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“Electric Vehicle with Zero-fuel Electromagnetic

Automobile Engine”
A Project work submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the award of degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

(Approved by AICTE & affiliated to JNTU-HYDERABAD)

Aushapur (V), Ghatkesar (M), R.R. Dist - 501301, TELANGANA..INDIA


2016

S NO NAME ROLL NO
1 G.KUMAR 12P61A0340
2 B.MANIKANTA 12P61A0348
3 MRUDUPANI SRI HARAHA R 12P61AO352
4 A.DINESH 12P61A0329
5 D.BHAVANI PRASAD 11P61A0316

PROJECT DONE AT

VBIT COLLEGE, HYDERABAD


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This is to certify that G.KUMAR,B.MANIKANTA,M SRI HARSHA R,A DINESH,
D.BHAVANI PRASAD students of final year B.tech of Mechanical Engineering
Department,VIGNANA BHARATHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ,Hyderabad has
undergone Major Project work on “Electric Vehicle with Zero-fuel
Electromagnetic Automobile Engine” IN VBIT COLLEGE ,Hyderabad.

From ( 10-02-2016 to 22-04-2016 ) .They have prepared project report on above


topic.

I would like to take this opportunity to express my heartfelt thanks to all those
who helped in the course of the project work.First of all I would like to thank our
almighty and our parents for providing the moral support needed to carry out the
project .

I would also thank our Dr.G.Amarendar Rao, Principal for making ous step
farward in all kind of aspects .

We also express with reverence our indebtedness to Mrs.Y.Anuradha, HOD of


Mechanical engineering for providing facilities of the department and standing by
us right from the beginning of the curriculum.

Next I would like to thank our project in-charge ASSIT.PROF .N.PRIYANKA For
allowing me to carry out training in vbit workshop,Hyderabad.

I would also like to thanks all the members of the carriage workshop people for
giving me a helping hand in the course of this project.

My Regards to :-

Mrs.N.PRIYANKA

(Assit.Prof Incharge)

Mrs.Y.Anuradha Dr.G.AmarendarRao

( HOD-Mechanical Department Eng ) ( VBIT –Principal)


ABSTRACT
PROJECT TITLE : Electric Vehicle with Zero-fuel Electromagnetic
Automobile Engine

TEAM SIZE :5

BASIC DESCRIPTION :

“Increasing fuel prices and pollution are the major demerits of Internal
Combustion (IC) engines. Also presently the demand for fuel has increased
and in the nearby future, shortage of fossil fuels Is being expected due to the
ever growing consumption. So need of alternative energy has become
necessary. The main aim of the project is the zero point fuel consumption. The
working principle of the engine is the magnetic force principle, i.e. magnetic
repulsion between the same poles of two different magnets. When similar poles
of two different magnets come in contact with each other they repel each other.
This phenomenon of repulsion is used in this engine to create motion.

Electro Magnetic engine rotates the crank shaft generated by four pistons
include the electromagnet powered by an electric oscillator.

It can change the speed by changing the value of resistance(R) / Switch.


CONTENTS:
1. Introduction

2. Existing Scenario & Problems

3. Components Used in the Proposed Model

3.1 IC Engine

3.2 Electromagnet

3.3 Permanent magnet

3.4 DC Battery

3.5 H-bridge inverter/RELAY

3.6 Hall effect sensor/RESISTANCE

4. Working

5. Features

6. Conclusion
1.INTRODUCTION

The main aim of the project is to design an electromagnetically reciprocating


automobile engine. A four-stroke engine is used in the vehicle. The design
involves the replacement of the spark plugs and valves by conductors and
strong electromagnetic material. The piston is a movable permanent magnet
and while an air core electromagnet is fixed at the top of the cylinder. When the
electromagnet is excited by A.C. (Square Wave) supply, for same polarities
these magnets will repel and for opposite polarities they will attract, thus
causing the to and fro movement of the piston. So when the cylinders 1 &4 of the
four-stroke engine experience attraction of magnets due to which the piston
moves upwards , repulsion takes place inside cylinders 2 & 3 in which the
piston moves downwards and then during the next stroke vice-versa occurs .

The to and fro movement of the piston is converted into a rotary motion by the
crank shaft, which in turn is coupled to the wheels which causes the wheels to
rotate. So with the help of the electromagnets and permanent magnets, the to and
fro movement of the piston is obtained using the alternating attractive and
repulsive force of the magnets, which is responsible for the movement of the
vehicle. Thus we can run the electric vehicle without a motor and the energy is
extracted in a clean way as it does not require fuels reducing the air pollution.

Keywords: IC engine, electric vehicle, electromagnetic, 4 stroke, zero fuel.

Necessity is the mother of invention. The need for locomotion has been growing
exponentially and the number of automobiles manufactured is growing equally to
meet the demand. The emission of toxic pollutants from automobiles therefore has
caused serious concern and highlights the need for green vehicle technologies. This
is why electric vehicles entered the picture.

Moreover, the cost and demand of fossil fuels has been increasing over the past
and this has made man to look for better alternatives in the automobiles sector, and
electric vehicles exactly fit in. The use of electric vehicles reduces vehicular
emissions by a large extent, thus reducing global warming.
This paper is proposed to modify the present day engine in such a way that the
electric vehicle operates without a motor, and requires no fuel to run.

A magnetically controlled reciprocating engine having a unique


electromagnet control system. The engine is constructed and arranged to
operate from a stored power source such as batteries to provide extended run
times by controlling the power supplied to the electromagnets in a manner that
controls heat generation within the electromagnetic coils, thereby increasing coil
life. The control system is also capable of controlling engine speed and/or torque
outputs to make the engine versatile for a wide variety of uses. The system is
constructed and arranged to be utilized on new or pre-existing engines of various
configurations and may be utilized in other industries or devices that benefit from
the use of electromagnets

Reciprocating internal combustion engines, e.g. Otto and Diesel cycle engines are
a major factor in just about every aspect of life here and abroad. Reciprocating
internal combustion engines facilitate our way of life by providing us with
transportation, consumer products, safety, medical assistance, and power
generation to name only a few.

However, reciprocating internal combustion engines suffer from disadvantages,


many of which would no longer be acceptable if there were an alternative to the
use of these engines. They require fossil fuel, and suffer from many inefficiencies
that cause them to generate heat, noise, vibration and toxic by-products; all of
which we tolerate only because we have no economically suitable alternatives.
With the decline in the supply of fossil fuels and the increase in harmful
atmospheric gasses, governments have a renewed interest in finding alternatives to
internal combustion.

For example

some of the energy wasting features of internal combustion engines include


friction, inefficient combustion, heat loss from the combustion chamber,
aerodynamic drag of air moving through the engine, energy used by ancillary
equipment like oil and water pumps, and imperfect valve timing. Another issue
that affects the efficiency of these engines is that they must be designed to reduce
emissions requiring compromises in design. As a result, the average engine is
about 35% efficient and must be kept idling at stoplights, wasting an additional
17% of the energy, resulting in an overall efficiency of about 18%. This means that
about 82% of the energy we put into our vehicles in the form of fossil fuels is
wasted exiting the engine in the form of non-useful byproducts.

Attempts at eliminating the need for fossil fuels in reciprocating engines has been
attempted for decades. Various types of alternative fuels and engine configurations
have been suggested, some with more success than others, but overall most have
met with very limited success.

One such alternative is bio fuels. Bio fuels may be derived from plant materials
such as corn or sugar cane. However, these fuels require agricultural land, tractors
for planting and harvesting, and distilleries for converting the biomass into fuel.
Bio fuels derived from algae, trash, or agricultural waste or other sources could
help because they do not require agricultural land use but always seem to be
several years away from large scale commercial development.

2. Existing Scenario & Problems

The present day electric vehicle is efficient than petrol/diesel vehicles. They are
97% cleaner than gas-powered cars. The maintenance cost of electric cars is
optimum. The main problems faced by electric vehicles are its inability to run long
distances before being charged again and the high initial cost of the electric
vehicles. Most production electric cars about to hit the market can only go about
100 miles (160.9kms). Also there is need for installation of charging stations as the
energy densities of normal batteries is less for vehicles to travel over long distances
and getting a full charge takes around eight hours.

3. Components Used in the Proposed Model

3.1 IC Engine

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel


(normally fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion
chamber. The expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced
by combustion apply direct force to the piston. Here we replace the spark plugs by
electromagnet and a permanent magnet is mounted on the piston. The piston moves
to and fro due to attractive and repulsive forces, when the electromagnet is
energized. We can use a 4-stroke IC engine for the vehicle.

3.2 Electromagnet

When a current carrying conductor is wound on a magnetic material (ferrite), it


acts as a magnet till the conductor is live. An air core electromagnet that acts as a
solenoid is used here. Since it has an air core, the core losses are eliminated.

3.3 Permanent magnet

A permanent magnet is a piece of magnetic material that retains its magnetism


even after being removed from an external magnetic field. The permanent magnets
which have produced the largest magnetic flux with the smallest mass are the rare
earth magnets based on samarium and neodymium. So n32 grade magnets can be
used.

3.4 DC Battery

We use a 12V dc battery to supply power to the whole system. Lithium ion
batteries can be used as they can have efficiencies of around 99%.

3.5 H-bridge inverter/RELAY

A device that converts dc power into ac power at desired output voltage and
frequency is called an inverter. The dc power input is obtained from the dc battery
used here. Since half bridge inverters require 3-wire dc supply, we use a single
phase full bridge voltage source inverter to convert the dc supply into AC (square)
wave.
The output voltage is therefore doubled and the output power is increased by four
times. MOSFETs are used as switching elements since self commutation with base
or gate drive signals can be employed for their turn-on and turn-off.

3.6 Hall effect sensor/RESISTANCE

We use hall effect sensors to trigger the MOSFETs. Hall effect sensor is a
transducer that varies it’s output voltage in response to changes in magnetic field.
With a known magnetic field, its distance from the Hall plate can be determined.
Using groups of sensors, the relative position of the magnet can be deduced.

4. Working

The main idea behind the project is to modify the existing IC engine into an
electromagnetically reciprocating engine by replacing the spark plugs by strong
electromagnets and conductors. It consists of four cylinders. A stack of permanent
magnets is mounted on the piston head with its north/south pole always facing the
fixed electromagnet.

If a magnetic material is wound by a current carrying conductor, then it will act as


a magnet whose field strength depends on the amount of current flowing through
the conductor. When the electromagnet on top of the cylinder is excited by an ac
supply (square wave), it acquires positive and negative charges for each half of the
supply. For instance, the electromagnet will act as a North pole for positive supply
and South pole for the other or vice versa. This leads to the attraction and repulsion
of the permanent magnet on the piston head due to which the piston moves to and
fro.
So when the magnets of cylinders1 & 4 experience attraction causing the piston
moves upwards, the magnets inside cylinders 2 & 3 experience attraction making
the piston move upwards. This to and fro motion of the piston inside the cylinder
rotates the crankshaft which makes the wheels to rotate. This causes the motion of
the vehicle.

Engine Model The current necessary to excite the electromagnet is obtained after
the conversion of the dc supply from the battery into ac supply by the H-bridge
inverter. The hall sensor senses a pole (North/South) and gives a high/low output.
Thus the MOSFETs are triggered to get an ac supply. The output of the hall sensor
remains constant till it encounters another pole after which the other set of
MOSFETs are triggered to change the polarity of the supply

5. Features

This innovative technique allows extraction of energy in a clean way which


reduces the emissions due to which pollution is minimized to a large extent. So
health disorders arising due to pollution can be eradicated to some extent. The
salient feature of this engine is that it does not require fossil fuels to run. Also, it
does not need motor for operation.

The starting torque of the engine is high. The life of the battery source is increased
since the battery is charged simultaneously while the engine is running. The
greatest advantage is that these engines need not be specially manufactured, as
existing engines can be easily modified to work this way. The weight of the vehicle
is reduced, thus improving the efficiency of the vehicle. The maintenance cost is
optimum.

6. Conclusion

In this paper, we have depicted a revolutionary engine which need not be


separately manufactured, but existing engines can be easily modified to work this
way. The proposed engine is a simple and excellent technique to run the electric
vehicle in a highly efficient manner.

7.REFERENCES

1.R S Khurmi, J K Gupta, In A textbook in thermal engineering, S Chand &


Company Ltd, Ram Nagar, New Delhi-110055.

2. Dr P S Bimbhra, Power electronics, Khanna Publishers(2006), Delhi-110006