 +x) FG 1 IJ FG

1− x − 1 −x IJ FG IJ

a f e3 g a xf = x

= 1+ x

2 2

b a fg = f a xf j

⇒ g f x

2

= f 1−

H 1− x

=f

1− xK H =f

1− x K H K

3. If f : R → R is defined by f (x) = 2x2 – 1 and FG − x IJ 2

x

2

g : R → R is defined by g (x) = 4x – 3, x ∈R ,

=

H 1− x K +2=

a1− xf 2

+2 ...(ii)

compute (gof) (x) and (gof) (3). In the light of (i) and (ii), it is clear that

Solution: (gof) (x) = g (f (x)) = g (2x2 – 1) ( 3 f (x) = 2x2 (gof) (x) ≠ (fog) (x)

– 1) Note: The operation that forms a single function from

af

= 4 (f (x)) –3 (3 g x = 4 x − 3 ⇒ g f x b a fg = two given functions by substituting the second

af

4 f x − 3)

function for the argument of the first fucntion (for the

independent variable of the first function) is also

= 4 (2x2 – 1) – 3 termed as composition. It is only defined when the

Function 61

second. Repeated composition is denoted by a x

superscript numeral as f (n); so far example f o f o f o f = 1 + 2x

2

f (4). =

2 2

1 + 2x + x

af

6. Find f o f o f if f x =

x

2 1 + 2x

2

1+ x

Solution: 3 f x = af x

2

=

x

2

1+ x 1 + 3x

x

two functions whenever the domains are mentioned

∴fof x = af f x af =

1+ x

2

in the form of intervals:

1+ f

2

a xf 1+

x

2 Question: Define the composite of two functions

namely f and g whose domains are D 1 and D2

2

1+ x respectively.

Answer: 1. If f and g are two functions whose domains

x are D1 and D2 respectively, then gof is the composite

2

of two functions namely f and g defined by (gof) (x) =

1+ x g (f (x)).

=

2 2 Further, we should note that the domain of gof is

1+ x + x

2 the set of all those x ∈D1 (domain of f) for which

1+ x

af

f x ∈D2 (domain of g). But if the range of f is a

subset of the domain of g, then the domain of gof is

x

2 the same as the domain of f , i.e Dgof =

1+ x x

=

1 + 2x

2

=

1 + 2x

2

= G (x) (say)

nx : x ∈ D f af s

and f x ∈g and D gof = Df when

2 R f ⊂ Dg .

1+ x

2. If f and g are two functions whose domains are D1,

F I and D2 respectively, then fog is the composite of two

and f o f o f (x) = f o GG x

JJ functions namely f and g defined by (fog) (x) = f (g

H 1 + 2x

2

K (x)).

Further, we should note that the domain of fog is

G x af the set of all those x ∈D2 (domain of g) for which

= f o G (x) =

1+G

2

a xf af

g x ∈D1 (domain of f). But if the range of g is a

x subset of the domain of f, then the domain of fog is

the same as the domain of i.e; D fog =

nx : x ∈ D af s

2

1 + 2x

= g and g x ∈D f and D fog = D g when

2

x

1+ 2

Rg ⊂ D f .

1 + 2x

62 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

Notes: 1. If f (x) = f1(x), x > a and g (x) = f2 (x), x > b (ii) Solving the inequality which represents the

then f is defined for x > a and gof (x) is defined for f (x) domain of g.

> b which is solved for x to find the domain of (gof) (x) Steps 3: Finding the intersection of inequalities (i)

i.e; domain of (gof) (x) is the intersection of the solution and (ii) to get the domain of (fog) (x).

sets of the inequalities x > a and f (x) > b. Similarly, g

is defined for x > b and fog (x) is defined for g (x) > a Solved Examples

which is solved for x to find the domain of (fog) (x),

i.e; domain of (fog) (x) is the intersections of the 1. If f (x) = x + 4 , x ≥ − 4 and g (x) x −4,

solution sets of the inequalities x > b and g (x) > a.

x ≥ 4 find (gof) (x).

2. If f (x) = f1 (x), a < x < b and g (x) = f2 (x) , c < x < b

then f is defined for a < x < b and gof (x) is defined for Solutions:

c < f (x) < d which is solved for x to find the domain of (i) (gof) (x) = gof (x)

gof (x), i.e; domain of (gof) (x) is the intersection of

the solution sets of the inequalities a < x < b and c <

= af af

f x − 4 , f x ≥ 4 and x ≥ − 4

f (x) < d. Similarly, g is defined for c < x < d and fog (x) = x +4 −4, x+4 ≥ 4

is defined for a < g (x) < b which is solved for x to find

the domain of (fog) (x), i.e; domain of (fog) (x) is the (ii) We solve the inequality x + 4 ≥ 4 for x:

intersection of the solution sets of the inequalities c

< x < d and a < g (x) < b. ∴ x + 4 ≥ 16

3. In general fog ≠ gof which ⇒ fog x ≠ a fa f ⇔ x ≥ 16 − 4

a fa f

gof x . ⇔ x ≥ 12

4. It should be noted that the notations fog and fg

represent two different functions namely a function f

f f

(iii) D (gof) = −4 , ∞ ∩ 12 , ∞ = 12 , ∞ f

of a function g and the product of two functions f and

x+4 − 4 ,

RSx ≥ − 4 and , i.e. x >

g respectively.

Now we explain the rules of finding the composition

(iv) (gof) (x) =

T x ≥ 12

x + 4 − 4 , ∀ x ∈ 12 , ∞ f

of two functions of x’s whenever their domains are

12 or, (gof) (x) =

mentioned as intervals.

2. If f (x) = 1 + x, 0 < x < 1 and g (x) = 2 – x, 1 < x < 2 find

Working rule to find (gof) (x): It consists of following

(gof) (x).

steps:

Solutions:

Step 1: Finding gof (x) (i.e; value of g at f (x) as usual.

(i) (gof) (x) = gof (x)

Step 2: (i) Considering the inequality obtained on

= 2 – f (x), 1 < f (x) < 2 and 0 < x < 1

replacing x by f (x) in the domain of g which is given

= 2 – (1 + x), 1 < 1 + x < 2 and 0 < x < 1

in the form of an interval finite or infinite.

( 3 f (x) = 1 + x)

(ii) Considering the inequality which represents the

= 1 – x, 1 < 1 + x < 2 and 0 < x < 1

domain of f.

(ii) We solve the inequality 1 < 1 + x < 2 for x:

Step 3: Finding the intersection of the inequalities (i)

and (ii) to get the domain of (gof) (x). 1≤1+ x ≤ 2

Working rule to find (fog) (x): It consists of following ⇔1−1≤1+ x −1≤ 2 −1

steps: ⇔ 0≤ x ≤1

Step 1: Finding (fog) (x) (i.e; value of f at g (x) as

(iii) D (gof) = [0, 1] ∩ [0, 1] = [0, 1]

usual.

(iv) (gof) (x) = 1 – x, 0 < x <

Step 2: (i) Solving the inequality obtained on

replacing x by g (x) in the domain of f which is given 3. If f (x) = x2, 0 < x < 1 and g (x) = 1 – x, 0 < x < 1 find

in the form of an interval. (gof) (x).

Function 63

Solutions:

1− x

(i) (gof) (x) = gof (x) Again considering the inequality ≥ 0,

= 1 – f (x), 0 < f (x) < 1 and 0 < x < 1 1+ x

= 1 – x2, 0 < x2 < 1 and 0 < x < 1 ( 3 f (x) = x2)

(ii) We solve the inequality 0 < x2 < 1 for x

1− x

1+ x

b g b

≥ 0 ⇔ 1− x ≥ 0 30 ≤ x ≤ 1 ⇔ g

2

∴0 ≤ x ≤ 1

−x ≥ − 1 ⇔ x ≤ 1 ...(b)

⇔ −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 Hence, (a) and (b)

(iii) D (gof) = [–1, 1] ∩ [0, 1] ⇒ x ∈ 0 , 1 , i.e. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 .

(iv) (gof) (x) = 1 – x 2 , x ∈ −1 , 1 ∩ 0 , 1 , i.e; (iii) D (gof) = [0, 1] ∩ [0, 1] = [0,1]

x∈ 0,1 FG 1 − x IJ FG 2 x IJ , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

(iv) (gof) (x) = 4

H1 + xK H1 + xK

af

1− x

4. If f : 0 , 1 → 0 , 1 be defined by f x = 1 + x ,

Type 3: Problems based on finding the composite of

two piecewise functions.

0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and g: 0 , 1 → 0 , 1 be defined by g (x)

Rule: For finding gof (x) defined as under:

= 4x (1 – x), 0 < x < 1, find (gof) (x).

Solutions:

(i) (gof) (x) = gof (x) a f RST ff aaxxff,, ab << xx << bc

f x = 1

2

= go G

and

H1 + xK 1 + x

a f RSTgg aaxxff,, αβ << xx << βδ

g x = 1

=4G

F 1 − x IJ LM1 − FG 1 − x IJ OP , 0 ≤ 1 − x ≤ 1 and 0 2

H1 + xK N H1 + xKQ 1 + x one must put y = f (x) and hence to find g (y) when

=4

H 1 + xK H1 + xK 1 + x

given below:

(i) a < x < b and α < y < β where y = f1 (x) defined in

1 the given interval namely a < x < b.

1− x (ii) b < x < c and α < y < β where y = f2 (x) defined

(ii) We solve the inequality 0 ≤ ≤1

1+ x in the given interval namely b < x < c.

0≤ ≤1⇔ 0 ≤ and ≤1 in the given interval namely a < x < b.

1+ x 1+ x 1+ x

(iv) b < x < c and β < y < δ where y = f2 (x) defined in

1− x

Now considering the inequality ≤ 1, the given interval namely b < x < c.

1+ x If the intersection of any two intervals mentioned

from (i) to (iv) is finite, then g (y) = gof (x) is defined

1− x

≤ 1 ⇔ 1 − x ≤ 1 + x ⇔ 0 ≤ 2x ⇔ and if their intersection is φ , then g (y) = gof (x) is not

1+ x

defined.

0≤ x ...(a) The union of finite intersection of any two

intervals mentioned from (i) to (iv) is the required

64 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

f

functions.

Similarly for finding fog (x), one must put y = g (x) ⇒ −1 , 2 ∩ −1 , 1 = −1 , 1 = − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1

and so to find f (y) where a < y < b and b < y < c for

which it is required to be determined the intersection

b a fg a f

∴ For −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 , f g x = f y = y + 1

of the intervals given below: af

=g x + 1

(i) α < y < β and a < y < b where y = g1 (x) defined

in the given interval α < y < β .

2

e af 2

= x + 1 3 g x = x in − 1 ≤ x < 2 j

Case (ii): Considering the intervals in (a) and (d),

(ii) β < y < δ and a < y < b where y = g2 (x) defined

2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and y ≤ 1

in the given interval β < y < δ .

(iii) α < y < β and b < y < c where y = g1 (x) defined

⇒ 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and g x ≤ 1 af

⇒ 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and x + 2 ≤ 1 (3 g (x) = x + 2 in

in the given interval α < y < β .

2 ≤ x ≤ 3)

(iv) β < y < δ and b < y < c where y = g2 (x) defined

⇒ 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and x ≤ − 1

in the given interval β < y < δ .

If the intersection of any two intervals mentioned

a

⇒ 2 , 3 ∩ −∞ , − 1 = φ

from (i) to (iv) is finite, then f (y) = fog (x) is defined a f b a fg is not defined

⇒ f y = f g x

and if their intersection is Ø, then f (y) = fog (x) is not Case (iii): Considering the intervals in (b) and (c),

defined.

−1 ≤ x < 2 and 1 < y ≤ 2

Solved Examples 2

⇒ − 1 ≤ x < 2 and 1 < x ≤ 2 ( 3 g (x) = x2 in

1. Two functions are defined as under: −1 ≤ x < 2 )

f x = ⇒ − 1 ≤ x < 2 and { 1 < x < 2 or

− 2 ≤ x < −1}

R| x , − 1 ≤ x < 2

g a xf = S

2

⇒ −1 , 2 ∩ 1 , 2 = 1 , 2 = 1 < x < 2

In 1 < x < 2 , f b g a x fg = f a y f = 2 y + 1 for

f (y) = y + 1, y < 1 ...(a)

= 2y + 1, 1 < y < 2 ...(b) 1< y ≤ 2

g (x) = x2, – 1 < x < 2

= x + 2, 2 < x < 3

...(c)

...(d)

af

= 2 g x + 1 = 2x + 1

2

Case (i): Considering the intervals in (a) and (c), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and 1 < y ≤ 2

−1 ≤ x < 2 and y < 1

⇒ 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and 1 < g x ≤ 2 af

af

⇒ − 1 ≤ x < 2 and g x ≤ 1

⇒ 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and 1 < x + 2 ≤ 2 ( 3 g (x) = x + 2

2

⇒ − 1 ≤ x < 2 and x ≤ 1 in 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 )

( 3 g (x) = x2 in –1 < x < 2) ⇒ 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and −1 < x ≤ 0

Function 65

a

⇒ 2 , 3 ∩ −1 , 0 = ∅ ⇒ 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 and −1 ≤ 2 x + 1 ≤ 2 (3 f (x) = 2x +

⇒ f (g (x)) = f (y) is not defined. 1 in 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 )

Hence fog (x) = x2 + 1, for −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 , = 2x2 + 1 for ⇒ 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 and −2 ≤ 2 x ≤ 1

1< x ≤ 2 . 1

⇒ 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 and −1 ≤ x ≤

Next, g (f (x)) = g (y) where y = f (x) 2

f (x) = x + 1, x < 1 ...(a)

LM OP 1

= 2 x + 1, 1 < x ≤ 2 ...(b) ⇒ 1 , 2 ∩ −1 ,

N Q 2

=φ

af 2

g y = y , −1 ≤ y < 2 ...(c)

⇒ g b f a x fg = g a y f is not defined.

= y + 2,2 ≤ y ≤ 3 ...(d) Case (iv): Considering the intervals in (b) and (d),

Case (i): Considering the intervals in (a) and (c), x ≤ 1 1 < x ≤ 2 and 2 ≤ y ≤ 3

and −1 ≤ y < 2 ⇒ 1 < x ≤ 2 and 2 ≤ f x ≤ 3 af

⇒ x ≤ 1 and −1 ≤ f x < 2bg ⇒ 1 < x ≤ 2 and 2 ≤ 2 x + 1 ≤ 3 (3 f (x) = 2x + 1

⇒ x ≤ 1 and −1 ≤ x + 1 < 2 in 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 )

⇒ x ≤ 1 and −2 ≤ x < 1 1

≤ x ≤1

⇒ 1 < x ≤ 2 and

a

⇒ −∞ , 1 ∩ −2 , 1 = [–2, 1] = −2 ≤ x < 1

2

2

⇒ 1, 2 ∩

N2 Q

= y ⇒ g (f (x)) = g (y) is not defined.

3 y = f (x) = x + 1 in x ≤ 1 ).

= (x + 1)2 ( Hence gof (x) = (x + 1)2 for −2 ≤ x < 1 and = 4 for

Case (ii): Considering the intervals in (a) and (d), x = 1.

x ≤ 1 and 2 ≤ y ≤ 3 2. If f (x) = x3 + 1 , x < 0

af

⇒ x ≤ 1 and 2 ≤ f x ≤ 3

2

= x + 1, x ≥ 0

⇒ x ≤ 1 and 2 ≤ f a x f ≤ 3 ( 3 f (x) = x + 1 in

x ≤ 1)

af a f

and g x = x − 1 3 , x < 1

1

= a x − 1f , x ≥ 1

1

⇒ x ≤ 1 and 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 2

a

⇒ −∞ , 1 ∩ 1 , 2 = 1 kp compute gof (x).

∴ when x = 1, g (f (x) = g (y) Solution: g (f (x)) = g (y) where y = f (x)

= y + 2 for 2 ≤ y ≤ 3

= x = 1 + 2 ( ∴ y = x + 1 in x ≤ 1 )

a

g (y) = y − 1 3 , y < 1f 1

...(a)

= x + 3 = 4 for x = 1

Case (iii): Considering the intervals in (b) and (c),

a f

= y −1 2,y ≥1

1

...(b)

f a x f = x + 1, x < 0

3

1 ≤ x ≤ 2 and −1 ≤ y ≤ 2 and ...(c)

⇒ 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 and −1 ≤ f x ≤ 2 af = x 2 + 1, x ≥ 1 ...(d)

66 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

x < 0 and y < 1 ⇒ x ≥ 0 and x + 1 ≥ 1 (3 f (x) = x2 + 1 in

⇒ x < 0 and f (x) < 1 x ≥ 0)

⇒ x < 0 and x3 + 1 < 1 (3 f (x) = x3 + 1 in x < 0) 2

⇒ x < 0 and x3 < 0 ⇒ x ≥ 0 and x ≥ 0

∴ in (x < 0), g (f (x)) = g (y) ⇒ common region = 0 , ∞ ⇒ x ≥ 0 f

a f for y < 1

= y−1

1

3

∴ in (x > 0), (g (f (x)) = g (y)

a f for x ≥ 0

= y −1

1

= b f a x f − 1g

1 2

3

= b f a x f − 1g

1

2

1

e 3

j af

= x + 1 − 1 3 , ( 3 f x = x 3 + 1 in x < 0) 1

=x e

= x +1−1

2

j 2

( 3 f (x) = x2 + 1 in x ≥ 0 )

Case (ii): Considering the intervals in (b) and (c), = x, Hence gof (x) = x for all x.

x < 0 and y ≥ 1 3. If f (x) = x2 – 4x + 3, x < 3

⇒ x < 0 and f x ≥ 1 af = x – 4, x > 3

and g (x) = x – 3, x < 4

3

⇒ x < 0 and x + 1 ≥ 1 ( 3 f (x) = x3 + 1) in x < 0) = x2 + 2x + 2, x > 4

describe the function fog.

3

⇒ x < 0 and x ≥ 0 Solution: fog (x) = f (y), where y = g (x)

f (y) = y2 – 4y + 3, y < 3 ...(a)

⇒ x < 0 and x ≥ 0

= y – 4, y > 3 ...(b)

a f

⇒ −∞ , 0 ∩ 0 , ∞ = φ f g (x) = x – 3, x < 4 ...(c)

⇒ g (y) = g (f (x)) is not defined. = x2 + 2x + 2, x > 4 ...(d)

Case (iii): Considering the intervals in (a) and (d), Case (i): Considering the intervals in (a) and (c), x <

x ≥ 0 and y < 1 4 and y < 3

⇒ x < 4 and g (x) < 3

⇒ x ≥ 0 and f (x) < 1

⇒ x < 4 and x – 3 < 3 ( 3 g (x) = x – 3 in x < 4)

⇒ x ≥ 0 and x2 + 1 < 1 ( 3 f (x) = x2 + 1 in x ≥ 0 ) ⇒ x < 4 and x < 6

⇒ x ≥ 0 and x2 < 0 a f a f a

⇒ −∞ , 4 ∩ −∞ , 6 = −∞ , 4 ⇒ x < 4 f

⇒ x ≥ 0 and x < 0 ∴ in (x < 4), fog (x) = f (y)

f a

⇒ 0 , ∞ ∩ −∞ , 0 = φ f = y2 – 4y + 3 for y < 3

⇒ g (y) = g (f (x)) is not defined. = (x – 3)2 – 4 (x – 3) + 3

Case (iv): Considering the intervals in (b) and (d), (3 y = g (x) = x – 3 in x < 4)

x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 1 2

= x − 10 x + 24

⇒ x ≥ 0 and f x ≥ 1 af

Function 67

x ≥ 4 and y < 3 = x2 + 2x + 2 – 4 (3 y = x2 + 2x + 2 in x ≥ 4 )

⇒ x ≥ 4 and g (x) < 3 = x2 + 2x + 2

⇒ x ≥ 4 and x2 + 2x + 2 < 3 ( 3 g (x) = x2 + 2x + 2 Case (iv): Considering the intervals in (b) and (c), x

in x ≥ 4 ) < 4 and y ≥ 3

⇒ x ≥ 4 and (x2 + 2x – 1) < 0 ⇒ x < 4 and g x ≥ 3 af

⇒ x ≥ 4 and (x + 1)2 – 2 < 0 ⇒ x < 4 and x − 3 ≥ 3 ( 3 g (x) = x – 3 in x < 4)

⇒ x ≥ 4 and (x + 1)2 < 2 ⇒ x < 4 and x ≥ 6

⇒ x ≥ 4 and x + 1 < 2 a f

⇒ −∞ , 4 ∩ 6 , ∞ = ∅ f

⇒ f (g (x)) = f (y) is not defined

⇒ x ≥ 4 and − 2 < x + 1 < 2

Hence fog (x) = x2 – 10x + 24 for x < 4 and x2 + 2x

⇒ x ≥ 4 and − 2 − 1 < x < 2 − 1 + 2 for x > 4.

f e

⇒ 4 , ∞ ∩ − 2 − 1, 2 − 1 = φ j a f RST13 +− xx ,, 02 ≤< xx ≤≤ 23 .

4. Find f (f (x)) if f x =

⇒ f (g (x)) = f (y) is not defined.

Case (iii): Considering the intervals in (b) and (d), Solution: Given:

x ≥ 4 and y ≥ 3

a f RST13 +− xx ,, 02 ≤< xx ≤≤ 23

f x =

... (a)

af

⇒ x ≥ 4 and g x ≥ 3 ... (b)

2

To find: f (f (x)).

a f RST13 +− xx ,, 02 ≤< xx ≤≤ 23

⇒ x ≥ 4 and x + 2 x + 2 ≥ 3

Let y = f x =

e 2

⇒ x ≥ 4 and x + 2 x − 1 ≥ 0 j

⇒ x ≥ 4 and a x + 1f 2

−2≥0

R1 + y , 0 ≤ y ≤ 2

∴ f a yf = S

... (c)

T3 − y , 2 < y ≤ 3 ... (d)

⇒ x ≥ 4 and a x + 1f 2

≥2

Case (i): Considering the intervals in (a) and (c),

⇒ x ≥ 4 and x + 1 ≥ 2 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 2

⇒ x ≥ 4 and { x + 1 ≥ 2 or x + 1 ≤ − 2 } ⇒ 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 0 ≤ 1 + x ≤ 2

⇒ 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and −1 ≤ x ≤ 1

⇒ x ≥ 4 and { x ≥ 2 − 1 or x ≤ − 2 − 1 }

⇒ 0 , 2 ∩ −1 , 1 = 0 , 1

⇒ x ≥ 4 and x ≥ 2 − 1 ∴ in [0, 1], f (y) = f (f (x)) = 1 + y

=1+1+x

or x ≥ 4 and x ≤ − 2 − 1 =2+x

0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 2 < y ≤ 3

or 4 , ∞ f ∩ e−∞ , − 2 − 1 = φ ⇒ 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 2 < 1 + x ≤ 3

⇒ 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 1 < x ≤ 2

∴ in a x ≥ 4f , f b g a x fg = f a y f a

⇒ 0 , 2 ∩ 1 , 2 = 1, 2 a

68 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

1< x ≤ 2

af a f b a fg a f

a ≤ f x ≤ b ⇒ g a ≤ g f x ≤ g b if g (x)

is increasing in [a, b] = D (gof)

Case (iii): Considering the intervals in (b) and (c),

D (f ) D (g ) R ( f) R (gof)

2 < x ≤ 3 and 0 ≤ 3 − x ≤ 2

⇒ 2 < x ≤ 3 and −3 ≤ − x ≤ − 1

f g

⇒ 2 < x ≤ 3 and 1 ≤ x ≤ 3 x f (x) gof (x)

a

⇒ 2 , 3 ∩ 1, 3 = 2 , 3 a gof

∴ in (2, 3], f (y) = f (f (x)) = 1 + y = 1 + 3 – x = 4 – x

Case (iv): Considering the intervals in (b) and (d), Note: One should note that the rule mentioned in

type (4) holds true to determine the domain and range

2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and 2 ≤ y ≤ 3

of the composite function if the given composite

⇒ 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and 2 ≤ 3 − x ≤ 3 function is defined by a single formula y = gof (x).

⇒ 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and −1 ≤ − x ≤ 0

Solved Examples

⇒ 2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

Find the domain and range of each of the following

⇒ 2, 3 ∩ 0,1 = ∅ functions:

⇒ f (y) = f (f (x)) is not defined. (i) y = sin cos x (ii) y = tan cos x (iii) y = cos tan x

Hence, (iv) y = tan cos x (v) y = log sin x

R|2 + x , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 Solutions: (i) y = sin cos x

f b f a x fg = S 2 − x , 1 < x ≤ 2 R (cos x) = [–1, 1]

|T4 − x , 2 < x ≤ 3 D (sin x) = R

∴ S = R ∩ [–1, 1] = [–1, 1]

Type 4: Determination of domain and range of and so cos x ∈S ⇔ − 1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1

composite function

⇔ x ∈R

Rule: Determination of domain of composite function

namely gof consists of following steps: Again, x ∈R ⇒ − 1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1

1. Determination of the interval namely

S = domain of outer function namely g (x)

a f af

⇒ sin −1 ≤ y ≤ sin 1 since sin x is continuous

and increasing in [–1, 1].

∩ range of inner function namely f (x).

(ii) y = tan cos x

2. Determination of all the elements present in the

R (cos x) = [–1, 1]

domain of f (x) whose images form the interval ‘S’ is

D (tan x) = R

the determination of all the elements forming the set

which is the required, domain of the composite ∴ S = R ∩ [–1, 1] = [–1, 1]

function namely ‘gof’ i.e. the solution set of the and so cos x ∈S ⇔ − 1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1

interval ‘S’ where f (x) lies (i.e. the solution set of f (x) ⇔ x ∈R

Again, x ∈R ⇒ − 1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1

∈S ) is the required domain of the composite function

namely ‘gof’. a f

⇒ tan −1 ≤ tan cos x ≤ tan 1

Next to determine the range of the composite (iii) y = cos tan x

function ‘gof’ one should use the rule: a f

R (tan x) = −∞ , ∞

D (cos x) = a −∞ , ∞f

Function 69

∴ tan x ∈S ⇒ − ∞ < tan x < ∞ ⇒ − ∞ < log sin x ≤ 0 as log x is continuous and

⇒ x ∈R b g

increasing in (0, 1] and lim log ∈ = − ∞

∈→ 0+

Again, x ∈R ⇒ − ∞ < tan x < ∞ ⇒ tan x ∈R

⇒ − 1 ≤ cos tan x ≤ 1 a f a f a

∴ R log sin x = −∞ , 0

a

∴ R cos tan x = −1 , 1 f Even and Odd Functions

(iv) y = tan cos x Firstly, the definitions of even and odd functions are

provided.

R e j

cos x = 0 , 1 af af a f

(i) Even function: ∀ x ∈D f : f x = f − x

D (tan x) = R af

⇒ f x is even, i.e. for x = a = any real number

∴ S = R ∩ 0,1 = 0,1 belonging to the domain of definition of f (x), f (x) is

∴ cos x ∈S ⇒ 0 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 af

defined at x = a ⇒ f x is also defined at x = –a and

⇒ 0 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 af

f (a) = f (–a) ⇒ f x is even or more simply, it is the

function of an independent variable, changing neither

π π

⇒ 2nπ − ≤ x ≤ 2nπ + the sign nor absolute value when the sign of the

2 2 independent variable is changed.

LM π π OP e.g: x4 + 2x2 + 1; cos x ;

sin t

etc.

⇒ x ∈ 2nπ −

N 2

, 2 nπ +

2 Q Notes:

t

Again, 2nπ − ≤ x ≤ 2nπ +

2 2 contains only even power of x is even.

2. n is even ⇒ xn is even.

⇒ 0 ≤ cos x ≤ 1

3. y = cosn x is even whether n is odd or even.

⇒ 0 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 4. y = sinn x is even only when n is even.

5. y = | x | is an even function.

⇒ tan 0 ≤ tan cos x ≤ tan 1 as tan x is continu-

a f af

(ii) Odd function ∀ x ∈ D f : f x = − f − x a f

af

ous and increasing in [0, 1].

⇒ f x is odd, i.e. for x = a = any real number

e

∴ R tan cos x = 0 , tan 1 j belonging to the domain of definition of f (x), f (x) is

(v) y = log sin x af

defined at x = a ⇒ f x is also defined at x = –a and

f (a) = –f (–a) ⇒ f a x f is odd, or more simply, it is the

R ( sin x) = [–1, 1]

a f a f

D log x = 0 , ∞

∴ S = a0 , ∞ f ∩ − 1 , 1 = a 0 , 1

function of an independent variable changing the sign

but not absolute value when the sign of the

∴ sin x ∈S ⇒ 0 < sin x ≤ 1 independent variable is changed.

⇒ 2 nπ < x ≤ 2n + 1 π a f Notes:

1. Any algebraic function (or, expression) which

b

⇒ x ∈ 2nπ , 2n + 1 π a f contains only odd power of x is an odd function.

a f

(Note: The constant function f (x) = c is even and

Again 2 nπ < x ≤ 2 n + 1 π when c = 0, i.e. y = 0 which is also termed as zero

⇒ 0 < sin x ≤ 1 function representing the x-axis is an even function).

70 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

2. x2n + 1 = an odd function. (iii) f is even but g is odd ⇒ fog is an even function.

3. y = sin(2n + 1) x is an odd function. (iv) f is odd but g is even ⇒ fog is an even function.

(iii) Properties of even functions: The sum difference,

product and quotient of two even functions is again Solved Examples

an even function, i.e. f (x) and g (x) are even

af

Examine the oddness and eveness of the following

af af

⇒ f x ± g x , f (x) · g (x) and

f x

g x af

are even.

functions.

1. f (x) = x4 + 2x2 + 7

Solution: f (x) = x4 + 2x2 + 7

(iv) Properties of odd functions: 1. The sum and ⇒ f (–x) = (–x)4 + (–x)2 + 7

difference of two odd functions is again an odd = x4 + 2x2 + 7

af af

function, i.e. f (x) and g (x) are odd ⇒ f x ± g x = f (x)

2. The product and quotient of two odd functions is Therefore, f (x) is an even function.

again an even function; i.e. f (x) and g (x) are odd

af af 5

2. g x = x − 16x + 11x −

3 92

af af f x x

⇒ f x ⋅ g x and

af

g x

are even.

af 5

Solution: g x = x − 16x + 11x −

3 92

How to test whether a given function y = f (x) is x

a f a f a f a f a−92xf

odd or even.

⇒ g −x = −x − 16 − x + 11 − x −

5 3

Working rule: The rule to examine (or, test) a given

function y = f (x) to be odd and even is (i) to replace x

by (–x) in the given function f (x) and (ii) to inspect F

= − Gx

92 I

J

H − 16 x 3 + 11x −

xK

5

whether f (x) changes its sign or not. It f (x) changes

its sign, one must declare it to be odd and if f (x) does

= –g (x)

not change its sign, one must declare it to be even.

Therefore, g (x) is an odd function.

Notes: 3. f (x) = x2 – | x |

af af af

1. f x ≠ ± f x ⇒ f x is neither even nor odd. Solution: f (x) = x2 – | x |

e.g: If the oddness and eveness of the function f ⇒ f (–x) = (–x)2 – | –x |

(x) = e2x sin x is examined, it is seen that f (–x) = e–2x + = x2 – | x |

af

sin (–x) ≠ ± f x which means that f (x) is neither = f (x)

Therefore, f (x) is an even function.

FG x + 1IJ

odd nor even.

2. Any function y = f (x) can be uniquely expressed

as the sum of an even and odd function as follows:

af

4. f x = log x +

H K

2

af

f x =

1

af a f

f x + f −x +

1

af a f

f x − f −x F

Solution: f a x f = log G x + x + 1J

I

H K

2

2 2

3. A piecewise function is even if each function

⇒ f a− x f = log F − x + a − x f + 1I

H K

defined in its domain is even and a piecewise function 2

is odd if each function defined in its domain is odd.

F −x + I

4. f and g are two functions such that

(i) f is even and g is also even ⇒ fog is an even

GG JJ

2

x +1 2

= log ⋅x+ x +1

H x+ K

function. 2

(ii) f is odd and g is also odd ⇒ fog is an odd x +1

function.

Function 71

F − x + x + 1I Rx x , x ≤ − 1

= log G

GH x + x + 1 JJK a f |S 1 + x + 1 − x , − 1 < x < 1

2 2

7. f x =

2

|T− x x , x ≥ 1

F 1 I Solution: The given function can be rewritten as

= log G

GH x + x + 1 JJK

under:

R|− x , x ≤ − 1

2

2

F I f a x f = S2 + x + − x , − 1 < x < 1

= log 1 − log G x + x + 1J ||− x , x ≥ 1

H K

2

T

2

F

= − log G x + x + 1J

I

H K

2 since [1 + x] = 1 + [x] and [1 – x] = 1 + [–x]

Also, it is known that [x] + [–x] = 0 when x is an

= –f (x) integer and [x] + [–x] = –1 when x is not an integer.

So, f (x) is an odd function. Hence, again in the light of above facts, the given

af Fa I x

function can be rewritten as:

5. f x = x GH a

+ 1K

J x

−1

R|− x , x ≤ − 1

2

Solution: f a x f = x G |

x

H a + 1JK x f a x f = S2 , x = 0

||1 , 0 < x < 1

F a − 1I

⇒ f a− x f = a− xf G

−x

||

H a + 1JK T− x , x ≥ 1

2

−x

= −x G

G a − 1J

x

J = −x G

1− a

J

x

GH a + 1JK H 1 + a K

1 x

Periodic Functions

x

Definition: When f (x) = f (x + P) = f (x + 2P) = … = f (x

+ nP), then f (x) is said to be periodic function of x, for

= xG

F a − 1I = f a x f

x its values repeat, its period being P (where

H a + 1JK

x P ≠ 0 , x ∈ domain of definition of f) which is the

smallest positive number satisfying the above

So, f (x) is an even function. property f (x) = f (x + P) = f (x + 2P) = … = f (x + nP)

6. f (x) = sin x + cos x where n ∈Z , n ≠ 0 .

Solution: f (x) = sin x + cos x

Notes:

⇒ f (–x) = sin (–x) + cos (–x)

1. The numbers of the form nP, n ∈Z , n ≠ 0 are also

= –sin x + cos x which is clearly neither equal to f

called period of the function. But generally the smallest

(x) nor equal to –f (x).

Therefore, f (x) is neither even not odd. positive number P is called the period of the function

(or, fundamental period of the function) unless

72 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

nothing is mentioned about the period of the function. (vi) y = cosec (Kx), a cosec (Kx) or a cosec (Kx + b) is

2. The smallest positive period for sine and cosine is 2π

equal to 2π and for the tangent and cotangent, it is given by the formula P = , where K is any

K

equal to π . Since, sin x = sin x + 2π = a f constant.

a f

sin x + 4π = ..., is periodic , its period being 2π . Remember:

1. Period of any trigonometric function, its co-

Similarly, cos x is periodic, its period being 2π . Hence,

function and its reciprocal is the same. Thus,

the periodicity property of the trigonometric functions

can be expressed by the following identities. (i) The period of sin x and cosec x = 2 π .

a f

sin x = sin x + 2 n π , n ∈Z (ii) The period of cos x and sec x = 2 π .

cos x = cos a x + 2 n π f , n ∈Z (iii) The period of tan x and cot x = π .

tan x = tan b x + n πg , n ∈Z

2. Only those trigonometric functions are periodic

whose angles are linear expressions in x (i.e. angle =

cot x = cot b x + n π g , n ∈Z ax + b). For examples, sin3 x, cos4 x, tan (4x + 5), etc.

3. Those trigonometric functions are not periodic

3. The following formulas of the trigonometric whose angles are not linear expressions in x (i.e., angle

F 1 I , cos

functions to find out fundamental period of the

trigonometric functions are very useful.

If we have an equation of the form y = T (Kx), aT

≠ ax + b ). For examples, sin

H xK x , etc.

(Kx), aT (Kx + b), where a = amplitude of trigonometric 4. No periodic function other than a constant can be

function, K = any constant, b = any other constant, T algebraic which means that algebraic functions can

= any trigonometric function sin, cos, tan, cot, sec, not be periodic excepting a constant function.

cosec, then the fundamental period P of the 5. If the function f1 (x) has the period P1, and the

trigonometric function having the form: function f2 (x) has the period P2, then the function

(i) y = sin (Kx), a sin (Kx) or a sin (Kx + b) is given by

af af

y = a f 1 x ± b f 2 x a and b being given numbers,

2π

the formula P = , where K is any constant. has the period equal to least common multiple (i.e.;

K l.c.m) of numbers of the set {P1, P2}

(ii) y = cos (Kx), a cos (Kx) or a cos (Kx + b) is given e.g.: y = 2 sin x – 3 tan x has the period 2 π since

2π period of sin x = 2 π

by the formula P = , where K is any constant.

K period of tan x = π

(iii) y = tan (Kx), a tan (Kx) or a tan (Kx + b) is given

π

k p

∴ L.c.m of 2 π , π = 2 π

by the formula P = , where K is any constant. 6. A function of trigonometric periodic function is

K also periodic provided the angle = ax + b; i.e.; f (T (ax

(iv) y = cot (Kx), a cot (Kx) or a cot (Kx + b) is given

+ b)) is periodic where f signifies n, (...)n, |...|, log,

π

by the formula P = , where K is any constant. etc and T signifies sin, cos, tan, cot, sec and cosec.

K

(v) y = sec (Kx), a sec (Kx) or a sec (Kx + b) is given a f

e.g.: tan x , cos x , sin 2 x + b , etc are functions

2π of sin x, cos x and tan x and are periodic.

by the formula P = , where K is any constant. 7. The sum and difference of periodic and non

K

periodic function is non-periodic. Moreover, the

Function 73

non-periodic. e.g., =

3

(i) f (x) = sin x + cos x is non-periodic since sin x is

F xI

periodic and cos x is non-periodic.

(ii) f (x) = x cos x is non-periodic since x being an

2. y = cos H 2K

algebraic function is non-periodic and cos x is Solution: Method (1)

periodic. On, denoting the period of the function

8. Whenever, we use the term period, we always mean F x I we get y = cos F x I

the fundamental period which is the smallest positive

value of P for which the relation:

y = cos

H 2K H 2K

f (x) = f (x + P) holds true for all values of x, P being F x + P IJ = cos F x I

⇒ cos G

a constant, i.e.; the values of f (x) at the points x and

(x + P) are same.(Note: If f (x) is a periodic function

H 2 K H 2K

with period T and g (x) is any function such that P

⇒ = 2π ⇒ P = 4 π

domain of f is a proper subset of domain g, then gof is 2

period with period T). Method (2)

e.g.: y = sin (x – [x]) is periodic with period 1, Using the formula of period of trigonometric

because (x– [x]) is periodic with period 1.

1

Working rule to fund the period: It consists of function, we get P = 2π / K , where K = =

2

following steps: (Trigonometric functions)

1. To denote the desired period by P and to replace x 1

multiple of x = 2π / = 4π .

by (P + x). 2

2. To put T [a (x + P) + b] = T (ax) 3. y = sin 2x + cos 3x

3. To put aP = a constant multiple of P = 2π or π Solution: Method (1)

according as the given function is sin, cos, tan, cot We are required to find out the period of each

sec or cosec. addend of the given sum function y = sin 2x + cos 3x

4. To solve a P = 2π or π to get the required (or, Now, sin 2 (x + P1) = sin 2x

⇒ sin 2 x + 2 P1 = sin 2 x ⇒ 2 P1 = 2 π ⇒ P1 = π

similarly, cos 3 (x + P2) = cos 3x

Solved Examples

Find the period of each of the following functions:

a f

⇒ cos 3x + 3P2 = cos 3x ⇒ 3 P2 = 2π ⇒ P2 =

2π

3

1. y = sin 3x

RS 2πUV 2π

Solution: Method (1)

On denoting the period of the function y = sin 3x

∴ L.c.m of π ,

T 3 W

=

1

= 2π

⇒ sin (3x + 3P) = sin 3x Method (2)

⇒ 3P = 2π On using the formula of period of trigonometric

2π 2π

⇒P= function sin (Kx), P1 = , where K = 2 = a constant

3 K

Method (2) multiple of x.

On using the formula of period of trigonometric

2π

function, we get P =

2π

where K = multiple of x.

= =π

2

K

74 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

2π and P2 = , where K =

function cos (Kx), P2 = , where K = 3 = a constant K 3

K

2π 3

multiple of x. = = 2π × = 3π

2 2

2π

= 3

RS 2π UV = 2π RS 4π , 3πUV = 12π

3

T 3W

∴ L.c.m of π ,

Hence, the required period of the given sum

∴ L.c.m of

T3 W

function = 2π Remember:

L.c.m of two or more fractions

F 3x I + sin F 2 x I

4. y = sin H2K H 3K =

l.c. m of numerators

h.c. f of denominators

Solution: Method (1)

We find the period of each addend of the given Question: How to show the following function to be

sum function. not periodic:

N2 Q H2K

sin f (x) is not periodic, we adopt the rule consisting of

1

following steps.

H2 2 K H 2 K 2

⇒ sin x + P = sin = 2π ⇒

1

1 and equating it to f (x) which means one should write

f (T + x) = f (x).

4π Step 2: Considering the general solution of

P1 =

3 af

(i) sin [f (x + T)] = sin [f (x)], where f x ≠ ax + b and

LM 2 ax + P fOP = sin F 2 x I a f , , etc, is

n n

Q H 3K

f signifies the operators

Similarly, sin

N3 2

n

⇒ sin

H 3 3 K H 3K 2 2

n

R 4π U 12π = 12π

∴ L.c.m of S , 3π V =

T3 W 1 and f signifies the operators a f , n n

, etc, is

(Note: f (x) = x – [x] ⇒ f (x + 1) = x + 1 – [x + 1] = f a x + T f = 2nπ ± f a x f ( 3 cos x = cosα ⇒

x + 1 – ([x] + 1) = x – [x] = f (x) ⇒ f (x) is periodic with

period 1). x = 2 nπ ± α an = ± 1 , ± 2 ,...f )

Method (2) (iii) tan [f (x + T)] = tan [ f (x)], where f a x f ≠ ax + b

On using the formula of period of trigonometric

and f signifies the operators a f , n n

, etc, is

2π 3

f a x + T f = nπ + f a x f ( 3 tan x = tan α ⇒

function sin (Kx), P1 = , where K =

K 2

2π 2 4 x = nπ + α an = ± 1 , ± 2 ,...f )

= = 2π × = π

3 3 3

2

Function 75

af

Step 3: If T = F x f (x) is not periodic which means argument belonging to their common domain, i.e.; two

functions f and g are equal ⇔ the following two

that if there is a least positive value of T not

independent of x, then f (x) will not be a periodic conditions are satisfied.

function with period of T. (i) f and g have the same domain D.

af af

Or, T = F x ⇒ f x ≠ periodic. (Note: A (ii) f and g assume the same (or, equal) value at each

point of their common domain, i.e.; f (x) = g (x),

monotonic function can never be periodic and a

periodic function can never be monotonic. That is, ∀ x ∈D .

monotoncity and periodicity are two properties of Notes:

functions which can not coexist). 1. The above two conditions are criteria to show that

given two functions namely f and g are equal.

Solved Examples

x

Show that each of the following functions is not 2. = 1, provided x ≠ 0

x

af

periodic.

af

1. f x = sin x 3.

f x

af

f x

= 1, provided f x ≠ 0 af

af

Solution: f x = sin x

Working rule to show two functions to be equal: It

∴ f a x + T f = f a x f ⇒ sin x + T = sin x ⇒ consists of following steps:

T + x = nπ + a−1f

1. To find the domain of each function f and g.

n

x which does not provide 2. To inspect whether dom (f) = dom (g) as well as f

us the value of T independent of x. Hence, f (x) is not (x) = g (x), ∀ x ∈D , D being the common (or, same)

a periodic function. domain of each function f and g, i.e.; if dom (f) = dom

2. f (x) = cos x2 (g) and f (x) = g (x), ∀ x ∈D , then we say that f = g

Solution: f (x) = cos x2

and if any one of the two conditions namely dom (f) =

a f af

∴ f x + T = f x ⇒ cos x + T a f 2

= cos x

2

dom (g) and f (x) = g (x), ∀ x ∈D is not satisfied, we

a

⇒ x+T f 2

= 2 nπ ± x

2 say that f ≠ g .

2 Solved Examples

⇒x+T = 2nπ ± x

Examine whether the following functions are equal or

2

⇒T = 2 nπ ± x − x not:

which does not provide us the value of T af

1. f x =

2

af

x ,g x = x

independent of x. Hence, f (x) is not periodic.

Question: Explain what you mean when we say “two

functions are equal”.

Solution: f x =af 2

af

x ,g x = x

2

x is defined for all real values of x

are said to be equal (written as f = g) if f (x) = g (x) for ⇒ dom (f) = R = the set of all real numbers ...(i)

all x ∈D which signifies that two functions are equal Again, 3 g (x) = | x |

provided their domains are equal as well as their | x | is defined for all real values of x

functional values are equal for all values of the ⇒ dom (g) = R = the set of all real numbers ...(ii)

Also, we inspect that f (x) = g (x) = | x | for every

real values of x ...(iii)

76 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

RSdom a f f = dom a g f = R af

(i) f x = x , g x = af 2

(i), (ii) and (iii) ⇒

T f a x f = g a x f , ∀ x ∈R , R

x

af af

2

being the common domain x

(ii) f x = ,g x = x

⇒ f=g x

(iii) f (x) = log10 x2, g (x) = 2 log10 x

af af

2

x +1

2. f x = 2

,g x =1 Solution: (i) f (x) = x ⇒ dom (f) = R ...(a)

x +1

Solution: f x = af x +1

2

af

,g x =1

af

g x =

2

x = x for x ≥ 0 and = –x for x < 0

x +1

2

⇒ g (x) is defined for all real values of x

Now, we find the domain of f: ⇒ dom (g) = R ...(b)

2 2

Putting x + 1 = 0 ⇒ x = − 1⇒ x = ± i = imaginary Hence, (a) and (b) ⇒ f (x) = g (x), ∀ x ∈ 0 , ∞ f

⇒ f (x) is defined for all real values of x

af

2

x

⇒ dom (f) = R = the set of all real numbers ...(i) (ii) f x = = x , provided x ≠ 0

Again, g (x) = 1 is defined for all real values of x x

⇒ dom (g) = R = the set of all real numbers ...(ii) ⇒ dom (f) = R – {0} ...(a)

Also, we inspect that f (x) = g (x), ∀ x ∈R ...(iii) g (x) = x

⇒ dom (g) = R ...(b)

R dom a f f = dom a gf = R

(i), (ii) and (iii) ⇒ S

Hence, (a) and (b) ⇒ f (x) = g (x), ∀ x ∈R − 0 kp

T f a x f = g a x f , ∀ x ∈R , R (iii) f (x) = log10 x2, g (x) = 2 log10 x, provided x > 0

being the common domain and 2 log (–x) for x < 0

⇒ f=g ⇒ f (x) is defined for all real values of x

Note: To find the values of the argument x for which ⇒ dom (f) = R ...(a)

two given functions f and g may be equal (i.e.; g (x) = 2 log10 x, provided x > 0

whenever f (x) and g (x) may be equal by performing ⇒ g (x) is defined for all positive values of x

any operation or rule like cancellation, extracting the

af

⇒ dom g = R = 0 , ∞

+

a f ...(b)

a f

root, etc on any one of the given functional value)

means to find the common domain of each function f Hence, (a) and (b) ⇒ f (x) = g (x), ∀ x ∈ 0 , ∞

and g over which they are defined.

Problems on one-to-one Function

Working rule: We have the rule to find for what

values of the argument given functions are identical. Firstly, we recall the definition of one-to-one (or,

It says to find the common domain of each function f simply one-one) function.

and g to examine whether their functional values are

equal for all values of the argument belonging to the Definition 1: It the given function f : D → R

common domain of f and g, i.e.; whether f (x) = g (x), defined by y = f (x) is such that there is unique y in the

range R for each x in the domain D and conversely

∀ x ∈D , D being the common domain of each

there is a unique x in the domain D for each y in the

function f and g should be examined. range R, then it is said that given function y = f (x) is

one-to-one.

Solved Examples Definition 2: (Set theoretic): If different elements of

Find for what values of x following functions are domain of the function have different images (or,

identical. values) in the range (or, codomain), then it is said that

the function is one-to-one.

78 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

0, π then its range is same, i.e. [0, 1], but f (x) = sin2 Before doing the problems on on-to functions, we

x is not one-one, because for two different points recall its definition. On-to function: If

π 5π f : D → R ⊆ C is a function such that every element

namely and , f (x) = sin2 x has the same value, in C occurs as the image of at least one element of D,

6 6

then f : D → R ⊆ C is called an on-to function from

as it is clear from the following:

D to C.

F π I = sin F π I = F 1 I = 1

2

In other words, f : D → R ⊆ C is called on-to

H 6K H 6K H 2K 4

2

f

function when the range (or, the range set) of f equals

F 5π I = sin F 5π I = sin F π − π I

the co-domain, i.e., range set = co-domain (i.e., R = C)

2 2

f

function. Hence, f : D → R ⊆ C is on-to function

F πI 1 a f

⇔ f D = C , where f (D) is called the image of D

= sin H K =

2

signifying the set of images of all elements in D and is

6 4 defined as:

(ii) 3 − 2 , 2 ∈ −3 , 3 a f l af q

f D = f x : x ∈D = range set = R (f) = R

(simply)

∴ f (–2) = (–2)2 = 4

Notes:

and f (2) = (2) = 4 1. If a function is not on-to, it is called “into

af

⇒ f 2 = f −2 a f function”, i.e., if the function f : D → R ⊆ C is

Hence, f (x) = x2 is not one-one because for two such that certain elements of the set C are left out,

different values of x in [–3, 3], f (x) = x2 has the same which are not the images of an element of the set D,

value 4. then f is called “into function”.

+ In other words f : D → R ⊆ C is said to be into,

(iii) For x1 , x2 ∈ R ,

a f

f x1 = f x 2 a f af

if f D ⊆ C , i.e; when the range set ≠ co-domain,

then the function is said to be into function.

⇒ x1 = x 2

D f R=C

⇒ x1 = x2

x1 y1

Hence f is one-one in R+. x2 y2 ⇒ on-to function

F −π , π I ; ,

(iv) For x1 , x2 ∈

H 2 2K

f ax f = f ax f

x1 y1

x2 y2 ⇒ into function

1 2 x3 y3

⇒ tan x1 = tan x 2

⇒ x1 = x2 2. A one-to-one function may be into or onto. i.e.,

F −π , π I .

there are two types of one-one function namely (i)

H 2 2K

one-one onto (ii) one-one into, which are defined as:

Hence f is one-one in

(i) one-one (symbolised as 1–1) function is called

onto provided there is no-element in the range set R

which does not appear as an image of a certain element

Function 79

of the domain D or, simply, a function which is both Remark: When we say that a function is one-one

one-one and onto is called one-one onto. Shortly, we and onto, it is assumed that number of elements of

write one-one onto ≡ one-one + onto. Further it is domain and range are equal such that each member of

notable that one-one onto function satisfies the the domain has a different image in the range set

following properties. whether the domain is a finite set or an infinite set.

(a) No two element of the domain have the same Question: How would you show that a given function

image. defined by a single formula y = f (x) in its domain is

(b) Every element of the range (or, co-domain) is the onto.

image of some element of the domain which means Answer: There are mainly two methods to examine

alternatively there is no element on the range (or, co- whether a given function defined by a single formula

domain) which is not the image of any element of the y = f (x) in its domain is onto or not.

domain. Method 1: If the range of the function = codomain of

the function, then given function f is onto. If the range

D f R

⇒ one-one on-to

is proper subset of codomain of the function f, then f

x1 y1 function which is is into.

x2 y2 symbolized as

x3 y3

one-one

Note: Method (1) is fruitful to examine whether a

f: D

on-to

R given function is onto or not only when the domain

of the given function is finite and contains a very few

one-one on-to function which is symbolised as elements.

one − one

Method 2: To show that f is onto, it is required to be

f : D on

− to

→ R.

shown that ∀ y ∈B , ∃ x ∈ A such that y = f (x), where

(ii) one-one into function: A one-one function is A = domain of f and B = codomain of f.

called into provided the range set is contained in the i.e. one should assume y ∈B and should show

co-domain (i.e., R ⊂ C ) such that co-domain

that ∃ x ∈ A such that y = f (x).

contains at least one element which is not an image of

any one element in the domain D, then the function is Step 1: Choose an arbitrary elements y in B

called one-one into, or simply a one-one function is (codomain).

called into provided it is not onto. Shortly we write Step 2: Put f (x) = y.

one-one into ≡ one-one + into. It is notable that one- Step 3: Solve the equation y = f (x) for x, say x = g (y).

one into function satisfies the following properties. Step 4: If x = g (y) is defined for each y ∈ codomain

(a) No two elements of domain have the same image. of f and x = g (y) ∈ domain of f for all y ∈ codomain of

(b) There is at least one element in co-domain which f, then f is declared to be on to.

is not the image of any element of the domain. If this requirement is not fulfilled by at least one

value of y in the codomain of f, then f is decalred to be

f C ( R ⊂ C)

D into (i.e. not onto).

R ⇒ one-one on-to i.e. to show that f is not onto (i.e. in to), one should

x1 y1 function which is

x2 y2 point out a single element in the codomain of f which

symbolized as

y3 one-one

f: D R is not the image of any element in the domain.

on-to

Notes:

One-one in-to function which is symbolised as: 1. Method (2) is fruitful to examine whether a given

one − one function is onto or not only when the domain of the

f : D in→ R ⊂ C .

− to

80 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

large number of elements. 2x = +3⇔ x = +

y 2y 2

2. When either domain or codomain or both is not

mentioned, it is always understood to be R while 5 3

examining a given function to be onto or into. Again, y ∈R and y ≠ 0 , ∴ + ∈R

2y 2

3. An into function can be made onto by redefining

the codomain as the range of the original function. 5 5 3 3

Also, ≠ 0, ∀ y ⇒ + ≠

4. Any polynomial function f : R → R is onto if its 2y 2y 2 2

degree is odd and any polynomial function 5 3 3 RS UV

f : R → R is into if its degree is even. ∴x = + ∈R −

2y 2 2 TW

Solved Examples

kp 5 3 3 RS UV such

1. A function f : R → R is defined by f (x) = 2x + 3

Thus, ∀ y ∈R − 0 , ∃ x = + ∈R −

2y 2 2 TW

that y = f (x).

examine whether f is onto.

Solution: In this question, kp

3. Show that the function f : R − 3 → R − 1 kp

af

domain of f = R x−2

codomain of f = R defined by f x = is onto.

x−3

Let y ∈R

kp

Solution: Let y ∈R − 1 , ∴ y ∈R and y ≠ 1

af

Now y = f x = 2 x + 3 ⇔ 2 x = y − 3 ⇔ x =

y−3

2 af

Now y = f x =

x−2

x−3

y−3

∴x = ∈R

2 ⇒ y x − 3 y = x − 2 ⇒ x − y x = 2 − 3y

Thus, ∀ y ∈R (codomain), ∃ x =

y−3

2

∈R a f

⇒ x 1− y = 2 − 3y ⇒ x =

2 − 3y

1− y

af

= g y (say)

Now y ∈R and y ≠ 1

Hence, f is onto.

RS 3 UV → R − k0p is defined ∴x =

2 − 3y

is defined ∀ y ∈R − 1 kp

2. A function f : R −

T2 W 1− y

af

by f x =

5

2x − 3

. Show that f is onto. Also, x =

2 − 3y

1− y

kp

∈R − 3 , ∀ y ∈ R − 1 kp

Solution: In this question, Hence, f is onto.

domain of f = R −

T2 W Test whether f is onto.

Solution: In this question,

codomain of f = R – {0} Domain of f = the set of integers = Z

lq

Let y ∈R − 0 , ∴ y ∈R and y ≠ 0 Codomain of f = the set of natural numbers = Z

Let y ∈ N

Now y = f a x f =

5 5

⇔ 2x − 3 = ⇔ Now, y = x2 + 3

2x − 3 y

Function 81

2

⇒ x = y − 3⇒ x = ±

⇒ range of f = [0, 1] which is ⊂ B

y − 3 which is not

⇒ f is not onto.

defined for y < 3, i.e. x = ± af

y − 3 = g y is not

(ii) 3 y = x | x |

defined ∀ y ∈N ∴ y = x · x for x ≥ 0

Hence, x = ± y − 3 ∉Z if y < 3 ⇒ y = x2 for x ∈ 0 , 1 , according to question.

For example I ∈N is not the f-image of any x ∈Z ⇒ x = y

and hence f is not onto.

k p

5. Let A = x : − 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 = B and a function

⇒x= y for x ≥ 0

⇒ x is defined for y ≥ 0

f : A → B is defined by f (x) = x2. Examine whether

f is onto. ⇒ x is defined for y ∈ 0 , 1 according to

Solution: In this question, question. ...(a)

Domain of f = codomain of f = − 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 Again, 3 y = x | x |

Let x ∈ −1 , 2 = B ∴ y = x (–x) for x < 0

2 ⇒ x2 = –y for x < 0

Now y = x ⇒ x = ± y which is not defined

for y < 0. ⇒ x = −y

Clearly, x ∉ −1 , 2 = A for all y ∈ −1 , 2 = B ⇒ x = − − y for x < 0

For example −

1

∈ B is not the f-image of any ⇒ x = − − y for x ∈ −1 , 0 f

2 ⇒ x is defined for y < 0

x ∈ A and hence f is not onto.

⇒ x is defined for y ∈ −1 , 0 according to

6. If f : R → R be defined f (x) = cos (5x +2), show question. ...(b)

that f (x) = cos (5x + 2) is not onto. From (a) and (b), it is concluded that range of f =

Solution: Since it is known that [–1, 0] ∪ [0, 1] = [–1, 1] = B = codomain of f which

a f

−1 ≤ cos 5x + 2 ≤ 1 which ⇒ range of cos (5x ⇒ f is onto.

+ 2) = [–1, 1] 8. Check whether the function f : R → R defined

∴ range of f = −1 , 1 ≠ R = codomain of f

⇒ f : R → R defined by f (x) = cos (5x + 2) is not

af

by f x =

x

1+ x

is onto or into. Also find R (f).

k p

7. Let A = x : − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 = B and a function

f : A → B is defined by (i) f (x) = | x | (ii) f (x) = x | x |. af

and y = f x =

x

1+ x

Examine whether it is onto or not.

Solution: (i) In this question, x

Now, y =

Domain of f = codomain of f = − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 1+ x

Let y ∈ −1 , 1 = B and y = f (x) = | x | x

⇒y= for x > 0

Now y = x ⇒ y is always non-negative 1+ x

82 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

⇒ y = x – yx = x (1 – y)

a

Case 1: To show that for any y < 0, there is x ∈ −1 , 0 f

⇒x=

y

1− y

a

, 3 y ≠ −1 f such that f (x) = y.

x

Now, x > 0 Now, y =

1+ x

y ⇒ y + xy = x

⇒ ≥0

1− y ⇒ x (1– y) = y

a f

⇒ y 1− y ≥ 0

⇒x=

y

a

, 3y ≠1 f

⇒ y a y − 1f ≤ 0 1− y

⇒ 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 but y ≠ 1 −z

Now if y is negative (i.e. y = –z), then x =

⇒ y∈ 0,1 f ...(a)

1+ z

z

Again, y =

x (negative) and x =

1+ x 1+ z

⇒y=

1− x

for x < 0

a f

Hence, for y < 0 , ∃ x ∈ −1 , 0 such that f (x) = y.

⇒ y – yx = x Case 2: y = 0 for x = 0.

⇒ y = x + yx = x (1 + y) a f

Case 3: To show that for any y > 0, there is x ∈ 0 , 1

⇒x=

y

1+ y

a

, 3 y ≠ −1 f such that f (x) = y

x

Now, y =

Now, x < 0 1− x

y ⇒ y – yx = x

⇒ <0

1+ y ⇒ x (1 + y) = y

⇒ y ( y + 1) < 0

⇒ y (y – (–1)) < 0

⇒x=

y

1+ y

a

, 3 y ≠ −1 f

a

⇒ –1 < y < 0 ⇒ y ∈ −1 , 0 f ...(b) ∴ for y > 0, 0 < x < 1

From (a) and (b), it is concluded that range of f = a f

⇒ for any y > 0, ∃ x ∈ 0 , 1 such that f (x) = y

f a f

(–1, 0) ∪ 0 , 1 = −1 , 1 ≠ R = codomain of f Hence, for any y ∈ a−∞ , ∞ f , ∃ x ∈ a −1 , 1f such that f

Hence, f is not onto (x) = y.

a f

9. Prove that the function f : −1 , 1 → R defined Hence, the given function is onto.

by Notes:

f x =af x

1+ x

, −1 < x < 0 1. In fact this function is bijective whose one-

oneness can be shown in the following way.

= 0, x = 0

x

= , 0 < x < 1 is onto.

1− x

Function 83

F πI .

cases are as follows: 5. If f (x) = sin x + cos x, find f H 4K

Case 1: When x1 , x2 ∈ −1 , 0 a f 6. If f (x) = x3 – 2x2 + x – 1, find f (0), f (1), f (–1) and f (2).

f (x1) = f (x2) 7. If f (x) = x4 – x3 + 2x2 + 4, find f (0), f (–1) and f (2).

x1 x2 8. Given the function s (t) = t2 – 6t + 8, find s (0), s (2)

⇒ =

1 + x1 1 + x 2 and s (–1).

⇒ x1 + x1 x2 = x2 + x1 x2

⇒ x1 = x2

9. Given the function f x = af 3x − 5

x+7

, find f (–3) and

f (x1) = f (x2) 10. If f (x) = 2x2 – 4x + 1, find f (1), f (0), f (2), f (–2), f (a)

and f (x + 8).

x1 x2

⇒ = 11. If f (x) = (x – 1) (x + 5), compute f (2), f (1), f (0) f (a

1 − x1 1 − x2

F 1 I and f (–5).

⇒ x1 – x1 x2 = x2 – x1 x2

⇒ x1 = x2

+ 1), f

H aK

Case 3: When x1 = 0 and x2 ≠ 0 then f x1 ≠ f x2 a f a f F π I , f a0f , f F π I , f F π I

a f

as f (x1) = 0, f x 2 ≠ 0

12. If f (x) = cos x, find f H 2K H 3K H 6K

a a f

f

Case 4: When x1 ∈ −1 , 0 and x2 ∈ 0 , 1 then in

af

and f π .

1 2 1 2 13. If f a x f =

sin x − cos x F πI

, find f H K .

sin x + cos x 3

f ax f = < 0 and f a x f =

x x

1 > 0. 2

1− x

af

2 2

1+ x

1

x − x+1

14. If f x =

1 2

Hence, the given function is one-one. 2

, find f (1 + h).

x + x+1

2. A piece-wise function is one-one ⇔ each

function defined in its respective sub domains is one-

one.

15. If f x = af x +1

x −1

, find f (x2) and (f (x))2.

3. A piece-wise function is on-to ⇔ each function

defined in its respective sub domains is on-to. 16. When f x = af 9

2 determine f (0), f (3) and

1. Finding the Value of a Given Function 3+ x

Type 1: When the given function is not a piecewise

F 1I .

function. f

H xK

Exercise 1.1 17. A function f is defined on R as follows

f (x) = c, c being a constant, x ∈R

F 3I .

1. If f (x) = 3x – 2, find f (–1).

2. If f (x) = 3x2 – 5x + 7, find f (–2).

3. If f (x) = x4 – 3x2 + 7, find f (–1) and f (2).

find f (–1), f (1) and f

H 2K

F1 − x I2 Answers:

af 2

4. If f x = 1 − x , find f (sin x) and f GH 1 + x JK .

2

1. f (–1) = –5

2. f (–2) = 29

84 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

3. f (–1) = 5, f (2) = 11

Exercise 1.2

F 1 − x I = 2x

f asin x f = cos x , f G

2

H 1 + x JK 1 + x

4. 2 2 1. If f (x) = 1 + x, when −1 ≤ x < 0

= x2 – 1, when 0 < x < 2

F πI = 2 = 2x, when x > 0

5. f

H 4K F 1 I , f (2 – h), f (–1 + h),

6. f (0) = –1, f (1) = –1, f (–) = –5, f (2) = 1 find f (3), f (–2), f (0), f

H 2K

FG f F 1 I IJ , where h > 0 is sufficiently small.

7. f (0) = 4, f (–1) = 8, f (2) = 20

H H 2KK

8. s (0) = 8, s (2) = 0, s (–1) = 15

f

a f 1

9. f −3 = 3 , f 2 =

2

1

9

af 2. If f (x) = 2 + 3x, when –1 < x < 1

10. f (1) = –1, f (0) = 1, f (2) = 1, f (–2) = 17, f (a) = 3 – 2x, when 1 < x < 2

= 2a2 – 4a + 1, f (x + 8) = 2x2 + 28x + 97 find f (0), f (1), f (1 +h), f (2 – h), f (2), f (f (1.5)

11. f (2) = 7, f (1) = 0, f (0) = –5, f (a + 1) = a2 + 6a, 3. If f (x) = 3x, when –1 < x < 0

= 4, when 0 < x < 1

F 1 I = 1 + 4a − 5a , f a−5f = 0

2

= 3x –1, when 1 < x < 3

f

H aK a

2

FG f F − 1 IIJ

F π I = 0, f (0) = 1, f FGH π IJK = 1 , f FGH π IJK

find f (2), f (0), f (0.5), f (–5), f (3) and f

H H 2 KK

12. f

H 2K 3 2 6

4. If f x =af x

, when x ≠ 0

x

, f a πf = − 1

3

= = 1, when x = 0

2 find f (0), f (2), f (–2)

F πI = 2 − 3 5. If f (x) = x, when x < 0

13. f

H 3K = x2, when x < x < 2

= 2x, when 2 < x

a f

2

h +h+1 F 1I

14. f 1 + h = 2

h + 3h + 3

find f (3), f (–2) and f H 2K

F x + 1IJ 6. If f x =af sin x

, when x ≠ 0

and b f a x fg = G

2 2

15. f x e j= x

2 x +1

2

−1

2

H x − 1K

x

= 0, when x = 0

F π I , f (0) and f F − π I

af 3

af1 9x F I 2 find f

H 3K H 6K

16. f 0 = 3 , f 3 = , f

4 x

= 2

3x + 1 H K 7. If f : R → R where

f a −1f = c , f a1f = c , f

F 3I = 2 f (x) = 2x + 5, when x > 4

17. H 2K = x2 – 1, when x ∈ −9 , 9

Type 2: When the given function is a piecewise = x – 4, when x < –9

function. find f (–15) and f (f (5))

Function 85

F 1 I = 6, f (4) = 2

f (x) = 0 if x is rational

= 1 if x is irrational

10. f (–1) = 4, f

H 2K

F 1I , f e 2 j and f (0) Type 3: Problems on showing f (a) = f (b).

find f −

H 3K Exercise 1.3

9. If f (x) = x2 + 2, when 0 < x < 2

= 5, when x = 2

1. Given the function f (x) = x4 – x2 + 1, show that f (1)

= x – 1, when 2 < x < 5

= f (–1).

= x + 1, when x > 5

2. Given the function f (x) = x4 + x2 + 5, show that f (2)

find f (–1), f (0), f (2), f (3), f (5), f (7), f (2 + h), f (5 + h)

= f (–2).

and f (2 – h).

3. Given the function f (x) = x3 + x, show that f (1) = –

10. A function f is defined as follows:

f (–1).

f (x) = 2x + 6 for –3 < x < 0

4. Given the function f (x) = x5 + x3, show that f (2) =

= 6 for 0 < x < 2

–f (–2).

= 2x – 6 for 2 < x < 5

5. If f (x) = x4 – x2 + 1, show that f (–x) = f (x).

F 1 I and f (4)

H 2K

6. If f (x) = sin x + tan x, show that f (–x) = –f (x).

find f (–1), f

7. Given that f (t) = at, show that f (x) · f (y) = f (x + y).

Answers:

af 1+ x

2

F 1 I = f a xf .

1. f (3) = 6, f (–2) = not defined, f (0) = not defined 8. If f x = , show that f

H xK

F 1 I = − 3 , f FG f F 1 I IJ = 1 , f (–1 + h), f (2 – h) =

x

f

H 2K 4 H H 2KK 4 af

9. If f x =

x

2

a f 2

, show that f sin θ = tan θ .

2

h2 – 4h + 3. 1− x

2. f (0) = 2, f (1) = not defined, f (1 + h) = 1 – 2h,

f (2 – h) = 2h – 1, f (2) = –1, f (f (1.5)) = 2.

af 1− x

a f 2 θ FI

3. f (2) = 5, f (0) = 4, f (0.5) = 4, f (–5) = not defined, f (3) 10. If f x =

1+ x

, show that f cos θ = tan

2

.

HK

F F 1I I F

= 8, f G f − J = f G 3

−

1

I F 1 IF 1 I

JJ = f GH 3 JK GH as 0 < 3 <1JK af 1+ x

a f

H H 2 K K GH f x = f tan θ =

2 , show that

11. If

K 1− x

F π + θI .

H4 K

4. f (0) = 1, f (2) = 1, f (–2) = –1. tan

F 1I = 1 .

5. f (3) = 6, f (–2) = –2, f

H 2K 4 12. Given that f x = af x −1

show that

F π I = 2 , f a0f = 0 , f F − π I = 3 . x +1

6. f

H 2K π H 6K π FG x − 1IJ = − 1

7. f (–15) = –19, f (f (5)) = 53.

(i) f

H x + 1K x

F −1I = 0 , f e 2 j = 1 , f a0f = 0 . f aa f − f abf

8. f

H 3K (ii)

a−b

1 + f aa f ⋅ f abf a + b

=

9. f (–1) not defined, f (0) = 2, f (1) = 3, f (2) = 5, f (3) =

13. If f at f =

2, f (5) = not defined, f (7) = 8, f (2 + h) = (2 + h) –1, f (5 t 1

+ t , show that f (t) ≠ f (–t).

+ h) = (5 + h) –1, f (2 – h) = (2 – h)2 + 2. t

a −1 2

86 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

14. If f (x) = log x, show that f (x · y) = f (x) + f (y) and Exercise 1.4

f (xm) = mf (x).

−x

af a f

x

a −a

af

2

15. If f x = −x

, show that f x + y x + 2x + 3

x

a +a 1. Show that f x = 2

is non-existent

x + 4x − 5

af af

f x + f y for x = 1.

=

af af

1+ f x ⋅ f y

.

af

2

x + 5x + 9

16. If f a x f =

a2 x − 1f a x − 2f , show that f F 1I = 2. Show that f x =

x +1

is not defined

2

x − 2x + 1 H cK for x = –1.

f ac f . af

2

x + 3x + 1

3. Show that f x = 2

is undefined for

17. If f (x) = sec x + cos x, show that f (–x) = f (x). 4x − 4x + 1

1

18. If f (x) = x4 + x2 – 2 cos x, show that f (–x) = f (x). x= .

2

af 2x − 1

af

2

19. If y = f x = , show that f (y) = x. x − 3x + 5

x−2 4. Show that f x = 2

is indeterminate

2 x + 5x − 3

20. If y = f x = af x +1

2x + 3

, show that

at x = ∞ .

3x + 4

af

5. Show that f x = 2

1

is not defined for

af

f y = 8 x + 11 .

x = 2 and for x = 3.

x − 5x + 6

21. If y = f x = af ax + b

, show that f (y) = x. 6. Show that f x = a f a x − 2f a x − 3f is non-

cx − a existent for any value of x lying between 2 and 3.

22. If y = f x = af 4x − 3

3x − 4

, show that f (y) = x. 7. Prove that f x =a f a1 − xf ax 1− 2f ax − 3f is

23. If f x = b ⋅

H b − a K H a − bK 8. Prove that f x =a f a1 − xf a x − 2f a x − 3f is

f (a) + f (b) = f (a + b). not defined for any value of x lying between 1 and 2

24. If f (x) = log x, x > 0, show that but defined for any value of x lying between 2 and 3.

af

(i) f (x · y) = f (x) + f (y) sin x − cos x

F xI

f G J = f a x f − f a yf

9. Prove that f x =

1 − tan x

is not defined

(ii)

H yK π

(iii) f (e · x) = f (x) + 1 for x = .

(iv) f (xn) = nf (x) 4

25. If f (x) = cos x, g (x) = sin x, show that

(i) f (x + y) = f (x) · f (y) – g (x) · g (y) 10. Show that f x =af sin x

1 − cos x

is not defined for

(ii) g (x + y) = g (x) · f (y) + g (y) · f (x)

x = 0.

2. Examining the Existance of a Function.

Function 87

1 − cos x

does not exist (vii) y = 2

2

x +2

2 x − 3x + 2

π (viii) y = tan x

for x = . (ix) y = sec x

4

(x) y = cosec x

12. Show that f x = af sin x − cos x

1 − tan x

is non-existent Hint: To find the points at which rational functions

of x are not defined, one should put denominator of

rational function of x equal to zero and solve for x.

π

for x = . Answers:

4

π

13. Show that f x = af 1

cos x

− tan x is undefined at

15. f (x) exists at x =

4

and f (x) does not exist at

3π

π x= .

x= . 4

2 4 5

16. (i) x = (ii) x = 0 (iii) x = (iv) x = –1

14. Show that f x = af 1

x

is not defined at x = 0.

3 2

π

(v) x = 2 (vi) x = –3 (vii) x = 1, 2 (viii) x = or

2

15. Examine whether f x = af cos x − sin x

1+ 2 cos x

exists at

x=

3π

and in general x = any odd multiple of .

π

2 2

x=

π

4

and x =

3π

4

. a π

2

f

(ix) x = 2n + 1 , n ∈ Z (x) x = n π , n ∈ Z

16. Find x for which the following functions are not 3. Finding the Domain of a Given Function

defined. 3.1. Finding the domain of a given algebraic

x+5 function

(i) y =

3x − 4 Type 1: When the given function is a polynomial

in x.

2

(ii) y =

x Exercise 1.5

x−1

(iii) y = Find the domain of each of the following functions:

2x − 5

1. y = x2

2 2. y = x2 – 1

x +1

(iv) y = 3. y = x3 + 1

x +1

Answers:

(v) y =

2

x + 3x + 2 1. a−∞ , ∞f 2. a−∞ , ∞f 3. a−∞ , ∞f

x−2 Type 2: When the given function is a rational

function of x.

2

x + 4x + 3

(vi) y =

x+3

88 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

Exercise 1.6 2

x +1

14. y =

x+1

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

2

1. y =

1 x + 3x + 2

4x − 2 15. y =

x−2

x+2

2. y =

2

x + 4x + 3

2x − 8 16. y =

x+3

2

x −4

3. y =

2

x +2

x+2 17. y = 2

x − 3x + 2

1

4. y = 2

Answers:

1− x

F −∞ , 1 I ∪ F 1 , + ∞I

5. y =

1

1.

H 2K H 2 K

2

x − x − 12 2. a−∞ , 4f ∪ a4 , + ∞f

6. y =

4x − 1 3. a−∞ , − 2f ∪ a−2 , + ∞f

2

3 x − 5x − 2 4. a−∞ , − 1f ∪ a−1, 1f ∪ a1 , + ∞f

x −1 5. a−∞ , − 3f ∪ a−3 , 4f ∪ a4 , + ∞f

7. y = 2

x − 9 x + 20 F −∞ , − 1I ∪ F − 1 , 2I ∪ a2 , + ∞f

x

6.

H 3K H 3 K

8. y = 2

x − 3x + 2

7. a−∞ , 4f ∪ a4 , 5f ∪ a5 , + ∞f

8. R − k1 , 2p

a−∞ , − 3f ∪ a−3 , 2f ∪ a2 , + ∞f

2

x − 3x + 2

9. y = 2

9.

x + x−6 10. R

2

x − 4x + 9 RS 4 UV

10. y = 2

x + 4x + 9

11. R −

T3W

12. R – {0}

11. y =

x+5 RS 5 UV

3x − 4

13. R −

T2 W

2 14. R – {–1)

12. y = 15. R – {2}

x

16. R – {–3}

x −1 17. R – {1, 2}.

13. y =

2x − 5

Function 89

y= af

f x , where f (x) = ax + b.

8. y = x − 3x + 2

2

9. y = 2x − x

Exercise 1.7

Answers:

Find the domain of each of the following functions: LM− 3 , 3 OP

1. y = 1 − x

1.

N 2 2Q

2. y = 18 − 6x 2. x ≥1

3. y = 3x − 12

3. a−∞ , − 2 ∪ 4 , + ∞f

4. y = x−3

4. a−∞ , − 5 ∪ −3 , + ∞f

5. [–5, 2]

5. y = 3 − 2x 6. a−∞ , 1 ∪ 3 , + ∞f = R − 1 , 3

6. y = 2x − 3 7. a−∞ , ∞f

Answers: 8. a−∞ , 1 ∪ 2 , + ∞f .

1. a−∞ , 1 2. a−∞ , 3 3. 4, + ∞ f 4. 3, + ∞ f Type 5: When the function is put in the form:

F −∞ , 3 OP 6. LM 3 , + ∞I . 1

H 2Q N2 K y=

a f , where f (x) = ax + b or ax + bx +c.

2

5.

f x

Type 4: When the given function is put in the form:

y= af

f x , where f (x) ax2 + bx + c.

Exercise 1.9

Exercise 1.8

1

1. y =

Find the domain of each of the following functions: x+2

2 1

1. y = 9 − 4x 2. y =

2

16 − 9 x

2

2. y = x −1

1

2 3. y =

3. y = x − 2x − 8 2

x − 3x + 2

2

4. y = x + 8 x + 15 1

4. y = −

5. y = a2 − xf a5 + xf 2

−4 x + 8 x − 3

2 1

6. y = x − 4x + 3 5. y =

2

3 + 2x − x

2

7. y = 3x − 4 x + 5

90 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

6. y =

1 b

⇔ x +1 x−2 gb

g b x − 3g ≥ 0 , x ≠ 2

a1 − xf ax − 2f ⇔ D a y f = −1 , 2 f ∪ 3 , ∞ f

1

7. y =

6−x 0

–∞ –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 ∞

Answers:

1. a−2 , + ∞f

F− 4 , 4I 5. y =

x −1

2.

H 3 3K x−3

3. a−∞ , 1f ∪ a2 , + ∞f a x + 3f

F 1 , 3I

6. y =

a2 − x f a x − 5f

4.

H 2 2K Hint: a x + 3f a2 − xf a x − 5f ≥ 0

5. (–1, 3)

⇔ x ≥ − 3 , 2 , 5 but x ≠ 2 , 5

6. (1, 2)

7. a−∞ , 6f . af a

⇔ D y = −∞ , − 3 ∪ 2 , 5 f a f

Type 6: When the given function is put in the form: –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3

af

f x

–∞ ∞

y=

af

g x Answers:

a

1. −∞ , − 1 ∪ 1 , ∞f f

Exercise 1.10 2. [8, 12)

F 1 , 2OP

Find the domain of each of the following functions: 3. H2 Q

x −1 4. −1 , 2f ∪ 3 , + ∞ f

1. y =

5. a −∞ , 1 ∪ a3 , ∞f

x +1

x−8 6. b −∞ , − 3 ∪ b2 , 5g

2. y =

12 − x

Type 7: When the given function is put in the form:

3. y =

4x − 8

y=

af

f1 x

3 − 6x f a xf

2

a x + 1f a x − 3f

4. y =

a x − 2f Exercise 1.11

Hint:

a x + 1f a x − 3f ≥ 0 , x ≠ 2 Find the domain of the following:

x−2 x

1. y =

2

x − 3x + 2

Function 91

1. R – [1, 2] = loga logb logc f (x).

3.2. Problems based on finding the domain of a given

logarithmic function: Exercise 1.14

1. y = log2 log3 log 4 x

= log f (x).

x

2. y = log log

Exercise 1.12 2

Answers:

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

1. y = log (6 – 4x)

a f 2. a2 , ∞ f

1. 4 , ∞

2. y = log (4x – 5) 3.3. Finding the domain of inverse circular functions

3. y = log (x + 8) + log (4 – x) Type 1: When the given function is put in the form: y

4. y = log (x – 2) = sin–1 f (x) or cos–1 f (x).

5. y = log (3 – x)

6. y = log (3x2 – 4x + 5) Exercise 1.15

7. y = log (x2 – x – 6)

8. y = log (5x – x2 – 6)

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

Answers: 1. y = sin–1 (1 – 2x)

F −∞ , 3I F 2x I

H 2K

−1

1. 2. y = sin

H 3K

F 5 , + ∞I 3. y = cos–1 4x

2.

H4 K −1 F xI

3. a−8 , 4f

4. y = cos

H 2K

4. a2 , ∞ f 5. y = cos–1 (3x – 1)

5. a−∞ , 3f 6. y = cos–1 2x

7. y = sin–1 (x – 2)

6. a−∞ , ∞f Answers:

7. a−∞ , − 2f ∪ a3 , ∞f 1. [0, 1]

8. (2, 3). LM− 3 , 3 OP

Type 2: When the given function is put in the form; y

2.

N 2 2Q

LM− 1 , 1 OP

= log | f (x) |.

Exercise 1.13

3.

N 4 4Q

4. [–2, 2]

Find the domain of each of the following functions:

LM0 , 2 OP 6. Find 7. [1, 3].

1. y = log | x |

2. y = log | x – 2 |

5.

N 3Q

3. y = log | 4 – x2 | 3.4. Finding the domain of a sum or difference of

Answers: two functions:

1. R – {0} 2. R – {2} 3. R – {–2, 2}

92 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

3.5. Finding the domain of a function put in the

Find the domain of each of the following functions: forms:

1. y = x − 3 + 1− x 1. y = | f (x) |

2. y = 4−x + x−5

af

2. y = f x ± g x af

f a xf

3. y = x −1+ 6− x 3. y =

a xf ± f a xf

1

f2 3

2 1

4. y = x −1+

2

x − 3x + 2 Exercise 1.17

5. y = 2x − x +

1. y = | x – 2 |

2

8x − 4 x − 3

x

2

2. y =

Hint: Domain of 2x − x = [0, 2] = D1 (say) and x

3. y = cos–1 [x]

1 F 1 , 3 I = D (say)

domain of

8x − 4 x − 3

2

=

H 2 2K 2

Answers:

1. R 2. R – {0} 3. [–1, 2)

∴ D y = D1 ∩ D2 =

H 2 2K Exercise 1.17.1

2

6. y = x −1 + 2 1− x + x +1 Find the range of the following functions:

1 1. y = x | x |

7. y = x 2 − 3x + 2 + 2. y = 11 – 7 sin x

3 + 2x − x2 3. y = 3 sin x + 4 cos x

x−2 1− x R| F I U|

GG JJ V

2

8. y = + 4. y = sin log S| 4−x

K |W

x+2 1+ x

T H 1− x

9. y =

4−x

3

2

+ log10 x − x e 3

j 5. y =

x

x

10. y = x +

1

x−2

− log10 2 x − 3 a f 6. y =

1

3 − cos 2 x

1

Answers: 7. y =

a

1. φ 2. φ 3. [1, 6] 4. −∞ , − 1 ∪ 2 , ∞ a f 2 − cos 3x

F I

8. y = log3 (5 + 4x – x2)

5.

1 3

H,

2 2 K

6. {1} 7. −1 , 1 ∪ 2 , 3 b g 9. y = x – [x]

10. y = [x] – x

8. Defined no where

Function 93

Answers: Answers:

1. a−∞ , ∞f 2. [4. 18] 3. [–5, 5] 4. [–1, 1] 5. {–1, 1. D (y) = R;

L 1 1 O L1 O

R (y) = {–2, 2}

1} 6. M , P 7. M , 1P 8. a−∞ , log 9 f 9. [0, 1)

N 4 2 Q N3 Q

2. D (y) = R

3

R (y) = {–4, –1, 3}

10. (–1, 0]. 3. D (y) = R

Hint for (2): −1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1 R (y) = R – {3}

⇒ − 7 ≤ − 7 sin x ≤ 7 4. D (y) = R

⇒ 11 − 7 ≤ 11 − 7 sin x ≤ 7 + 11

⇒ 4 ≤ 11 − sin x ≤ 18

af

R y = 0, ∞ f

5. D (y) = R

e

Hint for (8): y = log 3 5 + 4 x − x

2

j⇔3 y

=5+ af

R y = −4 , ∞ f

6. D (y) = R

af a f

2

4x − x R y = −∞ , 6

=9− x−2 a y

f 2

>0 4. Finding the composite of two function

∴0 < 3 ≤ 9

∴ − ∞ < y ≤ log 3 9 Exercise 1.18

F π π I af

H K

Exercise 1.17.2 2

1. If f (x) = tan x, x ∈ − , and g x = 1 − x ,

2 2

Find the domain and range of each of the following find (gof) (x).

functions:

af

2. If f x =

R−2 , if x ≤ 3

x and g (x) = | x |, find (gof) (x).

y=S af

1.

T 2 , if x > 3 3. If f (x) = e2x and g x = log x , x > 0 find (gof) (x).

R|−4 , if x < − 2 af

4. If f x =

x +1

x+2

, x ≠ − 2 x being real and g (x) =

y = S−1 , if − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2

2.

|T3 , if x > 2 x2, find (gof) (x).

R2 x − 1, if x ≠ 3 af

5. If f x =

x 1

af

and g x = find (gof) (x).

y=S

x x

3.

T 0 , if x = 3 6. If f : R → R is defined by f (x) = sin x, x ∈R and

R|

y = S 25 − x , if x ≤ 5

2

g : R → R is defined by g (x) = x2, compute (gof) (x)

4.

|T x − 5 , if x ≥ 5 and (fog) (x).

7. If f : R → R is defined by f (x) = 2x2 –1 and

y=S

R|x − 4 , if x < 3

2 g : R → R by g (x) = 4x – 3, x ∈R compute (gof) (x)

T| 2 x − 1 , if x ≥ 3

5. and (fog) (x). Also find (gof) (2) and (fog) (–1).

8. If f : R → R is defined by f (x) = x2 – 3x + 2 and

y=S

R6 x + 7 , if x ≤ − 2 g : R → R by g (x) = 4x + 3, x ∈R compute (gof) (x)

6.

T 4 − x , if x > − 2 and (fog) (x). Hence find the values of (gof) (3) and

(fog) (3).

94 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

9. If f : A → B is defined by f (x) = x + 1, x ∈R and 11. (fog) (x) = x2 – 2x + 3; (gof) (x) = x2 + 1; (fog) (–2)

= 11 and (gof) (–2) = 5

g : B → C by g (x) = x2, find (gof) (x). 12. (gof) (x) = 12x2 + 36x + 25; (fog) (x) = 6x2 – 1; (gof)

10. If f (x) = cos x, g (x) = x3, x ∈R , find (gof) (x) and (2) = 145 and (fog) (2) = 23

(fog) (x). 13. (gof) (x) = (1 – x)2

16. | x |.

11. If f (x) = x2 + 2 and g (x) = x – 1, x ∈R , find (fog)

(x) and (gof) (x). Hence, find (fog) (–2) and (gof) (–2). Exercise 1.19

12. If f (x) = 2x + 3 and g (x) = 3x2 – 2, x ∈R , find (gof)

(x) and (fog) (x). Hence, find the values of (gof) (2) Find the domain and range of each of the following

and (fog) (2). ones:

13. If the mapping f : A → B is define by f (x) = log 1. sin (1 + cos x)

(1 – x) and the mapping g : B → C is defined by g (x) 2. a f

sin cos x

= e2x, find (gof) (x).

3. cos sin x

14. If the mapping f : R → R be given by

2

af 1 4. tan sin x

f x =1+ and the mapping g : R → R be

x −1 2

5. log 1 − x

given by g (x) = x2 + 1, show that gof a faxf ≠ (fog) 2

(x). 6. log 1 − x

15. If f is defined as f x = af 1

, show that f [f {f FG 1 − x IJ

1− x 7. log

H1 + xK

(x)}] = x, x ≠ 0 , 1 .

sin log G

F 1 − x IJ

H1 + xK

16. If f (x) = | x |, find f [f (x)]. 8.

Answers:

2 9. tan (sin x + cos x)

1. 1 − tan x 10. tan (sin x + 2cos x)

2. x = x 11. cos | sin–1 x |

12. loge loge x

3. log e

2x

=x 13. loge loge loge x

14. loge loge loge loge x

FG x + 1 IJ 2

15. sec–1 sin x

4.

H x + 2K 16. sin sec–1 sin x

17. log (1 + sin sec–1 sin x)

x 18. cos sin–1 x

5. , x≠0

x

Answers:

6. (gof) (x) = sin2 x and (fog) (x) = sin x2

7. (gof) (x) = 8x2 – 7, (fog) (x) = 32x2 – 48x + 17, (gof)

a f

1. D = −∞ , ∞ ; R = 0 , 1

(2) = 25 and (fog) (–1) = 97 L π πO

D = M2nπ − , 2nπ + P n ∈ Z ; R =

8. (gof) (x) = 4x2 – 12x + 11, (fog) (x) = 16x2 + 12x + 2,

(gof) (3) = 11 and (fog) (3) = 182

2.

N 2 2Q

0 , sin 1

10. (gof) (x) = cos3 x (fog) (x) = cos x3

Function 95

a f

4. D = −∞ , ∞ ; R = 0 , tan 1 (iii) Find h (h (x)) if

h x = 2

6. D = {0}, R = {0}

a f

7. D = −1 , 1 ; R = −∞ , ∞ a f (iv) Find i (i (x)) if

a f i axf = Sx , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

9. D = −∞ , ∞ ; R = − tan 2 , tan 2

|T2 − x , x > 1

a

10. D = −∞ , ∞ ; R = −∞ , ∞ f a f Answers:

11. D = −1 , 1 ; R = 0 , 1

FG IJ

H K

2

x +1

a f a f

12. D = 1, ∞ ; R = −∞ , ∞

1. Hint: fog (x) = f (g (x)) = f

13. D = ae , ∞ f ; R = a −∞ , ∞ f FG IJ 2

H K

2 2 2

= x +1 −1 = x + 1 − 1 = x

D = ee , ∞ j ; R = a−∞ , ∞f

e

14.

∴ hofog (x) = h (x2) = 0

4

15. D = 2n + 1 2. (i) f f x =

T

D = a2n + 1f ; R = k0p

π

16.

2 R4 + x , when x ≥ 0

g b g a x fg = S

17. D = a2n + 1f ; R = k0p

π

(ii)

T4 − x , when x < 0

2

18. D = −1 , 1 ; R = 0 , 1 R|x + 2 , x ≤ 0

|5 − ax + 1f , 0 , x ≤ 1

2

h bh a x fg = S

||5 − e5 − x j , 1 < x < 2

Exercise 1.20 (iii) 2 2

of real numbers R to R such that f (x) = x2 – 1,

T6 − x , x ≥ 2 2

a f x +1

g x =

2

R|2 + x , x < − 1

R0 , when x ≥ 0

h a xf = S

|− x , − 1 ≤ x < 0

i bi a x fg = S x , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

T x , when x < 0 ||2 − x , 1 < x ≤ 2

(iv)

2. (i) Find f (f (x)) if

|T−a2 − xf , x > 2

af R|x , x ≥ 0

S| x , x < 0

2

5. Eveness and oddness of y = f (x).

f x =

T Exercise 1.21

(ii) Find g (g (x)) if

g x =

(A) By considering f (–x), discover which of the

following are even functions, which are odd functions

and which are neither even nor odd.

96 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

1. f (x) = x4 + 7x2 + 9 12. Odd 13. Neither even nor odd 14. Odd

af

2. f x = x + x +

3 1

3 (B) 1. e =

x 1 x

2

e +e

−x

+

1 x

2

e −e

−x

af

3. f x =

4

x + 16 a

2. 1 + x f 100

=

1

2

a

1+ x f

100

a

+ 1− x f

100

+

f a xf = a f a f

1 1

1+ x − 1− x

100 100

4. 2

4x + 9 2

5. f (x) = sin x F x I + tan x

6. f (x) = cos x

3. sin 2 x + cos

H 2K

7. f (x) = tan x

1 F x I + tan x + sin a−2 xf +

H 2K

8. f (x) = sin x + cosec x

= [sin 2 x + cos

9. f (x) = sin x + tan x 2

F x I + tan a− xf]

10. f (x) = cosec x + tan x

11. f (x) = tan2 x

12. f (x) = tan3 x H 2K

cos −

13. f (x) = sin x + cos x

1

af

14. f x = x +

cos x

x

+ [sin 2 x + cos

2 H 2K

F x I + tan a− xf}]

(B) Express the following functions as the sum of an

even and odd functions. H 2K

+ cos −

1. f (x) = ex

2 1 2 2

2. f (x) = (1 + x)100 4. x + 3x + 2 = x + 3x + 2 + x − 3 x + 2 +

af F x I + tan x 2

3. f x = sin 2 x + cos

H 2K 1 2 2

x + 3x + 2 − x + 3 x − 2

2

4. f (x) = x2 + 3x + 2

5. f (x) = 1 – x3 – x4 – 2x5 3 4 5 1 3 4 5

5. 1 − x − x − 2 x = [1 − x − x − 2 x +

2

(C) Let f : −2 , 2 → R be a function. If for

x∈ 0, 2 , e1 + x 3 4

− x + 2x ] +

5

j 1

2

3 4

[1 − x − x − 2 x −

R|x sin x , 0 ≤ x ≤ π 3

(1 + x − x + 2 x )]

4 5

f a xf = S 2

|T π2 a xf , π2 < x ≤ 2

(C) For oddness,

R|− π axf , − 2 ≤ x ≤ − π

f a xf = S 2 2

define f for x ∈ −2 , 0 when

(i) f is an odd function.

|T − x sin x , − 2 ≤ x ≤ 0

π

for eveness,

Answers:

(A) 1. Even 2. Odd 3. Even. 4. Even 5. Odd

6. Even 7. Odd 8. Odd 9. Odd 10. Odd 11. Even

Function 97

f axf = S 2 2

2. y = sin

H 4K H 3K

|T x sin x , − 2 ≤ x ≤ 0

π

F 2 x I − 4 cot F 3x I − 2

3. y = tan

H 3K H2K

F 3x I − 3cos F 5x I + cos 5x

5. Periodic Functions

Type 1: Finding the periods of trigonometric

functions.

4. y = sin

H4K H 8K

5. y = 2 sin x + 3 cos 2x

Exercise 1.22 6. y = a sin λ x + b cos λ x

F x I + 2 sin F x I

(A) Find the periods of the following functions:

1. f (x) = cos 3x

7. y = 3 cos

H 2K H 3K

af F xI 8. y = 3 sin x – 4 cos 2x

2. f x = cos

H 4K 9. y = 1 + tan x

10. y = tan 2x – cos 3x

3. f (x) = tan 2x

4. f (x) = tan 3x (C) The periods of f (x) = | sin x | + | cos x | will be

f a x f = cot

F xI (a) π (b)

π

H 5K

(c) 2π (d) none of these

5. 2

Answers:

f a x f = cot

F xI 2π π π

6.

H 2K (A) 1.

3

2. 8π 3.

2

4.

3

5. 5π 6. 2π

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. π 12. π

8. f (x) = 10 sin 3x 5 3 3 3

2π

9. f x = 2sin 3x +

H K 10 3

π

F πI

f a x f = 4sin 3x +

19.

H 4K

10. 3

2π

(B) 1. 2π 2. 24π 3. 6π 4. 16π 5. 2π 6.

f a x f = tan x

11. λ

7. 12π 8. 2π 9. π 10. 2π

12. f (x) = | cos x |

π

13. f (x) = | sin x | (C) (b)

14. f (x) = tan–1 (tan x) 2

Type 2: Problems on showing that a given function

15. f (x) = cos2 x

is not periodic.

16. f (x) = sin2 x

17. f (x) = sin3 x

Exercise 1.23

18. f (x) = log (2 + cos 3x)

19. f (x) = ecot3x

1. Show that the following functions are not periodic:

af

(B) Find the periods of the following functions:

1. y = sin 5x cos 4x + 1 (i) f x = sin x

98 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

(ii) f x = sin

H xK show that f is on-to but not one-one.

(iii) f (x) = sin x2 7. Show that the following functions f : R → R are

af

(iv) f x = cos x both one-one and on-to:

(i) f (x) = x3 (ii) f (x) = 3x + 4

(v) f (x) = cos x2

8. Let D1 = R – {3}, D2 = R – {1} and f : D1 → D2 be

2. Show that the following functions are not periodic:

(i) f (x) = x cos x

given by f x =

af F 1I

(ii) f x = x sin

H xK 9. Let D1 = kx : − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1p = D for each of the

2

(iii) f (x) = cos x2 + sin x2 following functions from D1 to D2, find whether it is

af

(iv) f x = sin x + cos x

surjective, injective or bijective:

(i) f x = 2

(vi) f (x) = x + cos x

3. Examine which of the following functions are

2

periodic: x

(i) f (x) = [x] (ii) f (x) = 5 (iii) f (x) = x [x] . 2

1+ x

Answers: Is f one-one-onto?

3. (i) Non-periodic (ii) Periodic but has no 11. Show that the mapping

fundamental period (iii) Not periodic.

(i) f : R → R defined by f (x) = x, ∀ x ∈R is one-

7. Examining a one-one and on-to function one-onto.

(ii) f : R → R defined by f (x) = x3, ∀ x ∈R is one-

Exercise 1.24

one-onto.

(iii) f : Q → Q defined by f (x) = 2x + 3, ∀ x ∈Q is

af

2

x − 8 x + 18 one-one-onto.

1. Is the function f x = a one-one

2

x + 4 x + 30 (iv) f : R → R defined by f (x) = 4x + 3, ∀ x ∈R is

function? one-one-onto.

af

2

2

x + x +1 x + 4 x + 30

f x = 2

one-one?

is one-one. x − 8 x + 18

3. Let f : R → R be defined by f (x) = ax + b, a, b LM

π π OP

being fixed real numbers and a ≠ 0 , show that f is

13. Let D1 = − ,

2 2N Q

, D2 = −1 , 1 , show that the

one-one and on-to. map f : D1 → D2 defined by f (x) = sin x is bijective.

af

2

x Answers:

4. If f x = 2 is the function one-to-one?

1+ x 1. No 2. No 4. No

a f a f

8. Yes, since f x1 = f x 2 ⇒ x1 = x 2 and

5. If f : 0 , 2 π → −1 , 1 be given by f (x) = sin x,

show that f is onto but not one-one. x=

3y − 2

y −1

af

= f y which is true, ∀ y ∈R − 1 kp

which means f is onto.

Function 99

9. (i) Injective but not surjective (ii) bijective (iii) If the domain of a function f is a finite interval, the

Neither injective nor surjective (iv) surjective but not graph of f can be explicitly plotted in a plane, but if the

injective (v) Neither injective nor surjective domain of f is an infinite set, it is not possible to plot

10. Not 12. Not all these points. In such case, we plot enough point to

get an idea of the general shape of the graph of y = f (x).

On the Graph of a Function The following characteristics of a graph of a

First of all we would like to define domain and range function are worth noting.

of a function in terms of projection of the graph of y = 1. The graph of a function is a subset of the plane

f (x) on axes. and it is uniquely determined by the function.

1. Domain of a function: The projection of the graph 2. For each ‘a’ in the domain of f, there exists exactly

of y = f (x) on the x-axis is called the domain of the one point (a, f (a)) on the graph of the function f,

function y = f (x). since by our definition of the function, the value of f

2. Range of a function: The projection of the graph at ‘a’ is uniquely determined. Geometrically, it means

of y = f (x) on the y-axis is called the range of the af

that a ∈D f ⇔ the vertical line x = a meets the

function y = f (x). af

graph of f in one point only. again, a ∉D f ⇔ the

vertical line x = a does not meet the graph anywhere

Y

at all, i.e. the point (a, f (a)) is missing (absent) on the

B

graph of f, i.e. there is a hole in the graph of f at a, i.e.

f (x )

y= the graph of f is broken (not unbroken) at x = a since

A

there is a point on the graph of f whose abscissa is a

but there is no ordinate corresponding to the abscissa

C O D (f) = CD D

X x = a and such points with no ordinate at an abscissa

x = a can not be located on the graph of a function.

Y

D A On the Method of Graphing a Function

R (f ) = CD which are:

1. The method of plotting a graph “point by point”.

2. The method of plotting a graph “by derivative”.

C B

Hence, we use “point by point” method to draw

O X

the graph of a function defined by the formula y = f (x)

in its domain unless we learn how to find the

We speak of the graph of a point P (x, y) meaning the

derivative of a function.

point representing the ordered pair (x, y).We also

speak of graphing a point P (x, y), meaning to construct How to Draw the Graph Using

and locate the point P on a coordinate plane (a plane “Point by Point” Method

with axes).

Now we define what is the graph of a function. 1. Find the domain of the given function y = f (x)

Definition: The graph of a function f defined on its 2. Find the zeros of the given function, i.e. solve the

domain in a coordinate plane is the graph of the set equation f (x) = o whose solutions divide its domain

G {(x, f (x): x is in the domain of f} into intervals where the function has the constant sign.

or, equivalently, the graph of a function f (x) defined 3. Examine whether the given function passes

on its domain is the graph of the equation y = f (x). through the origin, i.e. check whether (o, o) satisfied

That is, the point P (a, b) is on the graph of y = f (x) the equation y = f (x).

4. Find the intercepts on the axes, i.e. the points where

⇔ b = f (a).

the given curve cuts the x-axis and/y-axis.

100 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

6. Find whether the given function is periodic. A similar discussion will bring us to the conclusion

7. Plot a few additional points to get an idea of the that if only even powers of x are present in the equation

general shape of the graph of y = f (x). y = f (x), or every term of the equation y = f (x) contains

Notes: an odd power of x, its locus is symmetric with respect

1. If the function is periodic, it is sufficient to investigate to the y -axis.

the behavior of the function on any closed interval Examples: The loci of the following equations are

whose length is equal to the period of the function symmetric with respect to the y-axis:

and then constructing the graph on that interval, x2 + y2 = 25 (circle)

extend it to the whole of the domain of the function. x2 = y (parabola)

2. The position of a straight line is determined if any y3 – x2 y = 0

two points on it are known. Consequently in the case If the curve is symmetric with respect to the line y

of straight lines, it is advised to find two points only = x, a pair of symmetric points, lying on opposite

instead of many to economise time, only with this sides of this line will have their coordinates reversed.

care that the points are not very close to each other. This can be shown geometrically. It means that we

3. One should give such values to x as will enable should be able to interchange the x and y in the

him to get integral values of y since it is easier to plot equation y = f (x) and obtain an equation that can be

integral units than the fractional units. reduced to the original one. Hence, if the x and y in an

4. The graph of an even function is symmetric with algebraic equation can be interchanged without

respect to the axis of ordinates (i.e. y-axis) and the producing an essentially different equation, the locus

graph of an odd function is symmetric with respect to of the equation will be symmetric with respect to the

the origin. line y = x.

Examples: The loci of x2 + y2 = 25 and xy = 1 are

On What is Symmetry of a symmetric with respect to the line y = x.

Curve with Respect to a Line Similarly, if the subsitution of –y for x and –x for y

gives an equation that is essentially the same as the

A curve is said to be symmetric with respect to a line original one, the locus of the equation y = f (x) is

or symmetrical about a line) when all chords of the symmetric with respect to the line y = –x.

curve drawn perpendicular to the line are bisected by

it. The lines of most importance in our “discussion” On What is Symmetry with

of an algebraic curve are the x-axis, the y-axis the Respect to the Origin

lines bisecting the first and second quadrants which

A curve is said to be symmetric with respect to a

are y = x and y = –x.

point (about a point) when the point bisects all chords

If the curve is symmetric with respect to x-axis,

of the curve drawn through it. Such a point of

y = o, two points on the curve with the same abscissa,

symmetry is called the centre of the curve. The most

x, will have the ordinates y and –y. That means that

important point for our study is, perhaps, the origin.

substitution of –y for +y in the equation y = f (x) will

If the curve is symmetric with respect to the origin

result in an equation that is same as or can be reduced

and the point (x, y) is on the curve, then the point

to the original equation. Thus, in an algebraic equation,

(–x, –y) will be on the curve, a fact that is made

if only even powers of y are present, or every term of

apparent by a figure. Hence, if substitution in an

the equation contains an odd power of y, the locus of

algebraic equation of –x for x and –y for y results in

the equation is symmetric with respect to the x-axis.

an equation that can be reduced to the original, the

Examples: The loci of the following equations are locus of the equation is symmetric with respect to the

symmetric with respect to the x-axis: origin.

x2 + y2 = 25 (circle)

Examples: The loci of the following equations are

y2 = x (parabola)

symmetric with respect to the origin.

y2 = x3 (semi-cubical parabola)

Function 101

xy = 5 (hyperbola) which

x2 – y2 = 25 (hyperbola) (i) Passes through the origin.

y = x3 (cubical parabola) (ii) Bisects the angle between first and third quadrant

N.B.: A parabola is a U-shaped curve which cups or it is a line with slope 1.

x y

(curves into the shape of a cup) up or cups down. 3. y = –x y

y k 3

1. y = k y = –x –1 1

k

4

k 2 –2 2

–1 k 1 –1

3

0 k

1 2 –2

2

y=K 1 k x

–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

1

2 k

K –1

x

–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 –2

–1

–3

–2

–4

–3

N.B.: The graph of the function y = –x is a line

–4

(i) Passing through the origin and

(ii) bisecting the angle between the second and the

fourth quadrants, i.e. it is a line with slope –1.

N.B.: A graph of a constant functions y = k is a line.

4. y = mx + c. x y

(i) Parallel to the x-axis.

(ii) Above the x-axis at a distance k from it if k > o. y

(iii) Below the x-axis at a distance | k | from it if k > o.

(iv) On the x-axis if k = o. m<0

C<0

2. y = x x y

y C

x

4 0

y=mx+C C

3 y=x

–1 –1

0 0 2

1 1 y y

2 2 1 m=0

y=C C>0

x m<0

–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 C=0

C

–1 y=mx

x x

0 0

–2

–3

–4

102 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

8. y = –x2

5. y = x y

2

⇒ y = x x y = –x2

y

1 –1

5 2 –4

y = x 0 3 –9

x

4

2

3 y = –x

1

N.B.:

1. The curve y = x2 is symmetric with respect to the

0

x y-axis since f (–x) = f (x), ∀ x ∈R . Also, it lies on and

–2 –1 1 2 3 4 5 6

above the x-axis passing through the origin.

–1

x y= x 2. The curve y = –x2 is symmetric with respect to the

–2 y-axis since f (–x) = f (x), ∀ x ∈R . Also, it lies on and

0 0

below the x-axis passing through the origin.

1 1

4 2

On the Graphs of y = | f (x) |

9 3

16 4 The graphs of y = | f (x) | is the graph of the union

of two functions defined by

6. y = sin2 x + cos2 x y = f (x), when f (x) > 0

or y = –f (x), when f (x) < 0

Note: The conditions f (x) > 0 and f (x) < 0 imposed on

y = f (x) and y = –f (x) determine the intervals where f

(x) is positive or negative whereas the condition f (x)

= 0 on f (x) > 0 determines the points where two curves

y = f (x) and y = –f (x) intersect the x-axis.

The method of procedure is to determine firstly the

intervals where f (x) is positive and negative and

secondly the points where y = f (x) and y = –f (x)

7. y = x2 intersect the x-axis.

x y = x2 The graph of a function y = | f (x) | is always ob-

tained from the graph of the function y = f (x) whose

1 1 portion lying above the x-axis remains unchanged for

2 4 positive part of y = f (x) and the portion lying below

3 9 the x-axis as a plane mirror is taken as the image of

negative part of y = f (x) on and above the x-axis in the

required interval.

Function 103

Where f (x) is Positive or Negative draw the graph of those functions containing absolute

value function.

1. Find the zeros of f (x), i.e. the roots of f (x) = o.

2. Partition the real line by zeros of f (x).

The Graph of y = | f (x) |

3. Consider the intervals:

a f a f

−∞ , x1 , (x1, x2), (x2, x3) ... (xn–1, xn), x n , ∞ , if 1. y = | x |

The graphs of y = | x | is the graphs of the union of

x1, x2, x3, …, xn are the zeros of f (x) such that x1 = the

smallest number among all the zeros of f (x). xn = the two functions defined by

greatest number among all the zeros of f (x). y = x and x > 0

4. Check the sign (i.e. positivity and negativity) of or y = –x and x < 0

f (x) in each interval determined by the zeros of f (x). on using the slope-intercept method, we graph y =

x where the domain of y is {x: x > 0}.

How to Check the Sign of y

f (x) in Different Intervals

4

1. Take one particular point ‘c’ belonging to each of 3

the adjacent intervals. x

2

=

y

2. Put the particular point c in f (x).

1

3. Use the facts:

af af

(i) : f c > 0 ⇔ f x i.e. y is positive for every x 0 1 2 3 4

x

af af

(ii) : f c < 0 ⇔ f x i.e. y is negative for every x The equation y = –x where x < 0 defines a function

in that interval where c belongs. whose domain is {x: x < 0}. Again using the slope-

For example, let us consider intercept method, we graph y = –x.

y = x2 – 4x and y = 4x – x2

a

In −∞ , 0 f y

a

f (x) = x2 – 4x > 0 for every x ∈ −∞ , 0 f

a

since f (–1) = 5 > 0 where –1 ∈ −∞ , 0 f 4

a f

3

In 4 , ∞ : =

y

a f

2

–x

a f

1

since f (5) = 5 > 0 where 5 ∈ 4 , ∞ x

–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

In (0, 4):

a f

–1

f (x) = –x2 + 4x > 0 for every x ∈ 0 , 4

a f

–2

since f (1) = 3 > 0 where 1 ∈ 0 , 4 –3

Notes: –4

1. y = f (x) is positive in an interval

⇒ is positive in its subinterval. Also, {(x, y): y = | x |} = [(x, y): y = x and x > 0] ∪ [(x,

2. y = f (x) is negative in an interval y): y = –x and x < 0]

⇒ is negative in its subinterval. Now, we combine the last two graph to obtain the

3. The graph of y = | f (x) | always lies on and above graph as under:

the x-axis.

4. The graph of y = – | f (x) | always lies on and below

the x-axis.

104 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

y

af a f

∴ D y = −∞ , 2 ∪ 2 , ∞ = −∞ , ∞ andf a f

4 x R a yf = 0 , ∞f

=

y

=

y

y

–x

2

135°

1 4

45° 2–x

y=

x 2 3

–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x–2

2 y=

2

1

Note: A table of ordered pairs also easily can be

x

constructed and the absolute value function y = | x | –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

can be graphed as given below:

x y=|x|

–4 4 2 x − x

–2 2 4. y =

3

0 0

x

1 1 ⇒y= for x > 0

3 3 3

and y = –x for x < 0

2. y =

x

af a f

∴ D y = −∞ , 0 ∪ 0 , ∞ = −∞ , ∞ f a f

R a yf = 0 , ∞f

x

⇒ y = 1 for x > 0

or y = –1 for x < 0

af a f f a f

y

∴ D y = −∞ , 0 ∪ 0 , ∞ = −∞ , ∞

R (y) = {–1, 1} y = –x 4

y 3 x

y=

3

2

1

y=1

x

–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

x

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

5. y = | x2 –4x |

y = –1

2 2

⇒ y = x − 4 x for x − 4 x ≥ 0 , i.e. x (x – 4) > 0

i.e. x < 0 or x > 4

x−2 and y = – (x2 – 4x) for x2 – 4x < 0, i.e. x (x – 4) < 0,

3. y = i.e. 0 < x < 4

2

x−2

af a a f

∴ D y = −∞ , 0 ∪ 0 , 4 ∪ 4 , ∞ = −∞ , ∞ fa f

⇒ y= for x > 2 and

af f

2

2−x R y = 0, ∞

or y = for x < 2

2

106 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

in −1 , 1

1. y = | x | + | x – 1 | y= x+1 + x −1

x = 0 and x = 1 are the zeros of x and (x – 1)

a f a f

⇒ −∞ , 0 , [0, 1] and 1, ∞ are required intervals

⇒ y = (x + 1) – (x – 1) = x + 1 – x + 1 = 2

since (x + 1) > 0 and ( x – 1) < 0 in (–1, 1)

whose union is the domain of the given function y =

| x | + | x – 1 |. in 1 , ∞a f

a

in −∞ , 0 f y= x+1 + x −1

y = x + x −1 ⇒ y = x + 1 + x – 1 = 2x

y

in 0 , 1

y= x + x−1

y = –2x y = 2x

⇒ y = x – (x – 1) = x – x + 1 = 1

a f

in 1 , ∞ 2

y= x + x−1 1

⇒ y = x + x – 1 = 2x – 1

x

y –1 0 1

Notes:

1. x + 1 > 0 and x – 1 > 0 ⇒ x > 1 ⇒ y > 2 since x >

y = –2x + 1 y = 2x – 1

1 ⇒ 2x > 2 ⇒ y > 2.

y=1 2. x + 1 < 0 and x – 1 < 0 ⇒ x < –1 ⇒ y > 2 since x

< –1 ⇒ –2x > 2 ⇒ y > 2.

x 3. The range of y = | x + 1 | + | x – 1 | is the set of all real

0 1

numbers greater than or equal to 2, i.e. the semi-closed

interval 2 , ∞ . f

3. y = 2 | x – 2 | – | x + 1 | + x

2. y = | x + 1 | + | x – 1 | x = –1 and x = 2 are the zeros of (x – 2) and (x + 1)

x = – 1 and x = 1 are the zeros of (x + 1) and (x – 1).

a f a f a f

⇒ −∞ , − 1 , [–1, 2] and 2 , ∞ are the intervals

a f

⇒ −∞ , − 1 , [–1, 1] and 1, ∞ are the required

whose union is the domain of the given function y =

intervals whose union is the domain of the given 2 | x – 2 | – | x + 1 | + x.

function y = | x + 1 | + | x – 1 |.

a

in −∞ , − 1 f a

in −∞ , − 1 : f

y = 2 x − 2 − x +1 + x

y= x+1 + x −1

⇒ y = –2 (x – 2) + (x + 1) + x = 5

⇒ y = – (x + 1) – (x – 1) = –x – 1 – x + 1 = –2x

a

since (x + 1) < 0 and (x – 1) < 0 in −∞ , − 1 f in −1 , 2 :

y = 2 x − 2 − x +1 + x

⇒ y = –2 (x – 2) – (x + 1) + x = –2x + 3

Function 107

a f

in 2 , ∞ :

y

y = 2 x − 2 − x +1 + x 4

⇒ y = 2 (x – 2) – (x + 1) + x = 2x – 5 3

2

y

1

x

5 0 1

y=5 –4 –3 –2 –1 2 3 4

–1

4

–2

3 y = –2 x + 3

–3

2

y = 2x – 5 –4

1

x

–1 0 1 2 3 4

–1

x [x] = y

under:

5 R| x < −1 0≤ x<1 0

S|

y = −2 x + 3 −1 ≤ x ≤ 2 1≤ x < 2 1

T

2x − 5 x > 2

2≤x<3 2

Therefore, the graph of y = 2 | x – 2 | – | x + 1 | + x is

a polygonal line as above. −1 ≤ x < 0 –1

−2 ≤ x < − 1 –2

On the Graph of y = [f (x)]

The graph of y = [f (x)] is a set of horizontal line

segments (i.e. a set of line segments, each being

parallel to x-axis), each of which includes the left end N.B.: The graph of y = [x] lies on and below the line y

point but excludes its right end point. A small shaded = x.

circle is put at the left end point of a horizontal line to

show the inclusion of that point and a small unshaded 2. y = [–x]

circle o is put at the right end point of a horizontal line ∴ y = −x = 0 ⇔ 0 ≤ − x < 1 ⇔ 0 ≥ x > −1

to show the exclusion of that point as n n+1 ⇔ −1 < x ≤ 0

Moreover one should note that each horizontal y

and below a straight line. 4

The graph of a function y = [f (x)] is always 3

obtained from the graph of y = f (x) where y = [f (x)] ∈ I 2

is marked on the y-axis of unit length such as [–2, 1), 1

[–1, 0), [0, 1), [1, 2) etc. for which horizontal lines are 0 1 2 3 4

x

drawn through integers till they intersect the graph. –4 –3 –2 –1

–1

Further, one should note that on y-axis for the form

–2

[n, n + 1), y = n if y increases in its domain.

–3

The graph of y = [f (x)]

–4

1. y = [x]

∴y = x =0⇔ x ≤ −x <1

108 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

x [-x] = y

LM x OP + 1 lies on and below

N.B.: The graph of y =

N2 Q

the line y = x + 1.

4. y = 2 [x] – 1

−2 < x ≤ − 1 1

0 y

−1 < x ≤ 0

0< x≤1 –1 4

x+1

1< x ≤ 2 –2 3

–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

y = –x.

LM OP

–1

x

3. y =

N Q

–2

+1

2

LM OP

–3

x x

y=

2N Q

= 0⇔ 0 ≤ <1⇔ 0 ≤ x < 2

2

–4

x 2 [x] [2x] – 1 = y

4

1

0≤ x<1 0 –1

x 1≤ x < 2 2 1

–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

–1 2≤x<3 4 3

–2

LM x OP LM x OP + 1 = y

x

N2 Q N2 Q N.B.: The graph of y = [2x] – 1 lies on and below the

line y = x – 1.

0≤ x<2 0 1

The graph of y = | [x] | consists of all parallel line

2≤x<4 1 2 segments each being parallel to x-axis which lie on

and above the x-axis such that all parallel line segment

on the right side are on and below the line y = x and all

−2 ≤ x < 0 –1 0 the parallel line segments on the left are on and above

the line y = –x.

−4 ≤ x < − 2 –2 –1

1. y = | [x] |

∴y = x =0⇔ x =0⇔0≤ x<1

Function 109

a f LMN x +2 4 OPQ

y

(iv) f x =

4

f a xf = x −

3 1

(v)

2 x

1 Answers:

x 1. (i)

–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

–1 y

–2

–3

–4 x + |x |

f (x) =

2

x | [x] | = y

x

0

(ii)

−2 ≤ x < − 1 2 y

−1 ≤ x < 0 1

2

0≤ x <1 0 1

2≤x<3 2 x

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

–1

–2 f (x) = |x – 3| – 4

Exercise on Graphing the Functions

–3

1. Graph the following functions: –4

(3, –4)

af

(i) f x =

x+ x

2 (iii)

y

(ii) f (x) = | x – 3 | – 4

(iii) f (x) = 2x – [x], where [x] = greatest integer

function. 4 f (x) = 2 x – [x]

(iv) f (x) = [x – 2] + 2, where [x – 2] = greatest integer 3

function.

2

(v) f (x) = 2x2 – 12x + 20

1

(vi) f (x) = –x2 + 8x – 16

x

2. Construct graphs for the following functions. –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

–1

(i) y = x –2

(ii) f (x) = | 2x – 1 | –3

(iii) f (x) = 2x | x – 1| –4

110 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

(iv) y (ii) y

4

4

3 f (x) = [ x – 2] + 2

3

2

2 f (x) = |2x – 1|

1

1

x

–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 x

–1 0 ½ 1 2 3 4

–2

–3 (iii)

y

–4

2

(v)

y f (x ) = 2x |x – 1|

1

4

f (x) = 2(x – 3) + 2

2 x

3 0 1 2

2

(3, 2)

1

(iv) y

x

0 1 2 3 4

4

(vi)

MN PQ

y x + 4

2 f (x) =

2

x x

–4 –2 0 2 4

0 1 2 3 4

2

f (x) = –(x – 4)

(v)

f (x) = |x| – 1

y [x ]

f (x) is undefined for 0 ≤ x < 1

2. (i)

y 2

1

y = x

x

–2 –1 0 1 2

x

0

Function 111

On the Inverse of a Function values taken by f at points of D, then the function f–1

with domain R and range D, denoted by f–1 (y) = x if y

Before defining the inverse of a function with respect

to different aspects, one must know the following = f (x) for every y ∈R is said to be the inverse of the

facts: function f on D.

af

1. A function f : A → f A is always on-to Notes:

1. In some cases when the given function f is not

function.

one-one function in the entire domain, a part D of its

2. f : A → B is one-one function ⇒ f : A → domain is selected where the function f is one-one

af

f A ⊂ B is a bijection, where and the inverse of a function will exist over f (D) for

the new domain of f.

A = domain of f

2. A function has an inverse ⇒ it is a one-one

B = codomain of f

f (A) = range of f, also denoted by R (f). function in its domain and the equation y = f (x) can

be solved for x in terms of y, i.e. x = f –1 (y) which must

3. If A and B are finite sets and f : A → B is a be single valued. For an example, y = 3x + 2 is a 1-1

bijection, then n (A) = n (B), i.e. number of elements in function.

domain = number of elements in co-domain.

y−2

4. When there is only one value of the function y = f ⇒x= is a single valued function.

(x) for every value of x = a in its domain, then the 3

function y = f (x) is said to be single valued function 3. It may or may not be possible to find the inverse of

in its domain. a given function in the following cases:

The polynomial, the rational fraction, exponential If the given equation y = f (x) gives x = f–1 (y) which is

and logarithmic functions are important functions double valued function or the given equation is

which are single valued. double valued function, then in both cases, the given

5. When there are two values of the function y = f (x) function (or, equation) y = f (x) has no inverse, as for

for each value x = a in its domain, the function y = f (x) an example,

is said to be two valued (or, double valued) function 2

y= x +9⇒ x=± y − 9 which determines

in its domain.

Examples of double valued functions are: two different values of x for each value of y ≠ 9 in

2 n

(i) y = a o x + a1 x

n −1

a f

+ ... + a n −1 x + a n n ≥ 1

the range of f.

4. When it is said that the inverse x = f–1 (y) of the

N2

(ii) y = where N and D are polynomials in x. function y = f (x) is single valued for y = b in range of

D the original function y = f (x), it is meant that for each

6. When both y = f (x) and x = f–1 (y) obtained by member y = b of the range of the original function y =

solving y = f (x) for x in terms of y, are single valued f (x), there is exactly only one element in the domain

functions, then the function f establishes a bijection of the original function y =f (x).

(or, a one-to-one correspondence) between its domain Definition 2: In terms of one-one and on-to

and range. function: If f is a one-one and onto from A to B, then

Now, the definition of the inverse of a function is −1

there exists a unique function f : B → A such

provided. that for each y ∈B there exists exactly only one

Definition 1: (In terms of one-one function): The element x ∈ A such that f (x) = y, then f–1 (y) = x. The

inverse of a one-one function f, denoted by f–1 is the function f–1 so defined is called the inverse of f.

function which is defined for every y = f (x) in the Further, if f –1 is the inverse of f, then f is the inverse

range of f by f –1 (y) = x, i.e. if f is a function which is of f–1 and the two functions f and f –1 are said to be the

one-one in a part D of its domain and R is the set of inverse of each other.

112 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

af

Notes: 1

1. A function f:A→B has an inverse Hence, the inverse of the function f x = x+1

2

−1 is the function f–1 (x) = 2x – 2.

f ⇔ f : A → B is one-one and on-to.

2. Find the inverse of the function y = x2, for x > 0.

2. If a function f is continuous, monotonic and

Solution:

defined on a real interval working as a domain of the

Step 1: On solving for x in terms of y:

given function f, then a continuous monotonic inverse

y = x2

f–1 exists. For example, f (x) = y = 2x + 3 where 0 < x <

a yf = x = 21 a y − 3f where 3 <

2

−1 ⇒ y = x = x = x ( 3 | x | = x because x >

1, has an inverse f

0)

y < 5. Step 2: On interchanging x and y:

The variables x and y are often interchanged in the

y= x

inverse function, so that in this example f (x) = y = 2x

+ 3 is said to have the inverse. The inverse of a function y = x2, x > 0 is the

function y =

f

−1

axf = y = 12 ax − 3f x.

One should note that, unlike the restricted function

This can be written y = x2, x > 0 the unrestricted function y = x2 is not one-

one and on-to and therefore has no inverse.

f : x → 2 x + 3 on 0 , 1

f

−1

:x→

1

2

a f

x − 3 on 3 , 5

On the Criteria to Test Whether

a Given Function f has its Inverse

There are following criteria to test whether a given

How to Find f–1 as a Function of x function y = f (x) from its domain D to its co-domain C

Step 1: The equation y = f (x) should be solved for x has an inverse.

in terms of y. Criterion 1: One-oneness and ontoness of the

Step 2: x and y should be interchanged. The resulting function, i.e. one should show that the given function

equation will be y = f–1 (x). y = f (x) from its domain D to its codomain C is a one-

one and on-to function.

Solved Examples Note:

Criterion 1: Is fruitful to test the existance of an

1

1. Find the inverse of y = x + 1. inverse of the function y = f (x) whose domain D and

2 whose codomain C are known.

Solution:

Criterion 2: Single valuedness of both the function

Step 1: On solving for x in terms of y:

f and f–1, i.e. one should show that both the given

1 function y = f (x) defined on its domain and x = f–1 (y)

y= x +1

2 defined on the range of y = f (x) are single valued.

⇒ 2y = x + 2 Criterion 3: One-oneness and single valuedness of

a function, i.e., one should show that the function y =

⇒ x = 2y – 2 f (x) from its domain D to its range R (in case range is

Step 2: On interchanging x and y: known but its codomain is not known) is one-one

y = 2x – 2 and then show that the function x = f–1 (y) obtained

Function 113

by solving the given function y = f (x) for x in terms of ⇒ (x1 – 1) (x2 – 3) = (x1 – 3) (x2 – 1)

y is a single valued function. ⇒ –3x1 – x2 + 3 = –3x2 – x1 + 3

Notes: ⇒ 2x2 = 2x1

1. In case of function whose domain and range are ⇒ x1 = x2

known but whose codomain is not known, one should ∴ f is 1 – 1

suppose that range is coincident with codomain and

x −1

then use any one of the criteria to show whether the Also, any y ∈Y , y =

given function has the inverse. x−3

2. In case of a function whose domain and range are ⇒ y (x – 3) = x – 1

known, one can use either the criterion (2) or the ⇒ x (y – 1) = –1 + 3y

criterion (3) which is easy.

3y − 1

Criterion 4: One should see whether a given function ⇒x= ,y ≠1

y = f (x) is continuous, monotonic and defined on a y −1

real interval working as a domain of the given function

3y − 1

f. ∴ y ∈Y ⇒ ∃ x = ∈x such that y = f (x)

y −1

Note: Criterion (4) is fruitful to test the existance of

an inverse of the function y = f (x) whose domain is ⇒ all the elements of y are f-images of an element in

known and its range can be determined by using any x, i.e., f is on-to.

mathematical manipulation. Hence, f is one-one and on-to ⇒ f has an inverse.

To remember: Let the inverse of f be g, i.e. g = f–1

1. The domain of the inverse of a function f–1 is the

set of all values of y for which x = f–1 (y), i.e. the range af

Then g y = x =

3y − 1

y −1

⇒ x= f

−1

a yf = 3yy−−11 .

of the function f, i.e. the domain of f–1 is the range of

f.

2. The range of the inverse of a function f–1 is the set Thus f

−1

a yf = 3yy −−11 ⇒ f

−1

a xf = 3xx −−11 is

of all values of x for which y = f (x), i.e. the domain of

f, i.e. the range of f–1 is the domain of f. the inverse function of f.

3. A function which has an inverse is said to be LM π π OP

invertible.

4. The symbol denoted by f–1 is read as “eff inverse”.

2. Test whether the function f : −

N ,

2 2

→ −1 , 1

Q

LM π π OP

Solved Examples

defined by f (x) = sin x, x ∈ −

N ,

2 2 Q

has its inverse

LM π , π OP

af

f x =

x −1

x−3

where. Solution: x1 ≠ x2 and x1 , x 2 ∈ −

N 2 2Q

x = R – {3} and Y = R – {1}, R being the set of reals, ⇒ sin a x f ≠ sin a x f ⇒ f a x f ≠ f a x f

1 2 1 2

has its inverse. ⇒ f is one-one.

Solution: For x1 , x2 ∈R − 3 , kp LM π , π OP

f (x1) = f (x2) Again any y ∈ −1 , 1 ⇒ ∃ x ∈ −

N 2 2Q

that f (x) = y, i.e. y = sin x ⇒ f is on-to.

such

x1 − 1 x2 − 1

⇒ =

x1 − 3 x3 − 3

114 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

Hence, f is one-one and on-to ⇒ f has its inverse ⇔ x = ± y which is a double valued function for

kp

which is given by

+

−1 LM

π π OP every y ∈R ∪ 0 .

f : −1 , 1 → − ,

2 2N Q ⇒ y = | x | has no inverse.

defined by However, if the domain of f is restricted to 0 , ∞ f

a yf = sin a yf , y ∈ −1, 1

f

−1 −1 a f

or −∞ , 0 , f will have the inverse.

⇒ f a x f = sin a x f , x ∈ −1 , 1

−1 −1

is the required Case 1: When the restricted domain is 0 , ∞ then yf

inverse of the given function. = | x | = x, x > 0

3. Does the function y = x2 have an inverse in the af f

⇒ y = x , D f = 0 , ∞ and R f = 0 , ∞ af f

interval [–1, 1]?

Solution: y = f (x) = x2 is the given function whose af

Now, for every value of x ∈D f , a unique value

domain is R and −1 , 1 ⊆ R af

of y ∈R f is determined.

–1 < x < 1 ⇒ y = x is a single valued function ∀ x ∈D f . af

⇒ –1 < x < 0 and 0 < x < 1 Again, y = f (x) = x

⇒ 1 > x2 > 0 and 0 < x2 < 1

⇒ 0 < x2 < 1

⇒x= y⇒ f a yf = x = y

−1

−1

⇒ Range of f is [0, 1]

Now y = x ⇒ x = ±

2

y for y ∈ 0 , 1 ⇒ For ever value of y ∈R a f f , a unique value of

x ∈D a f f is determined.

∴x = ± y

⇒ x = y is a single valued function for every

⇒ for each value of y in [0, 1], the range of f, x

does not have a unique value.

af

y ∈R f .

Hence, y = f (x) = x is single valued function for

⇒ x = ± y is not a single valued function.

every x ∈D fa f as well as x = f (y) = y is a single

–1

Hence, f has no inverse.

4. Show that y = | x | has no inverse. Restrict its domain

suitably so that f–1 may exist and find f–1. ⇒ y = f (x) has its inverse in its restricted domain

Solution: y = | x |

0, ∞ .f

R x, x ≥ 0

⇒ y=S Now, since x = f–1 (y) = y

T− x , x < 0 ⇒ y = f–1 (x) = x is the required inverse for y = f (x)

af kp f

+

= x.

Clearly, D (y) = R and R y = R ∪ 0 = 0 , ∞

now, for every x ∈D a f f , a unique value of y ∈R a y f

a

Case 2: When the restricted domain is −∞ , 0 , then f

y = –x, x < 0

is determined ⇒ y = x is a single valued function afa f af a f

⇒ y = − x , D f = −∞ , 0 and R f = 0 , ∞

for every x ∈D f . af Now, it is observed that for every x ∈D a f f , a

Now, y = | x | for y ∈ 0 , ∞ f unique value of y ∈R a f f is determined.

2 2

⇔ y = x

Function 115

⇒ y = f (x) = – x is a single valued function for 6. Find the inverse of the function defined as:

af a

every value of x ∈D f = −∞ , 0 . f R|x , x < 1

af a f f a xf = Sx , 1 ≤ x ≤ 4

2

Again, y = f (x) = –x, D f = −∞ , 0 and

af a f

R f = 0 , ∞ which

|T8 x , x > 4

⇒ −x = y⇒ x = −y Solution: The given function is piecewise function

defined as:

⇒ f a yf = x = − y

−1

R|x , x < 1

⇒ f a y f = − y which is a single valued f a xf = S x , 1 ≤ x ≤ 4

−1 2

|T8 x , x > 4

⇒ Both y = –x in its domain and x = –y in the

range of f are single valued functions.

Now, y = f x ⇒ x = f af −1

a yf

⇒ y = –x has its inverse which is x = f–1 (y) = –y, y = x, x < 1

⇒ x = y, y < 1

e j = R a f f = a0 , ∞f .

i.e., f–1 (x) = –x, D f

−1

2

y = x ,1 ≤ x ≤ 4

5. Does the function f (x) = 1 – 2–x have an inverse?

Solution: f (x) = 1 – 2–x is defined for every value of ⇒x= y , 1 ≤ y ≤ 16

x ∈R

Further, f (x) = 1 – 2–x

e3 1 ≤ x ≤ 4 ⇒ 1 ≤ x 2

≤ 16 j

⇒ y = 1 – 2–x where y = f (x) y=8 x,x>4

⇒ y – 1 = – 2–x

⇒ 1 – y = 2–x y

2

⇒x= , y > 16

⇒ x = –log2 (1 – y) which is defined for y < 1 64

af a

R y = −∞ , 1 f e3 x > 4 ⇒ x > 2 ⇒ 8 x > 16 j

af

Now, for every value of x ∈D f = R , a unique

Hence,

af a f

value of y ∈R f = −∞ , 1 is determined.

R|

⇒ f (x) = 1 – 2–x is single valued in its domain.

af

Also, for every value of y ∈R f , a unique value of | y, y < 1

x = S y , 1 ≤ y ≤ 16

af

x ∈D f is determined from the equation x = f–1 (y) = || y 2

the given function y = 1 – 2–x.

T 64 , y > 16

Hence, y = 1 – 2–x exhibits a one-one correspon-

dence between its domain and range.

R|

⇒ y = 1 – 2–x has an inverse. | y, y < 1

⇒ f a y f = S y , 1 ≤ y ≤ 16

−1

Now, f–1 is found in the following way:

x = f–1 (y) = –log (1 – y) || y 2

inverse of the given function f (x) = 1 – 2–x.

116 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

R|

2. No inverse

3. No inverse

⇒ f

−1 | x, x < 1

axf = S x , 1 ≤ x ≤ 16 4. f a xf = x − 2

−1 3

|| x 2 domain: a−∞ , ∞f

T 64 , x > 16 5. f a x f =

−1 1

is the required inverse of the given piecewise a2 − xf

function. domain: R – {2}

Note: While finding the inverse of a piecewise

−1

function, one should find the inverse of each function 6. f

defined in its respective sub domain.

domain: R − R ST 21 UVW

Exercises on finding the inverse of a function

Exercise 1.25

7. f a x f =

−1 8−x 3

Find the inverse of the given function, if there is one x

and determine its domain. domain: R – {0}

1. f (x) = x3

2. f (x) = x2 + 5

8. f

−1

a xf =

2+ x

af

3. f x =

1

2

8x

domain: x < –2 or x > 0

x

9. No inverse

4. f (x) = (x + 2)3

10. No inverse

af

5. f x =

2x − 1

x Exercise 1.26

af

6. f x =

x+4

2x − 3

Perform each of the following steps on the given

function:

af

(a) Solve the equation for y in terms of x and express

8

7. f x = 3

y as one or more functions of x:

x +1 (b) For each of the functions obtained in (a), determine

if the function has an inverse, and if it does, determine

af

8. f x = 2

2 the domain of the inverse function.

8x − 1 1. x2 + y2 = 9

2. x2 – y2 = 16

9. f (x) = 2 | x | + x

3. xy = 4

af

10. f x =

3

1+ x

4. y2 – x3 = 0

5. 2x2 – 3xy + 1 = 0

Answers: 6. 2x2 + 2y + 1 = 0

1. f axf = x

−1 3

Answers:

domain: a−∞ , ∞f af 2

af

1. (a) f 1 x = 9 − x , f 2 x = − 9 − x ;

2

Function 117

2. (a) f 1 x = af 2

af 2

x − 16 , f 2 x = − x − 16 ;

2. f (x) = (x + 3)3

3. f x = x −

2 1

,x>0

a f 4x

x

3. (a) f x =

af

4. f x =

1

,x≤0

axf = 4x , domain: R – {0}.

2

−1 x +4

(b) f

5. f (x) = x5 + x3

f a xf = x , f a xf = − x

3 3 3

4. (a) 1 2

6. f (x) = x3 + x

Answer:

(b) f 1

−1

a xf = x ; domain: R

3 2

1. domain of f

−1

f

: 0 , ∞ range of f −1

: 4,∞ f

f2

−1

a xf = x ; domain: R.

3 2

2. domain of f

−1

: R range of f–1: R

f axf = a f

2

2x + 1 −1

5. (a) 3. domain of f–1: R; range of f : 0, ∞

3x

(b) No inverse. −1 F 1 OP ; range of f : a−∞ , 0

−1

6. (a) f x = − af

2x + 1

2 4. domain of f

H 4Q

: 0,

2

5. domain of f–1: R; range of f–1: R

(b) No inverse.

6. domain of f–1: R; range of f–1: R

Exercise 1.27

it does, determine the domain and range of the given

function.

af

1. f x = x−4

118 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

2

Limit and Limit Points

These two concepts are defined based on the circumference which is also termed as boundary of

following concepts. the circle in real analysis. In other words, a circle

centred at a given point (whose open ε-

1. Open ε-neighbourhood of a Given Point neighbourhood is sought) and whose radius is the

given number ∈ is an open ε-neighbourhood of the

The set of all points (on the number line, or in a plane,

given point if we exclude all those points whose

or in an n-dimensional space, or in any space where

distances from the center equal the radius. In real

the distance between any two points can be measured)

analysis, a circle in a plane is termed as circular

whose distances from a given point are less than a given

neighbourhood of the given point.

positive number ‘ε’ is called an open ε-neighbourhood

of a given point.

In notation, we express an open ε-neighbourhood ∈

of a given point x0 on the number line as: x0

Nε (x0 ) = {x ∈ R : | x – x0 | < ε, ε > 0}

Notes: 1. x ∈ Nε (x0 ) ⇔ | x – x0 | < ε

⇔ x ∈ (x0 – ε, x0 + ε )′ (iii) In three dimensional space, it is the set of all

those points inside the sphere. A sphere is also

2. (i) on the real line, an open e-neighbourhood of a

termed as spherical neighbourhood of a given point.

given point is a line segment (a part of the real line)

without (not counting) the end points whereas the given 3. An open ε-neighbourhood of a given point is also

point whose open e-neighbourhood is sought is the termed as:

midpoint of the line segment, i.e., an open interval with (i) Open sphere (centred at the given point with a given

a midpoint x0 and without left end point x0 – e and radius ε) and it is symbolized as Sε (x0 ) or S (ε, x0 ).

right end point x0 + e represented as (x0 – e, x0 + e ) is (ii) Open ball (centred at the given point with a given

an e-neighbourhood of a given point x0. radius ε ) and it is symbolized as Bε (x0 ) or B (ε, x0 ).

ε ε 2. A Closed ε -neighbourhood of

–∞ x0 – ε x0 x0 + ε +∞ a Given Point

The set of all points (in any space) whose distances

(ii) In two dimensional space (in the real plane or from a given point are less than or equal to a given

complex plane), an open ε-neighbourhood of a given positive number ‘ε’is called a closed ε-neighbourhood

point is the set of all those points excluding the of a given point.

Limit and Limit Points 123

2. The world “every, each or all” used before ε- ε ) Further, one should keep in mind that x0 ∈ R is a

neighbourhood or neighbourhood emphasizes limit point of a set A ⊆ R ⇔ x0 ∈ R is a left limit point

firstly that the said properly must hold even if the or a right limit point of the set A ⊆ R.

ε-neighbourhood or neighbourhood of the given point

A Nε (x 0)

P is arbitrarily small and secondly that if there exists

even one ε-neighbourhood or neighbourhood of the –∞ x0 – ε x0 x0 + ε +∞

point P which does not contain at least one point of

the set which is not P, P can not be said to be a limit i.e. (ii) A point x0 Î R is left limit point (or left hand)

point of the set A. limit point of he set A Û x0 is a limt point of the subset

Notes: 1. The limit points of a set may or may not of A lying to the left of the point x0.

belong to the set. 6. A set A is closed ⇔ each limit point of the set A is

2. The limit point of a set is also termed as: a member (point) of the set A ⇔ A point x is a limit

(i) Limiting point point of a set A and x ∈ A ⇔ the set A contains all its

(ii) Accumulating point and limit points ⇔ D (A) ⊂ A.

(iii) Cluster point. 7. x0 ∉ D (A) ⇔ x0 ∉ closure of A – {x0} ⇔ x0 is not

3. The set of all the limit points of a set A is called the a limit point of the set A.

derived set which is denoted by A′ or D (A), i.e., 8. More on closure point and closure of a set: A

(i) A′ = D (A) = {x0 ∈ R : Nε (x0) – {x0} ∩ A ≠ φ, closure point or closure of a set is also defined in

∨ Nε (x0)} = {x0 ∈ R : x0 is the limit point of A} on the terms of the limit point of a set.

number line R. (i) Closure point of the set (in terms of the limit

(ii) A′ = D (A) = {x0 ∈ X : Sε (x0) – {x0} ∩ A ≠ φ, point): A point x0 in a space X is called a closure

∨ Sε (x0)} in a metric space X. point of the set A contained in the space X (A ⊆ X) ⇔

(iii) A′ = D (A) = {x0 ∈ X : N (x0) – {x0} ∩ A ≠ φ, x0 ∈ A or x0 is a limit point of A.

∨ N (x0)} in a topological space X. (ii) Closure of a set: Closure of a set denoted by • is

4. x0 ∈ D (A) ⇔ x0 is a limit point of A. the set of all points of A together with all those points

⇔ Sε (x0) – {x0} ∩ A ≠ φ in a metric space (in space) which are arbitrarily close to A. That is, the

⇔ ((x0 – ε, x0) ∪ (x0, x0 + ε)) ∩ A ≠ φ on the real line closure of A, denoted by •, is the union of the set A

⇔ N (x0) – {x0} ∩ A ≠ φ in a topological space and the set of all its limits points, i.e., • = A ∪ D (A).

5. We may divide a limit point of a set into two halves Now, we give the definition of an isolated point of

namely. a set.

(a) Left limit point and

(b) Right limit on the number line R. 2. Isolated Point of a Set

Now we define each one on the number line R in It is also defined with respect to different aspects.

the following way: Definition (i): (In terms of neighbourhood): A point

(a) Left limit point of a set: A point x0 ∈ R is a limit of a set is called an isolated point of the set ⇔ there

point of the set A ⊆ R ⇔ ∨ ∈ > 0, there is at least one exists a neighbourhood of that point in which there is

point x ∈ A such that 0 < x0 – x < ε (x0 – ε < x < x0). no other point of the set. That is, a point of the set

i.e. (i) A point x0 ∈ R is right limit point (or right hand) whose one neighbourhood includes in itself

limit point of the set A ⇔ x0 is a limit point of the (contains) no other point of the set, i.e., N x0 = {x0},

subset of A lying to the right of the point x0. is called an isolated point of the set.

(b) Right limit point of a set: A point x0 ∈ R is a right

Definition (ii): (In terms of deleted neighbourhood):

limit point of a set A ⊆ R ⇔ ∨ ε > 0, there is at least

A point of a set whose one deleted neighbourhood

one point x ∈ A such that 0 < x – x0 < ε (x0 < x < x0 +

does not intersect the given set is called an isolated

point of the set. That is, a point belonging to the set

124 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

which is not the limit point of the set is called an (i) On the number line, a point x0 in a set A ⊆ R is

isolated point of the set. called an interior point of the set A ⇔ x0 can be en-

Hence, in notation we can express the definition closed in an interval (x0 – ε, x0 + ε), ∈ > 0, such that all

of an isolated point of the set in different spaces in the point of this interval are the points of the set A,

the following ways: e.g: every point of a line segment other than (not

(a) A point x0 ∈ A ⊆ R is called an isolated point of counting, or without) the end points of the line seg-

the set A ⇔ Nε (x0) – {x0} ∩ A = φ ⇔ Nε (x0) ∩ A = ment is the interior point of the set composed of all

{x0} for some Nε (x0). points of the line segment.

(b) A point x0 ∈ A ⊆ X, where X is a metric space, is (ii) In a metric space X, a point x0 in a set A ⊆ X is

called an isolated point of the set A ⇔ Sε (x0) – {x0} ∩ called an interior point of the set A ⇔ x0 can be en-

A = φ ⇔ Sε (x0) ∩ A = {x0} for some Sε (x0). closed in an ε-neighbourhood Nε (x0) such that all the

(c) A point x0 ∈ A ⊆ X, where X is a topological points of this ε-neighbourhood Nε (x0) are the points

space, is called an isolated point of the set A ⇔ N x0 of the set A.

{x0} ∩ A = φ ⇔ N x0 ∩ A = {x0}, for some Nx0

Notes: 1. An isolated point of a set is a point of the

set. N (x)

ε0

2. x0 is an isolated point of the set A ⇔ x0 is not a A

limit point of the set A ⇔ x0 ∉ D (A).

X

3. Roughly speaking, an isolated point of a set is a

point x0 of the A around which there is no point of the

(b) Boundary point:

set A which is different from (distinct from, or other

than) the point itself namely x0. Definition (i): (Intuitive concept): A point x0 in a

space X is called a boundary point of the set A

Kinds of the Limit Point of a Set contained in a space X (A ⊆ X) ⇔ x0 is arbitrarily

close to both the set A and its complement AC. That

There are two types of the limit point of a set namely: is, the points which are arbitrarily close to both the

(a) Interior point of a set. set and the complement of the set are called boundary

(b) Boundary point of a set. points of the set.

Each one is defined with respect to different aspects: Definition (ii): (In terms of limit point): A point x0 in

(a) Interior point: a space X is called a boundary point of the set A

Definition (i): (In terms of the limit point): An interior contained in a space X (A ⊆ X) ⇔ x0 is the limit point

point of the set is a point of the set which is not the of both the set A and its complement AC.

limit point of the complement of the set. That is, a

limit point x0 of the set A is an interior point of the set Definition (iii): (In terms of neighbourhood): A point

A ⇔ there are only the points of the set A in some x0 in a space X is called boundary point of the set A

neighbourhood of the point x0. contained in a space X (A ⊆ X) ⇔ every

neighbourhood of the point x0 intersects both the set

Definition (ii): (In terms of neighbourhood): A point A and the complement of the set A (AC ) at some points

x0 in a space X is called the interior point of the set A ⇔ x0 is a point of closure of both the set A and its

contained in the space X (A ⊆ X) ⇔ There is a complement AC.

neighbourhood of the point x0 which is a subset of

A

the set A whenever the point x0 is in the set A ⇔ x0 ∈

A and ∃ a N x0 such that N x0 ⊆ A.

Hence, in notation, we can express the definition x0

of the interior point of a set in different spaces in the N ( x)

following ways:

Limit and Limit Points 125

Hence, in notation we can express the definition P, it also contains all points (on the number line, or in

of the boundary point of a set in different spaces in the plane, and so forth) near P, that is, all points of

the following ways: some interval with midpoint P. That is, a set A

(i) A point x0 on the number line R is a boundary contained in a space X (A ⊆ X) is called open ⇔

point of the set A contained in a space R (A ⊆ R) ⇔ ∨ every point of the set A is an interior point of the set

Nε (x0), Nε (x0) ∩ A ≠ φ, Nε (x0) ∩ AC ≠ φ. A (i.e., A = int (A)), or in other words, A set A contained

(ii) A point x0 in a metric space X is a boundary point in a space X (A ⊆ X) is called open given any point x

of the set A contained in the space X (A ⊆ X) ⇔ ∨ in A, ∃ a neighbourhood of the point x (Nx) such that

Sε (x0), Sε (x0) ∩ A ≠ φ, Sε (x0) ∩ AC ≠ φ. Nx ⊆ A.

(iii) A point x0 in a topological space X is a boundary Notes: 1. Roughly speaking, the ‘boundary’ of a

point of the set A contained in a space X (A ⊆ X) ⇔ ∨ region (a set of points which is either a non empty

Nx, Nx ∩ A ≠ φ, Nx ∩ AC ≠ φ. open set or such a set together with some or all of the

Besides these, in connection with the interior points points forming its boundary), if it exists, is the set of

of the set and the boundary points of the set, there points in the region from those not in (Simply to avoid

are two more sets namely: clumsiness of language we often say ‘points are in a

1. Interior of a set and region’ instead of ‘the points are points of region’.

2. Boundary of a set All the regions considered by us will be what are known

Which are defined in the following ways. as ‘open region’; so that in the cases in which we use

1. Interior of a set: A set whose members are all the it, our definition of boundary agrees with the usual

interior points of the set is called interior of the set, definition, in which points of the region may also be

that is, the set A = {x: x ∈ A and some Nx ⊆ A} is the points of the boundary).

called the interior of the set A. 2. In 3-pace, the closure of a set A is the set A together

The symbol to denote the interior of a set A is int with all its skin, whether the skin is part of the set or

(A), Ai or A0. not. The interior of the set A is the set A minus any

2. Boundary of a set part of the skin which it contains. The boundary of a

Definition (i): (intuitive concept): The boundary of set A is its skin.

a set A is the set of all those points which are arbitrarily

close to both the set A and its complement AC.

Definition (ii): A set of all those points which are

boundary points of a set A is called the boundary of

a set A.

The boundary of a set A is symbolized as: A A A

0

b ( A)

b (A), Ab or ∂ (A)

Hence, in terms of interior point and boundary 3. End points of any interval on the number line are

point of a set, we can say, the boundary points of the interval.

A set is closed ⇔ all the limit points (interior and 4. A boundary point may belong to either the set A

boundary points both) of a set belong to the set. or its complement AC but the boundary point is the

Similarly, in terms of the interior and the boundary limit point of both of them.

of a set, we can express the closure of a set A as: 5. Every point of an open set is an interior point lying

A = int (A) ∪ b (A) in the set itself.

Now we define one more important concept know 6. x0 is a limit point of A ⇒ x0 ∈ A and x0 ∉ A .

as “open set” in the following way: 7. x0 ∈ A ⇒ x 0 is a closure point of the set A

trivially.

Open set: A set A of points (on the number line, or in

8. Every limit point of the set A is also a point of

the plane, or in ordinary space, or in n-space or in any

closure of the set A but not conversely.

space) is called open if, whenever it contains a point

126 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

9. Every interior point of the set A is also a limit point. Definition (iv): (in terms of closure point): A set A in

a space X is dense (or, everywhere dense) in the space

Dense Set X ⇔ Every point of the space X is a point of closure

of the set A ⇔ Every point of the space X is a point

We consider three kinds of sets:

bg

of the set A or a limit point of the set A (i.e.

1. Dense set or dense in itself set.

X = A = A ∪ D A ).

2. Everywhere dense set in a space.

3. Non-dense set or nowhere dense set. Definition (v): (In terms of limit point): A set A in a

Each one is defined in the following ways:

dense) in the space X ⇔ Every point of the space

1. Dense set (dense in itself set)

X – A is a limit point of the set A).

Definition (i): (Intuitive concept): A set in a space is

said to be dense in itself (or simply dense set) Û For 3. Nowhere dense (or, non-dense) set in a space

any two distinct arbitrary points in the set, there is at Definition (i): (In terms of neighbourhood): A set A

least one distinct point between the two given points.

Definition (ii): (In terms of neighbourhood): A set A

b g

in a space X A ⊆ X is said to be nowhere dense

(non-dense) in the space X ⇔ Every neighbourhood

in a space X is said to be dense in itself Û Every

of every point in a space X contains a certain

neighbourhood of every point x of the set contains at

neighbourhood of a point in a space such that this

least one point of the set which is not x.

certain neighbourhood is free from the points of the

Definition (iii): (In terms of the limit point): A set A

in a space X is said to be dense in itself Û Every point

set A ⇔ For every point x in the space X x ∈ X b g

of the set A is the limit point of the set A. and each neighbourhood of x (N (x)), there is a

neighbourhood of an other point y (N (y)) in the

2. Everywhere dense set in a space

b g

space X y ∈ X such that N y ⊂ N x and bg bg

Definition (i): (Intuitive concept): A dense set A in a

bg

N y ∩ A = φ ⇔ interior of the closure of the set

c h c h

space X means that the points of the set A are distrib- o

uted ‘thickly’ throughout the space X. In other words, A is empty (i.e., A = int A = φ ).

the set A contains points as near as we like to each Definition (ii): (In terms of dense exterior): A set with

point of the space X Û No neighbourhood of any point

b g

dense exterior is said to be a non-dense set, i.e., A set

in the space X is free from the points of the set A Û A in a space X A ⊆ X is said to be nowhere dense

The set A is dense (or, every where dense) in a space X. (or, non-dense) in the space X ⇔ The complement

Definition (ii): (In terms of distance): A set A in a

b g

space X A ⊆ X is said to be dense (or, every-

of the closure of the set A is dense in the space X.

Definition (iii): (In terms of closure and boundary):

where dense) in the space X ⇔ Given any point x in

b g

the space X x ∈ X and any small number ε > 0 ,

A set whose closure is a boundary set is a non-

dense set.

b g

there is at least one an other number x0 in the set

A x0 ∈ A such that the distance between the point Notes: 1. The statement :The interior of the closure

x in the space X and the point x0 in the set A is less of the set A is empty” means that the closure of the

than the given small positive number ε , i.e., set A has no interior point.

(a) x − x 0 < ε on the number line 2. The complement of the closure of a set is its

b g

(b) d x , x0 < ε in a metric space exterior.

3. One should note that nowhere dense sets are

(c) x − x0 < ε in a normed space

closed sets with no interior points, i.e., nowhere dense

Definition (iii): (In terms of neighbourhood): A set sets are closed sets with only boundary points

A in a space X is dense (or, everywhere dense) in the whereas more generally closed sets are sets with in-

space X ⇔ Every neighbourhood of every point

c b gh

P N P in a space X contains at least one point of

terior points and boundary points. A nowhere dense

set is thought of as a set which does not cover very

the set A. much of the space.

Limit and Limit Points 127

4. A set A is nowhere dense in R (real line) ⇔ Generally, there are two ways to describe a sequence.

For each x and each neighbourhood N x bg 1. A sequence is described by listing its first few

b g

= x − ε , x + ε , there is another neighbourhood terms till we get a rule for writing down the other

bg b g

N y = y − ε, y + ε , ∀ y ∈ X different terms of the sequence, e.g.

bg bg bg

such that

N y ⊂ N x and N y ∩ A = φ .

RS1, 1 , 1 , 1 , L UV is the sequence whose nth term is

Perfect set: A set A in a space X is perfect ⇔ The

set A is dense in itself and closed ⇔ Every point of

T 2 34 W

1

bg

the set A is a limit point of the set A and every limit .

point of the set A belongs to the set A ⇔ D A = A . n

2. An other way of representing the terms of the

Sequence and Its Related Terms sequence is to specify the rule for its nth term, e.g: the

A sequence is nothing but a special kind of the RS 1 1 1 UV can be written as {x }

T , , ,L

W

sequence 1, n

function whose domain is the set of all natural numbers 2 3 4

and the range is a set contained in a space, i.e., A

function f : N → S is called a sequence, where where xn =

1

, ∀ n ∈ N gives a rule for the nth term

N = the set of natural numbers, n

S = a set contained in a space X, i.e., of the sequence.

S ⊆ X , where

X = any space, namely, a real line, a metric space, a Different Types of Sequence

normed spaced or a topological space, etc. 1. Constant sequence: The sequence {xn} where

S = R1 ⊆ R ⇒ the sequence is real sequence, i.e., xn = c ∈ R , ∀ n ∈ N is called a constant sequence.

A real sequence is a function from the set N of natural

numbers into the set R1 of real numbers where

l q l

In this case x n = c , c , c , c , L . q

2. Cauchy sequence: A sequence {xn} is called

R1 ⊆ R .

cauchy sequence ⇔ After a certain term of the

Hence, 1. S ⊆ X where X = a metric space ⇒

sequence, the numerical difference between any two

the sequence is said to be in a metric space. terms of the sequence is less than any given small

2. S ⊆ X , where X = a normed space ⇒ the positive number ε .

sequence is said to be in a normed space.

In notation, a sequence {xn} is a cauchy sequence

3. S ⊆ X , where X = a topological space ⇒ the

⇔ given any small number ε > 0 , there is an integer

sequence is said to be in a topological space.

One should understand real sequence wherever

N depending on ε i.e. N ε b g

such that

the term sequence is used (as we will consider them xi − x j < ε, ∀ i > N , j > N, i.e. after a certain term

only). namely the Nth term, the difference or the distance

between any two terms of the sequence is less than ε .

Notation: A sequence with general term xn is written

as: {xn}, (xn) or <xn> 1 2 3 4 Nε i j

x

Nomenclature of Terms of the Sequence x1 x2 x3 x4 Nε xi xj

The term written on the extreme left is called ‘first Notes: (i) It is not necessary that all the terms of a

term’ next to it ‘second term’ and so on and a term sequence should be different from each other.

whose subscript is n, i.e., xn = nth term which is a (ii) Care must be taken to distinguish between the

function of n always. range of the sequence and the sequence itself, e.g. the

n

b g

sequence {xn}, where xn = –1 , ∀ n ∈ N is given

128 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

l q l q

by xn = 1, − 1, 1, − 1, L whose range is −1, 1 , l q 3. Bounded set

i.e. the range of this sequence {xn} is a finite set Definition: A set D is bounded ⇔ it is bounded

whereas the sequence is an infinite set. above and below ⇔ ∃ two numbers k and m such

(iii) A sequence, by definition, is always infinite while that all the members of the set are contained in the

the range of the sequence need not be infinite, e.g: closed interval [k, m], i.e., k ≤ x ≤ m, ∀ x ∈ D and

The sequence {xn} for which xn = 1, ∀ n ∈ N , i.e. k ≤ m ; or, in other words: A set D is bounded ⇔ ∃

l q l q

xn = 1, 1, 1, 1, L is an infinite sequence whose an m > 0 such that x ≤ m, ∀ x ∈ D .

range is {1} which is a finite set.

(iv) One should always remember that whenever it is

xα xβ xγ

written “a term (or, terms) of a sequence”, it always x=K x=m

means a member (or, members) of the sequence.

Where xα , xβ , x γ , ... are points of the set D.

Boundedness and Unboundedness

In the light of definitions of a bounded set and an Unboundedness of a Set

unbounded set, boundedness and unboundedness 1. Unbounded above set (or, a set unbounded on the

of a sequence and a function are defined. This is why right)

firstly the definition of a bounded set is presented.

Definition: A set D is said to be unbounded above

Boundedness of a Set or unbounded on the right ⇔ whatever the number

k is chosen (or taken) however large, some member of

1. Bounded below set (or a set bounded on the left) the set D is > k.

Definition: A set D is said to be bounded below or 2. Unbounded below set (or, a set unbounded on the

bounded on the left ⇔ ∃ a number m such that no left)

member of the set is less than the number m ⇔ ∃ an

Definition: A set D is said to be unbounded below

m ∈ R : x ≥ m , ∀ x ∈ D ⇔ ∃ a point m such that no

or unbounded on the left ⇔ however large a number

point of the set lies to the left of m.

m is chosen (or taken), there is some member of the

set D which is < –m.

xα x β xγ

x ≥m

3. Unbounded Set

Where xα , xβ , x γ , ... are points of the set D. Definition: A set D is said to be unbounded (not

2. Bounded above set (or a set bounded on the right) bounded) if it is not a bounded set, i.e., for any m > 0,

∃ x ∈ D such that | x | > m.

Definition: A set D is said to be bounded above or

bounded on the right ⇔ ∃ a number k such that all Boundedness of a Sequence

the members are less than or equal to the number

⇔ ∃ a k ∈ R : x ≤ k , ∀ x ∈ D ⇔ ∃ a point k such 1. Bounded above sequence (or a sequence bounded

that no points of the set lie to the right of k. on the right)

Definition: A sequence {xn} is said to be bounded

above or bounded on the right ⇔ the range of a

xα x β xr sequence is a set bounded above ⇔ ∃ a

x≤k

k ∈ R : x n ≤ k , ∀ n ∈ N ⇔ ∃ a point k such that

Where xα , xβ , x γ , ... are points of the set D. no terms of the sequence lie to the right of k.

Limit and Limit Points 129

x3 x2 x1

unbounded on the left)

xn ≤ k

Definition: A sequence {xn} is said to be unbounded

below or unbounded on the left ⇔ how large a number

Where x1, x2, x3, … are terms of the sequence. m is taken, there is some member of the sequence

2. Bounded below sequence (or a sequence bounded < –m ⇔ the range of the sequence is unbounded

on the left)

below or unbounded on the left.

Definition: A sequence {xn} is said to be bounded 3. Unbounded sequence

below or bounded on the left ⇔ the range of a Definition: A sequence {xn} is unbounded ⇔ the

sequence is a set bounded below ⇔ ∃ an range of the sequence is unbounded ⇔ ∀ m > 0, ∃

m ∈ R : xn ≥ m, ∀ m ∈ N ⇔ ∃ a point m such that an n : x n > m .

no terms of the sequence lie to the left of m.

Boundedness of a Function

x1 x2 x3

xn ≥ k 1. Bounded above function (or a function bounded

on the right)

Where x1, x2, x3, … are terms of the sequence. Definition: A function y = f (x) defined on its domain

3. Bounded sequence D is said to be bounded above or bounded on the

Definition: A sequence {xn} is said to be bounded right ⇔ the range of the function f is bounded above

⇔ the range of the sequence is bounded ⇔ the or bounded on the right ⇔ ∃ a real number m such

range of a sequence is a set bounded above and below bg

that f x ≤ m for all x ∈ D , where the number m

both at the same time ⇔ ∃ a positive number m such itself is termed as an upper bound of the function f.

that xn ≤ m, ∀ n ∈ N ⇔ in other words, the 2. Bounded below function (or a function bounded

on the left)

sequence is bounded by two number –m and m, i.e.

xn ∈ −m, m , ∀ n ∈ N ⇔ geometrically, all the Definition: A function y = f (x) defined on its domain

terms of the sequence lie in a certain neighbourhood D is said to be bounded below or bounded on the left

(m-neighbourhood) of the point x = 0 ⇔ the range of the function f is bounded below or

bounded on the left ⇔ ∃ a real number k such that

x1 x2 x3 x4 xn

bg

f x ≥ k for all x ∈ D , where the number k itself is

–m m termed as a lower bound of the function f.

3. Bounded function

Where x1 , x 2, x 3, … x n, … are points of the

Definition: A function y = f (x) defined on its domain

sequence.

D is bounded ⇔ the range of the function f is

bounded ⇔ the range of the function f is bounded

Unboundedness of a Sequence

above and bounded below ⇔ ∃ two real numbers k

1. Unbounded above sequence (or a sequence bg

and m such that k ≤ f x ≤ m for all x ∈ D and

unbounded on the right) k ≤ m . In other words there exists M > 0 such that

Definition: A sequence {xn} is said to be unbounded af

f x ≤ M ,∀ x ∈D.

above or unbounded on the right ⇔ whatever the In the language of geometry, a function y = f (x)

number k is chosen, however large, there is some whose domain is D is bounded ⇔ the curve (the

member of the sequence > k ⇔ the range of the graph of the function) y = f (x) defined on its domain

sequence is unbounded above or unbounded on the D is situated between two horizontal lines.

right.

130 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

function f is restricted to the closed interval [0, 1], it

1. Unbounded above function (or a function

becomes bounded. But when the function f is

unbounded on the right)

restricted to the positive real numbers, it remains

Definition: A function y = f (x) defined on its domain unbounded.

D is said to be unbounded above or unbounded on

Illustrations:

the right ⇔ whatever the number k is chosen,

however large, f (x) > k for some x ∈ D ⇔ the range

of the function is unbounded above or unbounded

bg

1. f x =

x

x

,x≠0

bg

on the right. x

2. Unbounded below function (or a function un- ⇒ f x = = 1 when x > 0

x

bounded on the left):

Definition: A function y = f (x) defined on its domain bg

and f x =

−x

x

= −1 when x < 0

D is said to be unbounded below or unbounded on

the left ⇔ however large a number m is taken, f (x) < ∴ The range of the function f is [–1, 1] which is a

–m for some x ∈ D ⇔ the range of the function f is finite set containing only two members –1 and 1.

unbounded below or unbounded on the left. Therefore f is a bounded function.

3. Unbounded function (The function f (x) is said to

be unbounded ⇔ one or both of the upper and lower bg

2. f x =

1

x−2

,2 < x ≤5

bounds of the function are infinite)

Q 2< x≤5

Definition: A function y = f (x) defined on its domain

D is unbounded ⇔ the range of the function is ∴ 0< x −2≤5

unbounded ⇔ the range of the function is

1

unbounded above or unbounded below or both at Now, x − 2 > 0 ⇒ → + ∞ as x → 2

x−2

af

the same time.

i.e. ∀ M > 0, f x > M , for some x ∈ D . 1 1

Also, x − 2 ≤ 3 ⇒ ≥

Notes: 1. One should note that the set, the variable, x−2 3

the sequence or the function is said to be bounded

above, bounded below or bounded whereas the LMQ 1 1 OP

constant or the number which bounds (keeps on the

left or on the right side of itself) the set, the variable,

N x − 2 > 0 and a ≥ b > 0 ⇒ ≤

a b Q

the sequence or the function is termed as lower bound,

upper bound or simply bound (plural bounds) of

∴ 2 < x ≤5⇒

1 1

≥ ⇒ f x ≥

x−2 3

1

3

bg

these.

2. The fact that a sequence, a function, a variable or ∴ The range of the function f is bounded below

a set is bounded by two numbers k and m (k ≤ m) 1

and is its greatest lower bound and f is not

geometrically means that all the terms of the sequence, 3

all the values of a function or a variable or all the bounded above.

members of the set are contained in a closed interval

[k, m]. bg

3. f x =

1

x

, 0 < x < ∞ is unbounded because by

bg

3. If the domain of a bounded function is restricted,

1

the function remains bounded. choosing x sufficiently small, the function f x =

4. The restriction of an unbounded function may or x

can be made as large as required, i.e., infinitely great

may not be bounded.

Limit and Limit Points 131

also

1

x

a f

> 0 in 0 , ∞ . Hence this function is bounded

notation n → ∞ means that the numbers of the terms

of the sequence {xn} becomes very great. Hence, a

below but not bounded above. constant ‘l’ is the limit of the variable x defined by x =

4. f (x) = x sinx defined on domain 0 < x < ∞ takes xn, n = 1, 2, 3, … ⇔ Any given small number ε > 0 ,

positive and negative values and is unbounded below there exists a positive integer N ε (N depends on ε )

and above, because by choosing sufficiently large so that for all values of n greater than N ε , x differs

values of x, f (x) can be made sufficiently large and from L in absolute value by a number less than ε .

positive or large and negative. Further, the definition is symbolized as follows:

Given x = xn, n = 1, 2, 3, …, then ‘l’ is the limit of the

Note: One must remember that a mathematical variable x ⇔ Given any small number ε > 0 , an

quantity or entity is called bounded ⇔ its absolute integer N ε exists such that x − l < ε for all

value does not exceed some constant positive number n > Nε .

M. For example, cosx is bounded for all real values of (ii) To indicate that N is a function of ε or N depends

the variable x because cos x ≤ 1 . on ε , it is usual to write N ε instead of merely N.

(iii) When a sequence has a limit, it is said to be

Limit of a Sequence convergent.

It is defined in various ways: (iv) Already the terms limit point of a set, and limit of

a sequence have been discussed. But there is a little

Definition (i): (In terms of ε -neighbourhood): A difference among them. One should note that a set

fixed number ‘l’ is the limit of a sequence {xn} ⇔ has a limit point whereas a convergent sequence has

Any ε -neighbourhood of that fixed number ‘l’

bg

denoted by N ε l contains all the terms of the

a limit which is unique. There is another term ‘limit

point of a sequence’ which is used and discussed in

sequence {xn} after a certain term namely the Nth real analysis. By limit point (limit points) of a sequence,

term (xN) of the sequence {xn} N depending on ε . one means the limit (limits) of a convergent

Definition (ii): ( ε – N definition): A fixed number ‘L’ subsequence (convergent subsequences) of a

is the limit of a sequence {xn} ⇔ Given any small sequence. In case the sequence itself is convergent,

positive number ε , it is possible to find out a term to the limit l, any sub-sequence also converges to the

namely xN such that all the terms after the Nth term same limit l.

(xN) of the sequence differ from the fixed number ‘l’ Note: The limit of a convergent sequence may or may

by a number which is less than ε ⇔ Given a small not by a member (or, term) of the sequence itself. For

number ε > 0 , ∃ an integer N such that xr − l < ε 1

for every value of r which is greater than N (i.e. example, if there is a sequence {xn} where xn = ,

n

∀ r > N ).

then lim xn = 0 but it can be seen that there is no

n→∞

member (or, the term) of the sequence whose value is

1 2 3 4 Nε r

zero.

b g

x

x1 x2 x3 x4 Nε xr

Use of ε − N Definition

Notes: (i) when a variable takes on the values of a

sequence which has a limit ‘l’, it is said that the variable

has the limit ‘l’. If x is a variable and ‘L’ is the limit of

a f

The ε − N definition of the limit of a sequence does

give us a criterion to check whether a given fixed

the sequence {xn} defined by x = xn, n = 1, 2, 3, …, one number obtained by any mathematical manipulation

must indicate that x has the limit l by the notation or method is the limit of the sequence or not.

x → l instead of xn → l as n → ∞ , where the How to show that a given number is the limit of a

sequence?

132 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

n2 + 1

given number which is required to be shown the limit Now xn = , ∀n ε N

of the sequence and xn = nth term of the sequence, 2n 2 + 5

bg

and obtain the inequality n > f ε using if method.

1 n2 + 1 1 −3

Examples: 1. Show that the sequence {xn} where and xn − = − =

xn =

1

, ∀ n ∈ N converges to ‘0’.

2 2n 2 + 5 2 2 2n 2 + 5 e j

n

Solution: In order to show that {xn} converges to 0, 1 −3 3

∴ xn − = = <ε

it is required to be shown that for an ε > 0 , it is

possible to obtain a positive integer N ε such that

2 e

2 2n 2 + 5 j e

2 2n 2 + 5 j

xn − 0 < ε for all n > N ∈ . 3

if, <ε

Now xn − 0 < ε 4n 2 + 10

1 4n 2 + 10 1

If −0 <ε or, if, >

n 3 ε

1 3

or, if <ε or, if, 4n + 10 >

2

n ε

1 3

or, if, 4n > − 10

2

or, if <ε

n ε

1 3 − 10 ε

or, if n > or, if, 4n >

2

ε ε

N ∈Q or, if, n >

2

4ε

ε is chosen, the absolute difference between the nth

term and 0 can be made as small as one likes after a 3 − 10 ε

or, if, n > = f (say)

4ε

certain term namely x N ε , i.e., by definition

or if n > N ∈ where N ∈ = f + 1

lim xn = 0 , i.e. {xn} converges to 0.

n→∞ Hence, for any ε > 0 , ∃ a positive integer N ε

2

n +1 1

2. Show that the sequence {xn} where x n = 2

, such that xn − < ε, ∀ n > N ∈ .

2n + 5 2

1

∀ n ∈ N converges to .

2 1

⇒ by definition lim x n =

1 n→∞ 2

Solution: To show that {xn} converges to , one is

2 1

⇒ {xn} converges to .

required to show that for an ε > 0 , it is possible to 2

1

obtain an N ε such that xn − <ε∀n> N.

2

Limit and Limit Points 133

for a Given Epsilon

3. lim

n→∞ H nK lim

n→∞ H n K

Solve the inequality xn − l < ε for n after The following theorems on limits of sequences are

substituting the given expression in n for xn using if also stated without proofs and can be made use of

them in working out examples while finding the limits

l q RST UV

method.

1 of given sequences.

Examples: 1. Find N if xn = 1 − n and

1

2 W If lim x n = l and nlim

n→∞ →∞

yn = m , then

ε=

b g

.

128

Theorem 1: nlim xn + yn

Solution: lim x n = 1 →∞

n→∞

= lim xn + lim yn = l + m

1 n→∞ n→∞

1

∴ xn − 1 < ε where xn = 1 − and ε =

2

n 128 Theorem 2: nlim

→∞

xn − yn b g

1 1 = lim xn − lim yn = l − m

if 1 − n

−1 < n→∞ x→∞

2 128

1 1 Theorem 3: nlim

→∞

b g

xn ⋅ y n

or, if − <

= F lim x I ⋅ F lim y I = l ⋅ m

2n 128

1 1 H n→∞ K H n K

n→∞ n

or, if n <

2 128

Theorem 4: lim G J

Fx I

Hy K

n

or, if 2 n > 2 7 n→∞

n

F lim x I

Hence, for a given ε =

1 H n→∞ K = l , if m ≠ 0

n

128

, an integer N = 7 was =

F lim y I m

found such that xn − 1 < ε for n > N = 7 N a f H n→∞ K n

Theorem 5: lim bc x g

depends on the choice of ε and so N is a function

of ε . n→∞

n

F I

= c G lim x J = c ⋅ l , where c is a constant.

Theorems of the Limit of a Sequence

The following results can be proved by making use

H n→∞ K n

b g

of the ε − δ definition of the limit of a sequence Note: To find the limit of a sequence whose nth term

is given means that one is required to find out the

and use of these can be made in working out problems

limit of its nth term as n → ∞ which can be determined

af

of finding the limits of the given sequences.

by using the same method of evaluation of lim f x

1 x→∞

1. nlim =0 replacing x by n which will be explained in methods of

→∞ n

a finding the limit of a function y = f (x) at a point x = c.

2. lim p = 0 , where a is any real number and p is

n→∞ n

positive.

134 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

Limit of a Sequence ∀ n ∈ N has only one limit point namely c in the

Geometrically lim xn = l means that however close a f

sense that c ∈ c − ε , c + ε , i.e. any ε -

n→∞ neighbourhood of C contains at least one term of the

the horizontal lines y = l + ε and y = l – ε are taken,

there exists a vertical line at x = N such that all the sequence which is not necessarily different from ‘C’.

points (n, xn) to the right of the vertical line x = N lie Further one should note that the constant sequence

within the horizontal lines Y = l ± ε . xn = c , ∀ n ∈ N has its range {c} which is a finite

set and so the range of the constant sequence has no

limit point.

l +ε y = l+ ε

1

2. The sequence xn = , ∀ n ∈ N has ‘0’ as a

l 2ε (n, x n)

l –ε y=l–ε n

limit point which is also a limit point of its range

RS1, 1 , 1 , 1 , LUV .

N=x

T 234 W

0 1 2 N x 3. The sequence xn = 1 + (–1)n, n ∈ N has only two

limit points namely ‘0 and 2’ whereas its range {0, 2}

On the Relation Between the Limit of has no limit point.

a Sequence and Limit Point of the Range

Set (or, Simply Range) of the Sequence 4. The sequence xn = − 1

n

One should note that there is no term limit point of a only two limit points namely 1 and –1 which is also the

R U

sequence because in fact only an infinite set which is

limit points of its range S− 2, 2 , − , , − , , LV .

dense has a limit point whereas a finite set has no limit 3 3 4 4

point. But there is a theorem which described the

relationship in between the terms “limit of a sequence

T 2 2 3 3 W

and the limit point of the range of the sequence in a Definition of Limit Point of a Sequence

space”.

In the above, the meaning of the term ‘limit points of

Statement of the theorem: Let {xn} be a sequence in

a sequence’ has been explained. Now the definitions

a space such that lim xn = x . Let A be the range available in connection with ‘limit points of a

n→∞

of the sequence {xn}. Then sequence’ are provided.

(a) If A is a finite set, then xn = x for infinitely many The concept of the limit points of a sequence is

‘n’. defined in two ways.

(b) If A is an infinite set, then ‘x’ is the limit point Definition 1: (In terms of neighbourhood): A point p

of A. is the limit point of the sequence ⇔ For any given

Remarks: 1. the limit points of a sequences {xn} are small number ε > 0 and any given integer N, ∃ an

either the points of the range of the sequence or the other integer n ≥ N such that xn − p < ε .

limit points of the range of the sequence. Or, in words, a limit point of a sequence is a point

2. If a point is a limit point of the range of a sequence, p such that for any given integer N, each

then it is also a limit point of the sequence but the neighbourhood of p contains at least one term of the

converse may not always be true. sequence after the Nth term.

3. If a sequence has a limit ‘l’, then it is the limit point Or, it can be said that a limit point of a sequence is

of the sequence but converse is not usually true. a point p such that for any given integer N, each

neighbourhood of p contains infinite number of terms

Limit and Limit Points 135

of the sequence after the Nth term in the sense that 2. A sequence may contain one or more convergent

the terms having the same value are counted as often subsequences.

as they occur as terms of the sequence. 1

Remarks: 1. One should note that elements of the Examples: 1. The sequence {xn} where xn = ,

n

sequence need not be distinct appearing in definite

∀ n ∈ N has only one limit point namely the real

order as various distinct terms of the sequence like

first term, second term, a third term and so on. As a 1

consequence, all the infinitely many terms xn of this number ‘0’ since xn = is a convergent sequence.

n

definition may be the same number and so any number

that occurs an infinite number of times in a given

sequence or in a subsequence (subsequences) of a

2. The sequence {x n } for which xn = −1 , b g n

sequence is a limit point of the sequence according ∀ n ∈ N , i.e. {xn} = {–1, 1, –1, 1, –1, …} has got two

to the definition 1 since what the definition 1 requires limit points namely 1 and –1 since there are two

is that there should be at least one term, i.e., an infinite

number of terms of the sequence in the sense that the subsequences x2 n = −1 b g 2n

b g

and xb2 n + 1g = − 1

2n + 1

,

same element is counted as often as it occurs as a

∀ n ∈ N , whose limits are 1 and –1 respectively.

term of the sequence.

2. A constant sequence xn = c , ∀ n ∈ N has only 1

one limit point namely the constant ‘c’. 3. The sequence {x n } for which xn = 1 + ,

n

Example: Let there be a sequence defined by ∀ n ∈ N , has got only one limit point namely 1 since

b gn

xn = −1 , ∀ n ∈ N , i.e. it is a convergent sequence.

4. The sequence {xn} where xn = 1, ∀ n ∈ N has only

lx q = l− 1, 1, − 1, 1, Lq . This sequence has 1 and

n one limit point namely 1 since it is a convergent

–1 as limit points. The reason for which is that every sequence.

neighbourhood of 1 contains an infinite number of 5. The sequence {xn} where xn = n, ∀ n ∈ N has no

terms x2, x4, x6, … and every neighbourhood of –1 limit point since it is not a convergent sequence.

contains an infinite number of terms x1, x3, x5, … in

the sense that the same element is counted as often Difference Between Limit and

as it occurs as terms (first term, second term, third Limit Point of a Sequence

term and so on) of the sequence.

There are some distinctions between a limit point and

Moreover one should note that each of the terms

the limit of a sequence.

x2 = second term, x4 = fourth term, x6 = sixth term, …

1. If all the members of the sequence {xn} from a

is 1 and each of the terms x1 = first term, x3 = third

certain term x N bε g onwards (i.e. x N + 2 , x N + 3 , L )

term, x5 = fifth term, … is –1.

Lastly one should note that the sequence b g

lie within the interval l − ε , l + ε , then l is the limit

b g

of the sequence. But when l is the limit point of the

n

xn = − 1 , ∀ n ∈ N is itself not convergent. sequence {xn}, then it is sufficient that at least one

term of the sequence (not necessarily different from

b g

Definition 2: (in terms of limit of a subsequence):

‘l’) lie within the interval l − ε , l + ε . e.g.: For any

b g

The limit (limits) of a convergent subsequence

(convergent subsequences) of a sequence is (are) ε > 0 , xn = 1 ∈ 1 − ε , 1 + ε , ∀ n ∈ N . This is

called the limit point (limit points) of the sequence. why 1 is the limit point of the constant sequence.

Remarks: 1. There is a convergent sequence ⇒ Further it should be noted that 1 is also limit of the

The limit and the limit point of the sequence both are constant sequence xn = 1.

same.

136 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

2. Limit of a sequence is unique if it exists whereas a Definition (ii): ( ε - δ -definition): A fixed point ‘p’ is

limit point of a sequence is not unique since a limit the limit of a function f at a limit point ‘a’ of the domain

point (limit points) of a sequence is the limit (limits) of the function f ⇔ ∀ ε > 0 , ∃ a δ > 0 ( δ depends

of a convergent subsequence (convergent on ε ) such that for every value of x in the deleted

subsequences) of a sequence which means that there

neighbourhood 0 < x − a < δ , the value of the

may be one or more than one limits according as there

function f (x) lies in the neighbour-

is one or more than one convergent subsequences of a

sequence whereas the sequence whose convergent b g

hood p − ε , p + ε i.e. ∀ ε > 0 , ∃ δ > 0 ( δ

depends on ε ) such that ∀ x 0 < x − a < δ

bg

subsequence (convergent subsequences) is (are)

considered, need not be convergent and in case the bg

⇒ f x − p < ε ⇒ xlim →a

f x = p . Which

sequence is convergent, its limit and limit point both

are same, e.g.: The sequence defined as xn = −1 , b gn

means p is the limit of the function f at x = a, where a

is a limit point of the domain of the function.

∀ n ∈ N is divergent, i.e. it has no limit. But it has

two subsequences xn′ = − 1 b g2n

and xn′′ = −1 b g

2n + 1 Note: It is common to say that y = f (x) has a limit p at

a point x = a instead of saying that y = f (x) has a limit

whose limits are 1 and –1 respectively which are p at the limit point x = a of its domain.

termed as the limit points of the sequence

b g n

xn = −1 , ∀ n ∈ N noting that the sequence b

Explanation of ε − δ definition g

b g n

( xn = −1 , ∀ n ∈ N ) itself has no limit but it has

got two limit points namely 1 and –1 respectively The following example as an explanation of ε − δ b g

accordingly as n is even or odd. definition of the limit of a function is presented.

b g eb x − 2g j is not defined at x = 2

5 x2 − 4

Limit of a Function f x =

5b x − 2gb x + 2g

The concept of the limit of a function is defined in

various ways:

Definition (i): (In terms of neighbourhood): we say

Now f b x g =

b x − 2g = 5b x + 2g when

that a fixed point p is a limit of the function f at a limit x≠2

point ‘a’ of the domain of the function f if there is a

fixed point ‘p’ such that if we choose any ε -

bg b g bg

[∴ x = 2 ⇒ f 2 = 5 2 + 2 , i.e. f 2 ≠ 20 ]

neighbourhood of the point ‘p’ denoted by N ε p , itbg In fact, f b x g − 20 = 5 b x + 2g − 20 , for

is possible to find a ε -neighbourhood of the limit

point ‘a’ of the domain of the function f denoted by x≠2

bg

N δ a such that the values of the function lie in = 5x − 10 = 5 x − 2 , x ≠ 2

bg

N ε p for every value of the independent variable x

which lies in δ -deleted neighbourhood of the limit ∴ 0< x−2 <

1

50

⇒ f x − 20 < bg1

10

point ‘a’ of domain of the function denoted by

bg

N δ′ a = 0 < x − a < δ , i.e. There is a fixed point ‘p’ Similarly, 0 < x − 2 <

1

bg bg

such that for every N ε p , ∃ a N δ a such that 500

bg bg bg

f x ∈ N ε p for all x ∈ N δ′ a ⇔ The fixed point

⇒ f x − 20 < bg1

‘p’ is the limit of the function f at the limit point ‘a’ of 100

the domain of the function f.

0< x−2 <

1

5000

⇒ f x − 20 < bg1

1000

Limit and Limit Points 137

Hence, we see that for every small positive Step 3: Thirdly, out of the two expressions f1(k) and

number ε , f2(k) obtained after simplification, one should choose

1

5ε

bg

⇒ f x − 20 < ε

that one which is greater.

Step 4: Fourthly, one should form the inequality

bg bg bg

f 1 k < ε , where f 1 k > f 2 k and lastly solve

In other words, for any small ε > 0, ∃ a δ

bg

f 1 k < ε for k.

1

(= Note: When f1 (k) = f2 (k), anyone can be chosen to

bg

in this example) such that

5ε form the in equality f 1 k < ε .

bg

f x − 20 < ε whenever 0 < x − 2 < δ .

Solved Examples

This fact is expressed by saying that 20 is the limit

e j as x tends to 2. it is written as

5 x2 − 4

1. Show that lim 3x + 2 = 8

x→2

b g

of f b x g =

b x − 2g Proof:

Method 1: Let 3x + 2 − 8 = u … (i)

5 e x − 4j

2

and x − 2 = k , i.e., x = 2 ± k

lim

x→2 b x − 2g = 20

Note: The bε − δ g definition does not provide a

b

∴ x = 2 + k ⇒ u = 3 2 + k + 2 − 8 , from g

technique to calculate the limit which is a fixed number (i).

‘l’. What the bε − δ g definition does is supply a = 6 + 3k + 2 − 8 = 3k + 2 − 2 = 3k

criterion which one uses to test a number ‘l’ to see

whether it is actually the limit of a function f as x tends = 3k bQ k > 0g

to a, where ‘a’ is the limit point of the domain of the

function.

b

and x = 2 − k ⇒ u = 3 2 − k + 2 − 8 , from (i) g

= 6 − 3k + 2 − 8

How to find a δ > 0 for a given f, l, a

= – 3k + 2 − 2

and ε > 0 algebraically

= – 3k b

= 3k Q k > 0 g

0< x−a <δ⇒ f x −l <ε af Now, 3k < ε ⇔ k <

ε

3

= δ (say)

Consists of the following steps:

ε

Step 1: Firstly, one should suppose that ∴ x−2 <δ=

af

f x − l = u and simplify it. 3

Step 2: Secondly, on supposing that ‘k’ is a small b g

⇒ 3 x + 2 − 8 < ε ⇔ lim 3x + 2 = 8 ,

x→2

b g

positive number and letting x − a = k , i.e.,

Hence proved.

x = a ± k , one should make the substitution x = a +

bg

k and x = a – k respectively in f x − l = u and Method 2: xlim

→2

3x + 2 = 8b g

simplify it which gives two expressions in K namely

if 3x + 2 − 8 < ε

f1(k) and f2(k) (say).

or, if 3x − 6 < ε

138 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

or, if 3 x − 2 < ε b g

⇔ 17 + 30 ε k < 100 ε

ε 100 ε

or, if x − 2 < = δ (say) ⇔k < = δ (say)

3 17 + 30 ε

ε

Thus 0 < x − 2 < δ = 100 ε

3 ∴ 0< x−2 < =δ

17 + 30 ε

b

⇒ 3x + 2 − 8 < ε g

2x − 3

b g

1

∴ lim 3 x + 2 = 8 . Hence, proved. ⇒ − <ε

x→2 3x + 4 10

F 2 x − 3IJ = 1

lim G

FG 2 x − 3IJ = 1 Hence, proved.

2. Show that

x→2 H 3x + 4 K 10 ⇔ lim

x→2H 3x + 4 K 10

2x − 3

3. Show that lim G

F x − 4I = 4

2

H x − 2 JK

1

Proof: Let − =u

3x + 4 10 x→2

and x − 2 = k ⇒ x = 2 ± k Proof:

F x − 4I − 4 = u

2

Now, u =

2x − 3

−

3x + 4 10

1 Method 1: Let GH x − 2 JK … (i)

and x − 2 = k , i.e., x = 2 ± k

20 x − 30 − 3x − 4 17 x − 34

=

b

3x + 4 10 g =

b g

3x + 4 10 F x − 4 I − 4 , from (i).

2

17 x − 2

Now u = GH x − 2 JK

=

b3x + 4g 10 ... (i)

b x − 2gbx + 2g − 4 = b x + 2g − 4

17k

=

b x − 2g

∴x = 2 + k ⇒u =

10 + 3k 10 b g = x−2

17 k

and x = 2 − k ⇒ u =

b

10 − 3k 10 g ∴ x=2+k⇒u= 2+k −2 =k

and x = 2 − k ⇒ u = 2 − k − 2 = k

17 k 17k

But

b

10 − 3k 10

>

g

10 + 3k 10 b g ∴ k < ε = δ (say)

Hence, 0 < x − 2 < ε = δ

17 k

Now,

b g

10 − 3k 10

< ε , for sufficiently small k.

F x − 4I − 4

2

⇒ GH x − 2 JK <ε

⇔ 17k + 30 ε k < 100 ε

Limit and Limit Points 139

⇔ lim G

F x − 4 I = 4 . Hence, proved.

2 But k 2 + 4 k > 4 k − k 2

x→2 H x − 2 JK Now, k 2 + 4 k < ε

Method 2: lim G

F x − 4I = 4

2 ⇔ k 2 + 4k − ε < 0

x→2 H x − 2 JK ⇔k <

− 4 + 16 + 4ε

=

−4 + 2 4 + ε

F x − 4I − 4 < ε

If G

2

2 2

H x − 2 JK = −2 + 4 + ε = δ (say)

b x − 2gb x + 2g − 4 < ε

or, if

b x − 2g ⇒ x2 − 4 < ε

or, if b x + 2 g − 4 < ε

⇔ lim x 2 = 4 . Hence, proved.

x→2

x→2

∴0 < x − 2 < ε = δ

(* Q x 2 − 4 = x − 2 b g 2

+ 4x − 4 − 4

F x − 4I − 4 < ε

2

b g

⇒ GH x − 2 JK = x−2

2

+ 4x − 8

F x − 4 I = 4 . Hence, proved.

2

∴ x2 − 4 = b x − 2g 2

+ 4x − 8

⇔ lim G

H x − 2 JK

x→2

= b x − 2g 2

+4 x−2 )

→2

Proof:

Method 1: Let u = x − 4 2

… (i)

if b x − 2g 2

+4 x−2 <ε

2

or, if x − 2 +4 x−2 −ε<0

and x − 2 = k , i.e., x = 2 ± k

− 4 + 16 + 4 ε

∴ x=2+k ⇒u= b2 + k g 2

−4 or, if x − 2 <

2

= 4 + 4k + k 2 − 4 = k 2 + 4k −4 + 2 4 + ε

or, if x − 2 <

b

= k 2 + 4k Q k > 0 g = −2 + 4 + ε = δ (say)

2

and x = 2 − k ⇒ u = 2 − k b g 2

−4

Thus, x 2 − 4 < ε

= 4 − 4k + k 2 − 4 = k 2 − 4k

if 0 < x − 2 < δ = − 2 + 4 + ε

= 4k – k2 for small k,

140 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

x→2 ⇒ e2 x 2

− 3x + 4 − 9 < ε j

x→3

e

5. Show that lim 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 = 13 . j ⇔ lim

x→3

e 2x 2

j

− 3x + 4 = 13 . Hence, proved.

Proof:

Method 1: Let 2 x − 3 x + 4 − 13 = u

2 … (i)

bg

Method 2: Here f x = 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 , l = 13 and

a=3

and x − 3 = k , i.e., x = 3 ± k bg

f x − l = 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 − 13 = 2 x 2 − 3x − 9

= 2b x − 3 g b g

Now u = 2 x − 3x + 4 − 13

2

2

+2 x−3

= 2 x 2 − 3x − 9 , from (i) bg

∴ for any ε > 0, f x − l < ε

2 b x − 3g + 9 b x − 3g < ε

∴ x =3+ k ⇒u 2

if

= 2 3+ kb g − 3b3 + k g − 9

2

2

or, if 2 x − 3 +9 x−3 <ε

= 2 e9 + 6k + k j − 9 − 3k − 9

2

2

or, if 2 x − 3 +9 x−3 −ε<0

= 18 + 12 k + 2 k − 3k − 18 2

− 9 + 81 + 8ε

or, if x − 3 < = δ (say)

= 2k 2 + 9k = 2k 2 + 9k Q k > 0 b g 4

− 9 + 81 + 8ε

and x = 3 − k ∴ 0< x −3 <δ=

4

⇒u= 2 3− k b g 2

b

−3 3− k − 9g e

⇒ 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 − 9 < ε j

e

= 2 9 − 6k + k 2

j − 9 + 3k − 9 e

⇔ lim 2x 2 − 3x + 4 = 13 j

x→2

= 18 − 12 k + 2 k 2 + 3k − 18

= 2 k 2 − 9 k = 9 k − 2 k 2 , for small k.

b

The use of ε − δ Definition g

to Prove Theorems

But 2 k + 9 k > 2 k − 9 k

2 2

b g

The ε − δ definition does not only give a criterion

Now 2 k + 9 k < ε

2 to check the value obtained whether it is limit or not

but also it enables us to prove many theorems and

⇔ 2k 2 + 9k − ε < 0 many useful results.

− 9 + 81 + 8ε Theorem 1: xlim

→a

bg bg

f x = f a ⇒ lim f x

x→a

bg

⇔k< = δ (say)

4

= f x bg

− 9 + 81 + 8ε

∴ 0< x−3 <δ=

4 Proof: bg

f x − f x bg bg

≤ f x − f a … (i)bg

Limit and Limit Points 141

Also, lim f x = f a

x→a

bg bg LM f a xf OP = lim f x

x→a

af l

N g a xf Q lim g a x f m

(iv) lim = , provided

⇒ for any given x→a

bg bg

x→a

ε > 0, ∃ a δ > 0 s.t f x − f a < ε , ∀ x for

m≠0

which 0 < x − a < δ … (ii) (v) For any positive integer n = 1, 2, 3, …

∴ (i) and (ii) ⇒ ∀ ε > 0, ∃ a δ > 0 s.t

a f = LMN lim x OPQ

n

n

lim f x =l .

bg

f x − f a bg < ∈, ∀x for which

x→a x→a

LM OP n

0< x−a <δ [If follows that lim x n = lim x

x→a N x→a Q = an ]

∴ lim

x→a

bg

f x = f a bg (vi) When m and n are positive integers, then

n n

Theorem 2: Show that lim c = c (a) if m is even lim x m = a m for 0 < a < ∞

x→a

x→a

(b) if m is odd lim x m = a m for − ∞ < a < ∞

n

∴ bg

f x −l = c−c =0

x→a

bg

(vii) If f 1 x ≤ f 2 x ≤ f 3 x bg bg

bg

for all x in an

∴ ∀ ε > 0, f x − l < ε for

open interval containing ‘a’ except possibly at

0 < x − a < δ , where δ > 0 is any number. x = a and if

x→a

af

lim f 1 x = lim f 3 x = l , then

x→a

af

Theorem 3: lim x = a

x→a af

lim f 2 x = l

x→a

af

Proof: = f x − l = x − a (This theorem is called ‘Sandwitch Theorem or

∴ af

f x − l < ε when 0 < x − a < δ

Pinching Theorem’)

Note: The expression ‘except possibly at x = a’ means

Hence, the result. that f (x) may or may not be defined at x = a.

Now, we state (without proof) some results on limits Now, we can make use of these results in evaluating

x→a

af

Let lim f x = l and lim g x = m

x→a

bg limits of polynomials, rational functions and powers

of such functions.

And let C be any constant. Then

Examples: Evaluate

(i) lim

x→a

bg bg

f x + g x

e

1. lim 2 x 3 − 3x 2 + 6 x + 5 j

x→2

= lim f b x g + lim g b x g = l + m

x→a x→a

e

Solution: lim 2 x − 3x + 6 x + 5

3 2

j

L O

x→2

x→a N x→a Q x→2

3

x→2

2

x→2 x→2

(iii) lim f b x g ⋅ g b x g

x→a = 2 lim e x j − 3 lim e x j + 6 lim a x f + lim b5g

3 2

x→2 x→2 x→2 x→2

N

x→a QN x→a Q = 2 ⋅ 23 − 3 ⋅ 22 + 6 ⋅ 2 + 5

142 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

= 16 − 12 + 12 + 5

= 21 =

e2.3 2

− 3.3 + 4 j = 13

17 17

Note: We see in the above example that if

bg

f x = 2 x 3 − 3x 2 + 6 x + 5 , then, lim f x = 21

x→2

bg 3. xlim

→4

e

x2 + 2x − 5 j 3

e j

Also, f (2) = 21 3

bg

Hence, lim f x = value of f (x) at x = 2 = f (2).

x→2

Solution: xlim

→4

x2 + 2x − 5

bg bg LM e jOPQ

3

However, lim f x = f a is not in general

true. We have

x→a

N

= lim x 2 + 2 x − 5

x→4

3

b g eb x − 2g j , then N Q

2

5 x2 − 4

f x = bg

lim f x = 20

x→2

x→4 x→4 x→4

= e4 + 2.4 − 5j

2 3

But f (2) is undefined. We will see in the

definition of the concept of continuity that if

= 19 3

bg bg

lim f x = f a , then f (x) is said to be continuous

e5 j

x→a 3 −5

4. lim x + 3x 2 − 2 x 4

at x = a. x → 64

As seen above, f (x) = 2x 3 – 3x2 + 6x + 5 is

continuous at x = 2. Solution: lim

x → 64

e5 x + 3x 2 − 2 x

3 −5

4

j

In fact, any polynomial function is continuous for

−5

each value of x ∈ R .

1 3

= 5 lim x 2 + 3 lim x 2 − 2 lim x 4

x → 64 x → 64 x → 64

F 2x 2 I

− 3x + 4

2. lim GH x J

+ x+5 K b g

= 5 64

1

+ 3 ⋅ 64 b g 3

−2⋅

1

b64g

2 2

x→3 2 5

4

e j

1 2

lim x 2 + x + 5 = 5 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 83 − 2 ⋅ 5

= 40 + 1536 −

x→3 4 1024

x→3

e j

= lim x 2 + lim x + lim 5

x→3

bg x→3

bg = 1576 −

2

1024

=

1576 × 1024 − 2

1024

= 32 + 3 + 5 = 17 which is not zero.

F 2 x − 3x + 4 I

1613822

2 =

∴ lim G

H x + x + 5 JK

1024

x→3 2

5. Prove that lim sin x = 0

x→0

lim e2 x − 3x + 4j

2

π π

x→3

= Proof: From the figure, for − <x<

lim e x + x + 5j

2 2 2

x→3

length of MP

lim e2 x j − lim b3x g + lim b4g

2 sin x =

x→3 x→3 x→3

OP

=

17

Limit and Limit Points 143

FG 1 IJ = 0

MP

=

= MP

1 lim x sin

x→0 H xK

Note: The above result (results) can be shown in

≤ length of AP various ways which is (are) shown in this book.

≤ length of arc AP 7. Prove that lim cos x = 1

x→0

B

P π π

Proof: For − <x< ,

2 2

x

0 M A π π

1 (Q − < x < ⇒ 0 < cos x < 1 and

2 2

∴ sin x ≤ x

0 ≤ a ≤ 1⇒ a ≤ a )

∴ sin x − 0 = sin x ≤ x − 0 π π

Hence, we have for − <x< ,

∴ For any ε > 0, ∃ a δ > 0 s.t sin x − 0 < ε 2 2

e j F lim sin xI 2

x→0 Since, lim 1 − sin 2 x = 1 −

x→0 H x→0 K

FG 1 IJ = 0 = 1 − 0 = 1 , It follows from Pinching theorem and (i)

6. Prove that lim x sin

x→0 H xK that lim cos x = 1 .

F 1I

x sin G J ≤ x sin G J

F 1I x→0

Proof: Q 0 ≤ H xK H xK ≤

FG sin x IJ = 1

x ⋅1 = x

8. lim

x→0 H xK

Note 1: This limit plays a significant role in

FG 1 IJ mathematical analysis. It is often called first remarkable

∴ 0 ≤ x sin

H xK ≤ x limit.

Note 2: A strict proof of this limit depends upon

Now, since lim x = 0 defining sin x as a power series in x and upon certain

x→0 properties of power series. Therefore, its proof by

∴ By the Pinching theorem geometrical argument will be presented in the chapter

FG 1 IJ to find the limits of trigonometrical function using

lim x sin

x→0 H xK =0 … (i) practical methods.

FG 1 IJ FG 1 IJ ≤ FG 1 IJ It is recalled that in the definition of the limit of f (x) as

− x sin

H xK ≤ x sin

H xK x sin

H xK x tends to a, it was required that the function f (x)

should be defined in some deleted neighbourhood of

144 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

‘a’ (i.e., a is an interior point of an open interval where 0 < x < δ , the value of the function f (x) lies in the ε -

f (x) is defined and f (x) may or may not be defined at b g

neighbourhood p − ε , p + ε i.e. given any ε > 0 ,

x = a). it is possible to find a δ > 0 such that 0 < x − a < δ

Now, let us consider the function f (x) = x−2 bg

⇒ f x − p <ε that is a< x<a+δ

clearly, f (x) is not defined for x < 2. Hence, f (x) is not

defined in any deleted neighbourhood of 2.

bg

⇒ p − ε < f x < p + ε.

Hence, lim

x→2

x − 2 does not exist. Notation:

x → a+

bg e j

lim f x , f a + and f a + 0 areb g

available notations for the right hand limit of a

Similarly, lim x and lim x 2 − 9 do not function f at x = a, where ‘a’ is right limit point of the

x→0 x→3

domain of the function f.

exist.

F πI

Definition (ii): (left hand limit): (In terms of

sin G J

H x K , then lim f b xg does not

neighbourhood)

Note: If f b x g =

(a) A fixed point p is the left hand limit of the func-

F πI

sin G J

x→0 tion f at the left limit point ‘a’ of the domain of the

H xK function f if there is a fixed point p such that if we

choose any ε -neighbourhood of p denoted by N ε p , bg

1 it is possible to find a δ -neighbourhood of the left

exist. In fact for x = (where n = any nonzero

n limit point ‘a’ of the domain of the function f denoted

FG π IJ = 0 and so f (x) is not defined. bg

by N δ p such that the values of the function f (x) lie

integer) sin

H xK bg

in N ε p for every value of the independent variable

x which lies in the left hand δ -deleted neighbourhood

Hence, in any deleted neighbourhood of x = 0, we of the left limit point ‘a’ of the domain of the function

have points where f (x) is undefined.

bg

f denoted by N δ′ a = 0 < a – x < δ i.e., a − δ < x < a .

Definition (i): (Right hand limit): (In terms of

neighbourhood):

b g

(b) (In terms of ε − δ definition): A fixed point ‘p’

is the left hand limit of a function f at the left limit

(a) A fixed point ‘p’ is a right hand limit of the function

point ‘a’ of the domain of the function f ⇔ ∀ ε > 0 ,

f at the right limit point ‘a’ of the domain of the function

f if there is a fixed point p such that if we choose any

b g

∃ a δ > 0 δ depends on ε such that for every value

ε -neighbourhood of p denoted by N ε p , it is bg of x in the left deleted δ -neighbourhood 0 < a – x <

δ , the value of the function f (x) lies in the ε -

possible to find a δ -neighbourhood of the right limit

point ‘a’ of the domain of the function f denoted by

b

neighbourhood p − ε , p + ε . g

bg

N δ p such that the values of the function f (x) lie in That is, given ε > 0 , it is possible to find δ > 0

bg

N ε p for every value of independent variable x such that

which lies in a right hand δ -deleted neighbourhood 0<a – x<δ⇒ f x − p <ε bg

bg

of the right limit point ‘a’ of the domain of the function

bg

f denoted by N δ′ a = 0 < x – a < δ . or, a − δ < x < a ⇒ p − ε < f x < p + ε

b g

(b) (In terms of ε − p definition): A fixed point ‘p’

Notation: bg e j

lim f x , f a − and f (a – 0) are

is the right hand limit of a function f at the right limit x → a−

point ‘a’ of the domain of the function f ⇔ ∀ ε > 0 ,

available notations for the left hand limit of a function

∃ a δ > 0 ( δ depends on ε ) such that for every f at x = a, where ‘a’ is the left limit point of the domain

value of x in the right hand δ -deleted neighbourhood of a function.

Limit and Limit Points 145

Notes: 1. Limit of a function f is said to exist at an Limit of a function f as x → − ∞ : Let the function f

interior point of its domain or at the limit point not in

its domain ⇔ left hand limit and right hand limit of

b g

be defined on the interval − ∞, a , then it is said

the function are finite and equal at the interior point that a number L = lim

x → −∞

bg

f x ⇔ ∀ ε > 0, ∃ a

of the domain of the function. number M ε > 0 such that

2. Limit of a function f is said to exist at the right limit

point of its domain ⇔ right hand limit of the function ∀ x<−M ⇒ f x − L <εaf

f is finite at the right limit point of the domain of the

function f.

Notes: 1. One must note that if lim f x = L , then

x→∞

af

3. Limit of a function f is said to exist at the left limit

point of its domain ⇔ left hand limit of the function

lim f x

x→∞

bg = lim

x → +∞

bg

f x = lim

x → −∞

bg

f x = L

f is finite at the left limit point of the domain of the

F KI = + ∞

function f.

4. The δ -neighbourhood of a point ‘a’ excluding

2. (i) One must use lim

+

x→0 H xK (K is a

the point ‘a’, is divided into two parts by the point ‘a’

b

on the real line. These are intervals a – δ , a and g positive number)

b g

a , a + δ where it is required to restrict x to lie to F K I = − ∞ (K is a positive number)

find the left hand limit and right hand limit respectively.

(ii) lim−

x→0 H xK

Limit of a Function as x → ∞ FKI

lim G J = ∞ (K is a positive number)

HxK

(iii)

x→0

Cauchy definition: (Also, termed as “( ε – M)

definition): To define the limit of a function f as x → ∞ ,

F K I = 0 (K is a positive number)

first of all the domain of a function f is fixed.

Let a function f be defined out side of some interval

(iv) lim

x → +∞ H xK

[c, d], or it can be said that the function f is defined in F K I = 0 (K is a positive number)

the neighbourhood of infinity (symbolized as ∞ ), i.e.

the function f is defined for all x satisfying the

(v) lim

x → −∞ H xK

inequality | x | > K, (i.e. x > K or x < –K, where K > 0), FKI

lim G J = 0 (K is a positive number),

HxK

i.e. the domain of the function f is not bounded. (vi)

bg

x→∞

∴ A number L = lim f x ⇔ ∀ ε > 0, ∃ a

x→∞

x→∞ x

K

=0

bg

⇒ f x − L < ε. (vii) The notation

It is sometimes of interest to consider two separate

cases of seeking the limits of a function f, viz., when x

bg

lim f x = ∞ ⇔ lim

x→a x →a

bg

f x =∞

tends to + ∞ and when x tends to − ∞ . We define

each one in the following way. bg

(viii) A function f for which lim f x = 0 is called

x→a

Limit of a Function f as x → + ∞ : Let the function infinitesimal as x → a i.e. a function whose limit is

b g

f be defined on the interval a, + ∞ , then it is said zero at the limit point ‘a’ of the domain of a function f

that a number L = lim f b xg ⇔ ∀ ε > 0 , ∃ a is called infinitesimal.

x → +∞

number Mε > 0 such that ∀x> M∈

bg

⇒ f x − L < ε.

146 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

Solved Examples 3

or, if <ε

1 | x| − 2

1. Prove that lim =0

x→∞ x or, if 3 < ε | x | − 2ε

x

and it is given L = 0

or, if ε | x | > 3 + 2ε

3 + 2ε

∴ bg

f x − L < ε,

or, if | x | >

ε

= M (say)

1 x+5 3 + 2ε

i.e., ⇒ −0 <ε Hence − 1 < ε for x >

x x+2 ε

if

1

<ε FG x + 5 IJ = 1

x ⇒ lim

H x + 2K

x→∞

1

or, if <ε

x x → +∞ x → −∞

or, if x > x→∞

= M (say)

ε

F 2x + 3 I

Question: Prove that lim G

GH 4 x + 2 JJK

2

1 1

Hence, − 0 < ε for x > does not

x ε x→∞

1 exist.

⇒ lim =0

x→∞ x

F I

FG x + 5 IJ = 1 GG JJ

2

2x + 3

Proof: lim

2. Prove that lim

x→∞ H x + 2K x → +∞

H 4x + 2

K

Proof: Let f x =bg x+5

x+2

and it is given L = 1 x 2+

3

x2 2

bg

= lim

x → +∞ FG 2

=

4 IJ … (i)

∴ f x − L < ε,

H

x 4+

x K

x+5

i.e., ⇒ −1 <ε F I

x+2

and lim GG 2x2 + 3

JJ

x + 5 − x− 2

x → −∞

H 4x + 2 K

if <ε

x+2

LM − x 2 + 3 OP

MM x P 2 2

F 2I P

3

<ε = lim =− … (ii)

G J

or, if

MN H x K PQ

x → −∞ 4

x+2 x 4 +

Limit and Limit Points 147

Hence, (i) and (ii) ⇒ lim G

GH

2x2 + 3

JJ does not Let f : X → R , X ⊆ R , and supposing that ‘a’ is a

x→∞ 4x + 2 K limit point of the set X which is the domain of the

exist. function f.

x→a

bg

2. The notation lim f x = ∞ means that Definition: (Hein’s): A number l is the limit of the

function f at a limit point ‘a’ of the domain of the

lim

x→a

bg

f x = +∞ . x→a

bg

function f, i.e., lim f x = L ⇔ For any sequence

of values of x converging to the number ‘a’

FG 1 IJ = ∞ since lim 1

Examples: (i) lim

x→0 H xK x→0 x

=+∞ (x1, x2, x3, … xn, … belonging to the domain of

definition of the function and being different from a,

(ii) lim

x→2 H x − 2K x−2

x→2

The corresponding sequence of values of y

b g y = f bx g , y = f b x g , ...,

y1 = f x1 ,

f b x g = ∞ ⇔ for every positive number M,

2 2 3 3

3. lim

x→∞

yn n

however large, there exists a positive number P such

that f x bg > M whenever x > P . Notes: (i) It is emphasized that the concept of the

x→∞

bg

f x = + ∞ , i.e.

limit of a function at a point ‘a’ is possible only for a

limit point ‘a’ of the domain of the function.

lim

x → +∞

f x b g = +∞. (ii) Hein’s definition of the limit of a function is

conveniently applied when it is required to show

F 2x I = ∞

that a function f (x) has no limit. For this it is

2

Example: lim

x→∞ GH x + 1JK

2

sufficient to show that there exist two sequences

n→∞ n→∞

Since 2

2x3 but the corresponding sequences m f bx ′ g r

n and

x +1

m f b x ′′g r do not have identical limits, i.e. if

F 2x I

n

2

x G

=

H x + 1JK

2 x n′ → 0

n

x n′′ → 0

n x→0

F I

x→0

x ⋅G

GH 1 + x1 JJK

n n

xn → 0

= → + ∞ as x → + ∞

F 1I

Example: 1. Show that lim sin G J does not exist.

2

H xKx→0

1

N.B: Solution: On choosing two sequences xn′ =

x→∞ 2n π

f (x) whose domain is a subset of R and the range is

1

unbounded. and xn′′ = (n = 1, 2, 3, …)

π

2n π +

2

148 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

xn′ → 0 ≡ n → ∞ Evaluate the following ones:

xn′′ → 0 ≡ n → ∞ FG 1 IJ

Now,

(i) lim x ⋅ sin

x→0 H xK

FG 1 IJ F 1I

H xK lim x ⋅ cos G J

H xK

lim sin (ii)

x→0

x→0

FG 1 IJ FG 1 IJ

a f H x′ K

= lim sin

x n′ → 0 n

Solution: (i) Let f (x) = x and g x = sin bg H xK

= lim c sin b2 n π gh = 0 bg

Now, lim f x = lim x = 0

n→∞ x→0 x→0

F 1I

Also, lim sin G J F 1I

and g b x g = sin G J ≤ 1, ∀ x , x ≠ 0

x→0 H xK H xK

= lim sin G J

F 1I ⇒ g b x g is bounded in a deleted neighbourhood

a f H x ′′ K

x n′′ → 0 n of the point ‘0’.

F F π II

= lim G sin G 2n π + J J = 1 FG 1 IJ = 0

H H

n→∞ 2 KK

Hence, lim x sin

x→0 H xK

Hence, lim f b x ′ g = 0 and lim f b x ′′g = 1

x n′ → 0 n x n′′ → 0 n

FG 1 IJ

F 1I

(ii) Let f (x) = x and g (x) = cos

H xK

∴ lim sin G J does not exist.

x→0 H xK bg

Now lim f x = lim x = 0

x→0 x→0

Limit of The Product of an Infinitesimal

F 1I

and g b x g = cos G J ≤ 1 , ∀ x , x ≠ 0 .

and a Bounded Function

H xK

⇒ gb x g is bounded in a deleted neighbourhood

Definition (i): A function f is bounded in a δ -

neighbourhood of a point x = a ⇔ ∃ a real number

bg

‘m’ such that f x ≤ m , ∀ x in x − a < δ .

of the point ‘0’.

FG 1 IJ = 0

Definition (ii): A function f is bounded in a deleted

δ -neighbourhood of a point x = a ⇔ ∃ a real

Hence, L x cos

x→0 H xK

number m such that f x ≤ m , ∀ x in bg Geometrical Meaning of the

0 < x − a < δ. Limit of a Function

Now an important theorem which provides us a

On the Limit: In the language of geometry, the limit of

relation between an infinitesimal and a bounded

a function y = f (x) at a point x = c, where c is a limit

function.

bg

point of the domain of the function f, can be stated as:

Theorem: lim f x = 0 and g (x) is bounded “If given any ε > 0 , ∃ a δ ε > 0 (i.e. a positive

x→a

in a deleted neighbourhood of the point real number δ depending upon ε ): such that a part

bg bg

⇔ lim f x ⋅ g x = 0 .

x→a

(i.e. a portion) of the graph of the function y = f (x) lies

in the rectangle bounded by the lines

Limit and Limit Points 149

Y y = f( x)

x = c − δ , x = c + δ (vertical lines)

y = l − ε , y = l + ε (horizontal lines) l+ε

ε l

then ‘L’ is the limit of the function y = f (x) at the point Nε(l) 2ε

l

x = c. ε

l–ε

That is, a portion of the graph of the function y = f

(x) can be obtained in a rectangle whose height can

be taken as small as one pleases by choosing the

width as small as one requires.

δ

Y

0 c–δ c x

y = f( x )

ε l

Nε(l) 2ε y=l

l

ε

l–ε y=l–ε Right (or right hand) Limit

x=c+δ

x=c–δ

x=c

δ δ right limit point of the domain of the function f, is

0 c–δ c c+δ x narrated as:

“Given any ε > 0, ∃ a δ ε > 0 : a portion of the

N δ(c)

graph of the function y = f (x) lies in the rectangle

bounded by the lines

Left (or left hand) Limit x = c, x = c + δ

Geometrically, the left limit of the function y = f (x) at a y = L − ε, y = L + ε

point x = c, where ‘c’ is the left limit point of the

then f (x) is said to have the right limit at x = c.

domain of the function f, can be stated as:

That is, a portion of the graph of the function y = f

“Given an ε > 0 , ∃ a δ ε > 0 : a portion of the (x) can be obtained in a rectangle whose height is

graph of the function y = f (x) lies in the rectangle arbitrarily small by choosing the width (on the right of

bounded by the lines the point x = c) as small as one requires.

x = c − δ, x = c (vertical lines)

Y y = f( x)

y = l − ε , y = l + ε (horizontal lines)

then it is said that f (x) has the left limit at the point l +ε y=l +ε

ε l 2ε

x = c. Nε(l ) l y=l

ε

That is, a portion of the graph of the function y = f l –ε y=l –ε

(x) can be obtained in a rectangle whose height is

x=c +δ

x=c

the point x = c) as small as one requires.

δ

0 c c +δ x

Nδ(c )

150 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

A Short Review on the Limit and the Difference Between the Limit and the

Value of a Function y = f (x) at a Point x = c Value of a Function y = f (x) at a Point x = c

In connection with the limit and the value of a function The main difference between the limit and the value

y = f (x) at a point x = C, the following points should of function y = f (x) at a point x = c is the following:

be noted. The limit of a function y = f (x) at a point x = c is a fixed

1. While finding the limit of a function y = f (x) at a number L in whose ε -neighbourhood lie the values

point x = c, one is required to consider the values of of the function f (at each value of the independent

the function at values of x in the deleted variable x situated in the δ -deleted neighbourhood

neighbourhood of the point x = C which are arbitrarily of the limit point of the domain of the functions f)

close to a fixed number l named as the limit of the which are arbitrarily close to (i.e. at little distance from

function y = f (x) at the point x = c. l, i.e. little less or little more in absolute value) to the

2. The value of the function y = f (x) at the point x = c fixed number l while the value of the function y = f (x)

is left out of the discussion. This (i.e. f (a)) may or at a point x = c represented by f (c) is a number obtained

may not exist. Even if f (a) exists, f (a) need not be by use of the substitution x = c in the given function

equal to or even close to the limit l of the function f

x→c

bg

y = f (x), i.e. (f (x))x = c = f (c) or in brief, lim f x is a

at c.

fixed number close (near) to which there are values of

For example,

the function f for each value of x lying in the deleted

bg

Let f x =

x2 − 4

x−2

,x≠2

neighbourhood of the limit c of the domain of the

function f whereas f (c) is the value of the function f

(x) at x = c which is a number obtained from the rules

= 6, x = 2 defining the function by making the use of

In this example f (2) = 6 is given but the limit of f (x) substitution x = c in it.

at x = 2 is 4.

Continuity of a Function 151

3

Continuity of a Function

In general, the Limit of a function y = f (x) at a limit (i) f (a) is defined, i.e., the limit point ‘a’ lies in the

point of its domain namely x = a need not be equal to domain of f.

the value of the given function y = f (x) at the limit (ii) lim f ( x ) exists

point x = a which means that the limit of the given x→a

function may or may not be equal to the value of the

(iii) xlim

→ a f (x) = f (a)

given function, i.e. lim f ( x ) is not necessarily equal

x→a 3. One should note that

to f (a).

However, there is an important class of functions

bg

(i) The definition of lim f x = p requires that ‘a’

x→a

for which the limit and the value are same. Such is the limit point of D (f) where ‘a’ is not necessarily in

functions are called continuous functions. D (f) while the definition of continuity of a function at

Definition: If x = a is a limit point in the domain of a the limit point ‘a’ requires that the limit point ‘a’ must

given function y = f (x) and the limit y = f (x) at x = a is be in D (f) which means that it is a must for ‘a’ to be an

f (a), then the function y = f (x) is said to be continuous interior point of D (f).

at the given limit point x = a and ‘a’ is termed as the (ii) By definition of continuity given above it is pos-

point of continuity of the given functions y = f (x), i.e. sible for a function to be continuous at a limit point in

f (x) is continuous at the limit point x = a of its domain its domain D (f) but not to have a limit as x → a .

Situation arises in the case of a function that is con-

⇔ lim f (x) = f (a). Hence, in words, the continuity

x→a tinuous at an isolated point of its domain D (f).

of a given function at a given limit point in the domain

of the given function ⇔ limit of the same function at

( ε − δ ) Definition of Continuity of a

the given limit point = value of the given function at

Function at the Limit Point of its Domain

the given limit point.

Notes: 1. The definition of continuity says that given It says that a function y = f (x) is continuous at the

function should be defined both for the limit point x = limit point x = a ⇔ ∀ given ε > 0 , ∃ δ (ε ) such

bg

a ∈ D f and for all other points near x = a (near x = a that x − a < δ ⇒ f ( x ) − f (a ) < ε .

means in the open interval (a – h, a + h), where ‘h’ is The definition of continuity of a functions y =

a small positive number) in D (f). f (x) at the limit point x = a of its domain, given

2. In more abstract form, the definition of continuity above, implies that, if any neighbourhood

of a function at the limit point in its domain tells us

( f (a ) − ε , f (a) + ε ) is chosen of the number f (a),

that a function f is continuous at the limit point

of arbitrary length, 2 ε where ε is any positive

x=a⇔

152 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

number, however small, then for this ε -neighbourhood f (x) and g (x) are two functions continuous at any

of f (x), there is always a δ -neighbourhood point x = a, then the functions (i) y = f (x) + g (x) (ii) y =

a f

a − δ , a + δ of the limit point ‘a’ such that for f ( x)

every value of x in the δ -neighbourhood, the f (x) – g (x) (iii) y = f (x) · g (x) (iv) y = ,

g ( x)

value of f (x) lies in ε -neighbourhood

g (a ) ≠ 0 are also continuous at the same point x = a.

( f (a ) − ε , f (a) + ε ) .

a f

B. The scalar multiple, modulus and reciprocal of a

Remarks: In connection with ε − δ definition of function continuous at a point in their domain are

limit and continuity of a function at the limit point of continuous at the same point, provided in case of

(and in) its domain, one should note that

a f a

(i) ε − δ definition of continuity is same as ε − δ f reciprocal of a functions, the function in denominator

is not zero at the point where continuity of y is required

definition of limit of a function in which “l = limit of f to be tested, i.e., if f (x) is a function continuous at a

(x) at the limit point x = a” is replaced by f (a) = value point x = a and k is any constant, then the functions

of the function f (x) at x = a. 1

(ii) ε > 0, however small, means that one may take (i) y = k f (x), (ii) y = 1 f (x)1, (iii) y =, f (a ) ≠ 0

f ( x)

ε = 01 . , 0.01, 0.001, 0.0001 and so on according to are also continuous at the same point x = a.

degree of accuracy which one proposes to adopt. C. Continuity of a composite function at a point: If

The key point is that ε is an arbitrary (not fixed) the inner function of a composite function is

number of our own selection, and that it may be taken continuous at a point a in its domain and the outer

as small as we please. function is continuous at the point representing the

(iii) It is common to say that y = f (x) is continuous at

bg

a point x = a ∈ D f instead of saying that y = f (x)

value of the inner function at the point a, then the

composite function is continuous at the point a of

is continuous at a limit point x = a in the domain of the continuity of the inner function, i.e. if y = f (x) is

given function y = f (x). continuous at the point x = a and the function u = g

(y) is continuous a the point f (a) = b (s a y), then the

Continuity of a Function at a Limit Point in composite function u = g (f (x)) = F (x)

its Domain in the Language of a Sequence (say) is continuous at the point x = a. i.e.,

In the language of sequences, the definition of

continuity of a function at a point may be stated in

c b gh

lim g f x = g {f (a)}.

x→a

the following way: Remember: 1. Every point at which the given function

“A function y = f (x) is continuous at the point x = is continuous is called a point of continuity of the

a if for any sequence of the values of the independent function.

variable x = a1, a2, a3, …, an, … which converges to 2. Every point at which the condition of continuity of

‘a’, the sequences of the corresponding values of the given function is not satisfied is called a point of

the function f (x) = f (a1), f (a2), f (a3), …, f (an), … discontinuity of the function.

converges to f (a). Question: When a given function y = f (x) is

Theorems on continuous functions at a point: Some continuous or discontinuous at a point x = a? Mention

theorems on continuous functions at a point of its the commonest functions continuous or

domain are direct results of definition of continuity of discontinuous at a point (points).

a function and theorems on limits at a point.

Answer: 1. On continuity: A function y = f (x) is

A. The sum, difference, product and quotient of two

continuous functions at any point x = a in their continuous at x = a ⇔ lim f ( x ) = f (a )

x→a

domain is continuous at the same point x =a, provided

in the case of quotient, the divisor (the function in

denominator) at the same point x = a is not zero, i.e. if

Continuity of a Function 153

The Commonest Functions (viii) lim cos –1 x = cos –1 a where – | < a < | which

x→a

Continuous at a Point(s)

means cos–1 x is continuous for every value of x from

(i) All standard functions (algebraic polynomial, ra- –1 to +1.

tional, irrational, trigonometric, inverse trigonomet-

ric, exponential, logarithmic and constant functions (ix) lim tan –1 x = tan –1 a for all real number in the

x→a

(symbolised as APRL-CIT E functions) at each point domain of tan–1 x which means tan–1 x is continuous

of their domain Hence, xlim sin x = sin a for all real for all real values of x.

→a

numbers in the domain of sin x which means sin x is (x) lim cot –1 x = cot –1 a for all real numbers which

x→a

continuous at every point which lies in its domain. means cot–1 x is continuous for all real values of x.

(ii) lim cos x = cos a for all real numbers in the

x→a (xi) lim sec –1 x = sec –1 a where a is a real number

x→a

domain of cos x which means cos x is continuous at

> 1 or < –1, which means sec–1 x is continuous for all

every point which lies in its domain.

values of x which do not belong to the open interval

(iii) lim tan x = tan a where ‘a’ is a real number (–1, 1).

x→a

other than a

2n + 1 f

π odd multiple of (xii) lim cosec –1 x = cosec –1 a where a is a real >1

x→a

a f

2

π or < –1 which means cosec–1 x is continuous for all

n = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , ... which means tan x is con-

2 real values of x which do not belong to the open

tinuous for all real values of x excepting interval (–1, 1).

a fπ

x = 2 n + 1 , n being an integer.

2 (xiii) lim x = a

n n

for all real number, provided

x→a

(iv) lim cot x = cot a where a is a real number other

x→a n ≥ 0 and for all real numbers other than zero,

than (different from) nπ , multiple of provided n < 0 which means xn is continuous for all

a f

π n = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , ... , which means cot x is real values of x when n (i.e., index or exponent of the

base of power function xn) is non-negative and xn is

continuous for all real values of x excepting x = n π ,

continuous for all real values of x excepting zero when

n being an integer. n is negative.

(v) lim sec x = sec a where a is real number (xiv) lim e x = e a , for all real numbers which means

x→a

a f

x→a

π

other than 2 n + 1 = odd multiple of ex is continuous for all real values of x.

2

π

2

a f

n = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , ... which means sec x is

x

(xv) lim a = a

x→c

c

aa > 0f for all real number which

continuous for all real values of x excepting means a x (a > 0) is continuous for all real values of x.

a f

π

x = 2 n + 1 , n being an integer.

2

(xvi) lim log x = log a provided a > 0 which means

x→a

(vi) lim cosec x = cosec a where ‘a’ is a real number log x (x > 0) is continuous for all positive values of x.

x→a

a

other than n π , multiple of π n = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , ... , f (xvii) lim log x = log a provided a ≠ 0 which

x→a

which means cosec x is continuous for all values of x means log |x| (x > 0 or x < 0) is continuous for all

excepting x = n π , n being an integer. positive and negative values of x but not at x = 0.

(vii) lim sin –1 x = sin –1 a where – | < a < | which (xviii) lim α = α , for all real numbers which means

x→a x→a

means sin–1 x is continuous for every value of x from a constant function α is continuous for all real values

–1 to +1. of x.

154 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

adjacent intervals, e.g.:

at a point x = a ⇔ lim f ( x ) ≠ f (a ) , i.e., a

x→a

af R|−2 x , for x ≤ 3 is discontinuous at x = 3.

S| 3 x , for x > 3

2

function y = f (x) is discontinuous at a point x = a (or, (i) f x =

a function y = f (x) has a point of discontinuity namely T

R| e2 x + 3j for − ∞ < x ≤ 1

‘a’) if and only if limit and value of the function are

2

not equal at the same point x = a.

| 6 − 5 x for 1 < x < 3

1

(ii) f a x f = S

5

|| x − 3 for 3 ≤ x < ∞

Discontinuous at a Point(s)

T

is continuous at x = 1 and discontinuous at x = 3.

1. One of the commonest cases of discontinuity which

4. Whenever a function is defined by

af af

occurs in practice is when a function is defined by a

af

f x

f x = f 1 x , if x ≠ a

single formula y =

af

g x

with a restriction = a constant, if x = a (i.e. f (a) = constant)

then there is a chance of having, a point of continuity

af

g x ≠ 0 y assumes the form a fraction with a zero or a point of discontinuity at x = a, e.g.:

denominator for a value (or, a set of values) of x af

(i) f x = x + 2 , if x ≠ 2

provided by the equation g (x) = 0, e.g.: = 3, if x = 2

a f 1x , x ≠ 0 i.e., it is discontinuous at x = 0.

(i) f x =

has a point of discontinuity at x = 2.

af

(ii) f x = x + 2 , x ≠ 2

(ii) f a x f =

sin x = 4, x = 2

, x ≠ 0 i.e., it is discontinuous at x

x has a point of continuity at x = 2.

= 0.

af F 1 I , x ≠ 0 i.e., it is discontinuous Remember: 1. A function of undefined quantity is

(iii) f x = sin

H xK F 1 I , cos F 1 I

at x = 0.

always undefined. For this reason sin

H xK H xK

F 1 I are undefined at x = 0.

2. All standard and non-standard functions defined

by a single formula y = f (x) are continuous at each

and tan

H xK

point of their domain excepting a finite set of points

at which they are undefined which means all standard On Limits of a Continuous Function

and non-standard functions are discontinuous at a 1. The limit of a continuous function of variable =

point (or, a set of points) at which they are not defined, that function of the limit of the variable, i.e.

b g FGH IJ

e.g.:

(i) f x = afx –1

2

, x ≠ 1 is discontinuous at x = 1.

x→a x→a K

lim f x = f lim x where f (x) is a continuous

x−1 functions at x = a.

(ii) f (x) = tan x and sec x are discontinuous at 2. The limit of a continuous function of a continuous

a

x = 2n ± 1 f π2 , and continuous at all other values function of an independent variable = outer

continuous function of the limit of the inner

of x. continuous function of the independent variable, i.e.,

(iii) f (x) = cot x and cosec x are discontinuous at x =

b g

n π , n ε I and continuous at all other values of x. lim f g x

x→a x→a

3. When a function is a piecewise function, then it

is continuous at the point x = a and the function u =

has a chance of having both a point of continuity and

f (y) is continuous at the point g (a) = b (say).

Continuity of a Function 155

function may be replaced by finding the value of the of a Function y = f (x) at a given

function of the limit of the independent variable, i.e., Point x = a in its Domain

if f (x) is continuous function, then xlim

→a

f x = bg From the point of view of geometry, a function y = f (x)

F lim xI . This is sometimes expressed briefly is continuous at a given point x = a in its domain

f

H K

x→a

means that the graph of the functions y = f (x) is

unbroken at P (a, f (a)) ⇔

thus: the limit sign of a continuous function can be 1. The point P (a, f (a)) lies on the graph of the function

put before the independent variable, e.g.: y = f (x), i.e. f (x) is defined at x = a.

(i) lim x = a 2. If Q (x, y) is a point on the graph of y = f (x) and

x→a

nearer to the point P (a, f (a)), then on which ever side

F lim xI = sin a , etc. of the point P, the point Q may be, it must be possible

(ii) lim sin x = sin

x→a H K

x→a to make the distance between P and Q as small as one

wants along the graph of the function by making the

2. The concept of continuity of a function can be

distance between x and a small accordingly.

used to find its limit, i.e., if the function f (x) is con-

y

tinuous at x = a, then in order to find its limit

bg

lim f x , it is sufficient to calculate its value at the

x→a

P (a, f( a))

Q (x, y )

Q (x, y )

→a

bg bg

f x = f a .

f ( a)

F 1 + 2 sin x IJ

lim G

Example: Evaluate:

x→ H 3 x + cos x K

π

2

x

0 x x=a x

Solution: The functions in numerator and denomi- P′ (a, 0)

nator are continuous for all positive values of x. so

F 1 + 2 sin x IJ is also con-

If a function y = f (x) is continuous throughout an

the quotient function y = G

interval (a, b), the graph of the function in this interval

H 3 x + cos x K is without any gap, break or jump, i.e. the graph of the

function is unbroken in this interval, i.e. the graph of

tinuous for all positive values of x which means it is

the function has no point missing corresponding to

π each value of the independent variable in this interval.

continuous at x = and hence,

2 In rough language, if the point of a pencil is placed at

F πI

FG 1 + 2 sin x IJ = 1+ 2 sin GH 2 JK = 2

one end of the graph, we can move the pencil on the

graph to the other end of the graph without ever

lim

π H 3 x + cos x K 3FG π IJ + cos FG π IJ π having to lift the pencil off the paper. Further, if a line

x→

2

H 2K H 2K is drawn across the graph, it will pass through at least

one point on the graph.

3. A function y = f (x) defined in an interval is said to Note: It is better to say that f is continuous at a point

be piecewise continuous if the interval (in which given x = a ⇔ the graph of the function y = f (x) is unbroken

function f (x) is defined) can be divided into a finite at and in the neighbourhood of the point (a, f (a)).

number of non overlaping open subintervals over If a function is discontinuous at a point x = a, then

each of which the functions f (x) is continuous. it is a must that the graph of the function has a gap, a

break, or hole at the point whose abscissa is x = a, i.e.

the point (a, f (a)) will be missing on the graph of y =

156 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

f (x). If the function y = f (x) is not defined at x = a, then The function f (x) has a discontinuity at x = 0.

there is a gap, a break or a hole in the graph as there is

af

2 2

no point on the graph whose abscissa is x = a. x −a

2. f x = ,x≠a

Moreover, if a function is defined by different formulas x−a

(different expression in x) in different intervals whose y

left and right end points are same known as adjacent

intervals in succession, there is usually a possibility

of discontinuity at the common points of the adjacent 2a

intervals. Thus, if we have one functional formula y =

f1 (x) for x ≥ a and another y = f2 (x) for x < a we have

the possibility of a discontinuity at x = a.

y

x

0

y = f2 (x) Remember: If a function y = f (x) is not defined (has

no finite value) for any particular value of its

independent variable, then the corresponding point on

the graph of the function will be missing and the graph

will have a hole (a break) at that point.

x

0 ( a, 0)

Two Sided Continuity

In case the point of the pencil is made to move on of a Function at a Point

the graph of the function, then at the point of the

discontinuity, the point of pencil will have to be lifted In general, a function y = f (x) defined on its domain is

off the paper and will jump from one part of the curve right continuous (continuous from the right) at the right

to the other. i.e., while drawing a graph when the point

of the pencil leaves contact with the paper, the function

limit point x = c in its domain ⇔ lim+ f x = f c

x →c

af bg

becomes discontinuous at the point where contact is and it is left continuous (continuous from the left) at

left.

the left limit point x = c, in its domain ⇔ lim− f x

x→c

bg

Illustrations on Discontinuity

of a Function at a Given Point = f c .bg

R| a , when x < 0 Hence, a function y = f (x) is continuous at the limit

f a x f = S2 a , when x = 0 point x = c in its domain ⇔ . It is both right continuous

|T3a , when x > 0

1.

and left continuous at x = c.

y y

f(x) = 3 a

( c , f( c )) y = f( x )

2a

f (x ) = a

x

0 c– c c+

c–δ c+δ

x

0

Continuity of a Function 157

in an Open Interval point on its domain.

A function y = f (x) is said to be continuous in an

Classification of Points of

open interval (a, b) ⇔ it is continuous at every point Discontinuity of a Function

of the interval (a, b) ⇔ Geometrically, the graph of

the function y = f (x) is unbroken between the points Let x = a be the limit point of the domain of the

(a, f (a)) and (b, f (b)). function y = f (x). The point ‘a’ is a point of

discontinuity of the function f (x) if at this point, f (x)

Continuity of a Function is not continuous.

in a Closed Interval Let f (x) be defined in a deleted neighbourhood of

the point ‘a’ then ‘a’ is

A function y = f (x) is said to be continuous in a

1. A point of removal discontinuity of the function f

closed interval [a, b] ⇔ it is continuous in the open

interval (a, b) and is continuous at the left end point x→a

af

(x) if there is a limit lim f x = b , but either f (x) is

x = a from the right and is continuous at the right end

point x = b from the left. not defined at the point a or f (a) ≠ b. If we set f (a)

Geometrically, a function y = f (x) is continuous in = b, then the function f (x) becomes continuous at the

point ‘a’, i.e., the discontinuity will be removed.

a closed interval (a, b) ⇔ The graph of the function

y = f (x) is an unbroken line (curved or straight) from 2. A point a of discontinuity is of the first kind of the

the point (a, f (a)) to the point (b, f (b)).

Furthers, one should note that a function y = f (x)

bg

function f (x) if there are lim + f x and lim − f x

x→a x→a

af

defined over [a, b] is continuous at the left end point

bg bg

x = a from the right ⇔ lim + f x = f a and the x→a

bg

but lim + f x ≠ lim − f x .

x→a

bg

x→a

3. A point a of discontinuity is of the second kind of

function y = f (x) defined over (a, b) is continuous at

the function f (x) if at least one of the one sided limits

the right end point x = b from the left

bg bg

of the function f (x) does not exist at the point x = a,

⇔ lim − f x = f b .

x→b bg

i.e., either or both of lim + f x and lim − f x do

x→a x→a

bg

y

not exist.

y = f( x )

4. A point a is of mixed discontinuity if one of the one

sided limits exists, i.e., if one of the limits namely

x → a+

bg

lim f x or lim f x exists.

−

x→a

bg

f( b )

f (a )

5. A point is of infinite discontinuity of the function

f (x) if either or both of the one sided limits are infinite,

0

+ –

x=a x=a x=b x=b

x

x→a

bg

i.e., if either or both of lim + f x and lim − f x

x→a

bg

Continuity of a Function are infinite.

A function y = f (x) is called continuous ⇔ It is Notes: One should note that ‘a’ is

(i) A point of discontinuity of the first kind from the

continuous at every point on its domain, e.g.: ex, sin

x, cos x, any polynomial function in x are continuous

x→a

bg x→a

bg

left at a if a lim − f x exists but lim − f x ≠ f (a).

158 How to Learn Calculus of One Variable

af

(ii) A point of discontinuity is of the first kind

from the right at a if lim + f x bg exists but

1

f x =

x

af

, when x ≠ 0 , f 0 = 1 . Then f (x) is

x→a

defined in (–1, 1) and continuous at every point in

x → a+

bg bg

lim f x ≠ f a . this interval except at x = 0. Evidently no two fixed

1

(iii) A point of discontinuity is of the second kind numbers can be found such that m < < M for all x

bg

x

from the left at a if lim − f x does not exist. in (–1, 1)

x→a

(iv) A point of discontinuity is of the second kind 2. If f (x) is continuous and positive at x = c in its

bg

domain, then for all sufficiently small values of h, f (c

from the right at a if lim + f x does not exist. + h) and f (c – h) are both > 0. In other words, if f (x) is

x→a

continuous and positive at x = c, then a h-

neighbourhood of the point ‘c’ can be found

Properties of Continuous Functions throughout which f (x) is positive.

Now we state without proof some important proper- Similarly, if f (x) is continuous and negative at x = c

ties of continuous functions. in its domain, then f (c + h) and f (c – h) are both,

1. If f (x) is continuous in a closed interval [a, b], then negative for all sufficiently small values of h.

range of f (x) is bounded. In other words, if f (x) is

y

continuous in [a, b], then we can find two numbers m

af

and M such that m < f x < M , ∀ x ε a , b

y = f(x)

y

y = f( x) f( c – h ) f(c) f( c + h )

M

x

0 c–h c c+h

m

x y

0 a b

(c – h ) c (c + h )

f (x) is not a closed interval or if f (x) discontinuous x

0

even at a single point in its domai