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PERIODIC TABLE

GROUP 1 GROUP 17 GROUP 18


Fluorine(F2), Chlorine(Cl2), Bromine(Br2),
Members (common used in SPM) Lithium(Li), Sodium(Na), Potassium(K) Helium(He), Neon(Ne), Argon (Ar)
Iodine (I2)
Valence Electron & Ion Charges 1, 1+ (charge) 7, 1- (charge) 2 & 8 (no charge)

Increase going down the group Increase going down the group Increase going down the group
Size of atom Number of shells occupied with electrons Number of shells occupied with electrons Number of shells occupied with electrons
increases when going down the group increases when going down the group increases when going down the group

Increase going down the group Increase going down the group
Decrease going down the group
Going down the group, molecular size of Going down the group, atomic size of
Increasing atomic size causes the
halogens increase, The attraction force noble gasses increase, The attraction
metallic bond between atoms become
Melting & Boiling Point between molecules become stronger, force(Van der Waals) between atoms
weaker, thus less heat energy required to
thus a lot of heat energy required to come stronger, thus a lot of heat energy
overcome the bond during melting
overcome the forces during melting required to overcome the forces during
process
process melting process

Increase going down the group Decrease going down the group
The atomic size increase, the single The atomic size increase, the outermost
valence electron become further away shell hat occupied with electron further
Reactivity from nucleus. Attraction between away from nucleus. Attraction nucleus to
nucleus and valence electron become outer electron becomes weaker to gain
weaker and easily to release the electron the electron, so it becomes more difficult
to become 1+ ion. to attract the electron.

React with water to produce H2 React with water


X + H2O  XOH + H2 Z2 + H2O HZ + HZO
React with Chlorine React with Iron
Reaction
2X + Cl2  2XCl 3Z2 + 2Fe  2FeZ3
React with Oxygen React with sodium hydroxide
4X + O2  2X2O Z2 + 2NaOH  NaZ + NaOZ + H2O

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PERIODIC TABLE

PERIOD 3
METAL NON-METAL
SEMI METAL

Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
SODIUM MAGNESIUM ALUMINIUM SILICON PHOSPHORUS SULPHUR CHLORINE ARGON
2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8

ATOMIC SIZE & ELECTRONEGATIVITY

ATOMIC SIZE Increase from left to right.


Increasing number of electrons are placed in shell 3, thus the number of positive charge in nucleus also
increase.
The attraction by nucleus on the electrons in the first three shells become stronger, therefore the atomic size
decreases across Period3.
ELECTRONEGATIVITY Increase across the period (left to right)
(Except Argon) Due to the increase in positive charge of nucleus and the decrease in atomic size, the strength of the nucleus
to attract electrons increases, so electronegativity increase.

Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O10 SO2 Cl2O7 Ar


Basic Oxide Amphoteric Acidic Oxide

TRANSITION ELEMENTS (G3-G12)


All transition elements are METAL.
Special properties Coloured ions Multiple oxidation Number Complex ions
1. Form coloured ions / compounds Cobalt (II) ion Pink Iron (II) (+2)
Iron Cr(NH3)63+ Hexaamine chromium (III) ion
2. Multiple oxidation numbers Copper (II) ion Blue Iron (III) (+3)
3. Form complex ions Iron(II) ion Pale green Copper (II) (+2)
Copper Fe(CN)64- Hexacyanoferrate (II) ion
4. Act as catalyst Iron III ion Yellow Copper (I)(+1)
Manganate (VII) Purple Catalyst
Nickel Hydrogenation process
Iron Haber process
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