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Errors, Uncertainties and Measurements Laboratory Report

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Laboratory Report

Jyelo Dela Cruz, Bruce Devela, Jyle Diño, Franc Dy, Micole Gabriel

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santo Tomas

España, Manila Philippines

measured value.

The experiment involved taking the

measurement of a spherical object - in the The objectives of these experiment is

group’s case, a glass marble - in a span of to show how errors and uncertainties affect

ten (10) trials. This was accomplished any experiment, to introduce the usage of

through the use of three (3) different average deviation, to establish the mean of

measuring instruments: a ruler, a vernier the set of values and its average deviation,

caliper, and a micrometer caliper. The and to educate students with the following

experimental value of density was then instruments and their accuracy in measuring:

compared to the accepted value, thus vernier caliper, micrometer caliper, and the

producing a percent error in calculations. foot rule. Moreover, the experiment

The measurement for the vernier caliper enhances the ability to calculate for the

revealed the most accurate result with a density of an object from its mass and

0.8% percent error. volume.

1. Introduction 2. Theory

is crucial in determining its derived unit. digits are essential in scientific and

Aspects such as accuracy and precision mathematical calculations and

greatly affects measuring which will then measurements. It deals with the precision

lead to errors and uncertainties. Errors and and accuracy of numbers. Using significant

uncertainties are inevitable. However, figures in estimating the uncertainty of the

various methods and techniques are final result is important. There are rules in

established to minimise errors and more determining the significance of a digit. First,

sophisticated and accurate instruments are all numbers from 9 are significant and are

made to reduce the uncertainty in counted. Second, zeroes between numbers

measuring. are significant. Third, zeroes that are placed

after the significant numbers are not

The Absolute Uncertainty or significant. However, trailing zeroes after a

Absolute Error is the range where the decimal point are counted as significant.

actual value will lie on. Accuracy and

precision will both affect the experiment’s All measurements have some degree

result. Accuracy is how close the measured of uncertainty. In reporting an experimental

value is to the true and actual value while value along with its uncertainty allows

sum of observed values

people to judge the quality of the Mean = no. of observations

experiment, as well as facilitates meaningful

comparisons with other similar values or a Average deviation (a.d.) tells how

theoretical prediction. In making much the individual measurements vary

measurement, we assume that some exact or from the mean.

true value is present based on ow we define |x1 −x| + |x2 −x| . . . |xN −x|

what is being measured. However, we obtain a.d. = N

slightly different results when making

measurements by different methods or using Diameter error percentage is used to

the same methods. Thus, true value can be check how far the measured diameter is

shown as: from the true value.

Measurement A.D.

(measured value ± standard uncertainty) % error = x × 100

micrometer, can be used to obtain very fine of space that the marble occupies. The

measurements. It as available metric and formula of the sphere is derived from the

imperial versions. Micrometers measure in formula of pyramid and the surface area of

0.01 increments and imperial versions in the sphere. It is ⅓ times the radius of the

0.001 inches. This measuring instrument as sphere times the surface area of the sphere.

two scales: a primary scale that can be found

on the barrel and a secondary scale that can V = 43 πr3

be found on the thimble. The combination of

the values taken from the two scales makes Experimental value of density is the

the total measurement. calculated to know how compacted the

Vernier calipers is also used to marble is with matter.

precisely measure objects. It is very useful

m

in measuring the diameter of round objects p= V

because the measuring jaws can be secured

on either side of the circumference. The Percentage error is the useful for

scale is graduated in mm or tents of an inch. determining the precision of the

The reading of this device is the smallest calculations. It is the relationship between

distance the caliper can measure. the Vernier the experimental value and the actual value

caliper measure in either 0.02mm or or the expected value. A percentage closer to

0.05mm, while the imperial version is in zero gives a good calculation which means

0.001in. that the measured values are closer to the

A better look of the uncertainty true value.

through repeating the measurement several |accepted value − experimental value|

times and examining the variations among % error = accepted value × 100

the measured values. Average or mean is

generally the best estimate of the true value.

3. Methodology of the diameter of the sphere. After

measuring the sphere, the group then

The group was provided three calculated the mean diameter ( x ) by adding

measuring devices, which are the foot rule, all the ten independent diameters and

vernier caliper, and micrometer caliper, to dividing it to the number (n) of observations.

measure the diameter of the sphere

provided, which is a marble. The foot rule Σ independent diameters

x= n

was used for a rigid measurement. The

vernier caliper was used for a precise The group then calculated the

measurement, and the micrometer caliper deviation (d) of each of the independent

was used to accurately measure thickness. diameter to the mean diameter.

d = |independent diameter − x |

average deviation (a.d.) , which is the the

sum of the deviations divided by the number

(n) of observations.

Image 1: Foot ruler Σd

a.d. = n

mean diameter is then calculated.

a.d.

A.D. = √n

calculated by considering the average

deviation (A.D.) as the error and the mean

diameter ( x ) as the standard value.

A.D.

% error = x × 100

measured using radius (r) as the mean

radius.

Image 3: Micrometer caliper. mean diameter (x)

M ean radius (r) = 2

The group first tried to see if the

calipers that would be used will produce any

errors. Then, the least count of the foot rule, V = 43 πr3

vernier caliper, and micrometer caliper were

determined. Afterwards, the foot rule was The mass (m) of the sphere was then

used to make ten independent measurements measured using an electronic gram balance.

After, the density (p) of the sphere was Average deviation 0.0215

obtained. of the mean (A.D.)

% error of 1.5%

m

p= V

diameter

Volume (cm3) 1.67cm3

To calculate the % error of the Mass (g) 5.05g

density of the sphere, the instructor was first Experimental 2.99g/cm3

asked for the accepted value of the density Value of density

of the sphere. (g/cm3)

Accepted value of 2.57g/cm3

|accepted value − experimental value| density (g/cm3)

% error = accepted value × 100

% .error for 16.3%

All measurements, procedures, and density

calculations were then repeated using the

vernier caliper and micrometer caliper. Table 2. Diameter of the sphere in

centimeters using vernier calipers.

4. Results and Discussion

Trial Vernier Caliper

Tables 1, 2, and 3 show the diameter 1 1.580cm

of the sphere used during the experiment 2 1.535cm

while utilising the following instruments: a 3 1.565cm

foot rule, vernier calipers, and a micrometer 4 1.570cm

caliper. Each instrument was allotted ten 5 1.530cm

(10) trials. 6 1.540cm

7 1.550cm

Table 1. Diameter of the sphere in 8 1.540cm

centimeters using a foot rule. 9 1.565cm

10 1.550cm

Trial Foot Rule Mean diameter 1.550cm

1 1.5cm Average deviation 0.0135

2 1.5cm (a.d)

3 1.4cm Average deviation 0.0427

4 1.3cm of the mean (A.D.)

5 1.4cm % error of 0.1%

6 1.5cm diameter

7 1.5cm Volume (cm3) 1.95cm3

8 1.4cm Mass (g) 5.05g

9 1.6cm Experimental 2.59g/cm3

10 1.5cm Value of density

Mean diameter 1.46cm (g/cm3)

Average deviation 0.008 Accepted value of 2.57g/cm3

(a.d.) density (g/cm3)

% error for density 0.8%

Table 3. Diameter of the sphere in

centimeters using a micrometer caliper Research suggests that, among three

instruments, the micrometer caliper would

Trial Micrometer prove the most accurate while vernier the

Caliper most precise. However, the results did not

1 1.6050cm present these ideas. The group believes that

2 1.6000cm this was caused by systematic and random

3 1.6065cm errors, specifically in the form of

4 1.5420cm uncalibrated instruments and inaccurate

5 1.5440cm readings due to parallax and in the

6 1.5440cm measuring of the diameter of the spherical

7 1.6015cm ball.

8 1.5830cm

5. Conclusion

9 1.5500cm

10 1.6450cm The experiment was accomplished

Mean diameter 1.5800cm by measuring the diameter of a glass marble

Average deviation 0.0301 within ten (10) trials to produce an

(a.d.) experimental value of density. In

Average deviation 0.010 comparison to a ruler and a micrometer

of the mean (A.D.) caliper, the vernier caliper produced the

% error of 0.006% most accurate results with a percent error for

diameter density of 0.8%. The objectives were

Volume (cm3) 2.06cm3 properly met as each student learned how to

Mass (g) 5.05g make use of the different equipment

Experimental 2.45g/cm3 required in the experiment and to later solve

Value of density for the values such as the mean, average

(g/cm3) deviation, average deviation of the mean,

Accepted value of 2.57g/cm3 and density. Understanding all these

density (g/cm3) concepts helped the group realize how error

is highly related to the accuracy of

% error for density 4.7% determining an object’s measurements. The

micrometer caliper should have shown a

The experiment allowed the group to more accurate percent error but due to a a

determine the accuracy and precision of possible variety of errors, its accuracy was

each measuring apparatus. With an average only second to the vernier caliper.

deviation of the mean (A.D.) of 0.0215, the

ruler was considered the most precise 6. Applications

instrument, followed by the micrometer a. Which among the three measuring

caliper at 0.0301 and the vernier caliper at devices give you the least % error?

0.0427. In terms of accuracy, the vernier Is the accuracy of a measurement

caliper proved to be the most accurate with affected by the least count of the

only a 0.8% percent error for density. The measuring device?

micrometer caliper followed at 4.7% and the

ruler at 16.3%.

The vernier caliper showed the least diameter of the spherical ball.

percent error with a value of 0.8%. The

micrometer caliper, which has a least count

of 0.0001 cm, is considered more accurate c. Sketch

than the vernier caliper with a least count of i. A vernier caliper that reads

0.01 cm.; therefore, the accuracy of 3.48cm

measurement is indeed affected by the least

count of the measuring device in an inverse

relationship.

are the types of errors? What are the

errors you encountered in the

experiment?

City Collegiate, is defined as the

difference between the measured

value and the actual value. There are ii. A micrometer caliper that

three (3) types of errors: Systematic reads 7.05mm

Errors, Random Errors, and

Blunders.

Systematic Errors are errors

that can be eliminated. For instance,

reading measurements in the correct

angle to avoid parallax

measurements. Random Errors are

errors that may not have an

identifiable source such as

unpredictable spikes in voltage or d. A student weighed himself using a

temperature in an experiments. bathroom scale calibrated in

Blunders are mistakes made by a kilograms. He reported his weight in

person in recording or in calculating. pounds. What is the percentage error

This type of error is very in his reported weight if he uses this

distinguishable and is not included in conversion: 1 kg = 2.2 pounds? The

any analysis of data. standard kilogram is equal to 2.2046

In this experiment, we faced pounds.

the former two (2) types of errors, Suppose the student weighs

Systematic Errors and Random 70 kilograms. With the conversion of

errors. The uncalibrated instruments 1 kilogram is equal to 2.2 pounds, he

and inaccurate readings due to would then weigh 154 pounds. On

parallax were a cause of a systematic the other hand, with the standard

error while the Random Errors were kilogram conversion of 1 kilogram is

encountered in measuring the equal to 2.2046 pounds, he weighs

154.32 pounds. In this calculation, and more precise. The error of the

the percent error is 0.20865. experiment will also be lesser.

| accepted value − experimental value |

%e = accepted value

x100 f. Give other parts of the body that are

being used for measurement even

%e = |154.322 − 154 |

x 100 today. What are some properties to

154.322

be a standard of measurement?

%e = 0.20865 % ≈ 0.21%

Some of the parts of the body which

e. In an experiment on determination of

are currently being used for measurement

mass of a sample, your group

are the following:

consisting of 5 students obtained the

following results: 14.34g, 14.32g,

Cubit

14.33g, 14.30g, and 14.23g. Find the

From Latin cubitum, "the elbow." A cubit

mean, a.d. and A.D. Suppose that

was a measurement based on the forearm

your group is required to make only

from elbow to fingertip. The exact length

four determinations for the mass of

varied according to whose arm was being

the sample. If you are the leader of

used and could be from 18-22 inches.

the group, which data will you omit?

Recalculate the mean, a.d. and A.D.

Digit

without this data. Which results will

In Latin, digitus could mean either "finger"

you prefer?

or "toe". The same is true of digit in modern

English. People use the digits of their hands

to count to ten.

Fathom

Old English faethm was "the length of the

outstretched arm,"about six feet."

Hand

Originally, a "hand" was a measurement of

The data that I would omit is the three inches, but now it is four inches. The

14.23g because it is the farthest among the measurement is still used to reckon the

collected data. heights of horses.

Handful

This is an indeterminate quantity of some

dry measure, such as grain, that can be held

in the cupped hand. A Greek word for

"handful" is the origin of the Greek coin

called a drachma.

because the collected data are closer to each

Span https://www.citycollegiate.com/chapter1bXI

In old English, a span was "the distance .htm

between the thumb and little finger of an

extended hand," roughly nine inches. [3] Purdue University College of Science.

(n.d.). Significant Figures. Retrieved from

Thumb http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/to

- The basis of the measurement now picreview/bp/ch1/sigfigs.html

called an inch. We don't measure

things in "thumbs," anymore, but we [4] Maddox, M. (n.d.). Body Parts as Tools

do talk about thumbnail sketches and of Measurement. etrieved

R from

thumbnails in the sense of "small https://www.dailywritingtips.com/body-part

images." s-as-tools-of-measurement/

- The expression rule of thumb

originated from carpenters who used [5] National Center for Chronic Disease

their thumbs to take rough Prevention and Health Promotion | Division

measurements. of Population Health. (2016). Measurement

Properties: Validity, Reliability, and

The properties to be a standard of Responsiveness. Retrieved from

measurement are the following: https://www.cdc.gov/hrqol/measurement.ht

m

- Validity: degree to which an

instrument measures what it is

supposed to measure

- Reliability: degree to which an

instrument can produce consistent

results, and consistent results on

different occasions, when there is no

evidence of change

- Responsiveness: ability to detect

change over time

7. References

[1] AskIITians.com. (n.d.). Accuracy,

Precision of Instruments and Errors in

Measurements. Retrieved from

https://www.askiitians.com/iit-jee-physics/g

eneral-physics/accuracy-precision-of-instru

ments-and-errors-in-measurements/#least-co

unt-error

Error-Systematic Error-Random

Error-Empirical Formula-Molecular

Formula-Limiting Reactant. [online]

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