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4 1 8 1
1 h;I' ·~/1 fl ilj\lhilit :, ,1\1 , •!ll't \ ;\ l ,I\\
I /A
prom Fig. 0 1.4)J we find that
Expression for the hand (fringe } wid th :
d d _,.. h- ·enter of tl '•!'·
pM 1::: x - 2 and PM 2 = x + . ,._,,. The distance between t e c 'dth
2 ti adjacent bright or dark bands i.s failed baDcJ ,u ·•
JnD.S2Ml or fri111,:;e ½i<lth.
th
(Sl)2 = (S2M2>2 + (PM2>2 Let xn and xn + 1 denotes the distances of n and
(n + l)1h bright band on the same side of central bright
:. (SzP )2 = 02 + ( X + !!
. 2
)2 ...... (11.5)
band, then from eq. (11.9)
AD - - - - -- - -
xn = nd- -
In~S1 MiP
(Sl)2 = (S1M1P + (PM i)2 AD
xn + l = (n + 1) d
:. (SI p)2 = 0 2+ ( X -1 )2 ......(11 .6)
x0 + 1 - x0 = (n + I - n) d
AD
~-
2
(Sl - s,P) <S2P+ S1P) = x2 + xd t x2+ xd- ~ where X = xn + 1 - xn is the band width or fringe
2xd width.
S2~ + S 1P Similarly xm and xm + 1 denotes the distances of
In practice, the di stances x and d are very small mth and (m + 1)lh dark band on the same side of
as compared to D. To a first approximation we can central bright band, then from eq. (1 1. 11)
write AD
xm = (2m - 1) 2d
S1P = S2P=DorS 2P + S1P=2D
:. The path difference between two waves is AD
xm+ 1 = [2(m + 1)-1] 2d
given by
AD
Sp
2 -
S _ 2xd xd
p - 2D = D
1 ··.... (11. 7) = [2(m+l)-1-2m+l] 2d
Now the intensity at P will be maximum or AD
minimum according to the path difference. The point =ct
P will he bright if the path difference is an even I _AD
X - d • , c,r-
...... (11.13)
multiple of ~ -
where X' = xm+I-
· · xm '· ,
--:,i ,
.1.e. S2Jl - SiP -_ xd
D = 2n (~)
2 .. ....(11.8) From ,eq,10,1.12) ancHl 1.13)
175
Jiipr i•,m r-xf,£r>J(lf·,t1 t ;
·1 ,, mcwiurc the _w~wJcfjgth f)f ligJn, ~ ( .
t.,_ , I,, J., u-;etJ 'fh_c (Jpt,,al ben~h J'I -1.bitut (m
· >fJ\k
r,.;11 ., 11 ' f, • t 1/Jd .
,oct.cr J,JfliJ ;,imJ ')(;ale i <i _marked i.llot1g11-i ltngil)_ ~
1
iJ.dJ'u-,r;;i.bJc •A.and'> carrymg the ,,JH rs J, hiprh . 1.
, ' ,lrJ /J
1,e r, ,; <LJ and the miaomctr:r cyc:pi(;l.;e 'f·
m,,unwd 1Jn tbe optical bcn'-=h <t', thown in Fi ·J '
. , g /J I'
Thr: '>lit and th~ lnpmm can be rolatetJ . ·
isl..,)
h<,riz.<Jntal <1Xi!i ,
'I lie i1J1 r,1,lutli1 n 111· l
, • Int: pl at<.: ha,, /111 (;.f/ C(;t on the
'
lnrit•t w,d1t1 ·1/ 1·
' , ' Jc ·, JJ/f ,u;1. w •, lic;c:Jw1c the ,;dginaJ
purh d1lfr:rc11~c '"t
(• 11 , • t ,.,( 1.. '/AJ!'h. &-Ii'~-+A+-B - H"A___,!;,__--&
~
l_'
'1 1 ,,, c.,1itngi:v ,,y
I) I V ·• fl - !::·v.eir,• . • .A(
i. - V.lfi'll/l l<:r~ ; .'
• . ~!'"-"...,_
rdS,~ ~ ~ ~- - - ~ ~~~~~~C/-1-110
the eyepiece. Now we can determine the wavelength
of light using eq.( 11 .12)
X=
AD
d or A. =o
Xd
are virtual. Hence . we. use .the conJugate foci Taking the product of eqs. ( I 1. J 4) and ( l l . 1S)
method for .determ1~at1on of d. _In this method
b·ect and image distances get interchanged in d1d.2 ~x..!:!...=I
o ~ h . ·r· d2 = U V
tWO adjustments as s own m 1g. ( 11 .7).
d2 = d1d2
_GA ... (11.16)
or d = "\ld 1dz
Thus knowing D, X and d, we can calculate the
wavelength A of monochromatic light by using the
• 'I Xd
equalion fl., =D
Concept of diffracti<,11 :
lllu':1inated
} region
A'
Geometrical
shadow
s
B'
(b) lllu':1inated
} region
Fig. 11.7 Determination of d. Screen
r· \.\~·-c·
,J; f'rf(
(ht~•.) "f
K.(.
p dfC
• /t';Jt
I~
o
1--.rr,
, .. _.*
;..,__ •
•ii, ;,
0
\ u-iu.il ,,httdm'I h 11.uown U"i difh ~1 1t1>ri ,;f C-1.. ' it ,v<l.• ,! - ---- f'"'--«•
Li•ot ~<. on,, 11 _.
1 . ,1, .. •1;,rerr.1,:··•,,;')I'.'.
•
,t 1ht1,-tJ'. f
• -• ., ..
t \,m1plt>s : t.1
,,H11t i;f ,r1.JXrrnu m . ..,,c,.... ·1:, l t .
~ !I
'••<.- ./, .h.
(i) mox1mtm, and 11 L~ the t>ng.h~~ ~ -;.i1 '1 ~ ..
\Vhc:n the , 11 11 ,.., , c: c 11 lhrr,ugh ,. I11,c p 11.'LC q i
l'.l 11 th . a cu lourcd \ pcc.l1a ,, nb, cned p,111ern
tii) P()')iti.1, 0 1..11 ..,- , r;.--1.,,.J minrinum;
The ltm1111ou~ border thal '> urround ~ the profi le
of a muuntain ju<,t he fore c,un ri.r..c\i behind 11. \;o .i. um "1er It~ -..e.;.o,:d.tr} ,:.d._., ··.n
ihe direcuon. inchned ar an aoglc {, t:-: (.'if: ~
What should be the order of size of an CP All the sec,Jf'.dat)
ohstade <,r aperature to produce diffraction of
light?
.
di rection rec:1ch
. "'
P rr. "IJt: < ,.~t: Th:~ !he ,P'Jllil
,..,it., t '..i,-. d~:ii '•
Types of diffraction The diffraction upon the path differern:c: BE ~-.:.ttn t.~ ~ - 1
pht:nomenon i, broadly cla.<,sifie<l into two type, for wave<; startmg from A and B
the convinience of mathematical treatments. BE
From 1 ABE. <,inO = AB
Fraunhofer diffraction : The source of li!;ht
and the <;creen on which diffraction pattern i~ or path difference BE = AB -;mf; = ~ ,::::5
obtained are cffecti vely at infin ite distance from If this pa!h djfference 1~ eq,..:..J ~c i. ~~
the diffracting i>)'Stem. In thi, case. we consider wavelen~th o f light used. thro P wi'l ~ ~
plane wavefront. The diffraclion pattern is minimum intensit) . The ~ hole \l a•, rlro:;.! ~
obtained by using convex lem. con-;idered to be two hahe·, C-:\ JOO CB Q1 ~ .
-,. ';,y _~ rllffra..th., : The w urce of light and path difference betwe-en the <.ecom:i~ ;i .a ,~ -~
screen are kept at fini te distance from the and 8 j.., i,., chen the path diffen.·nc-: Cd'•~ ~
di ffrac ting system. In th is c.L~e. we con,ider
cyl i~drh:al or spheri_cal wavefro_!ltS. :,econdary i.\ an :s. from these pomb -\ .n: C ,..
f r:.Ln:,o''.:r <l:firaction due to a single slit : Similarly c,·ery po111t in !.he upper h'.llf CA.'~ .
Suppose a parallel beam of monochromatic light corresponding point in the lo\\ er half CB r t Oil' ;.::
of \\ avelength A is incident normally upon a narrow
1 difference between the Sce<.·on.dar) ,,. a, ~:; from oo
slit AB of width 'a' which is kept perpendicular to the point~ is. ½. Thu~. descructive 1nterferen;:e okc.:, ~
plane of paper. Suppose the diffrncted light is focused
by a convex )em, L on the screen XY which is kept in and the point P will be of minimum tntcns!!} '..l :::.
the focal plane of the !em. (Fig. l l .9) direction of secondarv \\ a.,es 1s S,tJ~h thl! BE :: :t.
then also the poi nt where the) ma"t rhe x-n·~n 11rill ~
According to Huyge ns' principle each and every of minimum intens1r; . This tS so b.!-clll6t :'.'.t
point on AB is a source of secondary disturbance. ,econdary waves from the correspondmg pom:i :
X
lower half differ in "
pa1h by 1 and 3gam gi,n ~
smO -- --7
(2n + l lt. o
Fig 11 .1 Graph of intensity againS! sinO
sin t\ = 2a
-fh e width
. o f cenlr~,l mJx 1mun,' 1, 11ri1n.1r'fl(ln,,!
·1•
· 1· h \1· tl
to the wa\·ele n£th o 1g t. ,... 1 1 rt:
j 1j ·1i nh
:::
l th - • v,iJtb
The . diffraction ~attem due to a single slit . .. . h· 1h. , 1,,, ·t !l·•\il
of the centraJ max imu m I'- morl.'. t :.rn e · '" c .
_. nsists ot a central bnght maximum at p followed
0 O With narrow slit. the width of central m.i,li'lUlll 1
hY alternate secondary minima and maxima on both more . From eq. (1 l.19 l if the w1 dtl1 of sl ll :.. h l.ir'.::t:
~des of Po. sine is small and hence 8 is small . The m~l\lll!;i :i nd
minima are Yery close to central maximum ..it P Hut
Width of central maximum :
with narrow slit 'a' is small and 8 is brge . Tnh r~,u!:'
If the 1ens L is very ne-ar the slit or the screen is
in a distinct diffraction maximum and mm1m um on
far away from the lens L, then focal length (f) of the
both the sides of P0 •
lens is approximately equal to the distance (D) of the
slit from the screen .
11.7 RAYLEIGH'S CRITERIO~ :
If 8 is small. then
According to geometrical optics . the: inug1.' nf 0
X X point object produced by an optical instrumen t ir,thl
sin8=8= T =n ... ... (11.19)
be a geometric poim. In pract ice. whe n the bc,un oi
where x is the distance of the first secondary light from a point object passe s thn,u gh the c,bii;( U'- c
minimum from P0 , of a optical instrument. wi th !en, ac-ts li \...e d .:1rL'u Ltr
aperture then it produces diffracti on pattern irH-:aJ u!°
For first secondary minimum a point image . The diffraction p,ll te rn i::-. a bright Ji~,:
"A surrounded bv altem:lte dark and bri2.ht rin!!:-. \.\ ho:--c
J ~ -
179
d .
.LJ:O,
(i,, h111iUfl~ 1,1~I H1~1,1v1,11 (h) lrn,i!Jh~WIiii lfl!ll,li1111I (q 1rn110M i111r11~!vr,d the object', A and B arc '.->ell h11111111,u'I _hut fA•<~11
these ohjt(;IH arc il1111111n,1tcd Willi l1 t'ht 11 ,, tr~/
Fig 11 .11 the rc~olving power dcpc1nJ:.. 11pun lht.: viir(l::.
1111
Tlw two r,1,jtct11 arc '1 llld I<, he w,_.11 rt, olnd , if illumination . AcconJi11~ to Ahht , 11 11~ It·1 .K~
Ilic i..t·pun1tio11 lwtwc.c11 the·. tcntral maxiirwrn of Lhc h··twccn 1.wo object~"' > that lhey arc 1-,,u\_l' 're
V •
l !J1i~
l
t w, 1 ohkt tk i ii p,rc:1t.c:1 tlt,11i the <li 11tanct hetwccn the givcn by "' ~'.-
, '' I 111a x ·11r111111 a11d li rnl rni11in1111 11 of any of the IW(J
('ml!"
),.
oh1cl'I •, 11 '1~~- 11 .11 (h>I d =2 .
. Sill (/,
TIit IW(l ohjcct8 are Kaid to he un resolved, if the In a hi gh resolvin g powi.;r mi<.:ro,co .,
111:p;,1ati(l11 between tlie cc11tral inaxim111n or the two . . . 1· h
immersion ob,1cct1vc 1s usct u: . 1 c spa1.:c het , ·
lX:. <Ill
1111 ic<.:t~ ir: ltll!i tha11 the distance hetwcen the central . . , 1- I . V.ccn b.
11 i.,xi11111111 a11d l'ir8l 111i11i11111rn of any of the two (,h'.icctivc ,111<.I tI1c o h.1cc1 1s 11 c:d With ;in n1.1l
wood oil). This has two ad vantage.._ , hn,tly the 1~
ol,jn.:t1.; I h g 11.11 {f.; )l
light hy reflection at first lens surfa1x I!-. ch~ere~ l\iu
. . u~d~
l U -1 IU-'. SOI.VI N(; POWl•J{ OF M ICROS( 'OPE secondly the rcsnlvmg pc,wcr ol th1.: inic:ro'>tiioe
ANl>'fFl.11'.SCOP E : \increased . ·
SUMMARY
11 I
(I) The modification in the intensity of light (3) For destructive interference i.e. for a dark point.
(redistribution of light energy) produced by the . Ie of- A
the path difference should be odd multtp
superposition of two or more light _waves is 2
called interference of light. or the phase difference should odd multiple of 7t.
(2) For constructive interference i.e. for a bright (4) When the two waves of same intensity having
point, the path difference should be even phase difference $ ae interfering, the resultant
intensity at a point on the screen is given by
multiple of ~ or the phase difference should be
even multiple of 7t
IR= 21 (I +cos$) or IR= 41 cos 2 !
181