A review on P&O based MPPT techniques

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A review on P&O based MPPT techniques

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

using modiﬁed perturbation and observation method

G. Dileep n, S.N. Singh

Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Solar energy is one of the important renewable energy resources as it is pollution free, clean, never-

Received 27 June 2014 ending and abundant. Solar photovoltaic technologies are mounting vigor attention in the modern

Received in revised form electrical power applications due to fast growth in the relative sectors of semiconductor and power

21 March 2015

electronics. It is signiﬁcant to operate solar photovoltaic energy conversion systems to its maximum

Accepted 24 April 2015

power output to raise the efﬁciency. Maximum power point tracking plays a very important role for

extracting maximum power from the solar photovoltaic module and transferring that power to the load.

Keywords: The present work highlights a survey on perturb and observe method maximum power point tracking

MPPT technique for solar photovoltaic system undertaken by considering the various works already listed

SPV system

relative study has been carried out, which includes different perturb and observe method on maximum

Perturbation and observation (P&O)

power point tracking techniques and draw their advantages and drawbacks. These techniques vary in

Renewable energy

many aspects, which can be broadly categorized on the basis of simplicity, way of implementing, type of

sensors, total cost of the system, range of effectiveness, hardware requirement and speed of

convergence. It is expected that this review work will provide precious information for solar

photovoltaic professionals to keep alongside with the latest progress in this area, as well as for new

researchers to get started on maximum power point tracking.

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

2. SPV system description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

2.1. SPV system with MPPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

2.2. SPV characteristic curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

2.3. DC–DC converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

3. Conventional P&O algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

4. Modiﬁed P&O methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

4.1. Soft computing based P&O MPPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

4.1.1. Artiﬁcial neural network (ANN) method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

4.1.2. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

4.2. FLC based improved P&O MPPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

4.2.1. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

4.3. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

4.3.1. Operation and previous work using FPGA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

4.3.2. FPGA based improved P&O MPPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

4.4. Variable step based method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

4.4.1. Operation and previous work using variable step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

4.4.2. Variable perturbation step P&O MPPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

4.4.3. P&O MPPT with Dead Beat Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

4.4.4. Modiﬁed P&O MPPT with two-step algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

4.5. Bisection search theorem (BST) method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

n

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: dileepmon2@gmail.com (G. Dileep).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.072

1364-0321/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

110 G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129

4.5.2. BST based P&O MPPT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

4.6. Duty-cycle perturbations adaptation (DCPA) method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

4.6.1. Operation and previous work using DCPA method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

4.6.2. DCPA based P&O MPPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

5. Power ratio based variable step P&O MPPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

6. Comments and remarks on various P&O MPPT techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

7. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

P&O and INC methods by choosing variable perturbation step size.

Solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems have been commercialized P&O MPPT method is widely used because it is simple and can

around the globe for its long term economic prospects and more implement easily. Analog [44] and digital [45–48] implementation

importantly, the concerns over the environment [1,2]. SPV system can are possible with P&O MPPT technique. P&O method is slow process

be integrated into grid [3–9] or can be operated in standalone mode it requires some time to track MPP [49] because it compares power

[10–16] or can be used along with other sources such as wind or diesel at old reference voltage before perturbation and power at new

in hybrid mode [17,18]. Standalone or off grid systems are preferred reference voltage after perturbation, this process will continue still

for the applications such as street lightning, home applications, solar MPP is reached. Response time of a DSP based P&O for tracking MPP

water pumping and supplying power to remote areas were grid is not is only few seconds as discussed in [50]. In FLC method [51–58] array

available for power supply. Standalone systems are designed with or voltage and reference voltage are compared to generate an error

without battery backup. Grid integrated systems are those connected signal to vary duty ratio of the converter. The reference voltage

to the grid to reduce the stress of grid. Hybrid SPV system involves two changes with the solar radiation. Artiﬁcial Neural Network (ANN)

or more power sources intelligently connected together. Generally SPV [59–63] based MPPT estimates the reference voltage in reference to

system is connected with wind, hydro, biomass or diesel generators. the solar insolation and cell temperature. ANN does not require

Hybrid system provides better reliability than standalone SPV system. complete information about the system. The neural fuzzy based

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is regarded as the critical approach [64–66] combines the advantage of neural network and

component of SPV system. Maximum power of an SPV module, fuzzy controller both. In this approach optimal voltage will be

corresponding operating voltage and PV output current varies with determined by the neural network and the fuzzy controller is

insolation and temperature. So in order to extract maximum power, designed to change duty cycle of the converter. System oscillation

SPV module must be operated at the voltage corresponding to the control based MPPT [67,68] need one sensor for measuring voltage.

MPP. Plenty of research is going on this area, since it improves the This technique can be implemented easily and does not have any

overall system efﬁciency with minimum cost. Several classical meth- complicated mathematical computations. State space based MPPT

ods are there to track the MPP. Voltage based and current based, P&O, [69] transforms the nonlinear time varying SPV system to linear

incremental conductance (INC), artiﬁcial neural network (ANN), fuzzy dynamic system because it is easy to track the MPP for linear system.

logic control (FLC), etc. are the commonly used MPPT techniques. The Linearization based MPPT [70] is very simple, quick and cost

voltage and current based MPP tracking algorithm is simple but has effective. This method is similar to system oscillation control based

low accuracy and efﬁciency. Short circuit current based MPPT [19–23] MPPT, here nonlinear current and power equations are transformed

require only one sensor and simple to implement but it requires a to linear one ﬁrst then MPPT is tracked. Array reconﬁguration

momentarily short circuiting of SPV module with a switch to method [71] is a mechanical method; in this method PV arrays are

determine the short circuit current (Isc). Open circuit voltage (Voc) combined in series or parallel combinations to achieve MPP. β-MPPT

based MPPT [24–28] is also simple but it requires measurement of Voc method [72,73] is used along with other conventional methods to

periodically by temporarily shutting down the converter. But this track MPP quickly. This is a variable perturbation method which

incurs a few disadvantages, including temporary loss of power. To tracks MPP quickly during rapidly changing atmospheric conditions.

prevent this, use pilot cells from which Voc can be obtained. These pilot Numerical calculation based MPPT [74–76] calculates the voltage at

cells must be carefully chosen to closely represent the characteristics MPP using quadratic interpolation method. This algorithm calculates

of the PV array. Under open circuit and short circuit conditions SPV the exact voltage value at MPP by numerical calculations; hence

module will not deliver any power to the load, this reduces the MPP can be reached by single step. This method is very complicated.

efﬁciency. Gradient descent which uses variable step size overcomes Techniques that discussed above have certain merits and

the drawbacks of usually used techniques [29]. Ripple correlation demerits. Some of the methods provide better tracking speed

control (RCC) method resolve some problems associated with P&O while some other techniques provide better steady state perfor-

technique and are discussed in [30–34]. Slide mode control [35–38] mance. A detailed review about some of the modiﬁed P&O MPPT

technique track MPP precisely when compared to other methods but method is made in this paper. Modiﬁed P&O MPPT papers for

hardware implementation is complex. Less number of sensors are review purpose are chosen according to the relevance of the paper

required for temperature based MPPT [39–41]. Hence it is economical and year of publication. Different techniques are compared based

and simple in implementation. Bisection Search Theorem based MPPT on the desirable factors such as number of sensors required,

[42] can be used to track MPP of PV modules which exhibits more implementation easiness, performance under steady state, overall

than one local MPP's under varying climatic conditions. Dual MPPT efﬁciency implementation cost and tracking speed.

tracking system is discussed in [43]. Mechanical tracker moves PV

module towards maximum sunlight and an FLC based P&O MPPT

electrical tracker to track MPP.

The P&O and INC methods are widely used classical methods 2. SPV system description

with some advantages and disadvantages. Steady state power loss

associated with P&O technique is high due oscillations of operating SPV system is an arrangement of components such as PV

point around MPP. Incremental resistance method (INR) overcomes module, Maximum Power Point Tracker, DC or AC load, battery

G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129 111

V out ¼ V in =l D ð1Þ

where D, Vout and Vin are duty cycle, output voltage and input

voltage of the boost converter. Duty cycle (D) of the converter is

varied by pulse-width modulated (PWM) output of the proposed

algorithm. MPP can be tracked with higher stability of operating

point and higher efﬁciency by controlling the converter with PWM

output of the proposed algorithm. By varying the duty cycle of the

Fig. 1. Block diagram of SPV system with MPPT [36].

converter the output voltage can be varied. In practical boost

converters there will be switching losses and losses in passive

elements, but efﬁciencies around 90% can be achieved by careful

selection of system components such as inductor and capacitor

and operating parameters such as switching frequency.

type of load). Typical SPV system is described below.

consists of an SPV module and several electrical loads. This may Fig. 3. Plot of power vs. voltage for a SPV module [80].

also have a Power conditioning unit (PCU) which may comprise of

an inverter (to convert dc into ac) or a converter(to convert dc into

dc), charge controller (to prevent reverse ﬂow of current during Table 1

dark) and most importantly from the efﬁciency point of view the P&O technique.

Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT). By changing duty cycle of

Old perturbation Slope of power New perturbation

the power converter source impedance can be matched with that

of load impedance for maximum power transfer. An MPPT con- Positive ( þve) Positive ( þ ve) Positive (þ ve)

troller with P&O algorithm is used to vary duty cycle of the Positive ( þve) Negative ( ve) Negative ( ve)

converter. Negative ( ve) Positive ( þ ve) Negative ( ve)

Negative ( ve) Negative ( ve) Positive (þ ve)

curve and voltage–power (V–P) curve. Both V–I and V–P curves are

nonlinear in nature. The voltage corresponding to zero current is

called open circuit voltage (Voc) and the current corresponding to

zero voltage is called as Short circuit current (Isc). Power supplied

by the SPV module is zero at Voc and Isc. The maximum power

point is at knee of the current–voltage characteristic curve, where

the product voltage and current is maximum. Voltage and current

at MPP is indicated as Vmax and Imax respectively. MPP is unique, as

can be seen in Fig. 2, where the previous points are represented.

the load in order to provide load matching. Boost converter, buck

converter and buck–boost converter are commonly used DC–DC

converters. Boost converter is preferred for SPV application due its

better performance. Boost converter provides higher output than Fig. 4. Flowchart of classical P&O algorithm [80].

112 G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129

3. Conventional P&O algorithm the peak power. The implemented proposed control scheme with

DSP and it was found that there is an increase in 0.5% tracked power

P&O is widely used MPPT technique because it is intuitive and with modiﬁed tracking algorithm. Khaehintung et al. [86] proposed

easy to implement. The conventional P&O method [77–81] mea- an FPGA based variable step P&O MPPT technique for battery

sures voltage and current from the solar panel and perturb the charging application. Dynamic and steady state performance of

operating voltage and compares the power received at old voltage the proposed algorithm was found to be superior to conventional

with the power received at new voltage. P&O MPPT. Femia et al. [87] proposed a method to optimize P&O

Direction of new perturbation depends upon the value of MPPT parameters to improve the dynamic behavior of the whole

measured power; perturbation will be in same direction, if higher system including DC–DC converter and PV array. Houssamo et al.

power is measured at new voltage, otherwise it will go in the [88] did experimental analysis and compared energy efﬁciency of

opposite direction as shown in Fig. 3. Conventional P&O MPPT four MPPT techniques. Four identical PV panels with P&O MPPT

employs ﬁxed perturbation step size. Larger perturbation size with ﬁxed step size, INC MPPT with ﬁxed step size, variable step

increases the convergence speed but operating point will oscillate P&O MPPT and Fuzzy Logic based MPPT was used for the experi-

around MPP and slightly reduces the efﬁciency. Smaller perturba- mental analysis. Improved P&O MPPT was found to be superior over

tion will reduce the oscillations around MPP but it results in other MPPT methods. Srikumar et al. [89] proposed a new method

slower convergence to MPP. “Hill climbing method” is an alternate which tracks peak power quickly than conventional P&O MPPT.

name for conventional P&O MPPT technique. It is summarized in Convergence speed as well as accuracy of proposed algorithm was

Table 1. SPV module's output power vs. voltage curve (PV curve) at found superior to conventional method. Rezvani et al. [90] proposed

constant module temperature and the constant irradiance is a new method which incorporates artiﬁcial neural network and

shown in the Fig. 3. When the operating point of SPV module is genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Data optimization is done GA and

away from the MPP, operating voltage will be perturbed by a small optimized values are trained by ANN and reference voltage is

increment, and the change of power (ΔP) is noticed. determined. Convergence speed of proposed algorithm is superior

If ΔP is positive, it means that the operating point is moving to conventional P&O MPPT, oscillations around MPP was found to

towards MPP. Further voltage perturbations will be provided in the minimum more importantly produces well regulated power output.

same direction as earlier in order to move operating point much closer Quamruzzaman et al. [91] proposed a single stage grid connected

to MPP. If ΔP is negative, it means that the operating point is moving PV system with modiﬁed P&O MPPT technique which reduces the

away from MPP. Further voltage perturbations will be provided in the oscillations around MPP. Some of the modiﬁed P&O MPPT techni-

reverse direction in order to move operating point much closer to ques are discussed and compared based on the desirable factors

MPP. Fig. 4 shows the ﬂowchart of classical P&O algorithm. such as number of sensors required, implementation easiness, and

Conventional P&O algorithm have some restrictions which performance under steady state, overall efﬁciency implementation

reduce the MPPT efﬁciency. First, it cannot determine exactly cost and tracking speed.

whether the operating point has reached the MPP or not. The

operating point will oscillates around the MPP and reduces the

4.1. Soft computing based P&O MPPT

SPV module efﬁciency under constant irradiance condition [82].

Second, MPPT can be fooled under quickly changing atmospheric

Soft computing methods [92–95] such as particle swarm opti-

conditions [83]. When there is sudden increase in the irradiation

mization (PSO), ANN, FLC and other evolutionary algorithms (EA)

ΔP will be positive, MPPT will assume that the operating point is are utilized to optimize certain parameters of conventional MPPT's.

moving towards the MPP and further voltage perturbation in same

Soft computing techniques are used along with conventional P&O

direction. When there is sudden decrease in the irradiation ΔP will

MPPT to add extra intelligence and thereby improving performance

be negative, MPPT will assume that the operating point is moving

away from the MPP and further voltage perturbation will be in

reverse direction. When there is sudden increase in the irradiation

continuously the operating point will move towards left and MPPT

algorithm will be fooled continuously. When there is a sudden

decrease in irradiation continuously the operating point will move

towards right.

certain disadvantages. It cannot dictate when MPP is reached.

Operating point will no settle at MPP, it oscillate around MPP and

reduces the SPV efﬁciency under constant irradiance condition. Fig. 5. Basic ANN structure [97].

Under quickly changing atmospheric conditions this algorithm

exhibit unpredictable behavior. Modiﬁed P&O methods are intro-

duced to reduce these effects.

Several modiﬁed P&O MPPT methods are there to track the MPP.

Liu et al. [84] proposed an improved peak power tracking technique

with peak current control for reducing oscillations of operating

point around MPP. Instantaneous values of PV currents and voltages

along with small perturbation step were used to track peak power.

The implemented proposed control scheme with DSP, experimental

results too shown increase in tracking speed. Jung et al. [85]

proposed an adaptive algorithm which automatically varies the

perturbation step size and hysteresis bandwidth in order to track Fig. 6. Block diagram of ANN based MPPT [103].

G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129 113

MPPT controller. Conventional P&O MPPT along with soft comput- atmospheric condition also. Peak power tracking with ANN based

ing techniques will give better performance when compared to gradient descent method under varying atmospheric condition is

their individually performances. An attempt is made in this section explained in [102]. Several P&O and INC MPPT techniques with ANN

to carry out a review on P&O MPPT technique which employing soft to improve performance are also proposed by authors. Jinbang et al.

computing techniques such as PSO, ANN, FLC etc. One selected [103] proposed ANN based improve P&O MPPT with insolation data

paper from each improved method is also described in detail. and temperature as inputs. Performance under rapidly changing

atmospheric condition was superior in the proposed method. Islam

4.1.1. Artiﬁcial neural network (ANN) method et al. [104] combined ANN with conventional INC MPPT to improve

Theory, operation, previous work on FLC based MPPT techniques the tracking features. Proposed method provides better accuracy and

and an improved FLC based P&O MPPT technique is explained below. dynamic response than conventional method. Large number of

intermediate/hidden layer improves performance of tracking system

4.1.1.1. Operation and previous work using ANN. Artiﬁcial neural but increases the complexity. Most of the ANN based MPPT techni-

networks (ANNs) [96–98] are learning algorithm inspired and ques uses back propagation method for MPPT. Once ANN is trained

developed based on central nervous systems of animals. ANN with sufﬁcient data it will track MPP accurately without extensive

consists of neurons and connectors similar to brain neuron knowledge of PV parameters. Since all PV modules exhibit different

structure. In ANN neurons are aligned in layers and neuron of characteristics, ANN must be trained individually for each module/

each layer is connected to neuron of previous and subsequent layers array. Output characteristics of PV module/array vary with time also

as shown in Fig. 5. Due to the adaptive nature, ANN is able to hence it is better to train ANN continuously for good results.

pattern recognition and machine learning [99,100]. ANN is trained Continuous training process requires more time which is a drawback

continuously with the input parameters such as irradiation, PV of this method. A novel technique to solve P&O drawbacks by auto

voltage, PV current and temperature or any combination of these. tuning the perturbation step in order to make the control algorithm

Based upon the training of selected input parameters maximum adaptive to the operational state is presented in literature below.

current (IMPP), maximum voltage (VMPP) or duty ratio is generated

for controlling power converter. 4.1.1.2. ANN based Improved P&O MPPT. In order to solve the P&O

ANN with three layers: input layer, output layer and hidden drawbacks, most MPPT system adjust the perturbation step (ΔV). A

layer are shown in Fig. 5. Weights associated with each neuron are small ΔV value decreases the amplitude of oscillations around MPP

calculated carefully through training process. ANN can be used for and reduces the power loss. But it slow down the response of the

generating reference signals once training is over. control algorithm to changing atmospheric condition and decreases

Schematic diagram of an ANN based MPPT technique is shown in the system efﬁciency [105,106]. On other hand large ΔV can ensure

Fig. 6. ANN based MPPT techniques are generally used track peak quick convergence to MPP but it increases the amplitude of

power under changing atmospheric conditions. Veerachary et al. oscillations around MPP. In [107] a new technique to solve P&O

[101] proposed an ANN based peak power point tracking technique drawbacks by auto tuning the perturbation step in order to make the

for a PV system connected to separately excited DC motor. Proposed control algorithm adaptive to the operational state is presented. To

system tracks peak power accurately even under changing do this, they exploited the slope of P–V curve during the previous

perturbation period to predict the suitable step of perturbation for

Fig. 8. Artiﬁcial intelligence (AI) block [108]. Fig. 10. Basic fuzzy logic structure [110].

114 G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129

the next cycle as shown in Fig. 7. By considering the output voltage and provide better dynamic and steady state performances. Yuen

variation and power of the SPV module the perturbation step is et al. [123] proposed a method to track power under changing

determined continuously. Information about the operating point and atmospheric conditions. Simoes et al. [124] proposed a method with

how much it is far from MPP can be obtained from the characteristic change in power and duty ratio as crisp inputs to FLC. Masoum et al.

slope. When there is a sudden variation in atmospheric conditions [125] proposed a new method with array current, power and duty

information from the slope will fool the algorithm and there is a ratio as three FLC inputs. Patcharaprakiti et al. [126] proposed grid

chance that the operating point may move away from the MPP. integrated PV system with adaptive FLC which tunes rule base and

Above mentioned problem is solved in this algorithm by choosing membership functions continuously to improve performance. System

perturbation step by considering the variations in atmospheric consists of DC–DC boost converter along with a single phase grid tied

conditions. inverter. Wu et al. [127] proposed self tuned FLC based MPPT for grid

SPV module output power varies with variation in the atmo- connection. Purnama et al. [128] proposed a single input single

spheric conditions. In [108] a new idea, to use an artiﬁcial neural output FLC by applying “signed distance method” [129].

network (ANN) to detect deviation in atmospheric conditions is

proposed. ANN predicts the power value during the next pertur-

bation cycle from the available data. Information's about atmo- 4.2. FLC based improved P&O MPPT

spheric conditions is obtained by comparing ANN output value

and the real measured power. Based on this information next Fig. 11 shows the block diagram of FLC based P&O MPPT. The

perturbation step value is chosen. proposed MPPT technique [130] eliminates the oscillations around

Using AI based P&O MPPT method output power delivered to the operating point by varying the perturbation step size using

load can be maximized. Fig. 9 shows ﬂowchart of this algorithm. FLC. The absolute power slope, P and old perturbation step size,

Flow chart and working is similar to conventional P&O MPPT,

additionally an AI block is included to vary the perturbation step

size with changing atmospheric conditions. Fig. 8 shows AI block,

SPV module voltage, current and old perturbation step size is the

input to the AI block. Equ 1 block compares the power predicted

by ANN and the real power. Based on the difference between the

power next perturbation step size is chosen. As shown in the

Fig. 7, if there is a large change in power for small increment in

voltage it means that atmospheric conditions are varying. ANN

will sense this change and by comparing the slope. This algorithm

helps to track MPP under quickly varying atmospheric conditions

as well as eliminates the oscillations around MPP.

Theory, operation, previous work on FLC based MPPT techni-

ques and an improved FLC based P&O MPPT technique is

explained below.

4.1.2.1. Operation and previous work using. Fuzzy logic [109–119] is a Fig. 11. Block diagram of FLC based P&O MPPT [130].

superset of conventional (Boolean) logic that has been extended to

handle the concept of partial truth: the truth values between

“completely true” and “completely false”. Value between truth and

false can be recognized by Fuzzy logic. With fuzzy logic, propositions

can be represented with degrees of truthfulness and falsehood. For

example, the statement today is sunny, might be 100% true if there

are no clouds, 80% true if there are a few clouds and 0% true if it rains

all day. Mathematical model of system is not required in FLC; hence

nonlinear systems can easily dealt with FLC [120]. Process structure

for a critical FLC is shown in Fig. 10.

FLC is implemented in three stages: (1) Fuzziﬁcation, crisp inputs

are fuzziﬁed into linguistic variables based on the membership

functions. (2) Fuzziﬁed inputs are then compared with the fuzzy Fig. 12. MF of the two inputs Pa and Vold [130].

rule base for making decision. Rule base provides certain possible

combinations to satisfy various conditions. (3) Defuzziﬁcation, lin-

guistic variable are converted back to analog signal by defuzziﬁcation

process which control the power converter. Error and change in error

is given as input to FLC. Error is calculated from irradiance, tempera-

ture, PV voltage, PV current or out power. Several FLC based MPPT

techniques had been proposed researchers. Mahmoud et al. [121]

proposed peak power tracking using FLC with seven linguistic

variables. Implementing complexity of proposed system is high,

and selection of membership functions and fuzzy rules require

excellent knowledge of the system. Khaehintung et al. [122] pro-

posed MPP technique with less number of membership function for

solar powered light ﬂasher application. Their system is less complex Fig. 13. MF of the output ΔV [130].

G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129 115

ΔVold are taken as the inputs to FLC to calculate the new change in continuous function. Defuzziﬁcation method can be chosen accord-

step size ΔV. Two inputs P and ΔVold are fuzziﬁed by using ing to the knowledge of operator about the system. The center of

normalized fuzzy sets with three triangular membership functions gravity (COG) defuzziﬁcation method is used for this work [131,132].

(MFs): Small, Medium, and Large as shown in Fig. 12. The output This method varies the perturbation step size to achieve better

variable consists of a normalized fuzzy set with triangular MF: results. When the operating point is away from the MPP larger step

Negative Big (NB), Negative Small (NS), Zero (ZO), Positive Small size is used to increase the convergence speed. When the operating

(PS), and Positive Big (PB) as shown in Fig. 13. After fuzziﬁcation of point is near to the MPP smaller step size is used to avoid the

the crisp inputs the resulting fuzzy are compared with rule-base. oscillations around MPP. This method provides better result under

The rule base is a set according to the system requirement.“If rapidly varying atmospheric condition s also. The proposed system is

premise then consequent” is the rule base used in this method. transparent, provides better dynamic response but it is wearisome to

SPV panel curve shown in Fig. 2 can be divided into three develop fuzzy rules and membership functions and fuzzy outputs

regions based on based on the absolute power slope. On the left and lot of data and knowledge is needed for designing the system.

side of MPP the slope is small while on the right side of MPP slope is FLC has certain advantages: Works with imprecise inputs, exact

large and slope is zero on MPP. Referring to Fig. 2, if absolute value mathematical model of PV array is not required, nonlinear system

of the slope Pa is Large, it indicates that the operating point of SPV can be easily handled. Accuracy and learning ability of FLC

module is away from MPP. Under this condition old perturbation depends greatly on number of fuzzy levels and form of member-

step, Vold can have three different values. Change in step size ΔV will ship function. Trial and error method is generally used to deter-

be Positive Big if Vold is small, in order to reach the MPP quickly. mine fuzzy rules and membership functions associated with

Change in step size ΔV will be Positive Small if Vold is Medium, in fuzziﬁcation and defuzziﬁcation which is time consuming.

order to reach the MPP without oscillating around it. Finally ΔV will

be Zero if Vold is Large, in order to avoid tracking of MPP in the

4.2.1. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) method

opposite direction ﬁnally leading to oscillations. First part of the

Theory, operation, previous work on PSO based MPPT techni-

rule, premise is calculated using the inference minimum operator.

ques and an improved PSO based P&O MPPT technique is

The rules which are ON during each input MFs are compared and

explained below.

the minimum rule is chosen for operation.

Defuzziﬁcation is the ﬁnal step in this method, the fuzzy set

corresponding to change in step size ΔV is transformed back to a real 4.2.1.1. Operation and previous work using PSO. Particle swarm

optimization (PSO) is based on the behavior of a colony or swarm

of bees, ants, wasps and termites; a train of ﬁsh or a group of birds

[133–136]. PSO mimics the behavior of theses social organisms. The

word particle denotes a bee in a colony or a bird in a ﬂock etc. Each

individual or particle in a swarm behaves in a distributed way using

its own intelligence and the collective or group of intelligence of the

swarm. As such, if one particle discovers a good path to food, the rest

of the farm will also be able to follow the good path instantly even if

their location is far away in the swarm [137–139]. Optimization

methods based on swarm intelligence are called evolution-based

procedures. For multivariable optimization like SPV system, swarm is

assumed to be ﬁxed with each particle located initially at random

locations in multi dimensional space. Each particle is assumed to

have two characteristics: a position and a velocity [140,141]. Each

particle wanders around in the design space and remembers the best

position it has discovered. The particles communicate information or

good positions to each other and adjust their individual positions and

Fig. 14. PSO model [133]. velocities based on the information received on the good positions.

PSO model is shown in Fig. 14.

Fig. 15. (a) PV system with shaded modules, (b) V–I characteristics; and (c) P–V characteristics [153].

116 G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129

Qiang et al. [142] implemented an improved MPPT technique tracking. Nattapol et al. [151] proposed an improved PSO with

using PSO. Performance of under partial shaded condition is Sugeno fuzzy control to avoid frequency ﬂuctuations in grid

superior to conventional methods and implementing complexity connected PV system. Koad et al. [152] compared and analyzed

is more. Ishaque et al. [143] proposed a method to determine the performance of various peak power point tracking methods with

parameters of PV modules using differential evolution. A new peak PSO MPPT.

power tracking method with PSO which improves the dynamic

performance is proposed in [144]. Abdulkadir et al. [145] proposed 4.2.1.2. PSO based Improved P&O MPPT. Series-parallel combination

an improved PSO MPPT to track peak power under rapidly of PV modules with string of series connected PV cells is used for

changing atmosphere. Inertia weight and learning factor are varied large PV systems. Due to the effect of clouds, shadows of trees and

continuously to speed up searching of MPP. Weighting factor is large buildings some part of PV module may receive less amount

linearly decreased with increase in iteration number. During irradiation when compared to other modules. Under partial shading

starting of iteration weighting factor will be large, it will decrease condition voltage across series connected module varies while

as iteration progress hence MMP can be tracked quickly and current remains constant, in case of parallel connected module

precisely. Chen et al. [146] proposed a sun tracking method with string current varies, this leads to multiple peaks. There will be

PSO which can act as dual axis sun tracking, single axis sun many local peaks (LP) depending upon number of PV modules used

tracking and ﬁxed peak power point tracking. Gali et al. [147] and one global peak (GP) as shown in Fig. 15.

proposed an improved PSO MPPT method to track peak power Conventional tracking algorithms cannot ensure the conver-

under partial shaded condition. Shi et al. [148] proposed an gence to GP, operating point may trap on any of the LP's. The

improved method to track peak power under partial shaded proposed method [153] combines PSO and P&O MPPT technique to

condition. They used PSO to ﬁnd out the global peak and INC to track GP under partial shading condition. Initially PSO is activated

track the peak power. PSO increases the convergence speed while to determine the optimal value of duty ratio for tracking GP. Once

INC provides precise tracking facility. Suryavanshi et al. [149] optimal value of duty ratio is determined P&O MPPT is initiated

proposed a new technique to track peak power under changing with this optimal duty ratio to track GP. Flow chart of the proposed

atmospheric condition. PSO was used to ﬁnd the global peak and technique is shown in Fig. 16.

P&O MPPT for precisely MPP. Kamejima et al. [150] proposed a Initially a set of particles (duty ratio) within the maximum and

method for tuning parameters of PSO for peak power point minimum values of the duty ratio of converter is selected. Converter

Fig. 16. Flowchart of P&O MPPT combined with particle swam optimization (PSO) [153].

G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129 117

then activated with these selected particles and corresponding based MPPT implemented using FPGA is presented in [169] by

power is calculated. Power corresponding to ith particle is calcu- Mellit and company.

lated and if it is greater then than personal best (pbest), pbest is

replaced by present power and duty ratio corresponding to perso-

nal best (dpbest) is replaced by present duty ratio. Global best (gbest)

is then compared with pbest, if gbest is less than by pbest then it is 4.3.2. FPGA based improved P&O MPPT

replaced by pbest. And duty ratio corresponding to global best In this method [170] perturbation step is made constant with

(dgbest) is replaced by dpbest. After entire iteration dgbest is chosen as an offset which makes the FPGA [171–176] data acquisition process

doptimal and P&O MPPT is initiated. Check for insolation change is much easier. As shown in Fig. 17, the ﬁrst step consists varying PV

done frequently once there is change PSO is initiated for determin- voltage consequently PV power by providing constant triangular

ing doptimal. perturbation. Old power P1 corresponding to old voltage, V1 and

MPP can be tracked accurately under partial shading condition new power P2 corresponding to new voltage, V2 is measured and

using this method. Misbehavior of conventional P&O MPPT during compared. If old power is greater than new power, operating point

rapidly changing atmospheric condition can be also solved using will be right of the MPP. Hence, the operating point is moved (in

this method. Determining optimal duty ratio using PSO requires step 2 and step 3) to attain equality between P1 and P2. The

commendable amount of time is disadvantage of this method. operating point will oscillate around MPP.

Fig. 18 shows circuit diagram of the FPGA based PV conversion

4.3. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) method system. Power part consists of a DC–DC converter, an SPV module

and an electrical load. DC–DC converter is controlled by FPGA part,

Theory, operation, previous work on FPGA based MPPT techni- which can be divided into different simple functions. Value of

ques and an improved FPGA based P&O MPPT technique is power, P1 on the rising edge and the value of and power, P2 on

explained below. falling edge of perturbation signal can be recovered using a switch

block. Fig. 19 shows principle algorithm of controller block. When

P1 ¼P2 OFFSET remains unchanged. When P2 oP1, the OFFSET

4.3.1. Operation and previous work using FPGA signal is incremented by one, else the signal is decremented by

Field programmable gate array (FPGA) [154–157] is an integrated one. The triangular waveform produced by the integration of

circuit conﬁgured by customer after manufacturing in ﬁeld. Conﬁg- perturbation signal is added with OFFSET to create order signal.

uration of FPGA is generally done by hardware description language Thus the perturbation step size is varied with respect to the slope

(HDL). Reprogrammable logic blocks [158–161] are arranged in of power curve. When operating point is away from MPP pertur-

arrays so that it can be conﬁgured and inter connected in different bation step size will be chosen as big to track MPP quickly. If

ways. FPGA provides very fast I/O ports and bidirectional buses operating point is near to MPP perturbation step will become

which makes it more attractive. Because of high accuracy, better small to track MPP precisely without oscillations. From the order

dynamic response and less quantization errors FPGA is used as a signal digital pulse width modulation block (DPWM) creates

controller for solar power tracking. Several MPPT techniques with duty cycle.

FPGA controller had been introduced so far. Chekired et al. [162]

proposed a comparative study intelligent peak power point tracking

using FPGA. Messai et al. [163] implemented two input single

output FLC implemented on FPGA chip. Voltage and current was

chosen as the input and duty ratio of converter as output. Simula-

tion and experimental results showed good matching with better

performance than conventional method. Chettibi et al. [164] pro-

posed FPGA controlled grid connected system, MPPT control and

inverter control is done by FPGA. Rajkumar et al. [165] proposed a

multilevel cascaded inverters with space vector modulated PWM

for PV system. Mellit et al. [166] proposed a P&O MPPT technique

implemented using FPGA. Bharatiraja et al. [167] implemented

neutral point clamped multilevel inverters (NPC-MLI) for autono-

mous operation PV system with capacitor balancing using FPGA.

Parlak [168] proposed an improved MPPT with FPGA to track peak

power under shaded conditions. A review on artiﬁcial intelligence

Fig. 18. FPGA based P&O MPPT [170].

Fig. 17. Principle of new MPPT [170]. Fig. 19. Details of controller block [170].

118 G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129

This technique uses a constant triangular perturbation signal to method. But in this method the perturbation step size changes from

reach MPP. Frequency of analog to digital converter (ADC) is big one to small one in order to reduce the power pulsation around

reduced to 200 samples/s with perfect synchronization between MPP, hence the module approaches MPP slowly. Perturbation step size

data acquisition process and signal perturbation. FPGA based P&O is varied by considering sign change of J as in Eqs. (2) and (3).

MPPT provides fast dynamic response, less quantization errors, Fig. 20 shows the ﬂow chart of variable perturbation step based

and high accuracy. P&O method. If J 40 and ΔP/ΔV 40, it shows that SPV module

departs from MPP. In this case, larger perturbation step size is

4.4. Variable step based method chosen to move SPV module to MPP quickly. On the other hand

smaller perturbation step size is chosen when ΔP/ΔV decreases

Theory, operation, previous work on variable step based MPPT abruptly, which will precisely move SPV module to MPP. Larger

techniques and an improved variable step based P&O MPPT perturbation step size is chosen when the SPV module deviates

technique is explained in sections below. from MPP. These larger perturbations help the SPV module to

reach near the MPP very quickly. When J o0 and ΔP oLimP

(provided value) this shows that SPV module is near MPP, under

4.4.1. Operation and previous work using variable step this condition smaller perturbation step is chosen to track MPP

For hill climbing methods like P&O method, INC method and precisely and reduce the oscillations. When J o0 and ΔP 4LimP

RCC method perturbation step size must chosen carefully. If this indicates SPV module deviates from MPP hence larger

perturbation step size is large convergence speed can be increased perturbations are chosen to track MPP quickly. The smaller

while oscillations of operating point around MPPT will be large. perturbations track MPP precisely and eliminate oscillations.

Hence certain amount of power will be lost. On the other hand if Choice of two perturbations helps to reduce the power loss due

we decrease the perturbation step size oscillations around MPP to oscillations around MPP, and hence increase overall efﬁciency of

can be reduced while the tracking speed will also reduce. Due to the system.

slow tracking of MPP certain amount of power will be lost. MPPT

with variable perturbation step size can address this issue and J ¼ ΔP k =ΔV k nΔP k 1 =ΔV k 1 40 ð2Þ

make tracking system more attractive. In variable step P&O MPPT Operating point away from MPP

the step size will be large when the operating point is away from

MPP and small when operating point is near to MPP. Convergence J ¼ ΔP k =ΔV k nΔP k 1 =ΔV k 1 o 0 ð3Þ

speed as well as tracking precision can be improved with variable Operating point near to MPP

step P&O MPPT. Several modiﬁed MPPT techniques has been When there is a slight change in illumination, value of ΔP will be

proposed by researchers so far. Amine et al. [177] proposed an less than LimP, perturbation step will remain small and MPP can be

improved MPPT technique with variable perturbation step size. tracked precisely without oscillations around peak point. When there

Dynamic and steady state performance of proposed method was is sudden increase in the illumination, J and ΔP will increase abruptly,

found to be superior. Ansari et al. [178] proposed variable step P&O larger perturbation step size is chosen to track MPP quickly. When

MPPT algorithm to reduce oscillations of operating point around

MPP and increase convergence speed. Zhang et al. [179] proposed

an improved variable step for grid connected system using

extreme seeking control (ESC). Ahmed et al. [180] proposed a

new approach to design scaling factor variable step operation. Liu

et al. [181] proposed a variable step MPPT technique in which step

size is a function of ratio of change in power and change in voltage.

Jae et al. [182] proposed an improved MPPT with variable

perturbation step size. Li et al. [183] proposed a novel MPPT

tracking method with variable perturbation step size, space vector

modulation scheme was used for controlling inverter. Tang et al.

[184] proposed a method which utilizes the slope of PV curve to

obtain variable perturbation step size. Menniti et al. [185] pro-

posed a method which utilizes change in conductance and

instantaneous conductance for varying perturbation step size.

Khaehintung et al. [186] proposed FPGA based variable step P&O

MPPT with duty cycle perturbation adaptation. Mei et al. [187]

proposed a novel variable step MPPT technique to which improves Fig. 20. Flow chart of variable perturb step based P&O MPPT [195].

the response speed, steady state performance and accuracy

simultaneously. Roy et al. [188] an improved method with FLC,

simulated and compared the results with conventional methods.

Hosseinil et al. [189] proposed Newton–Raphson method based

variable perturbation step MPPT technique implemented through

model predictive control. Chen et al. [190] proposed a variable step

MPPT method with single sensor. Conventional hill climbing

methods uses voltage and current sensors while modiﬁed method

uses voltage sensor only which reduces the cost. Yan et al. [191]

proposed an improved MPPT technique with variable step.

This algorithm [192–198] works by considering the value of ΔP/ΔV.

SPV module works around MPP when ΔP/ΔV (J) decreases signiﬁ-

cantly. The perturbation step size is kept unaltered in conventional P&O Fig. 21. Power variation due step size [202].

G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129 119

there is a sudden decrease in the illumination J and ΔP will fall below for different perturbation steps. The step-size is made smaller to

zero, thus the algorithm will be fooled for a moment. reduce the power variation in steady state, and Eq. (6) is satisﬁed,

By using variable perturbations, MPP can be tracked quickly j ΔPj 4 P th ð6Þ

and precisely. When SPV module is away from MPP larger

perturbation step is used to track MPP quickly. When SPV module Power threshold is denoted by Pth, it is chosen larger than ΔP1 as

is working near the MPP smaller perturbation step size is used to shown in Fig. 15 in order to achieve quick and precise tracking of

avoid the oscillations. This algorithm increases the overall efﬁ- maximum power.

ciency of the system by reducing the power loss due to oscillations This MPPT [202–206] method can be described as: when |ΔP|

around MPP and improves the tracking speed. The main disad- rPth, the step size is chosen as Vstp2 (smaller), and it could track

vantage of this method is that the system will be fooled momen- MPP precisely; when |ΔP|4Pth, the step size become Vstp1 (larger),

tarily under rapidly varying atmospheric condition. which will track MPP quickly. Fig. 22 shows the ﬂow chart of this

modiﬁed MPPT method. As shown in Fig. 22 power ratio, Pr, deﬁned

by Eq. (7) is also included into this control algorithm in order to

4.4.3. P&O MPPT with Dead Beat Control

reduce the additional power losses under very low solar irradiance.

In this method two step sizes and a power threshold are used in

MPPT algorithm. One step size is for quick convergence to MPPT and P ins

Pr 9 ð7Þ

second step size is for eliminating the oscillations around MPP [199– P mn

201]. Power threshold is chosen after considering the output power where Pins is instantaneous power and Pmn is nominal maximum

oscillations. In this method step size is chosen sinusoidal with a peak power under standard test condition. To achieve these goals high

amplitude of Vstp, operating voltage of PV panel is given by Eq. (4), resolution sensors are required which increase the complexity of

V PV ¼ V MPP þ V stp sin ðωtÞ ð4Þ technique.

In order forecast the pulse width of the next switching period

Variation in power is given by Eq. (5), [207–210], state equation of the inverter system is calculated by

ΔP ¼ V PV IPV P PV ð5Þ Dead Beat Control with ﬁlter and feedback signal from the voltage.

This algorithm improves the tracking speed and reduces the

VPV, IPV, and PMPP are the instantaneous voltage, instantaneous

oscillations around MPP under low irradiance condition also.

current and maximum power of the SPV module under given

atmospheric conditions. Fig. 21 shows power variation with time

4.4.4. Modiﬁed P&O MPPT with two-step algorithm

P&O MPPT with Dead Beat Control also uses two steps to track

MPP quickly and precisely. Like Dead Beat Control this algorithm

[211] also uses two steps for tracking MPP but the tracking method

is different. Here two steps are used align the operating point

symmetric to the MPP and force one point near to MPP. Fig. 23

shows the location of operating points around MPP of PV module

Fig. 22. Flow-chart of the modiﬁed P&O MPPT algorithm with Dead Beat Control

[202]. Fig. 24. Four point behavior under steady state [211].

Fig. 23. Location of operating points around MPP of a PV module [211]. Fig. 25. Symmetric behavior under steady state [211].

120 G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129

Fig. 26. Flow-chart of the modiﬁed P&O MPPT algorithm with two step algorithm [211].

chosen after considering the resolution of ADC and measurement

circuit noise level [212]. Application of primary perturbation is

similar to classical P&O MPPT method. If change in power after

perturbation is positive Nsteps will be incremented once. Else check

for Nsteps is done, if Nsteps less than three primary perturbation is

given else secondary perturbation will be triggered and after

perturbation Nsteps will be made one. As shown in Fig. 26 second-

ary perturbation will be activated when two conditions are

satisﬁed ﬁrst when change in power (ΔP) is less than zero and

second Nsteps 43 (four or more primary perturbation in same

direction), ﬁrst three will be due to increase in power and fourth

will be due to reversal of sign. Secondary perturbation is used to

force the central operating point towards the MPP. Secondary sign

perturbation (SSP) can have values 0 or 1. If it is zero secondary

Fig. 27. Operating voltage correction with two level MPPT [211]. perturbation will be Δx1 else Δx2.

This secondary perturbation will provide small increment or

when we are choosing a perturbation step which takes two decrement in operating voltage of SPV module and align the

perturbations to cross MPP. As shown in Fig. 23 operating points operating point symmetric to the MPP and force the middle point

will be symmetric in case of PV operating voltage (x axis) but they towards MPP. Fig. 27a shows operating voltage of SPV module with

are asymmetric about MPP (y axis). unsymmetrical placing of operating points and Fig. 27b shows the

MPPT efﬁciency will get reduced due the asymmetry; also this secondary perturbation for alignment of operating point symmetric

will led the algorithm to take a wrong decision leading to a four to the MPP. Fig. 27c shows operating voltage of SPV module which

point sequence under noisy environment as shown in Fig. 24. This will force central point of the three points towards MPP. This

four point oscillation further reduces the MPPT efﬁciency and method improves the efﬁciency of MPPT by reducing the steady

increases the oscillations around MPP. Around MPP PV curve has a state error. This technique does not need any complex mathema-

concave nature, due to this four point oscillations cannot be simply tical calculation, hence can be implemented using cheap controllers.

removed by choosing an optimal perturbation step size. Only

method to avoid this asymmetric behavior is by pushing any of

4.5. Bisection search theorem (BST) method

the operation points 2 or 3 much closer to MPP as shown in Fig. 25.

This helps to change four point sequences to three point sequence

Theory, operation, previous work on BST based MPPT techni-

and hence helps in improving the overall efﬁciency. This method

ques and an improved BST based P&O MPPT technique is

avoids the asymmetric behavior of the operating point by forcing

explained in sections below.

operating point towards MPP. Flow chart for this method is shown

in Fig. 26. This method is similar to classical P&O with variable step

size under steady state condition. Main difference of this algo- 4.5.1. Operation and previous work using BST

rithm with other variable step modiﬁed algorithm is that this does Bisection search method (BST) [213–215] is generally a classical root

not require information about the PV module used; hence it can be ﬁnding method which bisect intervals regularly and check whether the

G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129 121

optimum lies in the present point. This method is also called as interval reference voltage is calculated. Slope checking is done again with

halving method. In order to ﬁnd root of a function y¼f(x) in an interval new power. If slope is positive it means that operating point is

{a,b}, BST moves the end points symmetrically towards optimum value moving towards MPP the perturbation step is increment again. If

(root) by halving the interval. First midpoint of the interval is the slope is negative it means that the operating point is moving

determined (c¼(aþb)/2) then f(c) is determined. Three possible away from the MPP. Then the voltage corresponding to the new

conditions are analyzed then; if f(c) is zero root is c, if f(a) and f(c) power is updated as Vx and voltage corresponding to the old

have opposite sign one root lies in {a,c} and if f(b) and f(c) have power is updated as Vy. Slope checking for the average of the two

opposite sign one root lies in {b,c}. If either case (2) or (3) occurs voltages Vx and Vy is done. If the slope lies near to zero(less than

interval corresponding to them is halved and process is continued until 0.1) then that operating point is read as MPP.

roots are obtained. In case of PV module [216] change in power If slope is positive, Vx will continue to exist as earlier and the

corresponding to maximum voltage is zero. Similarly power corre- new average voltage will be updated as Vy. Slope checking is again

sponding to open circuit voltage and short circuit voltage is zero; peak done for the average of two updated voltage. When the slope

power should not happen at these points even though change in reaches near zero (less than 0.1) this process will be terminated and

power is zero. Tracking maximum power from PV module is ﬁnding that operating point will be chosen as MPP. If slope is negative, Vy

out root of the function dP by changing the voltage of PV module. will continue to exist as earlier and the new average voltage will be

Change in power dP is considered as f(x), where x is voltage of PV updated as Vx. Slope checking is again done for the average of two

module. updated voltage and the process is terminated if slope lies within

the limit. If the slope corresponding to new average voltage lies

within the speciﬁed range, then corresponding voltage is consid-

4.5.2. BST based P&O MPPT

ered as the maximum voltage. Else the process is continued till MPP

By implementing bisection method [217] based P&O MPPT

is reached. If initially the slope corresponding to measured voltage

maximum power point can be reached much quickly. Like con-

is negative then the voltage is decremented till the slope becomes

ventional P&O MPPT ﬁrst measurement of current, voltage calcu-

positive. The voltage corresponding to negative slope is updated as

lation of power and slope checking (dP/dV) are done to check

Vx and voltage corresponding to positive slope is updated as Vy.

whether the operating point lying on left hand side of MPP or in

Slope checking is done after calculating average of two voltages. Vy

the right hand side of MPP or on MPP. A speciﬁc increment is

is updated if slope is positive and Vx is updated if slope is negative.

provided to the reference voltage if the operating point is moving

This process will continue till the slope corresponding to the

towards MPP and resultant power is corresponding to the new

average voltage lies within the speciﬁed range.

Flow chart of this MPPT technique is shown in Fig. 28. Sub-

routine which is working as the decision box for calculation of

power and checking of slope is shown in Fig. 29.

Fig. 29. Flow chart for slope checking [217]. Fig. 30. Operating point shifting [221].

122 G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129

MPP can be tracked quickly and precisely by implementing module output power due change in irradiance, ΔH and a constant

bisection based P&O MPPT. This method eliminates the oscillations duty cycle d(k)¼d(k l) Δd).

of operating point around the MPP and improves the efﬁciency. If Eq. (9) is satisﬁed as shown in Fig. 13a algorithm will not be

Tracking speed and precision of this method is superior to the fooled and it will track MPP precisely. If Eq. (9) is satisﬁed as

conventional P&O algorithm. shown in Fig. 13b algorithm will be fooled and the operating point

will move away from MPP. Using duty cycle perturbation adapta-

4.6. Duty-cycle perturbations adaptation (DCPA) method tion [221–223] technique MPP can be tracked under varying

irradiance; hence the maximum power can be tracked from the

Theory, operation, previous work on DCPA based MPPT tech- PV module. Change in module output power due variation in duty

niques and an improved DCPA based P&O MPPT technique is cycle is shown in Eq. (10)

explained in sections below.

ΔP d ¼ V max ΔI d þ Imax ΔV d þ ΔV d ΔId ð10Þ

4.6.1. Operation and previous work using DCPA method Vmax and Imax are the voltage and current corresponding to

In classical P&O MPPT reference voltage value is varied to track MPP. ΔVd and ΔId are change in voltage and current proportional

MPP. Reference voltage value is used further for generating the duty to change in duty ratio. Relation between ΔVd and Δd are shown

ratio for converter. In duty cycle perturbation adaptation technique in Eq. (11). DC gain is denoted by G.

duty cycle of converter is directly varied by the MPPT algorithm.

Selection of duty cycle perturbation step size has a vital role in ΔV d ¼ G: Δd ð11Þ

efﬁcient tracking of peak power. Several duty cycle perturbation

Change in module output power due variation in irradiance is

step MPPT technique has been proposed by researches. Zhang et al.

shown in Eq. (12)

[218] made a comparative study on duty ratio perturbation and

observation method and reference voltage perturbation and obser- ΔP s ¼ V max ΔI s þ ΔV d ΔIs ¼ KV max ΔH ð12Þ

vation method. Hsieh et al. [219] proposed an improved MPPT

technique using variable frequency constant duty cycle control and where K is material constant and ΔH is change in irradiance. Eq.

constant frequency variable duty ratio control. Harshavardhana (7) can be derived from Eqs. (9)–(12).

et al. [220] proposed an improved MPPT technique using duty cycle

modiﬁer to reduce the DC voltage ripples. HV max þ 1 ðG:ΔdÞ2 4 V max K j ΔHj ð13Þ

Rmax

4.6.2. DCPA based P&O MPPT Minimum magnitude of duty cycle perturbation step (Δdmin)

In this method duty cycle of the DC–DC converter varied can be determined from Eq. (13), it is shown in Eq. (14)

directly to track MPP. Duty cycle for (k þ1)th sampling interval is

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

shown in Eq. (8). By choosing the sampling interval (Ta) perfectly 1 V max K j ΔHj T a

oscillations of operating point around MPP is eliminated in this ¼ Δdmin ð14Þ

G HV max þ Rmax 1

method. Amplitude of duty cycle perturbation (Δd) must be

chosen carefully; large value will track MPP quickly but will From Eq. (14) we can determine the sampling interval (Ta),

increase the steady state losses. Small value will reduce steady perfectly selected sampling time interval eliminates the oscillation

state loss but it reduces the tracking speed. This method gives an of operating point around MPP. This algorithm determines ampli-

idea to choose Ta to eliminate the oscillations of operating point tude of duty cycle perturbation and sampling interval numerical,

around MPP and to select Δd. perfectly selected Δdmin and Ta will track MPP under quick

dððk þ 1ÞT a Þ ¼ dðkT a Þ þ ðdðkT a Þ dððk 1ÞT a ÞÞ:signðpððk þ 1ÞT a pðkT a ÞÞ changing condition precisely. By using this algorithm steady state

ð8Þ losses can be minimized hence the efﬁciency can be improved.

condition is that the algorithm cannot ﬁnd the exact reason for Start

variation in the measured power. Consider a PV module working

near MPP at kth sampling interval with illumination H. When a Sense V K , V K+1 ,IK ,IK+1Calculate P K ,P K+1

positive perturbation, Δd is given operating point of the PV module and Power ratio S=P=(P MAX - P K+1)/ P MAX

will move away from the MPP towards point A as shown in Fig. 30,

ΔV= V K+1 - V K

if there is a change the irradiance between the instants kTa and

ΔP= P K+1 - P K

(kþl)Ta as shown in Fig. 13a. At (kþ1)Ta operating point will move

to point B rather than point A if there is an increase in irradiance.

The P&O MPPT algorithm will track MPP correctly if be ΔP = 0

confused only if Y

N

j ΔP d j 4 j ΔP s j ð9Þ

ΔP > 0

where ΔPd is the module output power variation at constant

Y

N

irradiance, H and variable duty cycle and ΔPs is the variation in Y

ΔP > 0 ΔP > 0

N

Table 2 Y

Variable step P&O MPPT using power ratio.

N

D K+1= D K +S*ΔD D K+1= D K -S*ΔD

Sl. no. Operating point Power ratio (S) Perturbation step (Δd)

2. Mid way Medium Medium Return

3. Near to MPP Small Small

Fig. 31. Flowchart of variable step P&O algorithm using power ratio.

G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129 123

1000 will decrease hence absolute value of power ratio will also

decrease. As mentioned above duty cycle perturbation step for

Ppv

500

next perturbation is product of power ratio and a ﬁxed step size

0 (Δd) given by Eq. (16). Duty cycle for next perturbation is given by

0 0.5 1 1.5 Eq. (17)

20

ΔD ¼ S n Δd ð16Þ

Ipv

10

DK þ 1 ¼ DK 7 ΔD ð17Þ

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 When operating point is far away from MPP instantaneous

100 power produced by PV panel will small hence power ratio will be

large making duty cycle perturbation step large. When operating

Vpv

50 point move towards MPP power ratio and perturbation step size

decreases as a result operating point will move to precisely

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 towards MPP without too much oscillations around MPP. It is

summarized in Table 2. Flow chart of proposed algorithm is shown

1

in Fig. 31.

Duty

panel with 800 W peak power was used for simulation.

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 Simulation results are shown in Fig. 33, when compared to

time(sec) conventional P&O MPPT proposed technique reduces oscillations

Fig. 33. Simulation results. of operating point around MPP and move operating point precisely

towards MPP.

Computation time for the proposed algorithm is less than that

5. Power ratio based variable step P&O MPPT of bisection method P&O MPPT, Dead Beat Control and two step

based algorithms. Artiﬁcial intelligence based P&O MPPT posse's

Detailed review on various modiﬁed P&O MPPT techniques greater accuracy than proposed method but its implementation is

shown that variable perturbation step P&O MPPT provides perfor- costly. Accuracy of proposed algorithm can be further by increased

mance than classical method. Soft computing based P&O MPPT also using FPGA or DSP controllers

shows better performance, but cost and complexity of implementa-

tion is higher than variable step P&O MPPT. Various modiﬁed P&O

MPPT techniques with variable perturbation step size is described 6. Comments and remarks on various P&O MPPT techniques

in detail in above sections. In this section design, analysis and

simulation results of an improved P&O MPPT technique with power Comparison of various P&O MPPT methods are done based on

ration is described in detail. tracking accuracy, complexity, convergance speed, efﬁciency under

In this method duty cycle perturbation step size is varied partial shading condition, cost and sensors used. Table 3 depicts

continuously by multiplying with a new variable power ratio (S) comparison of different P&O MPPT methods. AI, FPGA, PSO and FLC

deﬁned by Eq. (15). based P&O MPPT method provides better result under quickly

changing atmospheric conditions and the tracking accuracy is

P max P ins

Power ratio ðSÞ ¼ ð15Þ superior to other methods but the complexity of implementation

P max

is high. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) based P&O MPPT tracks

where Pins is instantaneous power and Pmax is nominal maximum global maximum effectively under partial shaded conditions.

power under standard test condition. When operating point move Bisection method is simple and the tracking accuracy is high but

towards MPP instantaneous power increases as a result P max P ins it is not efﬁcient under partial shading condition. Duty-Cycle

124 G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129

Table 3

A comparison of different P&O MPPT methods.

Sl. Algorithm PV array Efﬁcient Tracking Complexity Parameters Cost Converter Advantages Disadvantages Applications

no. dependenT partial speed sensed used

shading

1. ANN based Yes Yes High High Voltage and High Both Higher accuracy Training time Both

current required is more

2. FLC based No Yes High High Voltage and High Buck– Work with imprecise Tedious not good Both

current boost input,fast convergence under partially

transparent shaded condition

3. PSO based No Yes High High Voltage and Low Boost Higher accuracy Tracking time is large Both

current

4. FPGA based No Yes High High Voltage and High Boost High accuracy, good Slightly costlier Both

current dynamic response,

quantization errors less

5. Variable No No Medium High Voltage and Low Buck Reduced oscillations Fooled under rapidly Stand-alone

perturbation current around MPP changing conditions

step

6. Dead Beat No No High Simple Voltage and HIgh DC–AC Good tracking speed, High resolution Grid

Control current reduced oscillations sensors are required

based around MPP

7. Two-step No No High Simple Voltage and Low Boost Implemented on cheap Not efﬁcient under Stand-alone

based current digital controllers partial shading

8. Bisection No No High Simple Voltage and Low Buck Good tracking speed, Fooled under rapidly Stand-alone

method current good precision changing

atmospheric

condition

9. Duty-cycle No No Medium High Voltage and Low Boost Better dynamic response Fooled under rapidly Both

perturbation current changing

atmospheric

condition

10. Variable step No No High Simple Voltage and Low Boost Good precision, reduced Not efﬁcient under Both

using power current oscillations around MPP partial shading

ratio

Perturbation based and Variable Perturbation Step P&O MPPT is (4) Robustness and reliability of fuzzy based system relies on

provide better tracking accuracy and cost of Implementation is low selection of proper membership functions and fuzzy rules.

but provides less accurate results under partially shaded condi- Prior knowledge of the system is required for obtaining proper

tions. Dead Beat Control based P&O MPPT is economic and simple membership functions and fuzzy rules. Genetic algorithm (GA)

in hardware implementation. Variable step P&O MPPT using can be used to optimize the membership function. GA-FLC

power ratio reduces oscillations of operating point around MPP system provides better results compared to FLC systems and

and move operating point more precisely towards MPP. The GA systems.

problem of convergance speed, tracking accuracy, stability in (5) Particle swarm optimization (PSO) based P&O MPPT tracks

conventional P&O MPPT algorithm can be nulliﬁed by modifying global maximum effectively under partial shaded conditions.

P&O MPPT algorithm. Application of FLC, AI and FGPA improves Implementation cost of PSO based MPPT system is on higher

P&O MPPT algorithm. side due to the complexity of the algorithm. More memory

With respect to review of above mentioned papers following space is required to implement PSO controllers; hence

key points can be made: improved versions of FPGA must be used.

(6) Hybrid methods such as FLC-ANN combined with P&O, GA-FLC

(1) Artiﬁcial intelligence based P&O MPPT techniques provides good combined with P&O, and FLC-ANN combined with P&O pro-

dynamic performance, faster convergence speed, less oscillations vides better results. The main drawback of hybrid methods are

of operating point around MPP, will track global maxima under implementation complexity, requirement of more space and

partial shaded condition effectively, operating point will not response time is more.

diverge too much from MPP under quickly changing atmospheric (7) Duty cycle perturbation adaptation technique tracks peak

condition and it is more effective and efﬁcient. power efﬁciently even in the absence of PI control loop.

(2) Robustness of artiﬁcial intelligence based P&O MPPT techni- (8) FPGA based P&O MPPT system provides good dynamic perfor-

ques depends on training accuracy and generalization cap- mance and less quantization errors. ANN, PSO, FLC and

ability. Radial basis function (RBF) network based P&O MPPT combinations of these can be implemented using FPGA chips

techniques provides better generalization capability than back easily. Flexibility, deployment easiness integration with heri-

propagation based P&O MPPT. ANN based P&O MPPT techni- tage systems makes FPGA chips more attractive than other

ques will fail when the PV modules start degrading, to counter controllers. When compared to other controllers like DSP and

the effects of degrading ANN must be trained periodically with dSPACE cost to function ratio of FPGA is less, hence allows low

new data's. cost implementation. Using FPGA soft computing based MPPT

(3) FLC based P&O MPPT techniques can be implemented much techniques can be implemented easily. It provides better

easier than ANN based P&O MPPT system. Nonlinear systems performance than DSP while implementing complex algo-

can be modeled much easier using fuzzy controller and exact rithms and performs DSP related computations easily.

knowledge of PV module is not required for FLC. FLC based (9) Variable step P&O MPPT techniques increases the convergence

P&O MPPT system provides better results under rapidly chan- speed and reduces the steady state oscillations of operating

ging atmospheric conditions also. around MPP. Variable step methods were found to be simple

G. Dileep, S.N. Singh / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015) 109–129 125

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