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Figure 1: Graph of flow rate variation (green line) and pressure change (red line) in PID

controller.

In this experiment, we observe the effect of Proportional, Integral and Derivative action on a

pressure loop control. The derivative time and setpoint (SP) values have been manipulated in

each part of the experiment to observe the response of the PID control. As the derivative time

decreases, the degree of oscillation in the pressure and flow rate also decreases, with the

alternating setpoint(SP) shift of 10 psi and 15psi respectively. Initially maximum deviation

from the setpoint (SP) is observed as shown in Figure 1 and it decreases over time as the

derivative term is reduced. This is because, the derivative action considers how fast e (t) is

changing at any instant using the rate of change or the slope of the error curve. Thus, lower

value of derivative time would have a smaller effect on the Process Variable (PV) and rapid

shift in the setpoint (SP) would have a smaller effect or deviation in the PV values.

Proportional and Integral (PI) controller

Figure 2: Graph of flow rate variation (green line) and pressure change (red line) in PI

controller.

In this experiment, the proportional and integral action of the controller is observed by

tuning only the two parameters of the controller and leaving the derivative term to zero. From

Figure 2, it can be seen that as the integral time decreases, the degree of oscillation increases.

This is because from the PI algorithm it can be seen that the integral term is in the

denominator of the equation, resulting in higher value of PV with lower integral parameter.

Thus, the controller becomes more aggressive in correcting the persistent offset at lower

integral time [1]. Besides, the integral action of the controller continually sums up the error

and use to remove the offsets. However, the offset has not been removed when a sudden

setpoint (SP) change is introduced due to the rapid change in the error, making it hard for the

integral action to compute the error using integration and remove the offsets. Thus, PI

controller would not be the best choice for this pressure control system.

Proportional (P) controller

Figure 3: Graph of flow rate variation (green line) and pressure change (red line) in

Proportional Controller.

In this experiment, only the proportional action of the controller is observed by tuning off the

action of the other two parameters. From Figure 3, it can be seen that as the Proportional

Band increases, the offset and the oscillatory behaviour of the PV decreases. This is because,

the higher the proportional parameter the more aggressive action is taken by the controller

towards the error, resulting in closer the PV value towards the setpoint. However, continuous

increase in the proportional parameter would result in increase in the oscillatory behaviour of

the system, making Proportional controller not suitable to be used alone without the Integral

and derivative actions. Thus, Proportional controller would not be suitable to be used as the

best controller for the pressure controller as it could not eliminate the offsets and oscillatory

behaviour of the PV despite of its ability to make faster response towards an error.

References

[1] Integral Action and PI Control. (n.d.). Retrieved September 22, 2017, from

http://controlguru.com/integral-action-and-pi-control/

Appendix

Where:

CO = controller output signal

CObias = controller bias or null value

e(t) = current controller error, defined as SP – PV

SP = set point

PV = measured process variable

Kc = controller gain, a tuning parameter

Ti = reset time, a tuning parameter

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