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Padilla, Andronico, Jr., D.

LATERAL TIES
The reinforcement which is perpendicular to the main reinforcement in a column
is termed as TIE. The purpose of ties and stirrups is different. Ties in a column prevent
the main bars from buckling outward, spilling the concrete and causing early collapse.

THE ACI CODES PROVIDE THAT:


All non-pre-stressed bars for tied column shall be enclosed by lateral ties of at
least No. 3 in size for longitudinal bars No. 10 or smaller and at least No. 4 in size for No.
11 to 18 and bundle longitudinal bars.

-The code further provides that lateral ties spacing shall not exceed the following:
(1). 16x the longitudinal bar diameter
(2). 48x the lateral tie bar diameter
(3). the least dimension of the column

The code provisions simply means that:


if the main longitudinal reinforcement of the tied column is No. 10 bars or smaller in size
(lower than 30mm), the lateral ties should not be smaller than No. 3 bar, or 10 mm
diameter.
if the main reinforcement of tied column is No. 11 to No. 18 (35mm to 66mm) and
bundled bars. the lateral ties should not be less than No. 4 or 12mm diameter.

The code further provides that lateral ties spacing shall not exceed the following:
(1). 16x the longitudinal bar diameter
(2). 48x the lateral tie bar diameter
(3). the least dimension of the column
steel framing
Cold-formed steel (CFS) members are made from structural quality sheet steel that are
formed into C-sections and other shapes by roll forming the steel through a series of
dies. No heat is required to form the shapes (unlike hot-rolled steel), hence the name
cold-formed steel.

why should i consider building with cold-formed steel framing?


Steel framing can lower construction costs. Warranty call-backs are minimized
because steel does not shrink, split, or warp. As a result, there are no nail pops or drywall
cracks to fix after the structure is completed. Discounts on builders risk insurance for steel
framed structures can result in significant cost savings for builders.

Consistent quality means that scrap is drastically reduced (2% for steel versus 20% for
wood). These savings also translate into lower costs for jobsite culling of wood materials
and haul off and disposal of discarded material.

fundamental characteristics of steel framing:

 Long term maintenance costs are reduced because steel is resistant to rot, mold,
termite and insect infestation.
 Good indoor air quality (IAQ) is promoted because steel does not emit volatile
organic compounds (VOCs).
 Steel is “Green” because it contains a minimum of 25% recycled steel and is 100%
recyclable.
 Steel framing has proven performance in high wind and seismic zones.
Stirrup is the structural reinforcing member that holds or binds together the main
reinforcement of a beam or girder to a designed position. there are two types of stirrups
(a) open stirrups (b) closed stirrups.
Open stirrups are provided principally to resist shear forces in concrete beams and they
are applied in locations in which the effect of torsion is insignificant. U-shaped stirrups
are placed in the tension side of concrete beams in which shear cracks would occur.