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111,;p,,ntfl• nl 11P111H th" ;1, i1 , 11

I /A
prom Fig. 0 1.4)J we find that
Expression for the hand (fringe } wid th :
d d _,.. h- ·enter of tl '•!'·
pM 1::: x - 2 and PM 2 = x + . ,._,,. The distance between t e c 'dth
2 ti adjacent bright or dark bands i.s failed baDcJ ,u ·•
JnD.S2Ml or fri111,:;e ½i<lth.
th
(Sl)2 = (S2M2>2 + (PM2>2 Let xn and xn + 1 denotes the distances of n and
(n + l)1h bright band on the same side of central bright
:. (SzP )2 = 02 + ( X + !!
. 2
)2 ...... (11.5)
band, then from eq. (11.9)
AD - - - - -- - -
xn = nd- -
In~S1 MiP
(Sl)2 = (S1M1P + (PM i)2 AD
xn + l = (n + 1) d
:. (SI p)2 = 0 2+ ( X -1 )2 ......(11 .6)
x0 + 1 - x0 = (n + I - n) d
AD

rs,PJ'- (SiPJ' = D'+(x+~Y-D'-(x-~)' X


_ AD
- d ..... .(11.12)

~-
2
(Sl - s,P) <S2P+ S1P) = x2 + xd t x2+ xd- ~ where X = xn + 1 - xn is the band width or fringe
2xd width.
S2~ + S 1P Similarly xm and xm + 1 denotes the distances of
In practice, the di stances x and d are very small mth and (m + 1)lh dark band on the same side of
as compared to D. To a first approximation we can central bright band, then from eq. (1 1. 11)
write AD
xm = (2m - 1) 2d
S1P = S2P=DorS 2P + S1P=2D
:. The path difference between two waves is AD
xm+ 1 = [2(m + 1)-1] 2d
given by
AD
Sp
2 -
S _ 2xd xd
p - 2D = D
1 ··.... (11. 7) = [2(m+l)-1-2m+l] 2d
Now the intensity at P will be maximum or AD
minimum according to the path difference. The point =ct
P will he bright if the path difference is an even I _AD
X - d • , c,r-
...... (11.13)
multiple of ~ -
where X' = xm+I-
· · xm '· ,
--:,i ,
.1.e. S2Jl - SiP -_ xd
D = 2n (~)
2 .. ....(11.8) From ,eq,10,1.12) ancHl 1.13)

where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ---- X -X'


-
_
-
AD
d
AD
or x = nd ... .. .(11.9) Thus the distance between two adjacent bright
bands or dark bands is equal i.e. band width of bright
The point P will be dark if the path difference is
band and dark band is same.
an odd multiple of
. AD 2AD 3AD
1.e S2P - S 1P = 0xd =(2m - 1) 2'A ......(11.10)
The bnght bands occur at X = 0, d ' d' d ' __ _
, AD 3AD 511.D
where m = 1,2 , 3, ---- and dark bands occur at X = 2d , 2d , . Zd ,---
'AD It also proves that interference fringes are
or x = (2m - 1) 2d ...... (11.11)
equally spaced.

175
Jiipr i•,m r-xf,£r>J(lf·,t1 t ;
·1 ,, mcwiurc the _w~wJcfjgth f)f ligJn, ~ ( .
t.,_ , I,, J., u-;etJ 'fh_c (Jpt,,al ben~h J'I -1.bitut (m
· >fJ\k
r,.;11 ., 11 ' f, • t 1/Jd .
,oct.cr J,JfliJ ;,imJ ')(;ale i <i _marked i.llot1g11-i ltngil)_ ~
1
iJ.dJ'u-,r;;i.bJc •A.and'> carrymg the ,,JH rs J, hiprh . 1.
, ' ,lrJ /J
1,e r, ,; <LJ and the miaomctr:r cyc:pi(;l.;e 'f·
m,,unwd 1Jn tbe optical bcn'-=h <t', thown in Fi ·J '
. , g /J I'
Thr: '>lit and th~ lnpmm can be rolatetJ . ·
isl..,)
h<,riz.<Jntal <1Xi!i ,
'I lie i1J1 r,1,lutli1 n 111· l
, • Int: pl at<.: ha,, /111 (;.f/ C(;t on the
'
lnrit•t w,d1t1 ·1/ 1·
' , ' Jc ·, JJ/f ,u;1. w •, lic;c:Jw1c the ,;dginaJ
purh d1lfr:rc11~c '"t
(• 11 , • t ,.,( 1.. '/AJ!'h. &-Ii'~-+A+-B - H"A___,!;,__--&
~
l_'
'1 1 ,,, c.,1itngi:v ,,y
I) I V ·• fl - !::·v.eir,• . • .A(
i. - V.lfi'll/l l<:r~ ; .'
• . ~!'"-"...,_

Fig 11.6 Blprlam experimental arrangement


Whftt happcni; l.o the iukd'ercnce pattern, ,
w~~r• th c Ph.t1Hc dlffcnm<·c hetwccn two H<>urces Jniti,dly the olit, bipri1,m and eyepiece <ife k.ePI
of hght c: h~Hl.l.(CI, wlfh lim e! the 11 ame height ,<,uch th11t their cenlcr<i are in ~ dJI:
line. The slit is made narrow and is illuminaltd bi
I L S [\ JI A.) I JJn.:\-H:N'f ' >f \\ii\ VJ-,U ·, NC'JIJ HY 1,odium vapour lamp (monochromatic lightJ. -1~
HJPHJ .'-J :\ l LXJ'EHL\..lf<: /\'J' : <;lands carrying the slit and bipri1,m are kept cl05e
together. The slit is kept vertical. The bipri ~m fa llO';.
A hipri.'lm cr,111,i~,~ of 1w,1 idcnticul thin pri8m11 rotated slowly about a horizontal axis, so that n,
of very ., mitll rcfri1cting :111glc no· to 1°) with thi:ir refracting edge becomes parallel to slit. When t)-~
ba.<,c.'> joined toge ther. TliLJ <, !hi.! bipri '->m ubc (hg .11 .5) refracting edge of biprism becomes exactly parallel to
i1, a thin gla \1, pri , m of obtuse angle ,,r uhout 179'·. slit, the interference pattern consisting of alternate
bright and dark bands appears in the field of viewof

rdS,~ ~ ~ ~- - - ~ ~~~~~~C/-1-110
the eyepiece. Now we can determine the wavelength
of light using eq.( 11 .12)

X=
AD
d or A. =o
Xd

l....,_-.lf-_,. -_. -··_·- - - - - - --"""!-


--3=r_·__ Measurements :
- - - - - - - - - 0 - - - - - - --.i (i) The di-stance between slit and eyepiece D can be
easily measured from the scale marked on the
Fig 11.5 Ray diagram of biprism experiment. optical bench.
(ii) The band width X is measured with the help of
micrometer eyepiece. The vertical crosswire in
A monochromatic light of wavelength A from a
the eyepiece is adjusted at the center of a bright
source passe.~ through a narrow slit S. The biprism is fringe. The micrometer reading is noted. Now
placed infronl of the slit with its refracting edge eyepiece is moved horizontally until the
parallel to slit. The light passes through the two halves crosswire has moved over a known number N of
of the biprism and the refracted rays appcur to come the bright fringes, again micrometer reading is
from the two virtual sources S I and S2 of the slil. noted. The difference between the two readings
These virtual sources arc derived from the same of the micrometer gives the distance x through
which eyepiece is moved. Then the average
original source, act as coherent sources and they are
distance between two adjacent bright fringes is
formed in the plane of slit. The waves from these
given by.
sources interfere with each other and interference
X
fringes are observed in the shaded region through X=N
micrometer eyepiece.
176
,:~ ,'!. ,•_
~
,
;:tl'l< t~
~i,.., ':

·st·incc 'd' between two coherent sources l.15)


fhC dl ' ' , '. .' d2 = u . .. (J'
.~ ~

;iil , ot be measured chrcctly because the sources d


. 1 cann . .,~ . V

are virtual. Hence . we. use .the conJugate foci Taking the product of eqs. ( I 1. J 4) and ( l l . 1S)
method for .determ1~at1on of d. _In this method
b·ect and image distances get interchanged in d1d.2 ~x..!:!...=I
o ~ h . ·r· d2 = U V
tWO adjustments as s own m 1g. ( 11 .7).
d2 = d1d2
_GA ... (11.16)
or d = "\ld 1dz
Thus knowing D, X and d, we can calculate the
wavelength A of monochromatic light by using the
• 'I Xd
equalion fl., =D

11.6 DIFFll ACTIO'.\ Dl _-. TC , S!!\ Ci L SL .£.

Concept of diffracti<,11 :

lllu':1inated
} region
A'

Geometrical
shadow
s

B'
(b) lllu':1inated
} region
Fig. 11.7 Determination of d. Screen

The convex lens of short focal length is (a)


introduced between the biprism and the eyepiece.
Geometrical
Without disturbing slit and biprism, the eyepiece is } shadow
moved back so that its distance from the slit becomes
A'
greater than four times the focal length of the lens.
The \ens is moved toward the slit and its position L 1 is
so adjusted that two magnified images A 1 and Bi of
Illuminated
S1 and S 2 are formed in the focal plane of the
s region
eyepiece. The distance d 1 between A 1 and B 1 is
measured by the micrometer.
Then, referring to Fig. 11.7 (a), we can write B'
Geometrical
Size of image Distance of image Slit } shadow
Size of object = Distance of object Screen
di V
(b)
d = ~ ..... (11.14)
Fig 11.8 Diffraction due to obstacle and slit.
The Jens is now moved towards eyepiece to the
position L2, where two diminished images A2 and B2 Light travels in a straight line and produces
of S 1 and S2 are formed in the focal plane of eyepiece. shadow, if an obstacle is placed in its path [Fig. l 1.8
The distance d 2 between A2 and B2 is measured by (a)]. Similarly if light from the source S is allowed to
the micrometer, then by the principle of conjugate pass through a narrow slit AB, only the part A'B' of
foci, referring Fig. 11.7 (b) we can write the screen should get illuminated but no light will
177
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f ,rl (
/ 't ' O fl)
, rit
J I
. . 1.,0 0 \\, 11 ·w , 1 x<hrf \\ 11111 1j1•• d lint 1n th•! t111e~:H<-1n pa:J.!1- 1 ~-'
'- lit' nl 11h, 1·1 1• l . • ,,1.,i , t. 1fr1 . , i -1'. (l '
' \. l Clf ... 11 I\ ~lll.11! ,11111 ( r\lfl Jlt1,1h lc t <I fa ir
wawlt•1w1h 111 l1 1 1 . 1 p wJ hf is.hi {.rnlr;., 1rna7... .
- f' II ,,,1i1 hl'11tl.., , 11 01111<1 1hr t•d j:t, nl (t 1 /<,<.. ll~ ,1 ,- (I 'i.
lhl'. P h • ( '1l' I • I tr{ m P'Jll'U:, f'nJ •-'
, ., • "' 5 , C'\ ,._
' • t n i ., 11 ,111d 1· 111e r" 111 th(' n ( IHW• ol f fl(' ,111.wr J
•<{"{ 1 · . ,- • ~ ' ".4, ' b .
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,,l
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Li•ot ~<. on,, 11 _.
1 . ,1, .. •1;,rerr.1,:··•,,;')I'.'.

,t 1ht1,-tJ'. f
• -• ., ..

t \,m1plt>s : t.1
,,H11t i;f ,r1.JXrrnu m . ..,,c,.... ·1:, l t .
~ !I
'••<.- ./, .h.
(i) mox1mtm, and 11 L~ the t>ng.h~~ ~ -;.i1 '1 ~ ..
\Vhc:n the , 11 11 ,.., , c: c 11 lhrr,ugh ,. I11,c p 11.'LC q i
l'.l 11 th . a cu lourcd \ pcc.l1a ,, nb, cned p,111ern
tii) P()')iti.1, 0 1..11 ..,- , r;.--1.,,.J minrinum;
The ltm1111ou~ border thal '> urround ~ the profi le
of a muuntain ju<,t he fore c,un ri.r..c\i behind 11. \;o .i. um "1er It~ -..e.;.o,:d.tr} ,:.d._., ··.n
ihe direcuon. inchned ar an aoglc {, t:-: (.'if: ~
What should be the order of size of an CP All the sec,Jf'.dat)
ohstade <,r aperature to produce diffraction of
light?
.
di rection rec:1ch
. "'
P rr. "IJt: < ,.~t: Th:~ !he ,P'Jllil
,..,it., t '..i,-. d~:ii '•

v. ill of maximum " r mm:n~:Jrr, ,ntc:- ._,,,:, dc---,r...;,


~

Types of diffraction The diffraction upon the path differern:c: BE ~-.:.ttn t.~ ~ - 1
pht:nomenon i, broadly cla.<,sifie<l into two type, for wave<; startmg from A and B
the convinience of mathematical treatments. BE
From 1 ABE. <,inO = AB
Fraunhofer diffraction : The source of li!;ht
and the <;creen on which diffraction pattern i~ or path difference BE = AB -;mf; = ~ ,::::5
obtained are cffecti vely at infin ite distance from If this pa!h djfference 1~ eq,..:..J ~c i. ~~
the diffracting i>)'Stem. In thi, case. we consider wavelen~th o f light used. thro P wi'l ~ ~
plane wavefront. The diffraclion pattern is minimum intensit) . The ~ hole \l a•, rlro:;.! ~
obtained by using convex lem. con-;idered to be two hahe·, C-:\ JOO CB Q1 ~ .
-,. ';,y _~ rllffra..th., : The w urce of light and path difference betwe-en the <.ecom:i~ ;i .a ,~ -~
screen are kept at fini te distance from the and 8 j.., i,., chen the path diffen.·nc-: Cd'•~ ~
di ffrac ting system. In th is c.L~e. we con,ider
cyl i~drh:al or spheri_cal wavefro_!ltS. :,econdary i.\ an :s. from these pomb -\ .n: C ,..
f r:.Ln:,o''.:r <l:firaction due to a single slit : Similarly c,·ery po111t in !.he upper h'.llf CA.'~ .
Suppose a parallel beam of monochromatic light corresponding point in the lo\\ er half CB r t Oil' ;.::
of \\ avelength A is incident normally upon a narrow
1 difference between the Sce<.·on.dar) ,,. a, ~:; from oo
slit AB of width 'a' which is kept perpendicular to the point~ is. ½. Thu~. descructive 1nterferen;:e okc.:, ~
plane of paper. Suppose the diffrncted light is focused
by a convex )em, L on the screen XY which is kept in and the point P will be of minimum tntcns!!} '..l :::.
the focal plane of the !em. (Fig. l l .9) direction of secondarv \\ a.,es 1s S,tJ~h thl! BE :: :t.
then also the poi nt where the) ma"t rhe x-n·~n 11rill ~
According to Huyge ns' principle each and every of minimum intens1r; . This tS so b.!-clll6t :'.'.t
point on AB is a source of secondary disturbance. ,econdary waves from the correspondmg pom:i :
X
lower half differ in "
pa1h by 1 and 3gam gi,n ~

position of minimum mtensit) . In general


a -;in 8a = n1.
n>. ......( 11 r
E :sin 811 = a
Screen
y wher\! n = ± I .... ., .±3 •-·· ••··· -·
.!.. -

Fig 11 .9 Diffraction due to a single slit.


178
r
-g-i\·es the ct·trection of th~
nlh
. it11Ulll•
,111'1
. ,erondan
,.:iiriO,Vn tctf .. . maximum
- . .'
1
If
· •
ht1wt?ser. the path differenc"t.: ·1:-.• O{i L·i multiple
.

t the direction of secondnr\·· maxin


,f," .
. ·,s . b .
' · 1,1 , o .tamed.
\ ,

ln this case', a sinSn = Cn + l ) 1


~

smO -- --7
(2n + l lt. o
Fig 11 .1 Graph of intensity againS! sinO
sin t\ = 2a
-fh e width
. o f cenlr~,l mJx 1mun,' 1, 11ri1n.1r'fl(ln,,!
·1•
· 1· h \1· tl
to the wa\·ele n£th o 1g t. ,... 1 1 rt:
j 1j ·1i nh
:::
l th - • v,iJtb
The . diffraction ~attem due to a single slit . .. . h· 1h. , 1,,, ·t !l·•\il
of the centraJ max imu m I'- morl.'. t :.rn e · '" c .
_. nsists ot a central bnght maximum at p followed
0 O With narrow slit. the width of central m.i,li'lUlll 1
hY alternate secondary minima and maxima on both more . From eq. (1 l.19 l if the w1 dtl1 of sl ll :.. h l.ir'.::t:
~des of Po. sine is small and hence 8 is small . The m~l\lll!;i :i nd
minima are Yery close to central maximum ..it P Hut
Width of central maximum :
with narrow slit 'a' is small and 8 is brge . Tnh r~,u!:'
If the 1ens L is very ne-ar the slit or the screen is
in a distinct diffraction maximum and mm1m um on
far away from the lens L, then focal length (f) of the
both the sides of P0 •
lens is approximately equal to the distance (D) of the
slit from the screen .
11.7 RAYLEIGH'S CRITERIO~ :
If 8 is small. then
According to geometrical optics . the: inug1.' nf 0
X X point object produced by an optical instrumen t ir,thl
sin8=8= T =n ... ... (11.19)
be a geometric poim. In pract ice. whe n the bc,un oi
where x is the distance of the first secondary light from a point object passe s thn,u gh the c,bii;( U'- c
minimum from P0 , of a optical instrument. wi th !en, ac-ts li \...e d .:1rL'u Ltr
aperture then it produces diffracti on pattern irH-:aJ u!°
For first secondary minimum a point image . The diffraction p,ll te rn i::-. a bright Ji~,:
"A surrounded bv altem:lte dark and bri2.ht rin!!:-. \.\ ho:--c
J ~ -

sine = ...... (11.20) intensity goes on decreasing lt is kno\, n a-., ,\ 1r~ ·,


a
disc. If there are two point objects lying. clo:-c t \ ) c;.i.:h
1·• ·-1 From equation (11.19) and (11.20)
other, the two diffracting panems are produceJ. Then
X "A they may or may not be seen as two separate di stin-: t
= a
D objects due to overlapping of their diffraction pattern .
I
AD <
The smallest angular or linear separanon
or X = ..... .(l 1.21)
a be~en the two point obje£lS at which they ap pear lL'
The width of central maximum = 2:i: which is be just resolved is called limit of resolution of an
given as optical instrument and the reciprocal of the limit of
2AD 2Af resolution is called its resolving power.
w = = ...... (11.22)
a a According to Rayleigh's criterion. the images ( 1f
Note : The angular half width of the central two point objects close to each other a.re regarded as
A just separated if the central maximum of one fal Is 1.)11
maximum is given by 8 = -;- and Angular width the first minimum of the other. ln other words. when
2 central bright image of one falls on thl' first dark ring
28 = A , if 0 is small
a of the other. the two images are said tt) be jn."1
resolved lFig 11.11 (a)l .

179
d .
.LJ:O,

,JML.._ffiJl\_~ - - 2 !-l if1(/


(,
I,

11.tiuatton ( 11 .2) ) •~ h..i , t:d 011 tk , 1 · ·


- • ll1 u \\ 1

(i,, h111iUfl~ 1,1~I H1~1,1v1,11 (h) lrn,i!Jh~WIiii lfl!ll,li1111I (q 1rn110M i111r11~!vr,d the object', A and B arc '.->ell h11111111,u'I _hut fA•<~11
these ohjt(;IH arc il1111111n,1tcd Willi l1 t'ht 11 ,, tr~/
Fig 11 .11 the rc~olving power dcpc1nJ:.. 11pun lht.: viir(l::.
1111
Tlw two r,1,jtct11 arc '1 llld I<, he w,_.11 rt, olnd , if illumination . AcconJi11~ to Ahht , 11 11~ It·1 .K~
Ilic i..t·pun1tio11 lwtwc.c11 the·. tcntral maxiirwrn of Lhc h··twccn 1.wo object~"' > that lhey arc 1-,,u\_l' 're
V •
l !J1i~
l
t w, 1 ohkt tk i ii p,rc:1t.c:1 tlt,11i the <li 11tanct hetwccn the givcn by "' ~'.-
, '' I 111a x ·11r111111 a11d li rnl rni11in1111 11 of any of the IW(J
('ml!"
),.
oh1cl'I •, 11 '1~~- 11 .11 (h>I d =2 .
. Sill (/,

TIit IW(l ohjcct8 are Kaid to he un resolved, if the In a hi gh resolvin g powi.;r mi<.:ro,co .,
111:p;,1ati(l11 between tlie cc11tral inaxim111n or the two . . . 1· h
immersion ob,1cct1vc 1s usct u: . 1 c spa1.:c het , ·
lX:. <Ill
1111 ic<.:t~ ir: ltll!i tha11 the distance hetwcen the central . . , 1- I . V.ccn b.
11 i.,xi11111111 a11d l'ir8l 111i11i11111rn of any of the two (,h'.icctivc ,111<.I tI1c o h.1cc1 1s 11 c:d With ;in n1.1l
wood oil). This has two ad vantage.._ , hn,tly the 1~
ol,jn.:t1.; I h g 11.11 {f.; )l
light hy reflection at first lens surfa1x I!-. ch~ere~ l\iu
. . u~d~
l U -1 IU-'. SOI.VI N(; POWl•J{ OF M ICROS( 'OPE secondly the rcsnlvmg pc,wcr ol th1.: inic:ro'>tiioe
ANl>'fFl.11'.SCOP E : \increased . ·

(A ) Rt·\olvi11~ l)OW\' r ot' mirroscopt! : MinimuJD


..,.,.
separation for resolved im:t1-....!,t:,, ,
~
The n11ni1mm1 di stance hy which two point A.
ohjl'l:ts are \l' parntcd from each other so that their \ d = 2 µ s1n('
. J. • ._ , .... ( \ \ 11
. <"\ ' . -~
1111agc a:-. produced hy Lhc microscope arc just seen where µ is the refra ctive index or an uil. 1\
s1: paratr is called the limit ( i f rtso!ution and the
expression µ sina in eq.( 11 .25) is called the numeri11l
n.:r ipnical of limit or resolution is called the rcsolvinµ,
powl' r ol' mk1·osro1w , uperture (NA) of lhc ohjcct uf the microscope ~nd:
characteristi1.: of the particular objective ust'd
M
Equation ( 11 .25) gives limit or re~olution ot .
microscope. The reciprocal of limii of resolution 1,t'r.~
resolving power of a microscope.
. . I 2 p sin a
R.P. ol m1t.:roscope = ct = A. ..... l I \.261
B'
The resolving power of mic roscope can ba:
N increased by increasing its numerical apemn~
Fig 11.12 Resolving power of microscope (~tsina) and by decreasing the wavelength t'f light (),\
used to illuminate the objet.:ts. The R.P. of mirnigl'l'~
111
Suppose that A and B arc lwo point objects at a can he increased by using ultraviolet light
11
distances <l apart and A' und B' arc their respective illuminate the objects. We can not in..:reas,'
images formctl hy the objective MN of n microscope · because aperture of lens wo11ld increase in that ca~~
{Fig_. I I. n). A' and B' arc surrounded by alternate Also use quart z lens for increasing R.P.
dark and bright diffraction rings, According to
(R) Rcsolv~ng power of trk~t1!l)\'. :
Rayleigh's criterion. the two images are said to he just
resolved if the position of the central maximum of one A telescope is an instr{;;;;nt which is used h1 sc~
falls on the first minimum of the other and vice versa. the distant objects cle,1rly . The resolving power l'1° :,
Ld the ohjert A subtends angle 2(1 at the aperture of
telescope is defined a~ : t\'ciproc:al of the kast angle
the objective MN . Then for the condition ofresolution
subtended at the objecl1v1.. ny the two distanl piii\\t
it mu ·he shown that the separation d between the two
objects which can be distinguished just resolved in th ~
nhj~cts A and B should be such that
focal plane of the telescope.
180
A
'A
or dO =
a . . rectangular
This equation hold~ good f~r for circul ar
. to A'iry, the e(1uat1 on
apertures. AcconJmg
aperture is
1
/ / 1.2211. (I J.27)
d0 = a ······
Fig. 11 .13 Resolving power of telescope.
where A is the wavelength of light an? ~ isf
Let d0 be the angular separation between t
aperture of telescope. Here de represe nts· the hmit. .
0
. I . WO
. hbouring pomts ymg on distant obiect and . · al of d0 i:,°1ve~
ne1!! h b' . J a 1s resolution of the telescope. The rec1proc
~diameter of t e o ~echve of telescope Con •d
1he ' . . ·. • SI er the resolving power of the telescope.
1he rays ~f light f~om two_ne1ghbounng points on a
I
distant object. The image of ~ach point is a Fraunhofer :. R. P of telescope / = dO
diffraction pattern, co~ta_ms central maximum
followed by sec~n.dary mmnnum and maximum. p I a ...... (11.28)
= 1.22 A.
and p2 be the positions of the central maximum of the
,wo images, as shown in Fig. (11.13) . From equation (11.28), it is clear that a
telescope with large diameter of the objective has
According to Rayleigh 's criterion, these two higher resolving power.
images PI and P2 are said to be just resolved if the
central maximum in diffraction pattern of first object
11.9 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
falls on the first minimum of the diffraction pattern of
INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION :
second object and vice versa. The path difference
between AP 1 and BP 1 is zero and hence P1 is the Interference pattern is obtained as the result of
position of central maximum of the image of first interaction of light coming from two different
object. The path difference between the secondary wavefronts from two coherent sources while
waves travelling in the direction BP2 and AP2 is equal diffraction pattern is obtained as the result of
interaction of light coming from different parts of the
to BE.
same wavefront.
From /j_ ABE
Interference fringes are of the same width while
BE = AB sind0 diffraction fringes are not of the same width.
= a.de
In interference pattern all bright bands are of
If this path difference a.de = "A, the position of same intensity while in diffraction pattern all bright
P2 co11esponds to the first minimum of the first image. bands are not of same intensity. Intensity is maximum
But P2 is also the position of central maximum of the for central maximum in diffraction pattern.
second image. Thus Rayleigh 's condition for just The dark fringes are perfectly dark in
resolution is satisfied, if
interference pattern but in diffraction pattern they are
a.d0 = "A not perfectly dark.

SUMMARY
11 I
(I) The modification in the intensity of light (3) For destructive interference i.e. for a dark point.
(redistribution of light energy) produced by the . Ie of- A
the path difference should be odd multtp
superposition of two or more light _waves is 2
called interference of light. or the phase difference should odd multiple of 7t.
(2) For constructive interference i.e. for a bright (4) When the two waves of same intensity having
point, the path difference should be even phase difference $ ae interfering, the resultant
intensity at a point on the screen is given by
multiple of ~ or the phase difference should be
even multiple of 7t
IR= 21 (I +cos$) or IR= 41 cos 2 !
181