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As taught by the Founder to the Author,

A ikido is an ext remel y efficient and versa tile martial art. It does not rely upon a weapon or weapons but shows that the body movements are the same whether one holds a

weapon or not.

The term r iai means, literally, a blending of truths. By understanding A ikido through riai, one sees tha t the taijutsu techniques were developed from movements using the sword. Therefore, training with the sword w ill develop taijustu technique.

The Founder said that a weapon should

be used as an extension of the body.

However, he stressed that one should not develop a dependence upon a particular weapon. To build this feeling, one should practice the basic exercises of ken and jo subur i, tai no henko, and kokyu dosa consistently. A good understanding of these basic exercises \II ill enable the practitioner to move smoothly

and surely with or without weapons.

Explanations have purposely been kept at a minimum to encourage the reader to use the book as a guide to developing under· sta nding through practice.




About the Author

Mr. Morihiro Saito was born in Ibaraki Prefecture in March of 1928. In July of 1946, he met and became the student of Professor Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, at

the Ibaraki Outdoor Dojo in Iwama. He lived at the dojo and worked hard for the Founder even though he held a regular job.

So complete was his desire to learn Aikido

and his devotion to the Founder, that after

his marriage, instead of a honeymoon trip,

he lef t his bride to train with Professor Ueshiba.

A t the New Year Celebra tion in 1959 he became an instructor at the Main Headquarters Dojo in Tokyo. Through his Sunday morning practices at the Headquarters Dojo, he attracted many students by his personal character and enthusiasm for Aikido.

He became head of the Ibaraki Dojo In April of 1969 after the death of the Founder. Together with his wife, he also cares for the Aik] Shrine next to the dojo, In addition, he also regularly instructs at Kanagawa, Ibaraki, Iwate, and Tohoku Gakuin Universities, the Miyagi Branch Dojo and

the Japan Self Defense Force Army Weapons School in Tsuchiura. Other Aikido groups in Japan and from abroad also corne to the Ibaraki Dojo for instruction.

© 1974 by Morihiro Saito ISBN: 0-87040-287-0


I N ish ikubo Sakurakawn _ cho, Mina ro-ku, Tokyo, Japan

First Printing: July, 1974 Printed in Japan

Exclusi ve Distributor in U _ S_ A. & Canada:


(U. S. A.), INC.

1255 Howard Street, San Francisco, Calif. 94103, U.S. A.







Written by M orihiro Saito Translated by Kyoichiro Nunokawa

Dennis N. Tatoian Edited by Tetsutaka Sugawara Photography by Sadao Hirata

ISBN: 0-87040-287-0

First printing: July, 1974

Second printing: December, 1974 Third printing: June, 1977

Published by MINATO RESEARCH & PUBLISHING CO., LTD. 1 Shiba Nishikubo Sakurakawa-cho, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Phone: (03) 501-9248

©1974 by Morihiro Saito

Exclusive Distribu tor:

JAPAN l)UBLlCATlONS TRADING COMPANY 200 Clearbrook Road, Elmsford, N.Y. 10523, U.S.A. Phone. (914) 592·2077. 2078


Printed in Japan


The heaven and earth look so serene and beautiful. This Universe has revealed itself as a family created by the omnipresent God.

Morihei Uyeshiba


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July, 1974

Volume 3 has been devoted exclusively to the introduction of AIKIDO techniques involving the use of the body. These techniques are almost unlimited in number and it was simply out of the question to include all of them in a book of this size. The techni ques in this book we re picke d en tirely at the discretion of the author who sought, in selecting them, to establish some contexual correlation between pertinent techniques. Some of the techniques may well be construed as derivatives from the standard AIKIDO repertory. The author attempted to make the explanations about the techniques as simple and as clearcut as possible. As an invaluable aid, I took the liberty of quoting the words bequeathed by Founder Morihei Uyeshiba , which represent the "heart of techniques" in such a concise and incisive manner. These quotes should make my remarks sound superfluous.

I recall that the filming of the first and second volumes was completed in JuJy and September last year, respectively. It was around that time that NHK decided to take up AIKIDO as one of Japan's traditional martial arts in its overseas-oriented program titled "INTRODUCTION TO JAPAN". An NHK team visited our Dojo at Iwarna, Ibaraki Prefecture, for the location filming. I am pleased to hear that this worthy project was successfully completed. I wish to thank Mr. Hiroaki Otawa and Me. Hironari lnagaki of the NHK International Bureau, as well as the filming staff, for their fine work and contribution to the cause of AIKIDO. I am particularly grateful to Mr. Ota wa , who is kn own to be dedicated, bo dy and soul, to tJl e world of martial arts. I sincerely wish him success in establishing a wider recognition of Japanese martial arts overseas.

In the meantime, I have learned that Minato Research & Publishing Co., Ltd. has decided to film my exercises in 8mm movies as a teaching aid. It is highly recommended that the readers use these movies as a supplemental aid to my books.




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1 . ~11' lImitf 1; ~-~

~ti·········· .' ······························· 40

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Bod il Y ,\ daptation of

"Pri nr- i pie of swordsmanship" ·18

Body Exercises

and Their Unlimited Ramifications

I. Variations in Kokyu.ho

(Abdominal breath extension)

1. Kokyu-ho in the sitting posture

Basic pattern ...... · · ··· .. ·22

Wrist held from below ······.· .,. 24

Wrist held from above 25

Wrist pinned 26

Wrist held with full force .. · .. · .. · .. ·2.7

Elbow joinLs pinned 28

2. Kokyu-ho in the standing posture

Basic pattern 30

Wrist twisted · · · .. · .. · .. ·· .. · 32

Wrist held up 34

WrisL held down 36

Hand grasped on the back · .. · 36

II. Variations of Basic Techniques

1. 5 i tti ng : Shornen - uchi (Straight str ike at

the head) Dai· Tkkyo (Arm pin)

Ornote-waza (Front technique) 40

U ra-waza (Turning technique) 42

2 Standing: Shornen-uchi Dai-Ikkyo

Omote·waza ······44

U ra-waza .....••...........••••••......... ···49

3. Standing: Shornen-uchi Dai-Nikyo (Wrist turn)

Omote-waza 50

Ura-waza · · .. · .. · .. ·· .. · .. ············52

4. Standing: Shorneu-uch i Dai-Sank yo (Arm twist}

Omote-waza 56

Ura·waza 58


1Rti············· .. ··· · ········ ·60

:ffitJt .. · 60

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14. lz:.tt· l!!l\jlcit£t~1 ([1qm] I)) · 82

15. :lLtt· lli]!Iil;Htlf (Ji-[illl)) ...... · .. · .. · .. 84

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(NIID I) 1ID~\i:t~If)·· · .. ·S5

17. jEoon1;A~t!i(f-(1) · .. · .. ······· .. ··88

lEOO;JT1; A~.fli:(f-{2) · · · .. 90

lElIDtr 1; A#~ 1,1-(3) .. · · · 91

A% ~,!.t If V') 1;[:O':.¢.l,··························· 92 A#tltlf:7)-w~·i=li:··························· 93

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19. iFil1:;: I) A~1ltlf

ti·I:5tltimTt;Jiji}.··········· ········ 96

1L t:§: It 81-c:-t:rBiir-···· 97

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~J[ !- J .. iJ' t, llil T l~.g.······ 98

IlJ'ii !- T 1:J' t, [iJ] T t{j1} ' ··100

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lEoo;JTt; A#t!i: I-y .. ········ .. · .. · .. · .. · .. 102

5. Standi ng : Shomen-u chi Dai-Yon kyo (Forearm Pin)

Ornote-waza- .. ·········· ·· .. · · .. ···· .. · .. ·61

Ura-waza ··· .. ·· ·61

6_ SLandin:,;: Yokornen-uchi (Circular mike at the

head] Dai-Cokyo (Defense against armed attacks)

Omcte-waza. ·62

U ra·waza··· ·· .. ·64

7. Stan din g : Ka tate- d ori (one hand heidi Shiho·nage (Four-corner throw)

Omo te-waza ·· ············66

Ura-waza ··· .. · .. ····69

8. Ki Flow and Blending (Ryote-dori or

two-hand hold. Shihu.nage} 70

9. SLanding: Yokornen-uchi Shiho-nage ...... 72

10. Sta nding : Kata-dori (Shoulder hold) Shi ho- nage74

11. Hanm i-Handachi-waza (Sitting yo, S ta nding exercise)

Katate-dori Shiho-nage·· ······.· ·· 76

12. Hanmi-Handachi-waza

Ryote-dori Shiho·nage 77

13. Standing: Yo komen-uchi Kotegaeshi 79

(Wrist turn-outl Remarks on Kotegaesh i 80

14. Standing: Kaiten-nage (H(Mry throw) ........ ·82

U chi-mawari (inward)

15. Standing: Kaiten-nage

Soto-rnawar i (outward) • · 84

16. Ki Flow and Blending

[luward rotary throw) 85

17. Shomen-ueh i Irirni- nage

(Entering throw) -(1) 88

Shomen-uchi Trimi.nage-(2) 90

Shomen-uchi Irimi.nage-(3)· .. · · .. ···· .. · 91

Remarks on Irimi-nage 92

How to perform l rirni-nage · ·93

18. Ryote-dori Iri mi-nage ··· .. ·94

HI. Kata-dori Irimi-nage

When diverti ng the attack rightward .. 96 When diverting the attack leftward .. ·97

20. iVlorote·dori [Lwu hands holding une hand) Irimi-nage

V/hen turni ng the ann from above "·98 When turning the arm from helow ···100

21. Hanmi-Handachi-waza

Shornen-uchi Irirn i· nage ·102


22. rt!!-l'5):lf·······································104

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=F~~-!- C J.? rU.:I~O)u'ji·nllt!i:W l06

1'm 0 !-1I>!. .:" tu.: IIi'f 0) uif'I!lU!i: 11 107

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ijfiiJlIx I) ++*~;,.. ·112

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26. ffu-'f'-I!lH!i: 11

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f~~ ~R. I) [If"]: tli: 11-( 2) 119


22. Tench i-nage (Heaven-Earth throwl v- ...... • ........ 104 23_ Kokyu-nage {Abdominal breath throw)

Tekubi (Wrist held} , "106

Sode-guchi (CulT held) ·107

Sode (s lee ve held) , , 108

21,. J yuji -garam i or A vadori (Cross-twine throw]

1\1 u ne (Lower lape I held} 112

Both hands held from behind · · .. ·112

Mune held from behind · · .. ·114

25. Ushiro Eri-tori (Collar held from bchind))Dai - I kkyo 116

26. Ushiro Kokyu-nage

Collar held from behind-(I) ··· · ·118

Collar held from hehind-(21 .. · .. · , 119

III. '2£fr.(1) !'IJ.t~ III Modes of Variations

1 . !lftl-l:lf~itAt 1. Koshi-nage (IIiI' throw) Henka-waza (Variations)

(Ji'l:t!i: If' 7)' t, tIf!. (7) tt"'- ) (Variation. from Koshi-nage to other tcch mques)

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)j!f-l'5):!f -(2)······ ···124

)j!fl'!i!f -(3)'" 125

Jlfj-)l-:(f -(4)"" ·126

'2£f r. it -(5)································ ·127 '2£ir.tt-(6)·······,·························128

2. A~-l'9:11"'-0)~1r.

( ¥*t!i:",-(1)~1t)

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l$:1)PI)!. fJ A~t9;:(f

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3. f~H':(1)1:ir.

1f~Jfx I) [Q-nt!i:lf · ...... · 136

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Koshi-nage-(31 , ,",., ·125

Koshi-nage-(41 , 126

Henka-waza-(51······ ·127

Henka-waza - (6)··'··,··,··,···················· '128

2. Variations to basic tech iques (Irimi-nage)

Ush i 1"0 R yote-dori IButh hands held from hehind) 130

Ushiro En-tori Irimi-nage 133

Ushiro Err-tori lrimi-nage

(Collar t\\riF!.led Fro IT] bell i nd}

· .. · .. · .. · .. · .. · .. ··,··,134

Ushiro Eri-tori Shiho-nage 136

Uslliro Eri-to('i Kote-gaeshi 138



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Human nature differs individually. The same holds true for the physique. There are all sorts of people - tall or short, plump or skinny, muscularly strong or weak and flexible or inflexible in constitution,

Taijutsu (empty-handed exercise) takes into account such variables and must be able to adapl itself to the requirements of each individual trainee. Strictly speaking, individ ualize d techniques must be devised for as many people as required. This is the reason why the techniques involved tend 10 increase almost infinitely, both in number and scope.

For instance, the word "Irirni" (entering) has only one meaning, This technique was illustrated in Vol. 1 by means of the "PRINCIJ>LE OF SWORDSMANSHIP", Irirni is a way of slipping

into the rear of your opponent and getting out, safe and sound, of the circle of multiple attack. However, when this Irimi method is applied to a throwing technique, it ramifies into countless variations. The variations taken up in this volume number 10 but they represent only the tip of an iceberg.

The same can be said about Koshi-nage (hip throw) which involves the loading of your opponent onto your hips and nipping him away. The principle of Koshi-nage however, can be employed profitably without necessarily lifting your opponent on your h.ips, since the same principle has varied applications in other techniques.

In performing Taijutsu, therefore, it is imperative to sense the changes in the sensorial ex tension of your opponent and the direction of his attacking force as if they were part of your body, Taijutsu is an expedient way to sense those


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factors in a natural way. There are two modes of variations. One is a transition to other throwing, techniques from, say, K oshi-n age an d the other is an induction to basic techniques from various hand (hands' held positions. Let's take an actual example, and study the case of a one-hand hold. If the opponent holding your wrist possessed strong abdominal breath power and had mastered the secrets of "holding", and you were less advanced in the art, chances are that you would be rendered completely immobile. Your opponent's hand is not on your wrist in a mere friendly "hand-shaking" fashion, His hand, in this particular instance, is functioning as an instrument to keep your entire body spellbound.

What are the secrets of the "holding" technique then? Words are not necessarily an allinclusive vehicle of com munication in attempting to explain this particular technique but I will try. The opponent's thumb is first hooked onto your

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pulse and the holding process starts with his little finger, followed gradually by three other fingers. The holding power is generated from the center of gravity (navel) in the lower abdomen. This power, once generated, wells up and travels through relaxed shoulders and down to the finger-tips and beyond. It is this power which ensures total supremacy over your opponent. If one tries to go deeper into explaining what abdominal breath power is (which is a pertinent subject of discussion here) a vastly increased difficulty is bound to arise.

The secrets of the holding technique, however are based on the "PRINCIPLE OF SWORDSMANSHIP" and are, therefore, not particularly difficult to master for those who diligently engage in Suburi (Ref. VoL I). AIKIDO was so perfectly structured by Founder Morihei Uyeshiba that the trainees, as long as they carry on their training in the correct form, can


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assimilate, as a matter of course, what the art has to offer. The "PRINCIPLE OF SWORDSMANSHIP" should be learned with an open mind and in a correct manner, for they are the base of AIKIDO.

What should be done when your opponent grasps your wrist in a "hold" pattern? Never mind the area grasped as if nothing had happened, Relax your shoulders, and charge your finger tips with centralized energy. Don't attempt to move the grasped wrist, move only your movable parts and align your posture in such a way that your opponent is thrown off balance and is subject to any of the techniques you wish to apply. It req uires a c onsidera bly advanced de gree of training to stay aloof and unaffected when your wrist is grasped. For instance, you will obviously find it much more difficult to remain completely self-possessed when you are sitting in Zen meditation and someone tries to push you

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down than when you can be left in meditation all by yourself and undisturbed. AIKIDO trainees are therefore required to devote themselves wholeheartedly to their training and attain this self-possessed stage of the art.

In this sense, AIKIDO may be called a way of achieving peace and harmony. You will find that if you run into conflict with the force of your opponent, you will be letting his grasping power gain a total control over you. It should be clear from the above "one-hand hold" example that the "PRINCIPLE OF SWORDSMANSHIP" permeates the whole range of AIKIDO techniques. Taijutsu embodies an unlimited deployment of the "PRINCIPLE OF SWORDSMANSHJIl', applicable to all sorts of people in individually different situations. Consequently, it is only natural that you are encouraged to find your training partners in as many different people as possible, including those who are not particularly the type of people you wish to train with. In AIKIDO training, you should make it a rule not to indulge in training with only your favorite techniques. Try to carry out your exercises in a totally balanced and impartial manner as typified by alternating movements - left to right as well as front to rear. Your body movements must


always be smooth, thereby executing your techniq ues circularly and imparting impulses to your partner. Al KIDO is also an id eal way of maintaining and promoting good health because of its great effectiveness in removing the impurities accumulated in your body and mind. Let me conclude my remarks by citing Founder Morihei Uyeshiba's esoteric concept of AIKIDO.

"In Uyeshiba's AIKIDO, there is no enemy. It is wrong to assume that Budo is a way of enabling the practitioner to get the better of and felling an opponent or enemy. True Budo knows of no opponent nor an enemy. True Budo aims at blending completely with the Universe itself. It calls for a return to the centrum of the Universe to form a wholly integrated entity. In the world of AIKIDO, the purpose of training is not to get stronger and beat an opponent. The trainees are required to foster a mind with a leaning toward a return to the centrum of the Universe as a wholly integrated entity with the object of contributing their share to the peace of mankind in the world. AIKIDO is like a compass' giving each individual directions towards the fulfilment of his life mission as decreed by the Divine spirit, and is a way of attaining peace and harmony and also is a way leading to Divine love."


I .

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KOKYU-HO is how to train your kokyuryoku (abdominal breath power). AIKIDO without such power is like Sumo (traditional Japanese wrestling featuring bouts between giant wrestlers) lacking muscular strength. KOKYURYOKU, which presents a sharp contrast to the so-called muscular power, is based on the swinging movements, up and down, of the sword. This sword exercise is not intended as a mere swinging motion. It is combined with Taijutsu and the exercise is performed, with your wrist grasped by your opponent. This is, therefore, a highly reasonable training method, In executing T'aijutsu , consideration must be given to the constitutional differences of your partners. The particular merit of this art lies in allowing you to learn how to use your Tegatana (knife-edge of the hand) in such a way that you will not let go of your partner's hand that is holding your wrist. This technique is called Musubi (tying yourself with your opponent).

As you swing up the sword, breathe in naturally. Breathe out as you swing down the sword. This breathing process, conducted unconsciously, provides the power necessary for fully performing AIKIDO techniques. KOKYUHO is applicable to both standing and sitting exercises.

The following is how:

l. Sitting: KOKYU-HO


You sit face to face with your partner and let him grasp both your wrists lightly from the sides. This is the basic pattern. First, relax your shoulders and fully splay out your finger tips so that the "centralized" power can be channeled onto the tips and beyond. The spacing between your hands should be slightly wider than your shoulder span. Swing upward with your hands so that their edges cut into your partner's armpits. Your hand· motion must be similar to the swinging upward of a sword.

As you bring your partner down to the left (right) your right (left) knee keeps on advancing to his right (left) armpit as he falls down. The Tegatana of both your hands should be kept in the proper place without pressing against your partner's body. This technique is designed to control the natural inclination of your partner to sit up.



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KOKYU .. HO when your wrists are held from below:

Turn your hands so the palms are facing upward and outside, thereby unbalancing your partner. Once the un balancing is achieved, move into the basic pattern.


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KOKYU-HO when your wrists are held from above:

You will find it difficult to start the upward swinging motion due to the descending weight of your partner. A way out may be found if you arch your body slightly backward, thereby lifting your partner with your hips as a fulcrum. Then you can proceed with the basic pattern.


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KOKYU·HO when your wrists are pinned from above:

Move your body obliquely to deflect your partner's force sideways and down. Then overwhelm him with Tegatana, thwarting his attempt to rise, and proceed with the basic pattern.


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KOKYU-HO when your wrists are held with full force:

Slide around to the side of your partner and control his joints as if folding them up, Then twist your hips, feigning 11 blow to his face with your right (left) hand, and throw him down. This is a KOKYU-HO turning throw technique,


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KOKYU-HO when your elbow joints are pinned:

Stretch both your hands while arching your body slightly backward. Then proceed with the basic pattern.


Standing KOKYU-HO


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Step around to the side of your partner. "Lower your shoulders, joints, hips and mind"

KUDEN (Secrets of the art bequeathed orally by the Founder)

With your held wrist in the center of the motion, you will be in a position to perform an upward swing. Prior to the throw, take one step to the rear of your partner. Unrelaxed shoulders and nervousness about the hold on your hand will produce the worst results in (raining effectiveness.



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(If you become nervous about the hold on your hand, your shoulders will get stiff and you will become imrnovable.)


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(Good example)



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KOKYU-HO when your wrist is twisted:

"Don't resist the twisting attempt.

Instead, charge your body with cen tralized energy and move the waist panel of your Hakama (divided training skirt or trousers) into the back of your held hand. "(K lJDEN)

Without letting your elbow leave the side of your chest, turn quickly with your hips as an axis, lower your elbow and proceed with the basic exercise.



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KOKYU·HQ when your wrist is held upward:

Unrelaxed finger-tips could only serve to having your body lifted. Therefore, relax your arms and shoulders, and lower your hips. This will cause your partner to lose his balance and you can start your upward swinging motion.


KOKYU-HO when your wrist is held downward:

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Plunge your hips and elbow down, swing your arm upward with your elbows extended outward as if you were lifting a big round object. In this way KOKYU-HO can be executed easily.

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KOKYU-HO when the back of your hand is held:

Your partner will gail, total control over your body if your finger-tips are not relaxed,

"Close your hand and charge the thumb with centralized energy. "(KU DEN)

Then turn the wrist in a spiral fashion and commence the upward swinging motion,



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--i#JtIL~1#FlIr; J: 1) __

"Budo (a martial art) is not a means of felling an opponent by force or by lethal instruments. Neither is it intended to lead the world to destruction by arms and other illegitimate means. True Budo calls for bringing tile inner energy of the Universe to order, protecting the peace of the world and molding, as well as preserving, everything in nature ill its right form.

In other words, J have realized that training in Budo is tantamount to strengthening, within my body and soul, the love of God who begets, preserves and nurtures everything in

nature "

- an excerpt from the Founder's speech -




~tt Jlt-n i» G -1c I.:: n --:> '-C1T E<, -It ~ \ i.:: * t: f- :t' ~~ .Q (J) i.lf~ 2fi:: "[-11 .Q o t§f' (J) f- :t' ~ 2' tJj t" (J) "[-11 .Q c flE"J -r, .lit!] (J) =r- JJ 1;1: -~ f~ (.:: ~. -? -c \.,~. 'ttll;r~: G ~ \'0

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'Z&t;i(lj: ::k:l:t!!.iJ' I? iij'j ~ J:.Q J: '3 (,: (0 (i\) , wm £ -C'i> ;ij§ t1' J: '3 t:: (I.J (i\) jj CI .z .: u' (J) -c- it; Q 0 ~t:ti){ %1- --:> t: G, ~ i- I:;J] I:' i" I.:: ~k (J) 1iHt 'C 1T -J 0

1. Sitting: Shomen-uchi (Straight strike at the head)

Dai-lkkyo (Arm pin)

Omote-waza (Front technique)' The basic rule calls for your initiating a strike of your own prior to your partner's and grabbing his hand as he tries to parry your blow. By taking the initiative you will be leading the hand of YOllI partner out into your own sphere of action. Your Tegatana must be perpendicular to the mat when you do this.

When you launch the strike with your right hand, advance your right knee (not your foot) simultaneously out in front of your partner. Firmly grab your partner's hand from beneath, "your thumb touching his pulse." (KUDEN) Stride your left foot (not knee) in the direction of his head and pin him down. Your left hand must firmly grasp his elbow from below.

In executing Omote-waza, it is critical to pin down your partner with "a spirit surging effusively from the earth and thrusting forward in an endless drive. " (KUDEN)


(Grasp your partner's elbow firmly)

( l~ '. 'WIJ 0) (Good example)

(Bad example)

( {/l\ '. ,WIJ ) (Bad example)


(.R' 'WIJ) (Good example)

Sitting: Shomen-uchi Dai-Ikkyo


~iVh0~~.t.t~h~~o.h -c t l'{t'H A I) ~ 2:'-C t ft < ~·~,o illil=f-/± ~L~.bt~~.~~<~~~~ (0 {Z;) 0) ;lr'1l1:1i: C) iliJd41j -Co ~ 6 0 ffI:I L -c to h L -:> -c t 1~ < ~. ~,O) -c.~ 6 o-@-h-ttt.::lIl ~ 11 [,~, (,: {if.: z j:lfl 2-, +§ "FC)~ (f:£.n) (,:

IHI I) .; /; 1:' J:; ~ :Z Q Q

lHt, ""!& 11 c t I': tr>(::i 1,;~: L J: -) (,: fi lST ~ 0 x.. , t't;, i? iJ'~1J 1J",I[!:I, -) J: -) 1= ! lJ * t;,: ~ dJ'ift-- (,: I ± , -t c) }] c) t1* r±i ril 'it b;g L-Ch~o

Ura-waza (Turning technique) As you lead ou t the hand of your partner, turn your hips and align your knee with his. Don't let your knee be too far apart from your partner's. Neither should you slide your knee too close alongside your partner's. It is a cardinal rule of Ura-waza to "pin the arm of your partner circularly, giving it a shade of a push and a twist." (KUDE ) Don't push and twist your partner's in the literal sense of the word.

Using your knee that is aligned with your partner's as an axis, swivel your body partially, turning to the rear of your partner, and pin him down.

Both Ornote-waza and Ura-waza must be practiced in two directions, left and right. If you feel you lack proficiency in either of these directions, increase your practice in that direction until you achieve a sa tisfac tory measure of accom plishm en t.

(.j~l L ~t htJ t I) -;'U~I:;iL < J; ~ 7_ Q)

(Pin the arm of your partner circularly, giving it a shade of a push and a twist)

(~~;1)'~~lth T 2>( " 6 ) (The knee is too far apart)

(The knee is too deep alongsid e)

( tj}U h<{IIJ -Z- " lJ: t, )

(The arm is not extended enough)

2. Standing: Shomen-uchi Dai-Ikkyo

~1t ,f.·l·l"~- r "'J l1 J' < .l:;f,- (:. Ii 1--i)t t f'J] H;y I:. j1§ U' 0 T' (7) 4l"!-f.fi fJ:$ tk. C: lu] t 0 tFfl ~ i... t: =f- U 1:J~J1: (7) ~Ij l- ;J.' It tL li;J.· G ;J.' \<' 0 tr: JI I;J: t% < ~ ~ )lHr-t J: -) ::. A I), ti IE. 'i? I) I ~ "":) 1-) :0 0 tEl=f-(7)fi!;j I) t-lwi? ":J: t, J: -) i: l:i:Jt, L -c F ~ !, '0

Ornote-waza: When striking with your right hand, ad vance your right foot simultaneously. The hand movement is the same as in the sitting exercise. The pinned hand of your partner must be right in front of your lower abdomen. Your left foot thrusts forward deeply and forcefully as if sending your partner whirling away. Then draw your right foot forward to align your stance. Be sure not to circle around your partner when executing this technique.



0:.<1- 1 ) (EXHIBIT # 1)



Pointers regarding Dai-Ikkyo Omote-waza:

l'2{I-l i;:t~ ~ j[~lf-t J: J ~=Hl ~ j:_ .:: Iv -rl,,-r :iE l,,'o 1'6[- 2 {;tmf"-7P t) :1Jlth!t"!J &.'-rJ.:> I), I'm- 3 {H§ =PO) I0l I) ~ [ill__" "'C ~, -0 ±~fr l", " \ f tL t 12.([- 4 :7)"!lil < JQ ~ tL Q f~~ tl h' ~ Q 0

Exhibit # 1 shows the correct performance of pinning your partner's arm while thrusting him off balance. Exhibit # 2 shows a posture too far apart from your partner. Exhibit # 3 illustrates a movement circling around your partner. In both cases, your partner is likely to regain his balance and thus be a bJe to perform an effective counter-arm pin.


([;g]- 5 )


(l~l- 6 )


Pointers regarding Dai-Ikkyo Ura-waza:

~- 5, 6 1j:,Jl\Jt;~B-;b-tt JL < 1" ~ i_ ~ c .: 7:J l" Ji:l ~ 0 ~- 7 i1 )T\)'ciJ"PlIUl -c ,. ~ :I'£-1}, !~- 8 1.;1: 1* < A I) :1M! 2:' -c \" ;., :I'~h'_ l"£! < ~. \- \ 0

Exhibits # 5 and # 6 show the toes properly aligned and your partner's arm pinned circularly and effectively. Exhibit # 7 shows the toes too far apart and Exhibit # 8 illustrates the knee too deep alongside your partner's. Both # 7 and # 8 are wrong.

(f_i(J- 7 )


([;g]- 8)



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- . A- ,-tt i), 1m. /,-+tt i) t li· lir'lj: t) (I I {:i;) 0 -= H i){JI~C7) ~JJI. --c" if> b 0

J1\ Yf.; i' -0- ;b -i± t: Ill' I-=- i ± , Leu: IJ'~ 0) IDl '~i id$ ~ -?-C"~·lthl;f~-':'>d.-"'o F1?:< AIJiMli!;:'b c, J:U r- (.: 7i:R~J~ 1--) tL t: iI~j I-=- H', * ~- < ~. b 0 -;l:H:ldi 11-1'\':-#~: ~. -~ t: II~f, * iii: lii1i!:-'-\':-5t I'::'~·

-:J t: ILJ. I-=- h i 111:"" J'J b 0


2. Standing: Shomen-uchi Dai-Ikkyo

Ura-waza: When your partner comes forward with a big stride, counter the move with a small stride. When your partner uses a small stride, move in with a big stride and your toes properly aligned. This is how to react to your partner's varied approaches. The point is expressed figuratively in the Founder's KUDEN: "Two plus eight equal 10. Four plus six equal 10. Five plus five equal 10." By the time your toes have been properly aligned, the rotation of your hips should already be under way. If you move in too deep, you will find it impossible to perform this tech nique effectively against your partner if he starts putting up resistance.

Omote-waza is a technique employed in a mu tually oblique stance and Ura-waza is applied in the case of a reverse oblique stance.


3. IT tt . jE I1iffT ~ ~ =fj(

~:tt ~ _:'l;!: Ii =f-it t ijt t JFi 0') ~PlJ BTl ~ Jim *j:JlUr)JJ-tQtt-C'~Qo ~1ti±. trp~7..t,:-T-iJ{ B !l_11. 0') ~;j ,= * -c TJ' I.:, 1 =F 7J -c--I}] Q J: "5 I·':: t~, t, ilK L- -c B ~ 7...:. tlc (!iB-fiil'.:' ~tif!d: -c" :7)ti rio m-~iJl~* t ~'-:> -c" Q)

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3. Standing: Shornen-uchi Dai-Nikyo (Wrist turn)

Omote-waza: Dai-Nikyo is a technique designed to inpart impulses to the joints of your partner's wrists, elbows, and shoulders. In performing Omote-waza, bring the hand you have captured to the front of your lower abdomen, turning the wrist in as if cutting it down with Tegatana and pin your partner down. (All the techniques encompassed by Dai-lkkyo through Dai-Gokyo stem basically from Dai-Ikkyo, )

Once you have pinned your partner down, bend his arm circularly and launch your knee to his neck. "Gluing his elbow to your lower abdomen, twist your hips and abdomen toward the head of your partner. " (KUDEN) By so doing, you can stimulate the joints of your partner's elbow and shoulder. If

he tries to raise his head, grasp his collar and thwart the attempt



3. .1rJl(· iE ffii iT is ~ =~

au: 1* !- m=] 2: -:r") ft =f l"=P § ~ 1lf I). -<=1'

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3. Standing: Shomen-uchi Dai-Nikyo

Ura-waza: After turning your body obliquely, grasp your partner's wrist wi th your left hand, knock it down and grasp the back of his hand with your right hand, Lift the back of his hand up to your left lower lapel and t wist your hips in an impulse-imparting motion. "Bend his arm in the shape of <, causing his little finger to tum toward his nose. "(KUDEN) For the sake of effectiveness, your right hand, rather than your left hand, had better be implemented in applying the technique, While planting the back of your partner's hand on your lower lapel, turn your body obliquely again and "envelope" his elbow in the area of your lower abdomen with Tegatana. The rest of the technique is the same as in Omote-waza.



ill =t. ,7) H}[ ~ < 0)7- I·':: [lillf', Hi =? (7) lJ'fi§J iJ'rll-f=(7)~(7)hA..lbJ < J: -) 1,::~rUjJ.;';'o ::(7)II;f, tr [-=[0 iJ< Jj;J r J:: i1' t: .:, I£. .=r- 2:' fJ1- (:_ ~ -c --C -#! I) , =F-l§r r T 7)' to tli b 0 JI7[ 2:' ~ ~~ ;.;, J~{-t Lt =f- JJ ~

~I -c ;.;" v , 1" f.L:7) J~rt} bI~~ r U i ~ -:> -c 1W~ ;.;, 0

(1£ L ~'{:'[rO"J lTi I) 1)) (The correct hold on your partner's wrist)

(If your left hand grasps your partner's elbow, he will elude the hold.)


Impulse to the wrist: Twist your hips while bending your partner's arm in the shape of < and causing his little finger to turn toward his nose. If your partner raises his elbow, edge toward him, with your left hand grasping his elbow from below. If he tries to stretch his arm, forestall the attempt with the Tegatana technique. In both cases, the exercise is concluded with a hip twisting motion.


~ ,fl-i>C'~)JiJ'·l± b :1)iJ'tll')

(Your right hand is a more effective implement.)


~tt ;t-; IW_ 7)M"'C" l; ~ i.. t: =f-O)t~ ~ +§'t I), !liifJ V') 1:1 ~ i J t I) 1'.lf ~ J: J c: iT: =r- L: ~q. t_, 1,)' .z ~ 0 .; 7) J!~f I-=- ft Jt 1":' - ,t, H~, L. --c, tEl-=¥- c:t1:l~ ..k.:. c (Dfi;_) iJ{:k-t;JJ-r"<JiJ ~ (2tl-.#t96H% !=!H) 0 <k:!-: tl- =P --c-IlJi ffif 1-: ~'l -5f ~ A h 6 J: -) 1-: L. l WI !: !ill t} .: h, t: )t_ ~ i:; I\" --C 1-:; 2' .z ~c 1H~jL < Jllilf(~jIHt,::-t ;,sll~j, 1iq=-;7)+tAiJ<T I) J:."? l < 6 J: -) I: I~ "'C::y.]t ~ 15k ~ ;7) i);'

VfiJ'1-r",}J ;,s 0 .: 0) J: -) I,: T ~ i::, 1']) ~ h ~. <

¥i' t':>Lh T ,::_ i:: 1J {-e 2- ~ c

4. Standing: Shornen-uchi Dai-Sankyo (Arm twist)

Omote-waza: Grasp with your right hand the fingers of your partner's hand that you have captured in front of your lower abdomen and shift your hold to your left hand while screwing his arm up toward his armpit. It is important, at this particular moment, for you to move your left foot one step forward and "position yourself side by side with your partner" (KUDEN) (Refer to p . 96, Vol. 2)

As the nex t step, slide circularly in front of your partner while feigning a blow to his face with your hand. Pin him down as you draw your left foot back in place. As you bend your partner's elbow circularly in an impulseimparting motion, let the little finger of your right hand slide up and grasp his wrist together with other fingers. This hold, which is characteristic of Dai-Sankyo, permits a shift of your hands without loosening control of your partner.




(Align yourself side by side wi th your partncr.)

4. JT. tt . iE rID 1Tt:> $f~ -. fX

ItI'1 gr'}-t(~ttV')ftn < fL < .1:> ~ .z, ",:.q'1 iHi V') ljl] < tr:=¥- i:::f,'f 1:, w.z, {-G. tF;L < J; ~ i: ~o

4. Standing: Shomen-uchi Dai-Sankyo

Ura-waza: Pin down your partner circularly following the pattern of Dai-Ikkyo Ura-waza, shift the hold as in Dai-Sanky o Ornote-waza, and bring him down circularly.

(Pin down your partner circul arly in Ura-waza.)



5. \tt'lErnrni:>~[g~

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au: 5i\~q,*,20);rrr{d±, ~;--¥1~t1lfL < H~L, ~=_p.~n~~~~~~*UV')~0V') ~il~ -r-{JIJi2Z-t ~ 0 ~Ht Ii /:::' .: J:_ -e:L fL < t; ~ ~~=-!:::c


5. Standing: Shomen-uchi Dai-Yonkyo (Forearm pin)

Ornote-waza: Put your partner off balance with the Dai-Ikkyo technique and grasp his wrist while holding it in front of your lower abdomen. As if holding a sword, grasp your partner's forearm with the root of your forefinger, touching his

pulse and with your little finger starting a gripping hold, followed gradually by the other fingers. Then give his forearm ample pressure, using your hip power. (Refer to p. 37, Vol. I and p. 96, Vol. 2)

5. Standing: Shomen-uchi Dai-Yonkyo

Ura-waza: Pill down your partner circularly in the same manner as Dai-Ikkyo Ura-waza, shift the hold with your left hand and grasp his forearm following the Dai-Yonkyo Omote-waza pattern. The circular pin down from start to finish is particularly important in executing Ur a-waza.


~tt ~ II_ <\IX i H~_ li'!ljlrx. I)~) H -c".:n I), ffi - fi ~ t~ ,7) ~i;_ID: -c' i-if . 1'1 ,lEjp ?~ ~IJ mii.: A. ;;, .:: 2:: Il m: F~ -C".h ;;, 0 !/~i'tll=p.O)i~IJillil: A I) (__:,fiii*-C") • flJ{ I) I-JYt':T-~~IT

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-t;;,) 0

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6. Standing: Yokomen-uchi (Circular strike at the head) DaiGokyo (Defense against an armed attack)

Omote-waza: Dai-Gokyo is designed to take a dagger away from your partner. In this technique, it is dangerous to get in fron t of your partner with your right hand and foot as was described in Dai-Ikkyo Ornote-waza.

first, slide to the side of your partner in the triangular srance and control his up-swinging arm (N ate the way the hand is held). You can take the d agger easily by placing the back of your partner's hand onto the mat, bending his elbow and pushing it from above, This action will cause his fingers to open up naturally. If you receive the attack directly in front of your partner, the dagger will inevitably hit your lower abdomen. Because of this danger, always remember to knock the dagger down to the mat.


(Using Dai-Ikkyo Ornote-waza is 100 risky 10 cope with the dagger attack)

( HI-f-':7) W(OO !:::. A "? l L ;;: "? 1.:. ,'c" T ~ "':'

n[J ~ ~~ -t ~H;IH' ;t;; j J_ ;J.' " .; Co)

(If you are directly in front of your opponent, always remember to knock down the daggcr.)


6. I'rU· Wt'ITWnt?~liJ:x

IHt ~1J:z:V')~~·J!IJ z:t-.;;tl-f' I,:, ,£~, l~ T Jf\)lc

z 1'~ h 4± l '1* T *j& 0)~11 < ([ I {i; ) r}fl <

6. Standing: Yokomen-uchi Dai-Gokyo

( ~\-t;£ O)~f,i'i: "{"1"-8 ~ jl,!_ J., c, 'iJl'iiIJ "{"J} I Ht It t-, i L J., (') "'C-~i1c:;J:;-

(You are cautioned not to grasp your opponent's wrist in the Dai-Ikkyo fashion because your hand could be cut by the dagger.)

Ura-waza: Bearing in mind the ironbound rule of Ura-waza , align your toes and tUT11 your body obliquely, "like the movement of the billows." DEN)


(How to lake the dagger)


7. .TI: U . h":¥ Jfj( ry 1m 1H~ (t'

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7. Standing:

Katate-dori (One-hand hold) Shiho-nage (Four-corner throw)

Omote-waza: Open the fingers of your held hand and send your cen traliz ed energy through your finger-tips. Slide into the side of your partner from a reverse oblique stance and assume a mutual oblique stance. Grasp your partner's wrist, swinging both your arms up to the apex of their height, and turn your body as you cut him down straight.

I t is wrong to pass under the arm of your partner and Swing your arms down in a cutting motion out of alignment with the center of your body. Inadequate turning of your body is also dangerous because it could cause a broken arm to your opponent.




.( %1~,(/) Ill,C,r-=l'f1 "J ·C¥!'.1fi <- jli\ I) b'J~;" )

(Swing the arm up straigh t in alignment with the center of your body.)

( i.1J I) H;S L t rr IR <. I.:}

(Swing it down straight)

~ (!lL~HI'Ij)

( =f- (/) r- ~ < (";S -j !:: 1- ~ (/) Ij: lUI

(Bad example)

(l t is wrong to pass under the arm of your partner.)

( 1Hl Ii 1&)J ~.fJJ I) Ii t, "--:>~_)4- "§N1f6)

(In performing Urawaza, sweep to the rear in a cutting motion as you grasp you r p a r t n e r+s wrist.)

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jHt 1* >;: ~f~ 2- -')~) til =F 0') WR trlS 2c -') i)' "zf ,

*J::en'::l~ I) ip.~~o d: '5 :'::~~:Aoa Jtu'i (, -II] I):f:; 0 L "'C;J"-!i:lf 00

7. Standing: Katate-dori Shiho-nage

Ura-waza: Grasp your partner's wrist as you turn your body obliquely and swivel around to his rear while swinging your arms to the apex of their height. Throw your partner by swinging your arms down in a straight cutting motion.


8. '1rtO)?m hO)fSi!i (jIlij~Jrx. I) jJ_lJ hHtlf)

8. Ki Flow and Blending:

,j:11=f'. 0) ~t ~ ~ ~ r-:u: ~ ~ .: t;t~ IIJ -C;Jl;, Q 0 ~j'fJ I_ L t:.:J:k jiJi; i» .:" ~f-; YJ Q I;~ l' tP, ~i I: ;tJ L. ~'t 0) lJT~tl (J)f!~1i lit;: \ ,m1i T;JI;, 6 0 I~ ~) f~ 1'1- '2 JE?}1:1T1::_ C I.:::J: I), F1f;Q'G*I,'H::i~ 1~r "e ~ Q b 0) -r. if, Q 0

Ryote-dori (Two-hand hold on both hands) Shiho-nage

This is an exercise which leads the ki of your partner and involve it in various techniques. In sharp contrast with solid techniques where the motion starts from a static state, this exercise features flexible and smooth movements. Mastery of solid techniques is a prerequisite to com manding this fluid technique.



ill =F 7) iZ ~:_ A --:> -c:JT 'J --C ~ t: =F ~ T i -c QP ~ * T c .z-7) =F "('tB =F 7) 4 -t'r ~ t& I) , F ;0' I? gl"] t .j){ < J -j ,= 1M I) ;0' .h~' I), (:;j( t ~i:~ L -C-l)J

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,.= L'lt:ffl.tlo

9. Standing: Yokomen-uchi (Circular strike at the head) Shiho-nage

Surge forward to the front of your partner and slash his striking hand down with your opposite hand. Then grasp his wrist with your slashing hand and swing it laterally across his torso, then bring it upwards in a circular motion as you turn on your heels and flip him down. "Grasp the wrist of your partner in such a way that the thum b side of his hand is led out in front of you. "(KUDEN)

(1<:. JE iJt~ '-0 >J: ~, J: -) (: IJ I ~ "J (t ~ ,: c) (Draw your left foot forward to keep it in place.)

(IE L ~'tJ:l1IJ 1]) (Correct grasping rnethod.)

( ~I -:,} (7) .6: =f- iJr~~!t: l: ta.. ~ ) (Your left hand blocks the way.)


10 . .lrJ! . If'fl{~ ~ Imnf~(J

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10. Standing:. Kata-dori (Shoulder hold) Shihonage

Omote-waza: The instant your partner grasps your shoulder, feign a blow to his face. If he tries to hold down your hand, turn your body obliquely to divert his holding attem pt. Follow up with a twist of your hips and enter into Shiho-nage,



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Il. Hanmi-handachi: (Sitting vs. standing) Katate-dori Shiho-nage

Omote-waza: It is your knee, not your foot, which initiates the entry into the front of your partner while swinging up your arms.


12. ~#~.lz:!1i . jjlij-f-1TX ~ Jrn1Jl!.tlf

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12, Hanmi-handachi: Ryote-dori Shiho-nage

Omote-waza: Swinging up your arms, move into the front of your partner on your feet. This move is necessary to avoid his possible kick. After standing up, turn around and swing your arms down in a cutting motion. If you turn around without straightening yourself up, chances are that you will be whipped down backwards, If your partner mounts stubborn resistance, causing your body to arch backwards, "pull back your foot, restructure your balance and take another step forward, thus downing him." (KUDEN)



13. ]'rJx . ;fji1ffini?/}'f-~ L

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13. Standing: Yokomen-uchi Kotegaeshi (Wrist twist)

Hit the striking hand down (in the same manner as Yokomen-uchi Shiho-nage). The only difference is that in Kotegaeshi, your right hand is latched onto the outside of your partner's right hand. Grasp your partner's wrist with your left hand and cut the rear with your right hand. When turning your partner's wrist out with your left hand, overlay your right hand on the back of his hand. The gripping process of your hands in turning your partner's wrist ou t begins wi th the little finger, followed by the other fingers. In the final stage of the exercise, push the wrist of your partner toward his head.


Pointers regarding Kotegaeshi:

(Top: Prine ip le of body exerciscs.)

(Bottom: Principle of Swordsmanship)

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(1) Don't remove your hand from the center of your body when sweeping through the rear with a cutting motion.

(2) Kotegaeshi should be performed right in front of your navel. If the grasping position is too high, you will fall a victim to counter throw. "Kotegaeshi should be performed at a lower height. "(KUDEN)


(Bad example)


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14. Standing: Kaiten-nage (Rotary throw)

Inward: The instant your right hand is grasped, feign a blow to your partner's face with your left hand. Your blow may be blocked, but it insures your safe passage to the rear. Turn around inwardly and cut your partner down, seeing to it that his hand does not lose its grip but remains a ttached all the way through. Your right foot simultaneously draws into place. Hold down your partner's head (Not his neck) as it sinks down. Push your wrist towards him and step out with your foot, once drawn, again.

(If,1 ili;djtlfc:J lEftl) ~ iJ: ·.JIJ I...: A 9 :') it' ),V<t~ T;h 0 0 )

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The triangular approach is the basic footwork required in Kaitennage. "Triangular entry is essential to the Rotary Throw." (KUDEN)

(Correct hold down method)


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(If you try to hold down your er's head at a higher position, will be running a risk of his the better of you.)


15. I:t.k· @]~t~lf (yHlli I') )

15. Standing: Kaiten-nage

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Outward: The difference between the inward and outward is that in the outward throw, the grasped hand turns your partner's hand counterclockwise. This outward action requires your body to turn obliquely.


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16. Ki Flow and Blending: Kaiten-nage (inward throw)

Turn your body so that the flow of your partner's Ki is guided off the intended target, take a triangular stance and throw him.


(Old master Morihei Uyeshiba, Founder of A!K! DO)



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17. Shomen-uchi Irimi-nage . .. (1) (Entering throw)

This technique calls for your initiating a strike before your partner's and whipping down his hand trying to parry the blow.



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lrimi-nage ... (2)

This technique calls for removing your body from the line of attack and then proceed with the prescribed exercise.


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Irimi-nage ... (3)

This technique calls for enticing the k.i of your partner out and executing Irirni-nage without touching his body with your hands.


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(When the entering depth is insufficient, your partner' Tegatana will hit your waist)

Pointers regarding lrimi-nage:

In practicing Irimi-nage , your body must be behind your partner to such an extent that his back is within sight of your lower abdomen. If a mere throw is what is required of Irimi-nage, this particular exercise will be reduced to one which is no different from the other throwing techniques.

lrimi-nage can be mastered only through training in its varied forms, which are listed below:

(1) The case of delivering a strike ahead of your partner's, chopping down his parrying hand and throwing him down;

(2) The case of turning the body out of the line of attack and flipping him down;

(3) The case of initiating a strike, leading your partner's hand out and flipping him down without touching his hand;

Compare the following photos for a study of your possible deficiencies.

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(If you are absorbed in the throwing aspect only, you may tend to hold your partner's neck too firmly. Have your thumb point downward and "tighten your arm like a ring of iron. " (KUDEN)


Methods of practicing Irimi-nage:

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Practice without using your left hand:

Practice without using your right hand:


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This technique is performed in exactly the same way as Katate-dori Irimi-nage. There are three ways of detaching your hands.

Detachment at the upper position: Swing your hands upward while turning your body obJiq uely , insert your right hand from beneath to effect the detachment and begin the Irimi process.

Detachment at the middle position: Turn your body in a manner similar to Shiho-nage Ura-waza, then grasp your partner's wrist and unleash lrimi,

Detachment at the lower position: Turn your body obliquely, insert your right hand from above to make the detachment possible and begin the lrirni process.

18. Ryote-dori Irimi-nage

( H1-r"o")'l;IJ I) Jliff: L) (Detachment at the upper position)

(YJf)t 'C·O"J·IJJ I) ~It L;, (Detachment at the middle position)

(l'T,l: -C"if) 1;/) I) Ilffl' L) (Detachment at the lower position)



Kata-dori Irimi-nage

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Diverting your partner rightward:

Feign a blow to your partner's face. If he tries to hold your hand, turn your body obliquely, deflecting his move rightward, and initiate Irlrninage.


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