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# AS120/PHY130/TUTORIAL9/MAC18-JULY18/NSZ

TUTORIAL 9
HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS

## 1. Answer the following:

a. How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 250 mL of water from 25 ° C to 55° C.?
b. How much heat is lost by the water as its cools down to 30 ° C.?
(Ans: a. Q = 31500 J, b. Qloss= -26 250 J)

2. A certain amount of heat is added to a mass of aluminum (c = 900 J/kg.° C), and its temperature is
raise 50° C. Suppose that the same amount of heat is added to the same mass of copper (c = 390J/kg°
C. ), how much does the temperature of the copper rise. (Ans: T= 115.4 ° C)

3. A 180 g copper calorimeter contains 150 g of oil at 25 ° C. To the oil is added 100 g of aluminum at
250 ° C. What will be the temperature of the system after equilibrium. Given C for aluminum = 900
J/kg° C: C for copper = 390 J/kg° C: C for oil = 1550 J/kg° C established (Ans: Tf=76.6° C)

4. When a 2900 g piece of iron at 180 ° C is placed in a 100 g aluminum calorimeter containing 240 g of
glycerin at 15 ° C, the final temperature is observed to be 36 ° C.What is the specific heat of glycerin?
C of iron = 450J/kg° C, c of aluminum = 900 J/kg° C. (Ans: Cglycerin = 36910 J/kg° C)

5. How much energy is required to vaporize a 1 g ice cube at 0 ° C. The heat of fusion of ice is 3.36 x 105
J/kg. The heat of vaporization of water is 2.26 x 106 J/kg. (Ans: Q= 3016 J)

6. a) How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 250 g of water from 20 ° C to 35° C?
b) An electric heater (900W) is used to vaporize water. How much water at 100 ° C can be changed to
steam in 3 min by the heater? (Lv = 2.26 x 106 J/kg° C) (Ans: a) Q= 15750 J, b) m= 0.071 kg)

7. A total of 0.8 kg of water at 20 ° C is placed in a 1-kW electric kettle. How long a time is needed to
raise the temperature of the water to 100 ° C? (Cw = 4200J/kg° C) (Ans: t = 4.5 m)

8. How many kilograms of ice at 0° C must be added to 0.6 kg of water at 100 ° C in an insulated 0.1 kg
copper container in order to cool the container and its contents to 30 ° C? The specifics heats of
water and copper are 4200 and 390 J/kg° C respectively, the heat of fusion of ice is 335 x 103 J/kg.
(Ans: m = 0.39 kg)

9. A gas is compressed at a constant pressure of 8.1 x 104 Pa from 9.0 x 10-3 m3 to 2.0 x 10-3 m3, with 400
J heat lost. What is the change in its internal energy? (Ans: U = 167 J)

10. A gas is enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a light frictionless piston and maintained at atmospheric
pressure. When 5.23 x 106 J of heat is added to the gas, the volume is observed to increase slowly from
12.0 m3 to 18.2 m3. Calculate:
i) the work done by gas
ii) the change in the internal energy of the gas. (Given 1 atm = 1.01 x 105)(Oct 2012)
(Ans: i) W= 626 200 J, ii) U = 4.60 x 106 J)

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11. A 50 g of Aluminum block at 400 °C is dropped into a 500 g copper calorimeter containing
200 g of water at 30 °C. What will be the temperature of the system when equilibrium is
established? (Mac 2013)
(Given specific heat of copper = 388.83 Jkg-1K-1, specific heat capacity of water = 4181 Jkg-
1 -1
K and specific heat capacity of aluminum = 880 Jkg-1K-1) (Ans: Tf=318.3 K)

## 12. State the First Law of Thermodynamics. (Mac 2013)

13. A gas does 10 J of work while expanding adiabatically. Find the change in its internal energy.
(Mac 2013) (Ans: U = -10 J)

14. Write the equation for the Ideal Gas Law and give the suitable unit for each term in the
equation.

15. A cube of ice is taken from the freezer at -4.0°C and placed in a 70 g aluminum calorimeter filled with
450 g of water at room temperature of 25.0°C. The system reaches an equilibrium temperature of
20.0°C. Calculate the mass of the ice cube.
(Given: specific heat capacity of water = 4186 Jkg-1° C-1, specific heat capacity of ice = 2100 Jkg-1°
C-1, specific heat capacity of aluminum = 900 Jkg-1° C-1, latent heat of fusion = 3.3x105 Jkg-1° C-1)
(Mac 2012) (Ans: mice = 2.55 x 10-2 kg)

16. An ideal gas expands isothermally, performing 1.20 x 103 J of work in the process.
i) Calculate the change in internal energy of the gas.
ii) Determine the heat absorbed during this expansion (Mac 2012)
(Ans: a) U = 0 J, b) Q= 1.20 x 103 J)
17.

Figure 1

A series of thermodynamic process is shown in Figure 1. For process ab, 150 J heat is added into the
system and for process bd, 600 J is added. Calculate:
i. the internal energy change in process ab.
ii. the internal energy change in process abd. (Sept 2011)
(Ans: i) Wab= 0 J; Uab = 150 J, ii) Qabd = 750 J; Wabd = 240 J; Uabd = 4.60 x 106 J)

18. 50 g piece of metal at 95 ° C is dropped into 250 g of water at 17.0 ° C and warms it to 19.4 ° C. What
is the specific heat capacity of the metal? (Cw=4200 Jkg-1K-1) (Apr 2011)
(Ans: Cmetal = 666.666 J/kgK)

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19. An ideal gas expands adiabatically to three times its original volume. In doing so, the gas does 720 J of
work.
i) How much heat flows from the gas?
ii) What is the change in internal energy of the gas?
iii) Does its temperature rise or fall? (Apr 2011)
(Ans: i) Q = 0 J ii) U = -720 J, iii) Temperature fall)

20. Determine the change in volume of a block of cast iron 5.0 cm x 10.0 cm x 6.0 cm, when the temperature
changes from 15 °C to 47 °C. The coefficient of linear expansion of cast iron is 0.000 010 °C--1. (Apr
2011) (Ans: V = 2.88 x 10-7 m-3)

21. How much energy is needed to change 5 kg of ice which initially at -5 °C to 5 kg of water at 5 °C?
Given: (Oct 2010)
Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.34 x 105 Jkg-1, Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 Jkg-1K-1,
Specific heat capacity of ice = 2100 Jkg-1K-1
(Ans: Q= 1827500 J)
22.

Figure 2
Figure 2 shows an ideal gas undergoes two thermodynamics processes,
i) Name two processes involved? (Oct 2010)
ii) Find the temperature at Y and Z if the initial temperature is 50 °C.
iii) Find the total work done. (Ans: TY= 646K@373C; TY= 323K@50C, Wtotal = 8000J)

## 23. Sketch a P-V diagram of the following process.

i) Isobaric process
ii) Isochoric process

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