JUNE 1 9 79
~A~
~0~ RHODE SAINT GENESE BELGIUM
~vw
YON KARMAN INSTITUTE FOR FLUID DYNAMICS
TURBOMACHINERY DEPARTMENT
CHAUSSEE DE WATERLOO~ 72
B  1640 RHODE SAINT GENESE~ BELGIUM
JUNE 1978
TUT 7902/PFRVDB/NT
•
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Summary . . . . i
List of Symbols ii
List of Figures . . . v
Introduction 1
REFERENCES 61
APPENDIX  SOLUTION OF THE EQUATIONS FOR
THE MIXING PROCESS 65
TABLES 67
FIGURES 69
SUMMARY
LIST OF SYMBOLS
A geometric area
AR area ratio
a sonic speed
a* critical speed
b axial width
cf wall friction coefficient
eM jetwake shear friction coefficient
em disc friction coefficient
cP specific heat
cp static pressure recovery
0 ax impeller axial length
DR diffusion ratio
Dh hydraulic diameter
d impeller blade thickness
E energy
'
friction force
total enthalpy o*
form factor (=e)
static enthalpy
absolute wall roughness
blockage factor
curvature
Laval number
r~ach number
2 impelle r discharg e
3 diffuse r leading edge
4 diffuse r throat section
5 diffuser channel outlet
6 dump diffusio n
a absolute
h hub
j jet
m meridion al
n normal
t tip
u tangent ial
w wake
w wall
bl blade
cl clearanc e
df disc friction
diff diffuse r
fr friction
hom homogeneous
imp impelle r
i nd inducer
mn mean
pr pressure side
sh shear layer
sue suction side
Supersc ripts
0 total
is isentrop ic
mass averaged values
 v 
LIST OF FIGURES
number title page
1 Schemat ic of compres sor stage flow regions . 69
2 Baljedi agram for optimum specific speed . 70
3 Influenc e of PR on Mw t for differen t 70
values of N s . . .1. . . . . . . 70
4 Inlet velocity triangle s . 71
5 Influenc e of prerotat ion on Mw 1 t and M2 , for
differen t values of PR 71
6 Inlet guide vane losses 72 
7 Geometry of centrifu gal compres sor rotor 73
8 Influenc e of blade blockage on inlet velocity
triangle . . . . 73
9 Influenc e of RV on Mw 1 t 74
10 Influenc e of RPM on Mw t 74
1
11 Influenc e of a 1 on Mw 1 t 75
12 Influenc e of R1 h on Mw 1 t 75
13 Adjustm ent of RV . . . . 76
14 Adjustm ent of RPM 76
15 Influenc e of wall curvatur e on boundary
layer developm ent . . . . . . . . . . 77
16 Influenc e of OR on compres sor efficien cy 77
17 Comparis on of diffusio n performa nces of rotating
inducers and stationa ry diffuser s ... 78
18 Influenc e of DR and Mw 1 t on compres sor
efficien cy nc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
19 Eckardt 's impelle r elliptic al profile approxi
mation of a real impeller . ... 79
20 Elliptic al profile approxim ation of a
real impeller ...... . 80
21 Geometr ical model for separati on 81
22 Impeller blade shape . . . . 82
23 Flow angle variatio n . . . . 82
24 Meridion al velocity profile 83
25 Separati on section geometry 83
26 Jetwake model . . . . . . . 84
27 Tangent ial equilibr ium at impeller outlet 85
28 T,S diagram of impeller flow . . . . .. 86
29 Inf~u~~ce .of . v = W2 w/W 2 j on the wake width £ 2 and
dn the wake mass flow A
30 Influenc e of v = W2 w/W 2 j on the impeller
efficien cy . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
31 Influenc e of the impeller width b 2 on
the losses. . .... 88
32 Jetwake velocity triangle s . . 89
33 Disc friction coeffici ent eM versus axial gap S 90
34 T,S diagram of the impeller outlet state 91
35 Pressure fluctuat ions in the vaneless space . 92
36 Mixing process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
37 Vaneless diffuse r boundary layer developm ent 95
38 Vaned island diffuser geometry . . . 95
39 Diffuser channel geometry . . . 96
40 Calculat ion of diffuser leading edge state 96
41 Diffuser throat blockage versus actual static
pressure recovery from leading edge to throat 97
42 Channel pressure recovery versus AR and L/W . 97
43 Maximum pressure recovery versus aspect ratio AS
and throat blockage B 98
44 Dump d.iffusio n process 98
 1 
INTRODUCTrON
Ns = RPM·v Q ( 2. 1)
6H ~
equation :
( 2. 2)
( 2 . 3)
1/K K1
y2 K Po K K Po
+ p = ( 2. 5)
2 K1 Po K1 Po
[p: l
2 .
dv! Vaslnet det
1 + + 1 ~ = 0 ( 2. 6)
2
2cos et dR cos et dR
3 dR
Po
As the flow between the inlet plenum and the IGV is isentropic,
we have
( 2. 7)
Introducing ( 2 . 7 ) in ( 2. 6) gives
2
1 dVa

2
 + 2tget det + 2 sin et = 0 ( 2. 8)
v2 dR dR R
a
 7 
( 2 . 10 )
R1 t
Q=
J a1 R
sin
2
a
2 1TR dR ( 2 . 11 )
R1 h
Q(1+cos 2a)
( 2 . 12 )
1+cos 2a 1+cos2a
21T(Rlt Rlh
 8 
(2.13)
K
K=T
t::l
(2.14)
P1 = Po
_1_
K1
t::l
(2.15)
P1 = Po
K (2.16)
v = 
u R
vu K (2.17)
tana = =
= 0 (2.18)
The axial flow component is thus constant over the blade height
and can be determined by the continuity equation :
(2.19)
 9 
Vu = K R ( 2. 20)
(2.21)
2 _2_ da + 2sin 2 a = 0
( 2. 22)
R tana dR R
cl ~ina
R= for a > 0 (2.23)
}1+sin2a
(2.24)
The losses in the IGV are very small compared with the
losses in other parts of the compressor, and can normally be
 10 
In this way the rotor has been devided into two parts
which are treated separate ly :
the inducer flow (1 + SEP),
 the impeller flow (SEP + 2)
When the flow enters the wheel, the free fronta l area is
reduced by the presenc e of the blades . This involve s a flow can
t r a c t i o n wh i c h · c h a nge s t he v e 1 o c i t y t r i a n g 1 e s by a c c e 19" a t i ng t h e
axial velocit y compon ent from Va to V~ {Fig. 8). The relativ e
flow angle s 1 will be turned over an angle ik 81 to the new value
s~. If the influen ce of the blade curvat ure is neglec ted, then
the optimum sl has to be equal to the geomet ric blade angle slbl.
I
tan i ks (3. 1)
1
dz ( 3. 2)
= 1 
= s1 = s1  ik 81 ( 3 . 3)
e1bl
( 3. 4)
( 3. 5)
( 3. 6)
I
The velocity VI is
(3 . 7)
( 3. 8)
The new static tempera ture T~ can be derived from the energy
equation , when acceptin g that no work has been done on the fluid
during the contrac tion.
( 3. 9)
p; = p1 [~:} (3.10)
I
PI
p1 = I (3.11)
RGTl
dz (3.12)
=
The rotational speed RPM, the prerotation angle a 1 and the inducer
hub radius R1 h are taken as input parameters. The sonic velocity
a 1 is :
 15 
Fo r a un ifo rm in le t flo
w wi th co ns ta nt pr er ot
at io n, fo llo wi ng
eq ua tio ns ar e va lid
21rRPM
ul t = R1 t
60
m
.
vl a = 2
kBl lr( Rl tR2lh )P l
In ou r mo de l, th e in du
ce r hub and tip ra di i
ar e ta ke n to ge th er
in one pa ra m et er RV =
The in du ce r tip re la tiv R1 h/ R1 t·
e Mach number Mw t can
as a fu nc tio n of th e fo 1 al so be ex pr es se d
llo wi ng pa ra m et er s
or
M
W1t
=
1
a1 l . rt•RPM
1
m
2 1
kB 1r p1 R1 h(  1 )
RV2
60
Rl h _
RV
m
2
tg a 1
k 1rP1R1h ( 1 1 )
81 RV 2
1'
( 3 . 13 )
In fig ur e 9 th is eq ua tio n i s pl ot te d ve rs us RV fo r
RPM = 16 000
Th is gr ap h pr es en ts a
minimum va lu e of Mw t
hu b tip ra di us ra tio RV 1 = .85 fo r an in du ce r
= .6 . At th e le ft of th is
sm al le r va lu es of RV, po in t, fo r
th e Mach number M
~J l t w ill in cr ea se , du e to
 16 
3.3.2.1 ~diu~tme~t_of ~v
blade and the existenc e of a relative flow vortex 2w can dece
l~rate the flow on the pressure side to negative values, so that
return flow and a potentia l separati on bubble can occur on the
pressure side. The last possibi lity is not consider ed in our
method because this should be avoided by a good blade to blade
design.
 19 
Definition:
0<~~.!.
3
(3.14)
3.4.2.3 fl~w_a~gle_v~ria!io~
Definition
s = s b1
(~ .!.)
s = 8 b 1 ; f 3
(s2 ·s 2bl) .!.< ~ ~ 'IT ( 3 . 15 )
'IT
 3 2
6
 22 
{3.16)
rl k m.1 ( n  .!!!.
2b
)+k mJ. .!!!.]
2b
wm = 'W
m.1 e
(3.17)
with km > 0
km. +km.
b( 1 J)
2
(3.18)
= ~~
m. e
J
 23 
shroud shroud
w cos (s ) (3.19)
msep sep
(3.21)
3.4.3.2 fo~s!a~t_r~t~alPl
2 2
WliWsep,i kinetic energy drop according to the variation of
+
2 velocity. This term is strongly dependent on the
inducer design.
3.4.3.3 ~t~tlc_p~e~s~r~
IS
p . (3.23)
sep,1
Psep,i (3.25)
Psep,i =
3.4.3.5 ~o~n~a!y_l~y!r_c~l£ula!i~n
The loss coefficient w.1 nd and the boundary layer blo
ckage o * are calculated by an approximated boundary layer cal
culation as explained by A. Sarmento in refe ence 14.
The momentum integral equation
 25 
8
x+~x (3.26)
.265 1.56ll:f
cf = .246 Re e (3.27)
1
'w dS = J 2
p cf ~J2 dS (3.30)
s.1n d
with Sind : the total wall surface of the inducer.
The loss coefficient wind is then :
~0
Fr
Pind
wind = (3.31)
2
1
Plw~ 1 A A
Plwlssep
2 2
0
with llPind the total pressure loss in the inducer
I
5 sep the area of the separation section.
 26 
3.4.3.6 fo~tln~i!Y
msep,1. = p
sep,1.W sep,1.(21rR sep,1.b sep,1.coss sep,1
.z·b sep,1.(d+o*))
~
.
m . ( 3.33)
i sep,1
n n1
n+1 R R
sep sep (m n m)
Rsep = .n n1 sep (3.34)
mseplflsep
(3.36)
The mass flow in the wake is not zero and has been characteri zed
as a percentage of the total mass flow '
.
.A. = mw. (3.37)
m
.
mw is developed by secondary flows and by "tip leakage".
 28 
v = (3.38)
(3.39)
Energy equation
= wsepw2j + u2usep (3 : 40)
2 2
Tsep' Wsep' Usep are the mass mean values of Tsep,i' Wsep,i'
usep,i•
 29 
Model equation Constant relative Mach number along the jet flow
(3.41)
Gas equation
P2 J·
p 2.
J
= (3.42)
( 3. 43)
IS 1 •2
P2·J = P2 ·
J
 wjet Psep wsep (3.45)
2
{3.46)
The wake flow takes only into account the separation losses.
(a) The friction loss coefficient wfr
wfr is estimated by means of hydraulic diameters of and
length between the separation section and the rotor outlet
2 2
1r(Rsep,?Rsep,6)
Z COS<j>
Area 4
D = 4 ~
hsep Contour sep
z cos<P
(3.47)
21rR 2 b 2
z (1£2)
Area ~ 4 (3.48)
h2 . =
D 4
J Contour 2j 2·21TR2
{l£2)+2b2
z
(~ <P)
2 (3.49)
L
hsep,2j 1
cos( 8 sep,3 +8 2,b )
2
( 3. 50)
(3.51)
(3.52}
~ =
v"A
2log [ k
3 • 7 Dh
+ 2.51 l
Re\/ A
(3.53)
cf = (3.54)
4
.0625
2log( k )]11}2
Re 3.7Dh u (3.55)
2
w
0
cl Rlt 2 u2
cl = 2.43 (1  )
w2
{3.56)
b2 R2 sep
Energy equation
•2 2 2 •2
= wsepw2w + u2usep ( 3 • 57 )
2 2
(3.58)
Gas equation
(3.59)
P2w =
we define
P2,er+P2,sh
p2. = (3.61)
J 2
P2,Sh+P2,SUC
P2w = (3.62)
2
The inertial forces in the jet, which are acting upon a flow
particle with mass dm, are
t
Fcor,j = 2dm n W2j (3.63)
t
Fcentr,j = dm n2 R2 ( 3. 64)
t
F re 1 , n, J. (3.65)
t
Frel,t,j = (T = time) (3.66)
t t t t
F + Fcor,J. ,u + Fre l ,n,j ,u + Fcen t r,J. ,u + Fre l , t ,J. ,u = 0 (3.67)
= P~ ~
[ ~]
au j
2
J
COS82.
J
(2nW 2
J
. (3.68)
(3.69)
1 21TR 2 (1e 2 }
= P2j +
2 z [~].J (3.71)
[:~] w
(3.72)
[~] w
(3.73)
" "
= Tsep + Tsep + (3.74)
(3.76)
.
n m
:::: (3.77)
(3.78)
 JS 
p2 • ( 3. 79)
J
(3.80)
From this figure we can see that the wake flow suffers
an important entropy increase, which results in heavy losses for
the mean flow.
3.5.5 lnflY~~~~Qf~b~Q~r~m~~~r~
Q~i~e~ll~r_E~rf2r~2~£~
(3.81)
1v
with
.
m (3.82)
c = ~ ~
v ~ c (3.83)
A~
v 1C
(3.84)
1v C
b) Wake flow
IS
s,s T2 w  Tsep
nwake =
T2 w  Tsep
K1
r
= Tsep
[~::J  1
s 's A
=> nwake  A,B independ ent on v ( 3. 85)
B+(1v 2 )
c) Mean flow
K=.1
IS K
s,s T2 mn T sep
nmean = =
Tsep rP2mn]  1
T2mn T sep T2 mn T sep lPsep
 38 
s,s A'
=> nmean ~   AI ' BI indepen dent of v (3.86)
B'+A(l v2)
(3.88)
3.6.1 Ib~~liQ_f~£~Qr_g_fQr_~j~~
~~Q~~~~£Q~fig~r~~iQ~
The ratio
Vu2
J.l = 00
(3.90)
vu 2
is ca 11 ed s 1 i p factor.
 40 
1 (3.91)
~ =
n COS82bl
1 + ~
2 R2 +R2
z(1 lh lt)
2
2R 2
( 3. 92)
z"7
(3.93)
v2.J = Jw~.J 2
+ u2 + 2U 2W2 jsin8 2 j (3.94)
The relation between the relative flow angle 8 and the blade angle
8bl is deduced from figure 32, and is given as a function of
the slip factor~ by the following equations, for jet and wake
respectively
(1  __!_)] {3.96)
~·
J
(3.97)
(1  1) (3.98)
~w
or
llw = (3.99)
tana 2 j
~ + (tana 2wtana 2 j)
j
The absolute flow angles of jet and wake are related to the
relative flow angles by (Fig. 32)
U2+W 2wsins 2
(3.100)
W2wCOS(3 2
 42 
= U2+W 2 jsinS 2
{3.101)
w2jcoss2
(3.102)
(3.103)
2 n RPM
60
cp~T 0
1
6H 0 = 00
= (1>.)U 2 v . V
J u2j
+>.U 2 v Voo  l(
w u2w ~~
\(R)U 1 (R)Vu (R)dR
1
lh
The integral rerm, however, drops out in case of an axial flow
at the rotor inlet.
After some transformations, this equation can be written as :
R1t
U1 ( R) V1 ( R}
. J ,;, (R)
K1
m ao ao
sinadR) dR (3.104)
R1h
 43 
(3.106)
(3.107)
Re = (3.108)
The value of em is given in table 1 (Refs. 20, 21) as a function
of axial gap (s/R 2 )and the limiting Reynolds numbers for the
four flow regimes.
E (3.109)
4.2.2.1  11 friction
Wa 
The friction force of the jet against the wall is pro
portional to the square of the absolute velocity
2
1' •
J
= 1 cf P v.
J
with cf = cf(Re, _l_) ( 4. 1 )
2 Dh
to this, the wake flow will disapp ear very soon, in contra st
with station ary separa ted bounda ry layers . Figure 35 is repre
senting this pressur e fluctua tion q.
( 4. 6)
1 + 1 db
+ _1 _dp + 1 de +  1 dWw tgs ds =o (4. 7)
R b dR p dR e dR Ww dR dR
db takes
Remark : the term dR into accoun t a variati on of the width
b of the vanele ss space at the impell er di~charge.
The left hand term of this equatio n represe nts the variati on of
angula r momentum of the jet between the radii R and R+dR. The
first right hand side term gives the influen ce of the wall fric
tion, the second of the shear stresse s between jet and wake,
and the third one of the tangen tial compon ents of the pressur e
forces .
 48 
2
+ cMzbR(WjWw) tge+zbR ~ ( 4. 9)
p
(4.10)
2
cMz(W J.w w) =o (4.11)
4.2.3.6 ln~r~y_e~u~tio~
v~
T + (1A) _J_+A = est
dT ( 1 A )
dV. dV w
+ v . _ J +  A vw =0 (4.13)
dR J dR dR
cp cp
dV.
v. _J
(4.14)
J dR
dV
w
(4.15)
~ 50 
The nonun iformit y of the flow at the impelle r outlet gives rise
to supplem entary losses , which usually are called mixing losses 11 11
•
This denomi nation sugges ts that these losses are due to shear
stresse s between jet and wake  the shear frictio n coeffic ient
eM is about 20 times larger than the wall frictio n coeffic ient
cf . Nevert heless, calcul ations have shown that the influen ce
of shear frictio n losses on the mixing losses is almost negli
gible compar ed with the wall frictio n losses. The reason is that
the surfac e, where wall frictio n applie s to, is much larger as
well as the velocit y differe nce :
(4.16)
with cf .005
~
eM .094.
~
The real origin of the mixing losses .. is connec ted with the
11
0 0 1 A
lis introdu ced to take into accoun t the progre ssive uniform i
iation of jet and wake.
 52 
11
Rotating stall" can also occur in vaneless diffusers _
(Refs. 25, 26, 27). Due to the influence of the adverse pressure
gradient, the wall boundary layers are deflected in a more tan
gential direction than the main flow. When the mass flow is suf
ficiently reduced, it can happen that the radial velocity compo
nent in the boundary layer becomes negative at some place along
the diffuser wall (Fig. 37). According to Senoo et al. (Ref. 30),
this incident is the trigger for the developme nt of a circum
ferentiall y periodic stall pattern.
 53 
6. Genera l geomet ry
this diffuse r type, we see that the diffusi on top angle 2a and
the number of vanes can be choosen indepe ndently . Usually between
6 and 20 vanes are used, and the length to throat width ratio is
between 7 and 18.
In the semi vane less spac e, two diffe rent flow proc es
ses take place :
a) a rapid adjus tmen t of the isoba rs from nearl y para
llel .to per
pend icula r to the flow dire ction .
Dean (Ref. 34) sugg ests that this happ ens by means of
a syste m
of weak obliq ue shock wave s.
 56 
Note : if the leading edge conditi ons are subson ic, it is obvious
that the rapid adjustm ent is achieve d withou t shock waves. In our
model, we state that the throat conditi ons are equal to those
at the leading edge for subson ic flow.
6.2.3.1 fr~s~u!e_r~c~v!rl
( 6 .1)
( 6. 2)
This relatio n is calcula ted in the same way as for the impell er
wall frictio n (cfr § 3.5.2) , using an explic it form of the impli
cit formula of Colebro ok & White (eq. 3.55).
The calcul ation of the channe l efficie ncy is based on Traupel
(Ref. 40)
1
2 1
(6.4)
AR
1+1.2c f  
2tge
 1 ( 6. 5)
 58 
0
2 Ts
= / ( 6. 6)
!~1
Ms (   1)
Ts
0
Since the diffuser is adiabat ic, the total tempera ture T remains
constan t from the impeller outlet :
0 0 0
T5 = T2 = T0 + ~H (6 . 7)
0
The total pressure Ps is then
K
0
Ps = Ps
Ts
[T~l~ ( 6. 8)
L = v = v ( 6. 9)
a*
For this calcula tion, the Laval number L6 after dump is fixed.
The area ratio A6 /As required to perform this diffusio n can be
calculat ed from :
 59 
A ~2+a3
~ =1  a +  (6.10)
As cq
with
2k 2
1 +  Ls
k+1
a =
k:1 2
1  Ls
k+1
1  k1 2
Ls
al = k+1
Ls
1  k1 2
L6
=
k+1
a2
L6
=
2k
a3 L6
k+1
1
rr
2
0 1  k1 Ls
p6 k+1 Ls As
=  (6.11)
p~ 2
1  k1 L6 L6 A6
k+1
( 6 . ..!. 2)
(6.13)
P. = p~ t~rl (6.14)
 61 
REFERENCES
and
2
dW w c v ZCM (Uj~~w)
!~ = Rn 2 W w f w (Rnsini3+Ww)+ (A2)
p dR dR bcoss 21r R £ cos 2 13
(A3)
sinS[(l<)W;+oW~l2Rn[(!o)Wj+<Wwl b:::B[(l<)(RG+WjsinS)Vj
+E(Rn+Wwsins)vw) (A4)
dT +
dR
(A5)
dW . d\~
1 d = .!. dp + (1A) (WjH6Rsin6) _ J +  A w
(~JwH6Rsins)
p dR p dR c pT dR cpT dR
(A6)
2rr Re
cm 1
•5 I R2 s .25
s Re Re 3.8log ()2.4 ()
R2 k R2
TABLE 1
 68 
M
B .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
cp
TABLE 2
COLLECTOR ·CHANNEL
MIXING REGION
SEPARATION
IMPELLER TIP
INLET
PLENUM
INDUCER
~llad
0
v ~
~
v
,)
10 ...........
20
30 I "" r....
leO I
50 , I
Mw1t Ns
1.6 J++~+++:,..ooq_+l
\1. ~4+~~~~r~+~
1.2 ~++.Jt£..,.A~:....___+++1
tO ~~~~~~4~~~4~
~~~n+~~++b~+~
Q6 ~~r+~~++~~+
~ J~~~~++~+~l
0 2 1.. 6 8 10 12 11.. 16 18
PR
VALUES OF Ns
 71 
 WI TH OU T I.G.V
 W IT H I.G.V
1.6 1 +  + +   + + 
=, 0 •  4   
1
a1=3o•
1.1. ~4~+~~~~~~~~,<X1Q 2=o;0o
=o· ~
PR =12
PR =10
1.2 tt+~~~~:.__,
.£:1 =
PR 8    +   1
0.6 rr+++
+++~
I
....
N
I
i •~
0
~
0
('t)
0
LO
0
t ' 0'1
0
r
j_ 0~
....
I
I
I
I
z
~ 0 <J 0 <>O
~ ·~
....
0
(f)
r ~ en
i
I
' 1\
'\
 r· r ·  r  1   ·
I <(
0..
z
co
\
(/)
I
1\ 0
LO
\ ~ 0 U)
~ z
1\ (f)
I ~
0 <J <( 
.. LO
\
~
0
~ I ('t) (f)
0
0
...  .3 w
(f)
'[h en z 0
~
(/)
0
~ . ('t)
...J
\ 1
0'
r
N
w
z
~
'1 l
I If
~ I ~
!J
<;
0

0

w
0
:::>
(!)
......
I I I
LLJ
...J
/ I N z
1
I
/
/ L_ I
('t) (,()
~ L
I
~
~
b _d .3 (!)
I
v 0
0 LO
I
I
u.
N
N
0
0
N
0
co
....
0
U)
0
~
~
0
N
0

0
0
0
co
0
0 0
U)
0
0 0
.3
0
0
N
0
0 0
0
0
0 ci 0 ci 0 0 0 0 0 0
 73 
~2 bl
Separat1on section

FIG. 7 GEOMETRY OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR ROTOR.
F IG . 8 INFLUENCE OF BLADEBLOCKAGE ON
INLET VELOCITY TRIANGLE .
 74 
~·
1.4
~
1\ I
1.3
\ I
. 1.2 .~ I
\ I
1.1
v
1.0
0.9
0.8
"" ~
.85  ,...~

/~
·~ _.,..,r
Rv
0.7
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
FIG. 9 INFLUENCE OF R V ON Mw 1t
Mw,t
1.6
1.5 r+r+~~1 =00
R 1h =. 04
1.4
1.3
RPM= 18000
I
1.2 PM= 16 000
I
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
1.5
1.' JtJ.>r + 1
RPM=16000
R1H=.O '
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
FIG. 11  INFLUENCE OF a1 ON Mw 1t
1.5
,,
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
Q
1.5
1.1.
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9 1T71:X~~;:;;b.~~~l___tl
0.8 kr;;::::::r~~=tf'l1+..., M~t max +~
0.7
RPM=16000
CX1= 0
0.6 ~~ Rlh~~~+~
FIG . 13  ADJUSTMENT OF R V
Mwlt
1. 5 .~r,.r.,
RPM =18000
1., X
RV:.6
1.3 a 1=0.
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
2
aCENTR = !!_
Rc
Rc : RADIUS OF CURVATURE
SURFACE
90
80
70
60
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 DR
OR
2.5
~DIFFUSERS OF
CENTRIFUG AL
COMPRESSORS
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5 1.0 1.5
l) c( .,.)
~ ~~......
Cpd=·7
PR =10 :1
70
DR
so~~~~~~~~~~~
1.2 1.6 1.8 2.0
EFFICIENC Y l) C
 79 
...
Rlt
=.706
R2
Rlh =.32
Rlt
b /R =. 125
2
=.83
 .......~
+
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
'
   REAL PROFILE ' "'
'
    ELLIPTICAL PROFILE ' ~
APPROXIMATION
Dax
.,I
t
~1 bl
h
~bl
I
_____ _____ _ L _ 
~bl I
I
~~ t  ~~
1
I
2 lt
3
~ bl ( 60°)
~bl l
   
~2 /I
/
/
_/  I

~2bt ,......, I
~~~~ II
~bl I
2
Tt/6
f3 bl ( 30°)
     FLOW ANGLE
RsEP
2 bl
T
P2w
T2w
T2mn
T2 .
rfmn
~ ,.
PsEP
TIS
2W
.
TsEP
s
.9 J
.8
;I
.7
/I I
h ~l}
[// ,1/ C:.7
.6 : C=.7
£2/ ' I 1/j
.5 ../ I
v_..~ v~A
.4
,..., .... "'
........ ) I //' II
: ~2} C=9
.3 ...• II e:~ )VI C=.9
.2
~ )
,,/ /
"'
/~ I
.1
I
•/
~~ /v
__.......~~/_..:~~ ~
0 .1 .2 .3 .1. .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1. v
.8
~
~
~
ss~ r_
.7 ll MEAN
~
.6
~
c =. 7 B =2.2
A = 1.3
B" = 5.1
1\' = L. .1
.5
ss
l) WAKE ___4 ~
""
I
c =·1
.3
.1 .2 .3 .5 .6 .7 v
LOSSES
\
\\
\\ TOTAL
\\ LOSSES /
\\ /
~ //
~~ . /~SEPARATION LOSSES
" ~ ~ /
CLEARAN CE LOSSES I
~~ .J__J=!_~ION LOSSES
    ~2/R2
( b2/R 2 ) opt
,
VrJ 1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
U21
I
1V2w
I
I I
   ~~~
Vu 2. Vu2.
J J
Cm 10 4
5
i
\ i
3
\ __, x·


/
""...
I
,
!C"::._
Re =10"'
/_, I .
\ I
2
=106
1.0 ~
/1
>1 
Re
Re =10?
~ Re = 10
9
 
, . . '"II:;"
I I
0
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
T SEP
/
/
/
0
•
 93 
1.2
1.1
1.0
.9
Vwtu2
.8
.7
.6
.5
. ' FrG . 36 A
.3
.2 e:
'A
. 1
85
1.1
I 1.15 1.2 1.25 RIR2
80 a·J
75
70
FIG. 36 B
65
(Rt2 l M ~
( R/R )
2 N
60
1.0 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 RJR 2
 94 
1.2
1.1
IP'W/p•
1.0 w2
.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
. I.
.3
FIG. 36 c
.2
.,
, 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 RfR2
T~ T2
1.2 Ti T2
1.1
ro
1.0
Tj T2
.9
Ti T2
.8
.7
T  T2
.6
•5
. I.
.3 FIG. 36 0 
.2
.1
'
( R/R2)M (tRz)M
 95 
*DIVER GENT
CHANNEL
I
I
,~THROAT
,' SECTION
I
I
*SEMIV ANELE SS
 _SPAC E
   ...._ SUCTION
* VANELESS ...._ " SIDE
SPACE .........
. 
............
...........
...........
AR =OUTLET AREA
INLET AREA
As= b/w
MIXING IINVERSED
PROCESS ONE DIM..........
~___,.,_____

VANELESS
DtFFUSOR
CP=
.82
I. .o ttt+ t+YTvtfIT *:II't . 81
.80
.79
.78
.77
~'+1"7
+++ .76
2.s r+r~rr7"17rvr::r==l==:t:=::t. . 1 1.
28= 15
++~+ .7 2
11.
13 +1+i~ .7 0
2.0 12
11
10
1. 75 9
8
6
I. 6

AS=1 .0, M:.6 I 8: . 02
Cpmax
.78
.71.
.70
.66
.64
.6
.25 1 5 AS
I
~~
~ l
I
AslMs JP6)
I _.,
I
I
I
' 