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von KARMAN INSTITUTE

FOR FLUID DYNAMICS

TECHNICAL NOTE 129

ONE DIMENSIONAL VESIGN OF CENTRIFUGAL


COMPRESSORS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT FLOW
SEPARATION IN THE IMPELLER
TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT DELFT
LUCHTVAART· Er~ RUIMTEVAARTTECHNIEK
BIBUOTHEEK
K!uyverweg 1 - 2629 HS DELFT

'7 JAN. 1988

P. FRIGNE & R. VAN DEN BRAEMBUSSCHE

JUNE 1 9 79

~A~
-~0~- RHODE SAINT GENESE BELGIUM
~vw
YON KARMAN INSTITUTE FOR FLUID DYNAMICS
TURBOMACHINERY DEPARTMENT
CHAUSSEE DE WATERLOO~ 72
B - 1640 RHODE SAINT GENESE~ BELGIUM

TECHNICAL NOTE 129

ONE DIMENSIONAL VESIGN OF CENTRIFUGAL


COMPRESSORS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT FLOW
SEPARATION IN THE IMPELLER

P. FRIGNE* & R. VAN DEN BRAEMBUSSCHE

JUNE 1978

* NAVORSINGSSTAGIAIR VAN HET I.W.O.N.L.

TUT 7902/PF-RVDB/NT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Summary . . . . i
List of Symbols ii
List of Figures . . . v
Introduction 1

CHAPTER 1 - BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FLOW THROUGH


A CENTRIFUGAL MACHINE . 2
CHAPTER 2 - INLET GUIDE VANES (IGV) 4
2.1 Purpose of IGV . . . . . . . . 4
2.2 Isentropic calculation of IGV . 6
2.2.1 Constant prerotation IGV 7
2.2.2 Free vortex IGV . . 8
2.2.3 Forced vortex IGV . 9
2.3 Calculation of IGV losses 9
CHAPTER 3 - THE ROTOR . 11
3.1 General geometry 11
3.2 The inlet blockage 12
3.3 Determination of the inducer hub and tip radii 14
3.3.1 Determination of the inducer hub radius 14
3.3.2 Determination of the inducer tip radius 14
3.4 The inducer flow . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.4.1 Physical model and diffusion ratio 18
3.4.2 Geometrical model . . . . . . 20
3.4.3 Flow equations . . . . . . . 22
3.4.4 Calculation of the separation point 26
3.5 The impeller flow . . . . . . . . 27
3.5.1 Real flow effects . . . . . 27
3.5.2 Flow equations for the jet 28
3.5.3 Flow equations for the wake 32
3.5.4 The energetical value of jet and wake flow 34
3.5.5 Influence of the parameter von
impeller performance ..... . 36
3.5.6 Influence of the impeller outlet width b 38
3.6 The impeller outlet tip 39
3.6.1 The slip factor~ for a jet and wake configuration 39
3.6.2 Equations for the impeller outlet flow 40
3.6.3 The impeller work equation 42
3.7 Disc friction . . . . . 43

SHAPTER 4 - THE MIXING PROCESS 45


4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . 45
4.2 Theoretical computation of the mixing zone of a jet-
wake flow, taking into account the compressibil ity
of the fluid . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2.1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2.2 Forces acting upon the jet and the wake 46
4.2.3 Equations for the mixing process 47
4.2.4 Solution of the equations for the mixing process 50
4.3 Results of the theoretical computations 50

CHAPTER 5 -VANELESS DIFFUSERS 52


5.1 Application field . 52
5.2 5.1.1 Advantages 52
5.1.2 Disadvantages 52
5.2 Computation method 53

CHAPTER 6 - VANED ISLAND DIFFUSERS 54


6.1 General geometry . . . . 54
6.2 Computation method . . . ~4

6.2.1 The vaneless space 55


6.2.2 Semi-vaneles s space 55
6.2.3 The divergent channel 56
6.3 Dump diffusion 58

REFERENCES 61
APPENDIX - SOLUTION OF THE EQUATIONS FOR
THE MIXING PROCESS 65
TABLES 67

FIGURES 69
SUMMARY

A one dimensional computation method for the design


of a centrifugal compressor is developed, which takes into
account various real flow effects, such as flow separation in
the impeller, jet-wake mixing in the vaneless space, transonic
vaned diffuser performance and diffuser outlet dump diffusion.

Several numerical examples are worked out in detail,


to show the influence of different important geometrical and
aerodynamical parameters on the compressor performances.

This approach is also the one used for a VKI computer


program COMRAD.
- ;i -

LIST OF SYMBOLS

A geometric area
AR area ratio
a sonic speed
a* critical speed
b axial width
cf wall friction coefficient
eM jet-wake shear friction coefficient
em disc friction coefficient
cP specific heat
cp static pressure recovery
0 ax impeller axial length
DR diffusion ratio
Dh hydraulic diameter
d impeller blade thickness
E energy
'
friction force
total enthalpy o*
form factor (=-e)
static enthalpy
absolute wall roughness
blockage factor
curvature
Laval number
r~ach number

relative Mach number


.
m mass flow
Ns specific speed (Balje)
PR pressure ratio
p static pressure
q inducer blade blockage :
q pressure fluctuation in vaneless space
Q inlet volume flow
R radius
Rc radius of curvature
RG gas constant
RPM rotational speed
- ii i -

RV inducer hub to tip radius ratio


s axial gap behind impeller disc
s entropy
s surface
T static tempera ture
u circumf erential speed
v absolute velocity
w relative velocity
z number of impelle r blades

absolute flow angle


8 relative flow angle
o* displace ment thicknes s
impeller blade clearanc e
e: wake width
eo momentum thicknes s
2e vanes diffuser angle
n adiabati c efficien cy
nss static to static efficien cy
ntt total to total efficien cy
nst static to total efficien cy
K isentrop ic exponen t
relative wake mass flow
head loss coeffic ient
)..l slip factor
\) kinemati c viscosit y
\) wake to jet relative velocity ratio
p density
T time
T shear stress
angular polar coordina te in meridion al plane
w loss total pressure loss coeffici ent
angular speed
Subscrip ts
o inlet plenum
1 inducer inlet
sep separati on section
- iv -

2 impelle r discharg e
3 diffuse r leading edge
4 diffuse r throat section
5 diffuser channel outlet
6 dump diffusio n
a absolute
h hub
j jet
m meridion al
n normal
t tip
u tangent ial
w wake
w wall
bl blade
cl clearanc e
df disc friction
diff diffuse r
fr friction
hom homogeneous
imp impelle r
i nd inducer
mn mean
pr pressure side
sh shear layer
sue suction side

Supersc ripts
0 total
is isentrop ic
mass averaged values
- v -

LIST OF FIGURES
number title page
1 Schemat ic of compres sor stage flow regions . 69
2 Balje-di agram for optimum specific speed . 70
3 Influenc e of PR on Mw t for differen t 70
values of N s . . .1. . . . . . . 70
4 Inlet velocity triangle s . 71
5 Influenc e of prerotat ion on Mw 1 t and M2 , for
differen t values of PR 71
6 Inlet guide vane losses 72 -
7 Geometry of centrifu gal compres sor rotor 73
8 Influenc e of blade blockage on inlet velocity
triangle . . . . 73
9 Influenc e of RV on Mw 1 t 74
10 Influenc e of RPM on Mw t 74
1
11 Influenc e of a 1 on Mw 1 t 75
12 Influenc e of R1 h on Mw 1 t 75
13 Adjustm ent of RV . . . . 76
14 Adjustm ent of RPM 76
15 Influenc e of wall curvatur e on boundary
layer developm ent . . . . . . . . . . 77
16 Influenc e of OR on compres sor efficien cy 77
17 Comparis on of diffusio n performa nces of rotating
inducers and stationa ry diffuser s ... 78
18 Influenc e of DR and Mw 1 t on compres sor
efficien cy nc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
19 Eckardt 's impelle r- elliptic al profile approxi-
mation of a real impeller . ... 79
20 Elliptic al profile approxim ation of a
real impeller ...... . 80
21 Geometr ical model for separati on 81
22 Impeller blade shape . . . . 82
23 Flow angle variatio n . . . . 82
24 Meridion al velocity profile 83
25 Separati on section geometry 83
26 Jet-wake model . . . . . . . 84
27 Tangent ial equilibr ium at impeller outlet 85
28 T,S diagram of impeller flow . . . . .. 86
29 Inf~u~~ce .of . v = W2 w/W 2 j on the wake width £ 2 and
dn the wake mass flow A
30 Influenc e of v = W2 w/W 2 j on the impeller
efficien cy . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
31 Influenc e of the impeller width b 2 on
the losses. . .... 88
32 Jet-wake velocity triangle s . . 89
33 Disc friction coeffici ent eM versus axial gap S 90
34 T,S diagram of the impeller outlet state 91
35 Pressure fluctuat ions in the vaneless space . 92
36 Mixing process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
37 Vaneless diffuse r boundary layer developm ent 95
38 Vaned island diffuser geometry . . . 95
39 Diffuser channel geometry . . . 96
40 Calculat ion of diffuser leading edge state 96
41 Diffuser throat blockage versus actual static
pressure recovery from leading edge to throat 97
42 Channel pressure recovery versus AR and L/W . 97
43 Maximum pressure recovery versus aspect ratio AS
and throat blockage B 98
44 Dump d.iffusio n process 98
- 1 -

INTRODUCTrON

The real flow through a radial compressor is essen-


tially three dimensional, viscous and instationary. Up to now,
there is no mathematical model which allows to predict the flow
in such a machine without neglecting some important aspects
of the problem. In fact, it would be extremely complicated both
due to the complexity of the flow and the complexity of the
boundaries of the machine.

Nevertheless, there is an urgent need for the designer


to dispose of a calculation method which allows to predict the
main characteristics of a centrifugal compressor and to inves-
tigate the influence of various parameters on the compressor
behaviour. Therefore, the calculation method has to be fast
enough to allow iterative operation, but at the same time suf-
ficiently elaborated to take into account some important flow
phenomena, such as separation, Mach number influence, boundary
layer blockage, losses, etc.

The approach described in this report is the one used


in a VKI computer program (COMRAD) to calculate the performances
and dimensions of a radial compressor, starting from mass flow,
required pressure ratio, RPM and some geometrical relations~
The method is based on the actual knowledge of real flow in a
centrifugal compressor, as described briefly in chapter 1. In
the following chapters, the flow in the different parts (IGV,
rotor, diffuser, etc.) will be described in more detail and
at the same time the equations used in the program are derived.
- 2 -

CHAPTER 1 - BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FLOW

THROUGH A CENTRIFUGAL MACHINE

A compressor can be divided into different parts,


as shown in figure 1 (Ref. 1). After being deflected by the
inlet guide vanes (IGV) the flow enters the inducer where it
is decelerated and turned into the radial direction. The pre-
sence of a radial velocity component is responsible for
coriolis forces, which together with the blade curvature ef-
fect, tends to stabilize the boundary 1 ayer at the suction side
of theinducer (Refs. 2, 3). Due to this stabilization, the
boundary layer becomes less turbulent, ~nd will easily separate
under influence of an adverse pressure gradient.

Once the flow is separated, we distinguish a high


energetic jet, with a high relative Mach number and a low
energetic wake,feeded by secondary flows. The jet can be con-
sidered as an isentrqpic core with a constant Mach number in
the flow direction (Ref. 1).

After leaving the impeller, a strong mixing takes


place between jet and wake, due to the difference in angular
momentum. This results in an intensive energy exchange and a
fast uniformization of the flow.

In case of a vaned diffuser, the flow enters the


semi-vaneless space - this is the region between the leading
edge and the throat section of the diffuser - and a rapid
adjustment rearranges the isobare pattern from parallel to
perpendicular to the flow direction. If the Mach number is
higher than 1, a shock wave system will decelerate the flow
in such a way that the throat ~ection becomes subsonic (design
condition).

In the divergent channel, a further decrease of the


velocity is realized with a subsequent increase of static
pressure. Sometimes, the boundary layers in this channel are so
- 3 -

weak that separation occurs, which limits the st~i£ pressure


rise. In case of vaneless diffusers, after the jet-wake mixing
process, the flow is further decelerated by an increase of flow
section corresponding to the radius increase and influenced by
friction on the lateral walls. Each part of the compressor
can be characterized by one or more typical parameters, p.e.,
the diffusion ratio DR for the inducer, the mass flow ratio ~
for the separated impeller flow, the pressure recovery CP for
the diffuser, etc. Their values are based on experimental data
and empirical correlations.
- 4 -

CHAPTER 2 - INLET GUIDE VANES {IGV)

2.1 Purpose of IGV

Figure 2 shows the Balje-di agram (Ref. 4), which gives


the variatio n of adiabati c compres sor efficien cy 6nad versus
the specific speed Ns :

Ns = RPM·v Q ( 2. 1)
6H ~

with Q inlet volume flow {ft 3jsec)


~H manomet er height (ft)

For th~seunits, the optimum specific speed is approxim ately 120.


For an increasi ng pressure ratio, PR, at constan t value of the
specific speed and inlet volume flow, the inducer relative tip
Mach number Mw 1 t will increase too. This variatio n has been
calculat ed by Dean (Ref. 1) for differen t values of Ns (Fig. 3).
From this figure, it can be seen that for the
speed Ns = 100, the critical value Mw 1 t = 1 will already be
reached for PR =4, while for a 8:1 compres sor this relative
tip Mach number will be as high as 1.4.

The superson ic Mach number will not only give rise


to strong shock losses, but will also induce early flow separa-
tion, which results in very high losses. A possible solution
for this problem consists in reducing the specific speed Ns by
lowering the RPM (Fig. 3). This has of course its influenc e
on the rotor design. The impelle r channels will be longer and
more narrow, which involves addition al shroud leakage , friction
losses and seconda ry flows, with a subsequ ent efficien cy drop.
Another possibi lity is to make use of preswirl vanes. This can
be explaine d by means of velocity triangle s (Fig. 4).

A turning of the flow in the directio n of rotation


results in a noticeab le decrease of the relat i ve velocity
compone nt and relative flow angle. When lookin~ to the Euler
- 5 -

equation :

( 2. 2)

we remark a decrease of rotor-wor k, due to the fact that the


inlet tangentia l velocity is no longer zero. Consequen tly, an
increase of the rotor diameter will be necessary to hold the
same pressure ratio. However, the impeller outlet Mach number
will increase too. This mechanism is shown in figure 5.
We see that for a PR equal to 6, and the inlet flow prerotatio n
varying from 0° to 40°, the inducer tip Mach number will de-
crease from .9 to .7, while the impeller outlet Mach number
increases from 1.1 to 1.2. Roughly, as long as

( 2 . 3)

IGV are efficient .


It can be seen from figure 5 that this condition will be ful-
filled for a 1 < 30° (Ns = 70).
For higher values of PR, the increase of M2 will be more im-
portant than the decrease of M~ t when prerotatio n becomes
1
greater than 30°. The range of IGV is thus limited by an optimi-
zation of the Mach number dependent lo~ses in wheel and diffuser.

In conclusion it can be said that IGV provide an addi-


tional degree of freedom in determinin g the relative Mach number
at the inducer tip.

For an investiga tion of the influence of compresso r


inlet adjustable guide vanes for the control of single shaft
gas turbines, we refer to reference 5. This study shows that
the use of a variable prewhirl control to produce rated power
under a wide range of ambient condition s is very promising ,
helping the designer to meet specificat ions otherwise impos-
sible to meet.
- 6 -

2.2 Isentropic calculation of IGV

We consider a compressor with a straight inlet channel


wherein the flow is uniform. The IGV modifie this velocity
distribution by creating a tangential velocity component Vu.
The radial equilibrium at the outlet of the IGV can be expres-
sed as
2
}_ ~ = vu ( 2. 4)
p dR R

The equation of Barre de Saint-Venant gives a relation between


p, V, p 0 and Po

1/K K-1
y2 K Po K K Po
+ p =-- ( 2. 5)
2 K-1 Po K-1 Po

When this equation is differentiated and substituted in (2.4),


together with relations deduced from the velocity triangles,
we obtain
1/K

[p: l
2 .
dv! Vaslnet det
1 --+ + 1 ~ = 0 ( 2. 6)
2
2cos et dR cos et dR
3 dR
Po

As the flow between the inlet plenum and the IGV is isentropic,
we have

( 2. 7)

Introducing ( 2 . 7 ) in ( 2. 6) gives

2
1 -dVa
-
2
- + 2tget det + 2 sin et = 0 ( 2. 8)
v2 dR dR R
a
- 7 -

Equation (2.8) allows to calculate the Va(R)-distrib ution that


corresponds to a given a(R)-distrib ution. In what follows, this
is done for three ..different typical prewhirl models, which are
avai l able as options for program COMRAD.

This type of IGV has already been used and experimental


results are available (Refs. 6, 7).
Substitution of da = 0 in eq. (2.8) gives :
dR
2
1 dV a . 2
-2 - - + 2 Sln a = 0 (2. 9)
V dR R
a

Equation (2.9) can be integrated

( 2 . 10 )

The coefficient a 1 can be deduced from the volume flow equation

R1 t
Q=
J a1 R
-sin
2
a
2 1TR dR ( 2 . 11 )
R1 h

With R1 h hub radius of IGV


R1 t tip radius of IGV

Elimination of a 1 from (2.10) and (2.11) gives the distribution


of the axial velocity component Va in function of the radius R
and the choosen prerotation angle a :

Q(1+cos 2a)
( 2 . 12 )
1+cos 2a 1+cos2a
21T(Rlt -Rlh
- 8 -

With the assumptions of isentropic and uniform flow, the values


p1 ,T1 and p 1 can be calculated as :

(2.13)

K
K=T

t::l
(2.14)
P1 = Po

_1_
K-1

t::l
(2.15)
P1 = Po

A similar method of calculation has been proposed by Vavra (Ref. 8).

A free vortex flow is defined by

K (2.16)
v = -
u R

The absolute flow angle a follows from

vu K (2.17)
tana = =

By substitution of (2.17) in (2.8), it can be shown that

= 0 (2.18)

The axial flow component is thus constant over the blade height
and can be determined by the continuity equation :

(2.19)
- 9 -

The values of p 1 , T1 , P1 can be calculated with equations (2.13),


(2.14), (2.15).

2.2.3 Forced vortex IGV


-----------------
A forced vortex flow is defined by

Vu = K R ( 2. 20)

The absolute flow angle a follows from

(2.21)

Substitution of (2.21) in (2.8) gives

2 _2_ da + 2sin 2 a = 0
( 2. 22)
R tana dR R

Integration of (2.22) yields

cl ~ina
R= for a > 0 (2.23)
}1+sin2a

The integration factor C1 can be determined by continuity

(2.24)

The values of p 1 , T1 , p1 can be calculated with equations (2.13),


(2.14), (2.15).

2.3 Calculation of IGV losses

The losses in the IGV are very small compared with the
losses in other parts of the compressor, and can normally be
- 10 -

neglected except in high deflection cases.

Figure 6 (Ref. 6) gives a qualitative sketch of the


main parameters determining the IGV losses. It can be seen that:
- The loss coefficient depends strongly upon the span.
High losses at the tip of IGV (100% span).
Negligible losses at the hub (0% span).
- Negative preswirl (opposite to the direction of rotation)
gives rise to a strong increase of the loss coefficient.
For a theoretical and quantitative loss computation, we refer
to Stewart (Ref. 9).
- 11 -

CHAPTER 3 - THE ROTOR

3.1 General geometry

Figure 7 gives the general geometry of a centrifu gal


c om pressor rotor. In our model, three importan t flow sections are
t a ken into account :
- The inlet section (1)
- The separati on section (SEP)
-The outlet section (2).
At the inlet section, the flow is axisymm etric. However , all flow
quantiti es vary with the radius R : p 1 (R), T1 (R), V1 (R), a1(R),
The relative flow is then decelera ted between the rotor blades
until separati on occurs. Due to coriolis and curvatu re effects ,
the separati on point will be located at the shroud-s uction side
intersec tion. The separati on section is defined as the cross
section through the separati on point.

In this way the rotor has been devided into two parts
which are treated separate ly :
-the inducer flow (1 + SEP),
- the impeller flow (SEP + 2)

The impeller flow can also be divided into two subflows


- the jet flow (SEP + 2J)
-the wake flow (SPE + 2W).
This division of the rotor flow into subflows is an importan t
feature in our approach , because in this way some real flow pheno-
mena can be included in the computa tions.

One of the most importan t paramete rs determin ing the


rotor losses will be the wake width £ , which is function of
2
the separati on point location . If the inducer is well designed ,
and much decelera tion can be achieved before separati on occurs,
this point will be located near to the impeller outlet, and the
wake will not develop as much. The wake width £ will be propor-
2
tionally smaller and so do the losses.
- 12 -

At the contra ry, if we have a bad induce r, and early


separa tion occurs , then the wake will grow to a large part of
the impelle r flow and the mixing process behind the wheel will
involv e very high losses with a subseq uent drop of the efficie ncy.

3.2 The inlet blockag e

When the flow enters the wheel, the free fronta l area is
reduced by the presenc e of the blades . This involve s a flow can-
t r a c t i o n wh i c h · c h a nge s t he v e 1 o c i t y t r i a n g 1 e s by a c c e 19" a t i ng t h e
axial velocit y compon ent from Va to V~ {Fig. 8). The relativ e
flow angle s 1 will be turned over an angle ik 81 to the new value
s~. If the influen ce of the blade curvat ure is neglec ted, then
the optimum sl has to be equal to the geomet ric blade angle slbl.
I

From Stanitz (Ref~ 10) we get the value of ikB : 1

tan i ks (3. 1)
1

k represe nts the procen tual free stream section


81

dz ( 3. 2)
= 1 -

with d the blade thickne ss (normal to camber )


z number of rotor blades
R radius .
The blade angle can thus -be calcula ted as
I

= s1 = s1 - ik 81 ( 3 . 3)
e1bl

The new relativ e velocit y W1 can be calcula ted as

( 3. 4)

The new axial veloci ty compon ent is


- 13 -

( 3. 5)

The absolute flow angle ai follows from

( 3. 6)

I
The velocity VI is

(3 . 7)

The absolute flow angle ai can also be calculat ed as

( 3. 8)

The new static tempera ture T~ can be derived from the energy
equation , when acceptin g that no work has been done on the fluid
during the contrac tion.

( 3. 9)

Supposin g an isentrop ic process, the static pressure PI becomes


K
K-1

p; = p1 [~:} (3.10)

The new density pI follows from the ideal gas equation

I
PI
p1 = I (3.11)
RGTl

It is importan t to notice in previous calculat ions that, since UI


varies with the radius R, all quantiti es Vl' Wl' a 1 , 81' p , T ,
1 1
and Pl are function of R.
- 14 -

3.3 Determination of the inducer hub and tip radii

The minimum hub radius R1 h . is fixed by mechanical


m1n
considerations; Two criteria hold in this case :
- The minimum hub radius can be determined by strength considera-
tions, which require a minimum sectional area for the axis to
transmit the engine torque and to avoid critical velocities.
-The minimum hub radius R1 h . can be limited by the maximum
m1n
blade blockage qmax at the hub :

dz (3.12)
=

R1 h . is often limited by the minimum shaft diameter and is


m1n
therefore used as an input parameter in our program. The cor-
responding blockage qmax is calculated.

The determination of R1 t is more complicated, because we


want to limit the relative inducer tip Mach number Mw 1 t. The
relation between these two parameters can be demonstrated with
a simple example. Suppose a centrifugal compressor for freon .
with following characteristics :
mass flow m = 2.5 kg/s
gas constant RG = 75.3 J/kg°K
isentropic exponent K = 1.136
inlet density PI = 4. kgjm3

- maximum inlet 1-k = .02


blockage 81
- inlet temperature T 1 = 283 o K

The rotational speed RPM, the prerotation angle a 1 and the inducer
hub radius R1 h are taken as input parameters. The sonic velocity
a 1 is :
- 15 -

Fo r a un ifo rm in le t flo
w wi th co ns ta nt pr er ot
at io n, fo llo wi ng
eq ua tio ns ar e va lid

21rRPM
ul t = R1 t
60

m
.
vl a = 2
kBl lr( Rl t-R2lh )P l

In ou r mo de l, th e in du
ce r hub and tip ra di i
ar e ta ke n to ge th er
in one pa ra m et er RV =
The in du ce r tip re la tiv R1 h/ R1 t·
e Mach number Mw t can
as a fu nc tio n of th e fo 1 al so be ex pr es se d
llo wi ng pa ra m et er s

or

M
W1t
=
1
a1 l . rt•RPM
1
m
2 1
kB 1r p1 R1 h( -- -1 )
RV2
60
Rl h _
RV
m
2
tg a 1
k 1rP1R1h (- 1- -1 )
81 RV 2
1'
( 3 . 13 )
In fig ur e 9 th is eq ua tio n i s pl ot te d ve rs us RV fo r

RPM = 16 000

Th is gr ap h pr es en ts a
minimum va lu e of Mw t
hu b- tip ra di us ra tio RV 1 = .85 fo r an in du ce r
= .6 . At th e le ft of th is
sm al le r va lu es of RV, po in t, fo r
th e Mach number M
~J l t w ill in cr ea se , du e to
- 16 -

the higher values of the circumferential velocity U1 t. At the


right of point M, for higher values of RV, the Mach number Mw t
1
will increase as well, because the inlet flow section is reduced,
with a subsequent increase of the axial velocity V1 a.

An important conclusion is that, for a given value of


RPM, a 1 and R1 h' it will not always be possible to find a solution
for RV (say R1 t), if the relative tip Mach number is limited.
The only way to overcome this difficulty is to adapt one of the
parameters RPM, a 1 or R1 h. Figures 10, 11 and 12 show the in-
fluence of each of these parameters respectively.
Figures 10 and 11 show that reduction of RPM or use of positive
preswirl resul~ in a decrease of the relative inducer tip Mach
number. This conclusion has already been drawn when discussing
the IGV {cfr Chapter 2).

Figure 12 shows only a slight decrease of the minimum


relative Mach number when the hub radius is reduced. Keeping a1
and RPM unchanged, it will not always be possible to keep M1 t
below a given value by variation of R1 h and RV only.

In the program COMRAO, following procedure has been


adopted

- The prerotation angle a 1 and Mw 1 t,max are fixed input data.


- RPM and RV are also input data, but one of them can be adjusted,
in order to reduce the inducer tip Mach number below a given
maximum value. The adjustment is done automatically and the
new value of the parameter is printed out. (see Figs. 13, 14).
- The induc~r hub radius R1 h is initially equal to its minimum
value R1 h ,m1n
. ~ which is an input value. For given values of
.
R1 h/R 1 t' and RPM, the program will increase R1h with steps of
5% until MWlt becomes less th~n Mw 1t,max· If this is not pos-
sible, one of the parmeters RV or RPM will be adjusted, ac-
cording to the key value 1 and the procedure starts again
from R1h = R1h,min"
- 17 -

3.3.2.1 ~diu~tme~t_of ~v

This method is explaine d in figure 13. Suppose that a


large value is choosen for RV (.75). R1 h is then increase d from
R1 h,min (point a) with steps of 5%. As long as Mw t is decreas ing,
1
we continue the iteratio ns. At the right of the minimum b of the
curve, Mw 1 t will increase again, without having reached the value
of Mwlt ,max .

The program will then automat ically decrease the value of


the hub-tip radius ratio and start again from R1 h = R1 h,min
(point c). The new minimum value is less and a new iteratio n
cycle can start (c ~d). Adjustm ent of RV will occur as long as
the minimum of the curves is higher than Mw t,max· The computa-
1
tion stops at point h.

It is importan t to notice that the reductio n of the


minimum of the curves for decreasi ng RV is rather weak, and
limited by that value of RV that gives a minimum for Mw t at
1
R1h = R1 h,min·

3.3.2.2 ~diu~t~e~t_of ~p~

This method is very similar to the previous one (cfr


Fig. 14). The shift of the minimum of the curves when RPM is
decreasi ng is more importa nt and not limited, because the minimum
is shifting to the right of the plane (away from R1h,min ).
Neverth eless, the RPM of a machine is very often determin ed by
mechani cal conside rations, and has a direct influenc e on specific
speed and thus also on maximum efficien cy.

REMARK : No iteratio n will ne carried out when Mw t is less than


1
Mw 1 t,max at the beginnin g of the computa tion. R1h is then set
equal to R1 h,min·
- 18 -

3.4 The inducer flow

As shown in § 3.1, the inducer is defined as that part


of the rotor where the boundary layers are attached . The purpose
of the inducer is threefol d
- deflecti on of the flow in axial directio n;
- deflecti on of the flow in radial directio n;
- diffusio n of the relative flow to increase static pressure .
This results in a heavy loa~ for the boundary layer, especia lly
at the shroud-s uction side intersec tion. Next conside rations
explain briefly why.

A. Adverse pressure gradien t : diffusio n means a decelera tion


or conversi on of dynamic energy into static pressure . Consequ ently,
there will exist an adverse pressure gradien t.
Separati on of the boundary layer will occur when the kinetic
energy availabl e in the boundary layer and the one added by en-
trainmen t is dissipa ted.

B. Coriolis effects : because of the radial velocity compone nt,


importa nt coriolis accelera tions can exist in radial impelle rs.
It is shown by Rothe & Johnston (Ref. 2), that due to the coria-
lis forces, the boundary layer on the pressure side is desta-
bilized and becomes more turbulen t. On the suction side, the.
boundary layer is stabiliz ed and has less turbulen t mixing.
Turbule nt mixing increase s the entrainm ent and thus also post-
pones the separati on point. We thus can conclude that in a radial
impeller separati on occurs, or is likely to take place at the
suction side of the blades and is very unlikely on the pressure
side of the blades. However, the loading distribu tion along the
~

blade and the existenc e of a relative flow vortex -2w can dece-
l~rate the flow on the pressure side to negative values, so that
return flow and a potentia l separati on bubble can occur on the
pressure side. The last possibi lity is not consider ed in our
method because this should be avoided by a good blade to blade
design.
- 19 -

C. Wall curvature effects : wall curvature is also creating a


transverse pressure gradient. This one is related to centri-
petal accelerations (Fig. 15). Turbulence is influenced by
centripetal accelerations i n a very similar way as by coriolis
accelerations. The boundary layer is stabilt~ed on the convex
surface and destabilized on the concave surface. In a radial
compressor rotor the shroud is an annular convex surface and
the relative flow will be less resistant against separation.
In combination with the coriolis forces on the suction side, we
can expect that flow separation starts at the suction side-
shroud intersection line. Similar as for axial compressors,
the relative velocity at separation can be related to inlet
velocity by a diffusion ratio

DR Relative flow velocity at inducer tip


= =
WSEP Relative flow velocity at separation point

The higher the diffusion ratio, the further downstream will be


the separation point and the smaller will be the separated region.
Consequently, the efficiency will increase.

According to Dean (Ref. 1), the compressor efficiency


relates to DR and Cpd (diffusor pressure recovery) as ~own in
figure 16. For constant CPd' the efficiency increases with DR.
For values of DR higher than 1.4, the efficiency curves become
very flat, and it seems to be more interesting to pay attention
for the diffuser rather than for the impeller diffusion process.

In our one dimensional design program, the expected DR


has to be defined and the method is valid only if the predicted
DR can also be achieved. The DR is mainly a function of rotor
geometry which means that this one dimensional design method
must be completed by a detailed three dimensional design.
Reasonable values of DR are shown in figure 17 (Ref. 1) as a
function of inducer tip relative Mach number Mw t. On the same
1
figure the maximum diffusion ratio for radial diffusers (DR
vs M3 ) is also shown to indicate how badly inducers are affected
- 20 -

by coriolis forces and curvature.

An increase of Mw 1 t at constant DR will result in a


higher separation velocity Wsep and W2 J. (relative velocity of
jet flow at outlet of impeller) will increase proportionally.
This results in higher "mixing losses" at the impeller outlet
(Fig. 18) and shock losses when the flow becomes transonic.

3.4.2.1 Hub- and shroud contour


For the computation of the inducer flow, the shroud
and hub contour have been represented in the meriodional plane
by elliptical profiles. Comparison with data from literature
(Ref. 11) shows that good agreement is obtained (Fig. 19).
This method has the important advantage that both hub- and
shroud contours can be determined completely with only 5
parameters : R1 h, R1 t, R2 , b 2 , DAX" The impeller considered
at figure 20 is a small radial compressor with an inducer,
similar to those commercially available for turbochargers
(Ref. 11bis). In this case, the substitution of hub- and
shroud contours by elliptical profiles is not so good due
to the linear hub shape at the impeller outlet.

The inducer is further divided into 5 equidistant


annular stream surfaces (1 to 5 on Fig_. 21) and a hub (6)
and shroud (7) stream surface. They will be used to calculate
approximated values of local parameters, and also facilitate
the calculation of mass averaged values at different sections.

3.4.2.2 ~l!d! ~n~l~ ~a~i~tlo~

The blade angle variation used in our model is an


approximated one and is based on an investigation of blade
profiles of jmpellerswith elliptical inducer blade shape.
E. Schnell (Ref. 12) shows that an optimal blade loading is
obtained using this kind of inducer shape. However, our defi-
- 21 -

nition makes an extension for the impellers with backward bended


blades (Fig. 22) :

Definition:

0<~~.!.
3

(3.14)

3.4.2.3 fl~w_a~gle_v~ria!io~

At the outlet of the wheel, the flow angle 8 2 differs


from the blade angle s 2 bl due to the effect of the slip factor
ll (cfr 3.6). When 1l is known (from experimental correlation),
the flow angle s 2 can be calculated. In our model, we agree that
the slip effect starts at ~ = 60°. From the inducer inlet to
~ = 60°, the flow is supposed to be tangent to the blades. From
~ = 60° to the outlet, a gradual increase of the slip is taken
into account

Definition

s = s b1

(~- .!.)
s = 8 b 1 -;- f 3
(s2 -·s 2bl) .!.< ~ ~ -'IT ( 3 . 15 )
'IT
- 3 2
6
- 22 -

3.4.3.1 ~elo~i!y_p~ofile_i~ !h! ~e~i~i~n~l_pla~e


According to Vavra (Ref. 13), following relation
exists for an axisymmetric stream surface :

{3.16)

with the relative meridional velocity


km the curvature
n the normal direction.

For an annular stream tube (Fig. 24), this expression can be


integra ted :

rl k m.1 ( n - .!!!.
2b
)+k mJ. .!!!.]
2b

wm = 'W
m.1 e
(3.17)

with km > 0

b small compared to R.,


1
RJ..

The relation between Wmi and Wmj is

km. +km.
-b( 1 J)
2
(3.18)
= ~~
m. e
J
- 23 -

With this equation, the ~lative meridional velocity Wm can be


determined along each intersection line with the elliptical
stream surfaces (Fig. 21).

The calculation starts at the shroud, where

shroud shroud
w cos (s ) (3.19)
msep sep

When the meridional velocity profile is determined, the relative


velocity follows from :

1 i refers to a stream (3.20)


cos(ssep) surface

Remark: The curvature km in a point (x 0 ,y 0 ) on the ellipse


x2 y2
+-- = 1 can be calculated with
A2 B~

(3.21)

3.4.3.2 fo~s!a~t_r~t~alPl

This equation is derived from the energy law and is


also valid for non-isentropic flow
2 2
= wli-wsep,i
(3.22)
2 2

It shows that the increase of enthalpy Cp(T e .-T 11.) between


s p '1
inlet and separation is composed of :
- 24 -

2 2
Wli-Wsep,i kinetic energy drop according to the variation of
-+
2 velocity. This term is strongly dependent on the
inducer design.

increase of .. centri fuga 1" energy.


2 This term cannot be improved, because it is not
dependent on the flow.

3.4.3.3 ~t~tlc_p~e~s~r~

For an isentropic flow, the variation of static pres-


sure is given by

IS
p . (3.23)
sep,1

A loss coefficient w. d allows to correct for real flow friction


1n
losses
IS
(3.24)
Psep,i = Psep,i

where Pl and W1 are mass averaged values of Pli and W1 i.

Psep,i (3.25)
Psep,i =

3.4.3.5 ~o~n~a!y_l~y!r_c~l£ula!i~n
The loss coefficient w.1 nd and the boundary layer blo-
ckage o * are calculated by an approximated boundary layer cal-
culation as explained by A. Sarmento in refe ence 14.
The momentum integral equation
- 25 -

8
x+~x (3.26)

can be integrated along the surfaces, assuming a linear variation


of p and W between inlet and separation point, and by intro-
ducing following empirical correlations from reference 15 :

-.265 -1.56ll:f
cf = .246 Re e (3.27)

H = 1. 63 - . 0775 log 10 (Re) (3.28)


•2
•8 \)

eo = • 2 Rlt (-) (3.29)


wlt

Once we know s and H (function of the change in relative velocity)


we can calculate the boundary mayer blockage o*, that will be
used in the continuity equation.

The total friction force Fr in the inducer can be


calculated as

1
'w dS = J 2
p cf ~J2 dS (3.30)

s.1n d
with Sind : the total wall surface of the inducer.
The loss coefficient wind is then :

~0
Fr
Pind
wind = (3.31)
2
1
Plw~ 1 A A

Plwlssep
2 2

0
with llPind the total pressure loss in the inducer
I
5 sep the area of the separation section.
- 26 -

3.4.3.6 fo~tln~i!Y

The mass flow through an annular flow section (Fig.


21) of the separation section is equal to (Fig. 25) :

msep,1. = p
sep,1.W sep,1.(21rR sep,1.b sep,1.coss sep,1
.-z·b sep,1.(d+o*))

with d blade thickness (3.32)


o* boundary layer blockage
z number of blades.

The total mass flow is then

~
.
m . ( 3.33)
i sep,1

To perform calculations following basic assumption


has been made : "when the deceleration of the relative flow at
wlt
the shroud streamline reaches the value--, separation occurs.
DR
This point on the shroud contour is called separation point,
defined by the radius Rsep· The flow section through this point,
normal to each of the elliptical stream surfaces (Fig. 21), is
defined as the separation section. The calculation starts with
an arbitrary first guess of Rsep . The meridional velocity pro-
file, function only of the impeller geometry, can then be cal-
culated assuming also that Wsep = W1 t/DR. The other flow condi-
tions are then given by the equations 3:16 - 3.31.

The value of the mass flow msep is then calculated


with eq. (3.32) and will generally by different from the input
data m, due to the misestimation of Rsep . By checking continuity
we will change the value of Rsep in an iterative procedure.
The value of R in two consecutive iterations is given by
sep .
- 27 -

n n-1
n+1 R -R
sep sep (m n -m)
Rsep = .n n-1 sep (3.34)
msep-lflsep

wi th n : the iteration number.


The iteration stops when the computed value of msep is equal to
m within a precision of 1~.

3.5 The impeller flow

3.5.1 Real flow effects


-----------------
Figure 26 shows schematic ally the jet-wake model as
used in the program. To find a relation between flow condition s
at the separation point and the impeller exit, it is necessary
to make the following important approxima tion, as suggested by
Dean (Ref. 1). He asserted that the jet flow is little subjected
to shear stresses in the rotor and can be considered as an isen-
tropic core. All flow outside this core can be considered as
belonging to the wake. This is evenmore true when there is a
tangential pressure gradient over the jet, due to the rotor work
creating secondary flow that moves all low energy fluid to the
suction side. For a compressi ble ' flow, Dean shows that the
mean relative Mach number remains constant along the jet from
separation to rotor outlet :

Mwj = est (3.35}


or

(3.36)

The mass flow in the wake is not zero and has been characteri zed
as a percentage of the total mass flow '

.
.A. = -mw. (3.37)
m

.
mw is developed by secondary flows and by "tip leakage".
- 28 -

The wake can be look~d at as a pool, wherein all low energetic


fluid is flowing together. All friction- and leakage losses
are accummulated in the wake and the corresponding losses will
be added to the main flow during the mixing process downstream
of the impeller.

In our model, the parameter determining the jet-wake


veloc vty profile in the wake-jet relative velocity ratio v :

v = (3.38)

By fixing v, instead of A, the mass flow in the wake will depend


also on the extent of the wake. Obviously, the choice of v is
not free. It should be correlated to the influencing parameters,
secondary flow, clearance, wake width £ 2 , etc. However, at the
actual state of research, this correlation is unknown. The
designer can handle it as a supplementary degree of freedom. Our
experience has learnt us to choose the parameter v not too large.
Based on the results of Eckardt (Ref . 16) and Fowler (Ref. 17),
this value can be fixed at v = .2.

Another important feature of our model is that the


same relative outlet angle s 2 is used for the jet and the wake

(3.39)

Energy equation
= wsep-w2j + u2-usep (3 : 40)
2 2

Tsep' Wsep' Usep are the mass mean values of Tsep,i' Wsep,i'
usep,i•
- 29 -

Model equation Constant relative Mach number along the jet flow

(3.41)

Gas equation

P2 J·
p 2.
J
= (3.42)

Continuity equation From the definition of the wake to total


mass flow ratio A, we can deduce that :

( 3. 43)

where £ 2 is the procentual passage at the outlet, occupied by


the wake. A is not an input data, but will be calculated in
function of v.

Static pressure p2j For an isentropic jet flow we have


K-1
IS
P2j = .Psep [T~ K
2
·1 (3.44)
Tsep

The static pressure p j i s calculated by correction of its


IS by means of
isentropic value P2j a loss coefficient wjet ..

IS 1 •2
P2·J = P2 ·
J
- wjet Psep wsep (3.45)
2

In Dean•s theory, the jet flow is assumed isentropic, and all


losses are connected with the wake flow. Consequently, wjet is
zero. However, this excludes the possibility to analyze wall
friction losses and clearance losses as a function of rotor
geometry.
- 30 -

Therefore, in our model, the jet loss coefficient is a function


of the wall friction losses and clearance losses :

{3.46)

The wake flow takes only into account the separation losses.
(a) The friction loss coefficient wfr
wfr is estimated by means of hydraulic diameters of and
length between the separation section and the rotor outlet

2 2
1r(Rsep,?-Rsep,6)
Z COS<j>
Area 4
D = 4 ~
hsep Contour sep
z cos<P
(3.47)

21rR 2 b 2
z (1-£2)
Area ~ 4 (3.48)
h2 . =
D 4
J Contour 2j 2·21TR2
{l-£2)+2b2
z

(~- <P)
2 (3.49)
L
hsep,2j 1
cos( 8 sep,3 +8 2,b )
2

( 3. 50)

The Reynolds number in the impeller Reimp is calculated at the


separation section :
- 31 - -

(3.51)

The wall friction coefficient cf is a function of the Reynol.ds


number and of the relative wall roughness k :
0hsep

(3.52}

This relationship is calculated using implicit formula of


Colebrook and White for the head loss coefficient A :

~ =
v"A
-2log [ k
3 • 7 Dh
+ 2.51 l
Re\/ A
(3.53)

The wall friction coefficient is then

cf = (3.54)
4

Expression {3.53) can also be written in an explicit form

.0625
-2log( k )]11}2
Re 3.7Dh u (3.55)

{b) The clearance loss coefficient wcl


According to Jansen (Ref. 18), the clearance loss coefficient
can be expressed as

2
w
0
cl Rlt 2 u2
cl = 2.43 (1 - -)
w2
{3.56)
b2 R2 sep

with 0 cl the impeller blade clearance ( m) .


- 32 -

Energy equation
•2 2 2 •2
= wsep-w2w + u2-usep ( 3 • 57 )
2 2

Model equation : The relative wake velocity is determin ed by the


paramete r v, called the wake)je t relative velocity ratio :

(3.58)

Gas equation

(3.59)
P2w =

Continu ity equation : The wake mass flow is determin ed by the


paramete r A, which has to be calculat ed in function of v :

Tangent ial equilibr ium : T~e wake ~tatic pressure p 2w cannot be


determin ed by the isentrop ic equation plus loss coeffic ient,
because this flow is essentia lly irrevers ible. It accumul ates
nearly all the rotor losses. Therefor e we deduce the tangenti al
pressure gradien t at the rotor outlet from equilibr ium equation s
and derive the mean static wake pressure p 2w from the static
pressure in the jet, p2 j.
Figure 27 represen ts the equilibr ium of inertial forces for the
jet. Rc 2 is the radius of curvatur e of the streamli nes at the
rotor outlet, and is supposed to be constan t over the whole
section. Starting from

P2,pr .. the static pressure at the pressure side of the blade


suction side of the blade
P2,SUC: the static pressure at the
P2,sh the static pressure at the shear layer between jet and
wake
- 33 -

we define

P2,er+P2,sh
p2. = (3.61)
J 2

P2,Sh+P2,SUC
P2w = (3.62)
2

The inertial forces in the jet, which are acting upon a flow
particle with mass dm, are

a) the coriolis forces

t
Fcor,j = 2dm n W2j (3.63)

b) the centrifugal forces

t
Fcentr,j = dm n2 R2 ( 3. 64)

c) the normal component of the relative flow inertial force

t
F re 1 , n, J. (3.65)

d) the tangential component of the relative flow inertial force

t
Frel,t,j = (T = time) (3.66)

All these forces are balanced by a force F, corresponding to


a tangential pressure gradient apj/au. By expressing the tan-
gential equilibrium of forces

t t t t
F + Fcor,J. ,u + Fre l ,n,j ,u + Fcen t r,J. ,u + Fre l , t ,J. ,u = 0 (3.67)

we obtain, after some calculations :


- 34 -

= P~ ~
[ ~]
au j
2
-J
COS82.
J
(2nW 2
J
.- (3.68)

Rc is positive when opposite to the direction of rotation.


2
For the wake, we have similarly

(3.69)

If P2 · is known, we can deduce Pzw and P2pr' Pzsh' P2 suc


J

21TR 2 (1-e 2 } 21TR 2 e 2


Pzw = P2 J· -
2
1
z [:~].J
1
- 2 z [; ~] w
( 3. 70)

1 21TR 2 (1-e 2 }
= P2j +
2 z [~].J (3.71)

[:~] w
(3.72)

[~] w
(3.73)

The problem with this method is the radius of curvature Rc 2 ,


which is a functi .on of slip factor and blade geometry at the
rotor outlet. As this is beyond the scope of this program, we
introduce the value of Rc as an input data.
2

The jet flow is not subject to any noticeable diffu-


sion. The increase of static pressure is almost completely due
to the effect of centrifugal forces. This is also true for the
- 35 -

static temperature increase. Equation (3.40) can be written as

" "
= Tsep + Tsep + (3.74)

In the wake, on the contrary, the static temperaure increase is


considerable, because it is not only dependent on the effect of
u2-u2
2
'··12 - w2
centri fuga 1 forces, sep, but a 1 so on the term · sep 'Ji.l
2cp 2cp
(cfr eq. 3.57). By making the approximation

equation 3.57 can be written as

(3.76)

It shows that there will always be a positive temperature dif-


ference between jet and wake.

On the other hand, the static pressure in the wake


will be lower than in the jet. By recombining eqs. 3.43, 3.60,
3.61, 3.69, 3.70, one obtains, for a sufficiently high radius
of curvature Rc
2

.
n m
:::: (3.77)

with n: the angular velocity (rad/s).


Using the parameter A, we can define the mean static values at
the impeller outlet (subscript 2mn)

(3.78)
- JS -

p2 • ( 3. 79)
J

(3.80)

Assuming an isentropic jet flow, we can use eqs. 3.76, 3.77,


3.78, 3.80 to draw a T,S diagram of the impeller flow {Fig. 28).

From this figure we can see that the wake flow suffers
an important entropy increase, which results in heavy losses for
the mean flow.

3.5.5 lnflY~~~~-Qf-~b~-Q~r~m~~~r-~
Q~-i~e~ll~r_E~rf2r~2~£~

From equation (3.76) it is evident that the impeller


separation losses are strongly dependent on the parameter v, which
determines the relative velocoty profile at the impeller outlet.
However, v is also influencing the wake width s2 and the wake
mass flow ratio A. In order to inv~stigate the influence of v
on impeller performances, we first look how s 2 and A are
varying with v. From the continuity equations (3.43) and (3.60)
we can derive that

(3.81)
1-v

with
.
m (3.82)
c = --------~------- ~

W2 hom corresponds to a homogeneous impeller outlet velocity;


C is a constant which is inversely proportional to the amount
of separated flow :
0 < c< 1 for separated flow
c + 1 for unseparated flow.
- 37 -

From a physical point of view, we know that the wake width £ 2


must be lower than 1, so that eq. 3.81 limits the choice for v
to be lower than the limiting value C :

v ~ c (3.83)

From eq. 3.43 we find an expressi on for A

A~----
v 1-C
(3.84)
1-v C

Equation s (3.81) and (3.84) are represen ted in figure 29.

We now derive expressi ons for the static to static


efficien cy of the jet, the wake and the mean flow (Fig. 28).
a) Jet flow :

(neglect ing friction and clearanc e losses)

b) Wake flow
IS
s,s T2 w - Tsep
nwake =
T2 w - Tsep

K-1
-r
= Tsep
[~::J - 1

s 's A
=> nwake - A,B independ ent on v ( 3. 85)
B+(1-v 2 )

c) Mean flow
K=.1
IS K
s,s T2 mn -T sep
nmean = =
Tsep rP2mn] - 1
T2mn -T sep T2 mn -T sep lPsep
- 38 -

s,s A'
=> nmean ~ ------ ---- AI ' BI indepen dent of v (3.86)
B'+A(l -v2)

By introdu cing (3.84) into (3.86) we obtain

s,s A" A" ,B II indepen dent of v (3.87)


nnean ~
B"+v(l+ v)

Figure 30 repres ents equatio ns (3.85), (3.86) , (3.87) for a


particu lar case with C = .7. It is worth mentio ning that these
efficie ncies are valid for the rotor only and do not include
the mixing losses .

From figure 30 we see that when v is increas ing the


wake flow efficie ncy is increa sing. This is due to the fact that
the temper ature differe nce between jet and wake becomes smalle r
(cfr eq. 3.76). In spite of this, the mean flow efficie ncy n~!an
is decrea sing. The reason for this is that the mass flow through
the wake (A = mw/m) is strong ly increas ing with v (cfr Fig. 29)
which means that the wake flow becomes more import ant compare d
with the jet flow. We see that in eq. (3.86) A appears in a posi-
tive term of the denomi nator. This explain s the shape of the
n~!an curve. The mean flow efficie ncy is thus decrea sing because
the wake mass flow is increas ing faster with v than the wake
efficie ncy. It is clear from figure 30 that the parame ter v has
an importa nt influen ce on the compre ssor charac tersiti cs. The
choice is judicio us, but we sugges t to start calcul ations with
small values for v (f.i., v = .2), accord ing to the measur ements
of Eckard t (Ref. 16).

When the impelle r outlet width b is decreas ed for


consta nt value of v, the wake width will become smalle r and
smalle r until the outlet section is comple tely occupie d bY the
jet flow, and conseq uently there are no wake flow losses .
- 39 -

On the other hand, the throughflow section of the jet


becomes more and more rectangular, and so the hydraulic diameter
Dh 2 will decrease. We see from eq 3.50 that wfr will increase
considerably due to wall friction.

Equation (3.56) shows that also the clearance losses


will decrease when the impeller width is increased.
Friction losses, separation losses and clearance losses are shown
on figure 31 in a qualitative way. Figure 31 makes clear that
there exists an optimum value for b 2 /R 2 where the total losses
are minimum.

Remark : to take into account normal boundary layer blockage


when the flow is unseparated, a min-mum wake width E2min can
be imposed. When E2 becomes less than E2min' the model equation
for the wake (3.58) cannot be sustained anymore and must be
rep 1 aced by :

(3.88)

3.6 The impeller outlet tip

3.6.1 Ib~-~liQ_f~£~Qr_g_fQr_~-j~~
~~Q-~~~~-£Q~fig~r~~iQ~

Due to the limited number of blades, the relative flow


at rotor outlet will not be tangent to the blade profile. This
has no direct influence on efficiency, but on the rotor work
output :

~H = u2vu2 - ulvu 1 (3.89)

The ratio
Vu2
J.l = 00
(3.90)
vu 2

is ca 11 ed s 1 i p factor.
- 40 -

Vu = real tangential velocity at rotor exit


2

Voo = tangential velocity at rotor exit for infinite blade number


Uz
A broad review on the values of the slip factor ~ has been per-
formed by Wiesner (Ref. 19).
For one dimensional calculations we propose the formula of Eck :

1 (3.91)
~ =
n COS82bl
1 + ~

2 R2 +R2
z(1- lh lt)
2
2R 2

The formula of Buseman is better suited for a first guess, when


the rotor outlet radius is not yet known :

( 3. 92)
z"7

To determine the slip factor of the jet ~j and of the wake ~w


separately, we consider the slip f~ctor ~ for a uniform flow as
being the mass mean value of the jet wake flow :

(3.93)

The calculation of velocity triangles at the impeller


outlet is based on the assumption that the jet and wake flow have
the same flow direction in the relative motion as stated in
eq. ( 3. 39) :

Based on the velocity triangles (Fig. 32), the absolute veloci-


ties in jet and wake are given by :
- 41 -

v2.J = Jw~.J 2
+ u2 + 2U 2W2 jsin8 2 j (3.94)

V2w = ./w~ w + u22 + 2U 2W2wsin82w {3.95)

The relation between the relative flow angle 8 and the blade angle
8bl is deduced from figure 32, and is given as a function of
the slip factor~ by the following equations, for jet and wake
respectively

(1 - __!_)] {3.96)

J

(3.97)

A relation between the slip factor ~j and ~w can be found in


function of the absolute flow angles, by combining (3.96), (3.97)
and (3.39)

(-1 - 1) (3.98)
~w

or

llw = (3.99)
tana 2 j
~ + (tana 2w-tana 2 j)
j

The absolute flow angles of jet and wake are related to the
relative flow angles by (Fig. 32)

U2+W 2wsins 2
(3.100)
W2wCOS(3 2
- 42 -

= U2+W 2 jsinS 2
{3.101)
w2jcoss2

or after combination of (3.100) and (3.101)

(3.102)

Replacing U2 by 2nR 2 RPM/60 in eq. (3.101), we obtain

(3.103)
2 n RPM
60

All equations {3.93) - (3.102) can be used directly or by itera-


tion to determine the flow characteristics at the impeller out-
let : ~, ~j' ~w' v2j' v2w' s2, a2j' a2w·
Equation (3.103) is used to evaluate the impeller radius R2.

In order to calculate the total enthalpy rise, the


Euler equation has to be applied to jet and wake

cp~T 0
1

6H 0 = 00
= (1->.)U 2 v . V
J u2j
+>.U 2 v Voo - l(
w u2w ~~
\(R)U 1 (R)Vu (R)dR
1
lh
The integral rerm, however, drops out in case of an axial flow
at the rotor inlet.
After some transformations, this equation can be written as :

R1t
U1 ( R) V1 ( R}
. J ,;, (R)
K-1
m ao ao
sinadR) dR (3.104)

R1h
- 43 -

which is the general expression of the impeller work equation.

3.7 Disk friction

At the back side of the rotor disc there is a statio-


nary wall very close to it. The fluid between these two walls
is rotating with the rotor disc at one s1de, but stationary at
the fixed wall side. This fluid rotation produces intensive
whirl and energy dissipation. The extra torque due to this
friction is given by :

'w =wall shear stress (3.105)

We define the disc friction coefficient as

(3.106)

The rate of dissipated energy is

(3.107)

The value of em is dependent on the type of flow between the


two walls. Four flow regimes can be discerned
I laminar with separated boundary layers
II laminar with interfering boundary layers
III turbulent with separated boundary layers
IV turbulent with interfering boundary layers
The extent of those regimes is varying with:
-the axial gaps between rotor and wall
- the Reynolds number based on the disc radius and the
circumferential velocity

Re = (3.108)
The value of em is given in table 1 (Refs. 20, 21) as a function
of axial gap (s/R 2 )and the limiting Reynolds numbers for the
four flow regimes.

The energy dissipation is going to heat the flow in the


impeller, changing the outlet flow temperature and then affecting
the rotor performances.

The flow temperature at the rotor discharge will be :

E (3.109)

The optimal value of s/R 2 can be chosen from figure 33.


We see that s/R 2 = .05 is a good value, because it results in a
5
small em' even for Re = 10 .
- 45 -

CHAPTER 4 - THE MIXING PROCESS

4.1 Introdu ction

In section 3 we explain ed how the flow between the blades


of a radial impelle r gives rise to a jet wake config uration . At
the dischar ge of the impell er, an intensi ve energy exchang e takes
place between the two subflow s with differe nt angula r momentum
(Fig. 32), resulti ng in a transfe r of the impell er separa tion
losses from the wake to the nearly isentro pic jet. The mixing
process we describ e here applies only to separa ted flows in
rotatin g system s. The behavi our of station ary separa ted bounda ry
layers , as genera ted in station ary cascad es, is comple tely dif-
ferent. It is also worth to notice that the denomi nation "mixing
process " does not refer to a "mass exchang e" betwee n jet and
wake, which is nearly neglig ible, but rather to the "energy ex-
change" togeth er with the uniform ization of the flow.

4.2 Theore tical comput ation of the mixing zone


of a jet-wak e flow, taking into accoun t
the compr essibil ity of the fluid

This theory is an extens ion of the theory of Dean and


Senoo for incomp ressibl e fluids (Ref. 22) and of the study by
Bex (Ref. 23).

a. Identic al relativ e flow angle 8 for jet and wake;


b. The relativ e veloci ty distrib ution at the impell er outlet is
rectang ular as shown in figure 26;
c. The develop ment of bounda ry layer blockag e along the walls
is neglec ted;
d. The blade blockag e at the impell er dischar ge is not taken
into consid eration ;
e. The static quanti ties are identic al for jet and wake.
Their initial value is equal to the mass mean value at the
impell er outlet (Fig. 34). Conseq uently, the mixing proces s
- 46 -

does only refer to · dynarnic qu-4nti~ies.


This assumption results in a sudden total pressure increase
for the wake and decrease for the jet, while the total tem-
perature is decreasing for the wake and increasing for the
jet.

4.2.2.1 - 11 -friction
Wa- ----
The friction force of the jet against the wall is pro-
portional to the square of the absolute velocity
2
1' •
J
= -1 cf P v.
J
with cf = cf(Re, _l_) ( 4. 1 )
2 Dh

for the wake ..


1 2
1'
w = - cf p vw with cf = cf(Re, _l_) ( 4. 2)
2 Dh

4.2.2.2 Shear stresses


They are acting upon the shear layer between j~t and
wake and are parallel to the relative velocity direction and
proportion al to the square of the difference between the rela-
tive velocities of jet and wake
2
TM F.!.2 CMp (W.-W ) with eM : . 094 ( 4 •3)
J w

4.2.2.3 Pressure forces


They are also acting upon the jet wake shear layer, but
in a direction perpendic ular to it. They are generated by varia-
tion of the angular momentum of jet and wake. This can be con-
sidered as an energy transfer between jet and wake.

In fact, this energy exchange is performed by a pres-


sure force between jet and wake, which is rotating with the rotor
and gives rise to a fluctuatin g pressure in the mixing zone. Due
- 4 7 _,

to this, the wake flow will disapp ear very soon, in contra st
with station ary separa ted bounda ry layers . Figure 35 is repre-
senting this pressur e fluctua tion q.

4.2.3.1 fo~tln~i!y_e~u~tlo~ fo! !h! Je!


2nRbp( 1-e)Wjc oss = 2nR 2 b2P 2 (1-e2)W 2jcoss 2 ( 4. 4)

This equatio n can be differe ntiated with respec t to the radius R


So we obtain

1 + 1 db + 1 d _1_ ~ + __!_ dW j - tgs ds = o


(4.5)
R b dR p dR W. dR dR
J

( 4. 6)

or, after differe ntiatio n

1 + 1 db
+ _1 _dp + 1 de + - 1 -dWw -tgs ds =o (4. 7)
R b dR p dR e dR Ww dR dR

db takes
Remark : the term dR into accoun t a variati on of the width
b of the vanele ss space at the impell er di~charge.

4.2.3.3 ~n~ula! ~o~e~t~m

2nRb(1 -e)W.co ss ~ (R2n+R W.sins) = -cf2nR 2 (1-e)VJ.(Rn+WJ.sinS)


J dR J
2
-cMzbR(Wj-Ww) tgs-zbR ~ (4.8)
p

The left hand term of this equatio n represe nts the variati on of
angula r momentum of the jet between the radii R and R+dR. The
first right hand side term gives the influen ce of the wall fric-
tion, the second of the shear stresse s between jet and wake,
and the third one of the tangen tial compon ents of the pressur e
forces .
- 48 -

For the wake we can write :

2
+ cMzbR(Wj-Ww) tge+zbR ~ ( 4. 9)
p

4.2.3.4 Forces in radial directio n


For the jet we have :

(4.10)

The first term represen ts the increase of radial momentum between


R and R+dR. The second one represen ts the radial pressure gra-
dient, the third one the centrifu gal and coriolis forces and
the fourth one the wall friction . The last two terms represen t
respecti vely the influenc e of the tangent ial pressure forces
and the sbear .- stresses between jet and wake.
For the wake this equation becomes :

2
cMz(W J.-w w) =o (4.11)

becomes , after differen tiation with respect to R

_!_ E_e_ = _!_ ~ 1 dT (4.12)


p dR p dR T dR
- 49 -

4.2.3.6 ln~r~y_e~u~tio~

The total enthalpy of the jet-wake flow remains con-


stant

Defining a mean flow temperature T as

the energy equation becomes

v~
T + (1-A) _J_+A = est

By differentiation with respect to R' we obtain

dT ( 1- A )
dV. dV w
+ v . _ J + - A vw =0 (4.13)
dR J dR dR
cp cp

4.2.3.7 Geometrical relations


From the velocity triangles we know that
2 2 2
v.J = w.J + u

By differentiation we find after some calculations for the jet

dV.
v. _J
(4.14)
J dR

and for the wake

dV
w
(4.15)
~ 50 -

A solution method for the equations governing the


mixing process is presented in Appendix A.

4.3 Results of the theoretical computations

Figures 36a,b,c,d show a result of a mixing process


calculation. The impeller discharge wake width is e 2 = .71 for
a wake mass flow of 17.5%. From f~ure 36d we see that in the
first part of the mixing :rocess ~ < R~ < [R~l~ the total

temperature of the wake T is increasing at the cost of the


w t
total temperature of the jet Tj. We also see from figure 36a,b
that the absolute velocity Vw and the absolute flow angle aw of
the wake are increasing and so does the angular momentum. This
means that for values of R/R 2 less than (R/R 2 }M' there is an
energy transfer from the jet to the wake. During this period, the
wake width e remains nearly constant. The relative velocity of
the jet wj is slightly decreasing due to shear friction with
the wake.

At R/R 2 = (R/R 2 }M a sudden breakdown of the wake flow


takes place, reducing e very fastly to its final value A. The
total temperature Tt is decreasing and T: increasing. This means
w J
that the direction of the energy transfer is reversed :
the jet flow is at this time energized by the wake. We see from
figures 36a,b that the angular momentum of the jet is increasing
at the cost of the angular momentum of the wake. Figure 36c shows
that the total pressure of the jet is not increasing. This is
due to the fact that the energy, which is transferred from the
wake to the jet, is almost completely balanced by an entropy
increase due to wall friction.

At R/R 2 = (R/R 2 )M, the wake width is reduced to 10% of


its final value. The mixing process will progress now very
slowly to a complete uniformization. The computati ~ n 1s stopped
when the difference of relative velocities becomes less than 5%.
- 51 -

The non-un iformit y of the flow at the impelle r outlet gives rise
to supplem entary losses , which usually are called mixing losses 11 11

This denomi nation sugges ts that these losses are due to shear
stresse s between jet and wake - the shear frictio n coeffic ient
eM is about 20 times larger than the wall frictio n coeffic ient
cf -. Nevert heless, calcul ations have shown that the influen ce
of shear frictio n losses on the mixing losses is almost negli-
gible compar ed with the wall frictio n losses. The reason is that
the surfac e, where wall frictio n applie s to, is much larger as
well as the velocit y differe nce :

(4.16)

with cf .005
~

eM .094.
~

The real origin of the mixing losses .. is connec ted with the
11

increas ed frictio n losses with the wall, due to the non-un i-


formity of the flow.

Van den Braemb ussche (Ref. 24) sugges ts the followi ng


approx imation

0 0 1 A

D. Pjet-wake = Ll Puni form + P2


4

lis introdu ced to take into accoun t the progre ssive uniform i-
iation of jet and wake.
- 52 -

CHAPTER 5 - VANELESS QIFFUSERS

5.1 Applicatio n field

Vaneless diffusers are normally used in low pressure


ratio centrifuga l compresso rs with subsonic impeller outlet flow.
A brief review of the different advantages and lacks of this kind
of diffuser~ makes this clear.

Vaneless diffusers are suited for off-design operation ,


because they are compatible with a wide range of absolute in-flow
angles a 2 • In the case of vaned diffusers , positive incidence
gives rise to " rotating stall" and "surge!~, while negative inci-
dence leads to "choke". Vaneless diffusers can only choke in the
very improbable case that the radial component of the Mach number
exceeds unity { cfr Vavra, Ref. 13).

The jet wake mixing process can be achieved without


any blade perturbati on. For vaned diffusers , a vaneless space has
to be inserted between impeller outlet and diffuser leading edge,
to allow sufficien t flow uniformiz ation.

11
Rotating stall" can also occur in vaneless diffusers _
(Refs. 25, 26, 27). Due to the influence of the adverse pressure
gradient, the wall boundary layers are deflected in a more tan-
gential direction than the main flow. When the mass flow is suf-
ficiently reduced, it can happen that the radial velocity compo-
nent in the boundary layer becomes negative at some place along
the diffuser wall (Fig. 37). According to Senoo et al. (Ref. 30),
this incident is the trigger for the developme nt of a circum-
ferentiall y periodic stall pattern.
- 53 -

In vaneles s diffus ers, the stream lines are nearly


tangen tial to the isobars (conce ntric circle s), while in vaned
diffuse rs the isobars are rearran ged to become perpen dicular to
the stream lines. In case of a vanele ss diffus er, the whole pres-
sure gradie nt is applied to the radial velocit y compon ent,
which has already suffere d a diffusi on in the impell er, and has
a small kinetic energy . This limits the allowa ble pressur e re-
overy.

In practic e, this balance results in a choice between


a high pressu re ratio device with a reduced flow range, or a
low pressur e ratio . one with a wide operati ng range.

5.2 Compu tation method

Severa l one dimens ional comput ation method s are avai-


lable in the literat ure: Stanitz (Ref. 28), Bex (Ref. 23), Bex
& Sterno tte (Ref. 29). These method s are non-is entrop ic, but do
not take into accoun t the real bounda ry layer blockag e develo p-
ment along the walls.

In our program , vaneles s diffuse rs are calcula ted by


means of an extende d mixing process (cfr 4), until the mean flow
reaches a given Mach number . This method applies also to dif-
fusers with non paralle l walls.
- 54 -

CHAPTER 6 - VANED ISLAND DIFFUSERS

6. Genera l geomet ry

Figure 38 gives the general geomet ry of a vaned dif-


fuser. Three differe nt flow regions can be recogn ized :
- the vaneles s space : between impelle r outlet and diffus er
leading edge;
- the semi-v aneless space : between diffus er leading edge and
throat section ;
- the diverge nt channe l : from throat section to outlet .

Usuall y, the shape of the suction side is a logarit hmic


spiral , which is tangen t to the stream lines. A detaile d invest i-
gation of the compli cated flow problem s in this region , such as
shock wave bounda ry layer intera ction, and the optima l geomet ry to
adopt has been perform ed by G. Verdonk (Ref. 31) at VKI.
The diverge nt channe l can be represe nted schema tically as shown
in figure 39. The channel section s are rectan gular, and the side-
walls are parall el. Due to the blunt trailin g edge .. aspect of
11

this diffuse r type, we see that the diffusi on top angle 2a and
the number of vanes can be choosen indepe ndently . Usually between
6 and 20 vanes are used, and the length to throat width ratio is
between 7 and 18.

The diffus er width b has an import ant influen ce on the


diffus er flow range. Accord ing to Stiefe l (Ref. 32), narrow dif-
fusers have a larger flow range at higher RPM than nomina l, while
wide diffuse rs behave better at lower RPM.

6.2 Compu tation method

This comput ation method is comple tely based on refer-


ence 33, which is reprodu ced here in a synapt ical version .
The calcula tion is plitted up into three distinc t flow region s,
as mention ed in § 6.1.
- 55 -

In an olde r conc ept, the leadi ng edge of the vane s had


to be removed radi ally, until the flow reach es subso nic
cond ition s.
This hypo thesi s cann ot be susta ined for high press ure
ratio com-
pres sors , due to the incre ase o( the engin e geom etric
al prop or-
tion s. At pres ent, the usua l loca tion of the leadi ng
edge is at
a radia l dista nce of 5 to 10% of the impe ller outl et
tip. As can
be seen from figur e 36, the natu ral mixin g proc ess is
not nece s-
~ari · ly achie ved there , and an abru
pt mixin g takes place due to
diffu ser leadi ng edge inter feren ce with the jet wake
flow , in-
ducin g supp leme ntary loss es.

It would be comp licate d to tran slate this inter feren ce


phenomenon into a suita ble math emat ical mode l. In our
progr am,
follo wing metho d has been adop ted (Fig . 40) :
a) the mixin g proce ss is susta ined unti l the flow is
nearl y uni-
form . This happ ens at a radiu s RMO (mixe d out) , which
usua lly is
high er than the leadi ng edge radiu s RLE (inpu t datum
) . This
mixin g proc ess invo lves two kinds of losse s :
- mixin g losse s
- wall frict ion losse s .
The wall frict ion losse s are too high , due to the imag
inary dif-
fusio n proc ess betwe en RLE and RMO"
b) there fore , an inve rse comp utati on is perfo rmed , to
suct ract
the supp leme ntary wall f~iction losse s and to reca lcula
te the
unifo rm flow cond ition s at the diffu ser leadi ng edge .
This is
reali zed using the one dime nsion al vane less diffu ser
equa tions
of Stan itz (Ref . 28).

In the semi vane less spac e, two diffe rent flow proc es-
ses take place :
a) a rapid adjus tmen t of the isoba rs from nearl y para
llel .to per-
pend icula r to the flow dire ction .
Dean (Ref. 34) sugg ests that this happ ens by means of
a syste m
of weak obliq ue shock wave s.
- 56 -

b) a normal shock wave, just ahead of the throat , which creates


subson ic throat condit ions. This is a design require ment to assure
a suffici ent mass flow range.
Rundst adler (Ref. 35) and Kenny {Ref. 36) have pointed out from
their experim ental investi gation s that the bounda ry layer blockag e
in the throat section B is the most import ant parame ter for
determ ining the diffuse r channe l bahavi our. Theref ore it is pri-
mordia l to find a good approx imation of this blocka ge. The shape
of the suction side, the number of vanes and the inciden ce are of
second order import ance. In our program , we use the experim ental
correla tion of Kenny (Fig. 41) to calcul ate the throat obstruc -
tion B as ·a functio n of only one parame ter : the static pressur e
recove ry between leading edge and throat section : ~p/qLE

Note : if the leading edge conditi ons are subson ic, it is obvious
that the rapid adjustm ent is achieve d withou t shock waves. In our
model, we state that the throat conditi ons are equal to those
at the leading edge for subson ic flow.

6.2.3.1 fr~s~u!e_r~c~v!rl

For theore tical predic tion of straigh t channe l diffus er


perform ances, we refer to Vavra (Ref. 37), Traupe l (Ref. 38) or
Huo {Ref. 39). In our model, we use the experim ental correla tions
of Dean & Runsta dler (Ref. 35) which are based on a large amount
of data for differe nt values of L/W, 28, AS, Mthroa t' B. Figure
42 gives an exampl e of data reduct ion.

Furthe r data reducti on in functio n of AS, reveal that


for AS= 1, the pressu re recove ry cp will be optimal (Fig. 43).
For this reason , in our program AS is set equal to 1.

For design purpos es, figure 42 has been recalcu lated


to obtain cp in functio n of B, Mt and AR {Table 2). For given
values of Mt dnd AR, and a from figure 41 derived value of B,
this table is suitab le to calcul ate the static pressu re recover y
cp of the diffus er. The static pressur e p 5 can be calcula ted as :
- 57 -

( 6 .1)

Howeve r, to find the optima l geomet ry (2e, L/W) which perform s


that pressu re recove ry, the user of the program has to go back
to the origina l graphs of referen ce 35.

6.2.3.2 Channe l losses


- -- ·-- _... ·- - -
The Reynold s number in the diffuse r channe l is defined
as

( 6. 2)

The hydrau lic diamet er of the throat Dh can be taken equal to


4
the diffuse r width b 2 , since the aspect ratio AS has been chosen
equal to 1.

The wall frictio n coeffic ient cf is a functio n of the


Reynold s number and the relativ e wall roughn ess k/Dh :
4

This relatio n is calcula ted in the same way as for the impell er
wall frictio n (cfr § 3.5.2) , using an explic it form of the impli-
cit formula of Colebro ok & White (eq. 3.55).
The calcul ation of the channe l efficie ncy is based on Traupel
(Ref. 40)

1
2 -1
(6.4)
AR-
1+1.2c f - -
2tge

The static enthalp y increa se is then


K-1
-K-

- 1 ( 6. 5)
- 58 -

The outlet Mach number Ms is

0
2 Ts
= / ( 6. 6)
!~-1
Ms ( - - 1)
Ts
0
Since the diffuser is adiabat ic, the total tempera ture T remains
constan t from the impeller outlet :
0 0 0
T5 = T2 = T0 + ~H (6 . 7)

0
The total pressure Ps is then
K

0
Ps = Ps-
Ts
[T~l~ ( 6. 8)

6.3 Dump diffusio n

To take into account


- the blunt trailing edge shape of .. vaned island .. diffuser blades,
- the sudden increase of axial width at the scroll inlet,
a dump diffusio n calculat ion is performe d at the vaned diffuser
outlet.
The equation s are deduced from the investig ations of Hermann on
blunt trailing edge cascades (Ref. 41). Figure 44 gives a sche-
matic represen tation of the dump diffusio n process.

At both states 5 and 6, the Laval number can be


defined as

L = v = v ( 6. 9)
a*

For this calcula tion, the Laval number L6 after dump is fixed.
The area ratio A6 /As required to perform this diffusio n can be
calculat ed from :
- 59 -

A ~2+a3
~ =1 - a + ------ (6.10)
As cq

with

2k 2
1 + --- Ls
k+1
a =
k:-1 2
1 - Ls
k+1

1 - k-1 2
Ls
al = k+1
Ls

1 - k-1 2
L6
=
k+1
a2
L6

=
2k
a3 L6
k+1

The corresponding total pressure drop is given by

1
r-r
2
0 1 - k-1 Ls
p6 k+1 Ls As
= -- (6.11)
p~ 2
1 - k-1 L6 L6 A6
k+1

The dump diffusion is adiabatic, thus

( 6 . ..!. 2)

The static temperature T6 is calculated as


- 60 -

(6.13)

The static pressure p 6 follows from

P. = p~ t~rl (6.14)
- 61 -

REFERENCES

1. DEAN, R.: The fluid dynamic design of advance d centrif ugal


compre ssors . in
Advanced radial compre ssors
11
11
VKI LS 66, March 1974.
,

2. ROTHE, P. & JOHNSTON, J.: The effects of system rotatio n on


separa tion, reattac hment and perform ance in two-
dimens ional diffuse rs.
Stanfor d U., Report PD 17, 1975.
3. KOYAMA, H.; MASUDA, S.; ARIGA, J.; WATANABE, J.: Stabil izing
and destab ilizing effects of coriol is force on two
dimens ional lamina r and turbule nt bounda ry layers.
ASME P 78 GT 1.
4. BALJE, 0.: A study of design criteri a and matchin g of turbo-
machin es. Part B : compre ssor and pump perform ance
and matchin g of t~rbocomponents .
ASME P 60 WA 231, 1961.
5. SHOUMAN, A.R.: Prewhi rl on added degree of freedom to the
design er of small single shaft gas turbine s.
ASf~E P 66 GT 89.

6. McANALLY, W.: 10:1 pressur e ratio single stage centrif ugal


compre ssor program .
ASA AMRDL Techni cal Report 74-15, 1974.
7. BAGHDADI, S.; HOPKINS, B.; OSBORN, W.: Centrif ugal compre s-
sor design criteri a.
USA AMROL, Techni cal Report 74-69, 1974.
8. VAVRA, M.: Aero- thermod ynamis and flow in turbom achines .
New York, J. Wiley, 1960.
9. STEWART, W. et al.: A study of bounda ry layer charac teristi cs
of turbom achine blade rows and their relatio n to
overall blade loss.
ASME Transa ct., Series D : J. Basic Engine ering,
Vol. 82, 1960, pp 588-59 2.
10. STANITZ, J.: Effect of blade thickn ess tapes on axial veloci ty
distrib ution at the loading edge of an entranv e rotor
blade row with axial inlet and the influen ce of this
distrib ution on aligme nt of the rotor blade for zero
attack.
NACA TN 2986, 1953.
11. MOORE, J. - Cambri dge U. CUED/A - Turbom TR 83, 1976.
12. SCHNELL, E.: Recher ches theoriq ues et experim entales sur les
compre sseurs radiaux a charge limitee . Premie re partie :
L'ecoul ement au travers des roues radiale s a charge
limitee .
VKI CN 53a, 1965.
- 62 -

1 3 . VAVRA, t1. : P r o b 1 ems o f f 1 u i d me c h a n i c s i n r a d i a 1 t u r b om a c h i n e s •


AGARD-VKI Lecture Series, VKI CN 55, 1965.
14. SARMENTO, A.: One dimensional design and analysis of centri-
fugal compressors.
VKI PR 1977-12, June 1977.
15. Aerodynamic design of axial flow compressors.
NASA SP 36, 1965.
16. ECKARDT, D.: Detailed flow investigations within a high
speed centrifugal compressor.
ASM E P 7 6 FE 13.
17. FOWLER, H.: An investigation of the flow processes in a
centrifugal compressor impeller.
NRC - Dt~E 230, 1966.
18. JANSEN,~:A method for calculating the flow in a centrifugal
impeller when entropy gradients are present.
Inst. tw1ech. Engrs.
19. WIESNER, F.: A review of slip factor for centrifugal
impellers.
ASME Transact., Series A: J. Engrg for Power, Vol. 89,
1967, pp 558-572.
20. DAILY, J.W. & NECE, R.E.: Chamber dimension effects on
reduced flow and frictional resistance of enclosed
rotating discs.
ASME Transact., Series D : J. Basic Engrg, Vol. 82,
March 1960, pp 217-232.
21. DAILY, J.W. & NECE, R.E: Roughness effects on frictional
resistance of enclosed rotating discs.
ASME Transact., Series D : J. Basic Engrg, Vol. 82,
1960, pp 553-562.
22. DEAN, R. & SENOO, Y.: Rotating wakes in vaneless diffusers.
ASME Transact., Series D : J. Basic Engrg, Vol. 82,
1960, pp 563-570.
23. BEX, W.: The investigation of the flow in diffusers of
a d v.a n c e d r ad i a 1 c om p r e s s o r s .
PhD. Thesis, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 1970.
24. VAN DEN BRAEMBUSSCHE, R.: Prospects for industrial design
and analysis systems. in 11
11
Transonic flows in axial turbomachines , VKI LS 84,
February 1976.
25. JANSEN, W.: Rotating stall in radial vaneless diffusers.
ASME Transact., Series D : J. Basic Engrg, Vol. 86,
December 1964.
- 63 -

26. SENOO, Y. & KINOSHITA, Y.: Influence of inlet flow conditions


and geometries of centrifugal vaneless diffusers
on critical flow angle for reverse flow.
ASME Transact., Series I : J.Fluids Engrg, Vol. 99,
No 1, March 1977, pp 98-114.
27. ABDELHAMID, A.N.; COLWILL, W.H.; BARROWS, J.F.: Experimental
investigation of unsteady phenomena in vaneless radial
diffusers.
ASME P 78 GT 23.
28. STANITZ, J.: One dimensional compressible flow in vaneless
diffusers of radial and mixed flow compressors,
including effects of friction, heat transfer and
area change.
NACA TN 2610, 1952.
29. BEX, W. & STERNOTTE, J.: Computer programs for the analysis
of gas turbine performances.
VKI 1967.
30. SENOO, Y. & KINOSHITA, Y.: Limits of rotating stall and
stall in vaneless diffuser of centrifugal compressors.
ASME P 78 GT 19.
31. VERDONK, G.: Theoretische en experimentele studie van de
transsone stroming in schoependiffusoren voor
radiale compressoren.
PhD.Thesis, Rijskuniversiteit, Gent, Oktober 1977.
32. STIEFEL, W.: Experiences in the development of radial
compressors. in
11
Advanced radial compressors .. , VKI LS 50, May 1972.
33. FRIGNE, P. & MATTHIJS, : Parametrische studie van radiale
compressoren met hoge drukverhouaing.
Afstudeerwerk, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, July 1976.
34. DEAN, R.: Boundary layers in centrifugal compressors.
NASA SP 304, Part 1, 1970, pp 301-337.
35. RUNSTADLER, P. & DEAN, R.: Straight channel diffuser per-
formance at high inlet Mach numbers.
ASME Transact., Series D ; J. Basic Engrg, Vol. 91,
1969, pp 397-422.
36. KENNY, D.: A comparison of the predicted and measured per-
formance of high pressure ratio centrifugal compres-
sor
11
diffusers. in
Advanced radial compressors .. , VKI LS 50, May 1972.
37. VAVRA, M.: Basic elements for advanced design of radial
flow compressors. in
.. Advanced compressors .. , AGARD LS 39, 1970.
- 64 -

38. TRAUPEL, W.: Die Theorie der Stromung durch Radialmaschinen.


Ka~lsruhe, Braun Verlag, 1962.

39. HUO, S.: Optimization based on boundary layer concept for


compressible flow.
ASME P 74 GT 63, also
ASME Transact., Series A : J. Engrg for Power, Vol. 97,
No 2, 1975, pp 195-206.
40. TRAUPEL, W.: Thermi sche Turbomashci nen. Tei 1 I.
Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, Springer Verlag, 1958.
41. HER~1 ANN , P . : F u r the r i n v e s t i ga t i o ns of a b1 u nt t r a i 1 i ng
edge cascade in the S-3 supersonic wind tunnel.
VKI IN 9, June 1964.
- 65 -

APPENDIX SOLUTION OF THE EQUATIONS

FOR THE MIXING PROCESS

Using equatims (4.8) and (4.9), we can eliminate the


tangential pressure difference q from (4.10) and (4.11), which
results is
2
dW. cfv. . zc - (Wj-Ww)
! dp
= Rn 2 -w.J _ J J ( Rn sins +W j)-
M
(A1)
p dR dR bcoss 21r R (1-£)cos2s

and
2
dW w c v ZCM (Uj-~~w)
!~ = Rn 2 -W w f w (Rnsini3+Ww)+ (A2)
p dR dR bcoss 21r R £ cos 2 13

By eliminating the radial pressure gradient ie_ from (A 1) and (A2)


we obtain dR
2
dW. dWW ZCM (Wj-Ww)
w. _ J - ww - - +
J dR
dR 2£(1-E) 1rRcos 2 8

(A3)

By qdqing (4.8) and (4.9) , and differentiating with respect to


R, we find :

-sinS[(l-<)W;+oW~l-2Rn[(!-o)Wj+<Wwl- b:::B[(l-<)(RG+WjsinS)Vj

+E(Rn+Wwsins)vw) (A4)

By substitution of (4.25) and (4.14) in (4.13) we obtain :


- 66 -

dT +
dR

(A5)

Substitution of (A5) in (4.12) gives

dW . d\~
1 d = .!. dp + (1-A) (WjH6Rsin6) _ J + - A w
(~JwH6Rsins)
p dR p dR c pT dR cpT dR

(A6)

Equations 4.5, 4.7, Al, A3, A4, A6 constitute a set of 6 inde-


dW. d~~ ds dE: dp dp
pendent equations with 6 unknowns _J, ___}!!_, - , - , - , -.
dR dR dR dR dR dR
This set of equations can be integrated step by step with the
Euler method to determine in this way the evolution of the
characteristic values.
• 1
3.7(2_) 2

2rr Re
cm 1
•5 I R2 s .25
-s Re Re 3.8log (-)-2.4 (-)
R2 k R2

-s Regl-Remax Reg2-Remax Reg3-Remax Reg 4 -Re


R2 max

. 01 -+105 impossib le 10 5 -+10 9 10 9 -+ 00 -

.02 -+3.10 4 3.10 4 -+105 10 5 -+2.107 2.107-+ 00

.05 -+4.10 3 4.103 -+3.105 impossib le 3.105-+ 00

.2 impossib le -+3.10 5 impossib le 3.105-+ 00

Remark .. Rk is defined as the relative roughnes s ratio of


the disc surface

TABLE 1
- 68 -

M
B .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
cp

. 02 .234 .244 .257 .269 .270


.04 .215 .224 .233 .243 .252
.06 .207 .215 .223 .232 .241
.218
AR = 1.2
.08 .193 .199 .206 .212
.10 .183 .190 .196 .202 .208
. 12 .169 .176 .182 .188 .192

.02 .644 .670 .696 .722 .740


.04 .620 .630 .656 .674 . 69 2
.06 .590 .606 .623 .639 .656 AR = 2.0
.08 .562 .576 .590 .605 .625
.10 .538 .551 .564 .578 .591
. 12 .510 .524 .538 .552 .566

.02 .782 .789 .796 .802 .815


.04 .750 .756 .762 .768 .772
.06 .700 .716 .724 .732 .740 AR = 3.0
.08 . 6 71 .680 .687 .695 .696
. 10 .652 .648 .654 .660 .666
. 12 .604 .612 .619 .626 .640

.02 .842 .838 .833 .828 .824


.04 .800 .800 .800 .800 .800
.06 .752 .756 .760 .763 .766 AR = 4.0
.08 .710 .713 .716 .719 .720
.10 .675 .670 .680 .683 .686
. 12 .630 .635 .640 .646 .646

TABLE 2
COLLECTOR ·CHANNEL

MIXING REGION

SEPARATION

IMPELLER TIP

INLET
PLENUM
INDUCER

0 INLET GUIDE VANES

FIG. 1- SCHEMATIC OF COMPRESSOR STAGE FLOW REGIONS


- 70 -

~llad

0
v ~
-~
v
,)
10 ...........

20
30 I "" r-....

leO I
50 -, I

100 200 1.00 800


20 t.O 60
Ns

FIG 2 - BALJE -DIAGR AM


FOR OPTINUM SPECIFIC SPEED

Mw1t Ns

1.6 J-----+----+--~-+-----+-+--:,..ooq_---+-----l

\1. ~4--+-~~~~r-~-+~

1.2 ~-+-----+-.Jt£.--.,.A---~:....___+---+---+----1

tO ~~~~~~-4~~~-4~

~~~n+~~-+---+--b-~-+~

Q6 ~~r+~~-+---+--~~-+-­

~ J----~~~~-+-----+--~-+-~-----l

0 2 1.. 6 8 10 12 11.. 16 18
PR

FIG. 3 - INFLUENCE OF PR ON Mw1t FOR DIFFERENT

VALUES OF Ns
- 71 -

--- WI TH OU T I.G.V
--- -W IT H I.G.V

FIG. I.- INLET VELOCITY TRIANGLES

1.6 1-- --+ --- -+- --+ --- --- +-- -+- ---
=, 0 • - 4 - - -
1
a1=3o•
1.1. ~-4--~--+--~~~~~~~~,<X1Q 2=o;0o
=o·- -~
PR =12
PR =10
1.2 t-----t-----+--~~~~:.__,
.£:1 =
PR 8 - - - + - - 1

0.6 r----r---+--+----+
---+---+-----+-~

0.2 0.£ 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.1. 1.6


Mwu
FIG . 5- INFLUENCE OF PREROTATION ON Mw lt AND M2 ,
FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF PR .
-72 -

I
....
N

I
i •~
0
~
0
('t)
0
LO
0
t ' 0'1
0
r---
j_ 0~
-....
I
I

I
I
z
~ 0 <J 0 <>O
~ ·~
....
0
(f)
r- ~ en
i
I
' 1\
'\

-- r-· -r- -· - r- - 1- - - -·
I <(
0..-
z
co
\
(/)

!\ -- ··-· -;!.- t'


I

I
1\ 0
LO
\ ~ 0- U)

~ z
1\ (f)
I ~
0 <J <( -
.. LO

\
~
0
~ I ('t) (f)
0
0
... - -.3 w
(f)

'[h en z 0
~
(/)
0
~ . ('t)
...J

\ 1
0'
r--
N
w
z
~

'1 l
I If
~ I ~
!J-
<;
0
-
0

-
w
0
:::>
(!)

......
I I I
LLJ
...J
/ I N z

1
I
/
/ L_ I

('t) (,()

~ L
I
~
~
b-- _d -.3 (!)
I
v 0

0 LO
I

I
u.

N
N
0
0
N
0
co
....
0
U)

0
~
~

0
N

0
-
0
0
0
co
0
0 0
U)
0
0 0
-.3
0
0
N
0
0 0

0
0

0 ci 0 ci 0 0 0 0 0 0
- 73 -

~2 bl

Separat1on section

--------------
FIG. 7- GEOMETRY OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR ROTOR.

F IG . 8- INFLUENCE OF BLADEBLOCKAGE ON
INLET VELOCITY TRIANGLE .
- 74 -

1.4
~
1\ I
1.3
\ I
. 1.2 .~ I
\ I
1.1
v
1.0

0.9

0.8
"" ~
.85 - ,...~
-
/~
·~ _.,..,r

Rv
0.7
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

FIG. 9- INFLUENCE OF R V ON Mw 1t

Mw,t
1.6
1.5 r+-----r-----+----~~1 =00
R 1h =. 04
1.4

1.3
RPM= 18000
I
1.2 PM= 16 000
I
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 RV

FIG. 10- INFLUENCE OF RPM ON Mw 1t


- 75 -

1.5
1.' JtJ.>r--- -+------- 1
RPM=16000
R1H=.O '
1.3

1.2
1.1
1.0

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

0.3 0., 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 RV

FIG. 11 - INFLUENCE OF a1 ON Mw 1t

1.5
,,
1.3

1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

0.3 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 RV

FIG. 12 -INFLUENCE OF Rlh ON Mw1t


- 76 -

Q
1.5

1.1.
1.3
1.2

1.1
1.0

0.9 1-T--71:X-~~;:;;b.~~~-l___--t---l
0.8 kr;;::::----:-:---r~~-=----tf'l-1-----+---...,- M~t max -+----~

0.7
RPM=16000
CX1= 0
0.6 ~--~-- Rlh---~---~~--+----~

0.02 0.03 0.01. 0.05 0.06 0.07

FIG . 13 - ADJUSTMENT OF R V

Mwlt
1. 5 .-----~----r--------,.-----r----.------,
RPM =18000
1., X
RV:.6
1.3 a 1=0.
1.2

1.1
1.0

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

0.02 0.01. 0.05 0 .06 0.07 R1 h

FIG 14- ADJUSTME NT OF RPM


- 77 -

2
aCENTR = !!_
Rc
Rc : RADIUS OF CURVATURE

SURFACE

FIG 15 -INFLUENCE OF WALL CURVATURE ON BOUNDARY


LAYER DEVELOPMENT.

90

80

70

60
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 DR

FIG. 16 - INFLUENCE OF DR ON COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY ..


- 78 -

OR
2.5
~-DIFFUSERS OF
CENTRIFUG AL
COMPRESSORS
2.0

1.5

1.0
0.5 1.0 1.5

FIG . 17 - COMPARISON OF DIFFUSION PERFORMANCES


OF ROTATING INDUCERS AND STATIONARY
DIFFUSERS .

l) c( .,.)
~ ~--------------~---.---.---.----.---.---.

Cpd=·7

PR =10 :1

70

DR
so~--~--~--~--~--~--~----~--------~----~~
1.2 1.6 1.8 2.0

FIG 18 - INFLUENCE OF DR AND Mw1t ON COMPRESSOR

EFFICIENC Y l) C
- 79 -

...

Rlt
-=.706
R2

Rlh =.32
Rlt
b /R =. 125
2

=.83

---- ---.......~-------

- - - REAL PROFILE {LINEAR+ CIRCULAR)

- - - - - ELLIPTICAL PROFILE APPROXIMATION .

FIG. 19- ECKARDT I s IMPELLER.


ELLIPTICAL PROFILE APPROXIMATION OF
A REAL IMPELLER .
- 80 -

---------------+
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\

'
- - - REAL PROFILE ' "'
'
-- - - - ELLIPTICAL PROFILE ' ~

APPROXIMATION

FIG. 20- ELLIPTICAL PROFILE APPROXIMATION OF


A REAL IMPELLER.
- 81 -

Dax

.,I

FIG. 21 - GEOMETRICAL MODEL FOR SEPARATION

--- --- --- --- --- --- --


- 82 -

t
~1 bl

h
~bl
I
_____ _____ _ L _ -
~bl I
I

~~ ----------t- -- -----~--~--
1
I
2 lt
3
~ bl ( 60°)

FIG . 22- IMPELLER BLADE SHAPE

~bl l
----- ----- ----- -----
~2 /I
/
/
---_/- ---- I
--------
~2bt ,......, I

~~~--~- II

~bl I

2
Tt/6
f3 bl ( 30°)

----B LAD E ANGLE

- - - - - -FLOW ANGLE

FIG . 23 - FLOW ANGLE VARIATION.


- 83 -

FIG. 2' - MERIDIONAL VELOCITY PROFILE .

FIG· 25 - SEPARATION SECTION GEOMETRY


- 84 -

RsEP

FIG . 26 - JET- WAKE MODEL.


- 85 -

2 bl

FIG. 27- TANGEN TIAL EQUIL18Rilt.1 AT IMPELLER


OUTLET .
- 86 -

T
P2w
T2w

T2mn
T2 .

rfmn
~ ,.
PsEP
TIS
2W

.
TsEP
s

FIG. 28 - T, S DIAGRAM OF IMPELL ER FLOW.


- 87 -

.9 J
.8
;I
.7
/I I

h ~l}
[// ,1/ C:.7
.6 : C=.7
£2/ ' I 1/j
.5 ../ I
v_..~ v~A
.4
,..., .... "'
........ ) I //' II
: ~2} C=-9
.3 ...-• II e:~ )VI C=.9

.2
~ )
,,/ /
"'
/~ I

.1
I
•/
~~ /v
__.......~~/_..:~~ ~
0 .1 .2 .3 .1. .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1. v

FIG. 29 - INFLUENCE OF V :W 2 w 1 ON THE


w2j
WAKE WIDTH e: 2 AND ON THE WAKE
MASS FLOW A
- 88 -

.8
~
~
~
ss~ r----_
.7 ll MEAN

~
.6
~
c =. 7 B =2.2
A = 1.3
B" = 5.1
1\' = L. .1
.5
ss
l) WAKE ___-4 ~

""
I

c =·1

.3
.1 .2 .3 .5 .6 .7 v

FIG. 30- INFLUEN CE OF V = W2w1w j ON THE IMPELLER


2
EFFrCIEN CY.

LOSSES

\
\\
\\ TOTAL
\\ LOSSES /
\\ /
~ //
~~ . /~SEPARATION LOSSES
" ~ ~ /
CLEARAN CE LOSSES I
--~~ .J__J=!_~ION LOSSES
--- - - -- ~2/R2
( b2/R 2 ) opt

FIG. 31 - INFLUENC E OF THE IMPELLE R WIDTH b 2 ON


THE LOSSES.
- 89 -

-----,
VrJ 1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
U21
I

1V2w
I
I I
------- ------- ------ --~---~~
Vu 2. Vu2.
J J

FIG. 32- JET- WAKE VELOCITY TRIANGLES .


- 90 -

Cm 10 4
5

i
\ i

3
\ __, x·-
-
-
/
""-...
I
,
!C"::._
Re =10"'
/_, I .
\ I
2
=106

1.0 ~
/1
>1----- -
Re

Re =10?
~ Re = 10
9
--- -
, . . '"II:;"-
I I
0
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

FIG. 33 - DISC FRICTIO N COEFFI CIENT Cm VERSUS


AXIALG AP S
- 91 -
T

T SEP
/
/
/
0

FIG. 34 - T.S DIAGRA M OF THE IMPELLE R OUTLET STATE .


- 92 -

WAKE WAKE JET WAKE JET WAt<E JET

FIG. 35 - PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS IN THE VANELESS


SPACE


- 93 -

1.2
1.1
1.0

.9
Vwtu2
.8
.7
.6
.5

. ' FrG . 36 A-
.3
.2 e:
'A
. 1

85
1.1
I 1.15 1.2 1.25 RIR2

80 a·J

75

70
FIG. 36 B-
65

(Rt2 l M ~
( R/R )
2 N
60
1.0 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 RJR 2
- 94 -

1.2
1.1
IP'W/p•
1.0 w2

.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
. I.

.3
FIG. 36 c-
.2
.,
, 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 RfR2

T~ T2
1.2 Ti T2
1.1
ro
1.0
Tj- T2
.9
Ti- T2
.8
.7
T - T2
.6
•5
. I.

.3 FIG. 36 0 -
.2
.1

1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 RJR2

'
( R/R2)M (tRz)M
- 95 -

FIG. 37 - VANELESS DIFFUSER BOUNDARY LAYER


DEVELOPMENT

*DIVER GENT
CHANNEL

I
I

,~THROAT
,' SECTION
I
I
*SEMI-V ANELE SS

- _SPAC E
--- - - ...._ SUCTION
* VANELESS ...._ "- SIDE
SPACE .........

IMPELLER ' ..........


..........
OUTLET ..........

. -
............
...........
...........

FIG . 38 - VANED ISLAND DIFFUS ER GEOMETRY


- 96 -

AR =OUTLET AREA
INLET AREA

As= b/w

FIG . 39- DIFFUSOR CHANNEL GEOMETRY

MIXING IINVERSED
PROCESS ONE- DIM-..........
~___,.,_____

--
VANELESS
DtFFUSOR

FIG. 1.0 - CALCULATION OF DIFFUSER LEADING


EDGE STATE.
- 97 -

FIG. 1.1 - DIFFUSER THROAT BLOCKAGE VERSUS


ACTUAL STATIC PRESSURE RECOVERY
FROM LEADING EDGE TO THROAT .

CP=
.82
I. .o t--t---t---+--- t+-YT-vtf-IT *:II'-t . 81

.80
.79
.78
.77
~'-+---1"7
-+--++ .76
2.s r---+---r~rr7"17-rv--r-::r==l==:t:=::t-. . 1 1.
28= 15
-+--+-~---+-- .7 2
11.
13 +---1----+----i~ .7 0
2.0 12
11
10
1. 75 9
8

6
I. 6
-
AS=1 .0, M:.6 I 8: . 02

FIG. 1.2- CHANNEL PRESSURE RECOVERY VERSUS A. R. AND


L/w
- 98 -

Cpmax

.78

.71.

.70

.66

.64

.6

.25 1 5 AS

FIG. 1.3- MAXIMUM PRESSURE RECOVERY VERSUS


ASPECTRATlO A.S. AND THROAT BLOCKAGE B

I
~~-
~-------------- l
I
AslMs JP6)
I _.,
I
----I-
I
---' -

FIG . 44- DUMP DIFFUSION PROCESS.