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A touch screen is an input device that allows users to operate a PC by simply touching the display screen. The display screen has a sensitive glass overlay placed on it and we could give the desired input by touching it.
A touch screen is based on CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) technology that accepts direct onscreen input. The ability for direct onscreen input is facilitated by an external (light pen) or an internal device (touch overlay and controller). History and Development Of Touch Screen In 1971 Dr. Sam Hurst, founder of Elographics developed the first touch opaque sensor “Elograph” at the University of Kentucky. In 1974 He developed the first real touch screen. In 1977, Elographics developed the five-wire resistive technology then with the backing of Siemens Corporation, developed a curved glass sensor called the touch screen. The new transparent technology, AccuTouch, was later developed by the founders of Elographics, Dr. Hurst and Bill Colwell. How Does a Touch Screen Work? A basic Touch Screen has three main components: 1) Touch sensor. 2) Controller.
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3) Software driver. The Touch Screen is an input device, so it needs to be combined with a display and a PC or other device to make a complete touch input system. Controller
Specialized controllers are also available that work with DVD players and other devices. Most touch screen drivers today are a mouse-emulation type driver. It tells the computer's operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller. This makes touching the screen as same as clicking your mouse at the same location on the screen. Controllers are available that can connect to a Serial/COM port (PC) or to a USB port. This allows the Touch Screen to work with existing software and allows new applications to be developed without the need for Touch Screen specific programming.• The controller connects between the touch sensor and the PC. • Controller • • • • Software Driver The driver allows the Touch Screen and computer to work together. Touch Screen Technology • • Types of Touch Screen: Resistive Touch screen *4-wire resistive *5-wire resistive *8-wire resistive Capacitive Touch screen *Surface capacitive *Projected capacitive Infrared Touch screen . The controller determines what type of interface/connection you will need on the PC. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand.
Surface wave Touch screen Near Field Imaging Touch screen • Resistive Touch Screen Resistive LCD touch screen monitors have a flexible top layer and a rigid bottom layer separated by insulating dots. The touch screen controller gets the alternating voltages between the (7) two circuit layers and converts them into the digital X and Y coordinates of the activated area. • • .d) The control electronics alternate voltage between this system of layers. Pressing the flexible top sheet creates electrical contact between the resistive layers. Voltage applied to the layers produces a gradient across each layer. producing a circuit switch from the activated area. with the inside surface of each layer coated with a transparent metal oxide. These x and y coordinates are then relayed to the computer's operating system through the touch screen controller connected to the overlay. the overlay. Structure Of Resistive Touch Screen • • • • • • • 1) Polyester Film 2) Upper Resistive Circuit Layer 3) Conductive ITO (Transparent Metal Coating) 4) Lower Resistive Circuit Layer 5) Insulating Dots Glass/Acrylic Substrate • Working of Resistive Touch Screen Touching the overlay surface causes the (2) Upper Resistive Circuit Layer to contact the (4) Lower Resistive Circuit Layer. to get x then y touch coordinates. Resistive Touch Screen (Cont. essentially closing a switch in the circuit.
are less susceptible to Spacer Dots and Newton Rings. Activated by a stylus. They have lighter spacer dots and substantially less problems with Newton rings Characteristics Resistive Touch Screen • • • • 1.• • • 4-wire resistive Touch Screen 5-wire resistive Touch Screen The constructions of the panels are similar with 4-wire technology. which are available in a variety of sizes. or light 4. The flexible layer is always used as a sense layer to read the voltage connection point to the bottom layer. resistive layers can be damaged by a very sharp object Advantages of Resistive – High Resolution and Accuracy – Fast Response – Pressure-activated by finger or gloved hand with a very light touch – Durable hard-coat front surface can be nonglare treated for reflection control or polished for maximum clarity – Touch Screens and controllers are safety agency-approved components.so certification of your system is easier Disadvantages of Resistive – 80 % Clarity . but for a 5-wire touch screen all four bus bars are connected to the lower. a finger or gloved hand 3. 8-wire resistive Touch Screen 8-wire technology seeks to eliminate these deficiencies. Not affected by dirt. 75%~85% clarify 5. dust. 8-wire Touch Screens. Cost effective solutions 2. non-flexible layer of the screen. water.
– Resistive layers can be damaged by a sharp object • Capacitive Touch Screen There are 2 types of capacitive touch screens: • Surface capacitive panel on which the . .Its middle layer consists of a laminated sensor grid wires and optical enhancement options. • • Projected-capacitive Touch Screen Structure optical and of micro-fine Projected capacitive Touch Screens have front and back protective glass providing optical and strength enhancement options. capacitance forms between the finger and the sensor grid. Surface-capacitive Touch Screen Structure • • . Its middle layer consists of a laminated sensor grid of micro-fine wires.consists of a uniform conductive coating on a glass a low voltage is evenly applied from the corners. The embedded serial controller in the Touch Screen calculates touch location coordinates and transmits them to the computer for processing.The touch location is measured from the ratio of current flow from the corners • Projected Capacitive . • • Projected-capacitive Touch Screen (Cont. . and optical enhancement options.d) During a touch.Made of a front and back protective glass providing strength enhancement options.
The current respectively drifts to the electrodes on the four corners. brighter display and less surface reflection 5. the amount of current that drifts through the four electrodes should be proportional to the distance from the touch point to the four corners. so when you touch the screen with a finger. Superior optical clarity. • Surface-capacitive Touch Screen (Cont. Surface-capacitive Touch Screen Characteristics Of Capacitive Touch Screen • • • • • 1. Theoretically.d) Working principle • A human body is an electric conductor. Immune to surface contaminants 4. creating a uniform electric field. Faster and more responsive 3. Durable and resistant to scratches for demanding applications 2. will not work with any non-conductive input Advantages of Capacitive Touch Screen – High Touch Resolution – High Clarity – Completely Sealable Disadvantages of Capacitive Touch Screen . a slight amount of current is drawn. Must be touched by finger. Electrodes around the panel’s edge evenly distribute a low voltage across the conductive layer. creating a voltage drop.Surface capacitive technology consists of a uniform conductive coating on a glass panel. The controller precisely calculates the proportion of the current passed through the four electrodes and figures out the X/Y coordinate of a touch point.
Most durable surface • • • SAW Touch Screen Surface waves are readily absorbed when a soft object such as a fingertip touches the substrate.d) When a stylus.– Must be touched by finger. it obstructs the beams. Characteristics Of Infrared Touch Screen • • • • • 1. such as a finger. SAW Touch Screen use pure glass with transmitting and receiving piezoelectric transducers for both the X and Y axes.will not work with any non. The touch frame contains a row of IR-light emitting diode (LEDs) and photo transistors. each mounted on two opposite sides to create a grid of invisible infrared light. Infrared Touch Screen (Cont.d) . improves reading ability 2.conductive input – Can be affected by electricity – May need re-calibration often • • • Infrared Touch Screen Infrared (IR) technology relies on the interruption of an IR light grid in front of the display screen. • SAW Touch Screen(Cont. The IR controller sequentially pulses the LEDs to create a grid of IR light beams. Clear as glass. One or more photo transistors from each axis detect the absence of light and transmit signals that identify the x and y coordinates. enters the grid.
• • • • • Products: • • • Apple iPhone. you absorb a portion of the wave traveling across it. Not completely sealable. which converts the signal into ultrasonic waves within the glass.• The touch screen controller sends an electrical signal to the transmitting transducer. and / or water in the environment • Near Field Imaging Touch Screen Made of two laminated glass sheets having a transparent metal oxide coating in between. and MacBook Pro Microsoft Surface …… . Multi-touch technology Multi-touch denotes a set of interaction techniques which allow computer users to control graphical applications with several fingers.d) Characteristics of SAW Touch Screen • • • 1. SAW Touch Screen (Cont. The received signal is then compared to the stored digital map. dust. Activated by a finger. Durable glass construction 2. It is used only in the toughest environments and applications due to its high cost. gloved hand or soft tip 4. MacBook Air. and a coordinate calculate. High optical clarity 3. An AC signal is applied to the patterned conductive coating creating an electrostatic field on the surface of the screen. the change recognized. iPod touch. can be affected by large amounts of dirt. When you touch the screen.
Multimedia software. . Tourism displays. ATMs. Restaurants. Student Registration systems. • • Closing Thoughts Though the touch screen technology contains some limitations its very user friendly. More uses….• Application of Touch Screen Public Information Displays…. Digital jukeboxes. Trade show display Customer Self-Services…… Stores. accurate. easy for the novices & fun to operate. scientific applications etc. Computerized gaming. It has been widely accepted. fast. Airline ticket terminals and Transportation hubs. And now by just modifying a little it can replace the mouse and key board completely in near future.
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