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concrete = a hardened mixture of cement, sand, and water with gravel or broken
stone used in construction.
2.main ingredients of concrete = Concrete is made up of three basic components:
water, aggregate (rock, sand, or gravel) and Portland cement.
3. classes of concrete :
Normal Class Concrete
Designed for residential home projects, paving, footpaths, driveways and low rise
applications. Normal class concrete to AS1379, compressive strengths of 20, 25, 32,
40 and 50MPa, utilising modern concrete additives to improve workability and
finishing times.

Special Class Concrete

Designed to meet project specifications to achieve high early strength and higher
long term strength and durability. Special class concrete mix designs are used in
large constructions from high rise buildings, dams and spillways, roads and bridges
to public works infrastructure.

Forta-Ferro is an easy-to-finish, colour blended fibre, made of 100% virgin
copolymer/polypropylene consisting of a twisted bundle non-fibrillating
monofilament and a fibrillating network fibre, yielding a high performance
concrete reinforcement system. Forta-Ferro is used to reduce plastic and hardened
concrete shrinkage, improve impact strength and increase fatigue resistance and
concrete toughness.

Decorative Concrete
CCS coloured concrete offers over 60 colours to suit your design requirements.
Hard-wearing and virtually limitless in options, coloured concrete is produced
through blending colour pigment with your concrete prior to delivery.

4. importance of hydration of concrete mixes.

The reaction with water is termed "hydration". This involves many different
reactions, often occurring at the same time. As the reactions proceed, the products
of the hydration process gradually bond together the individual sand and gravel
particles, and other components of the concrete, to form a solid mass.

5. what is curing? effects to concrete?

Curing is the maintaining of an adequate moisture content and temperature in
concrete at early ages so that it can develop properties the mixture was designed
to achieve.

-adequate amount of moisture for continued hydration

-development of strength
-volume stability
-resistance to freezing and thawing
-abrasion and scaling resistance.

6.rquirements in the design of concrete

-Characteristic strength of concrete required
-Workability requirement of concrete:
-Quality control at site
-Weather conditions
- Exposure conditions of concrete
-Batching and mixing methods
- Quality of materials
-Special Requirements of concrete

7.variation properties od concrete

The modulus of elasticity of concrete is a function of the modulus of elasticity of
the aggregates and the cement matrix and their relative proportions. The modulus of
elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts
decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops. The elastic modulus
of the hardened paste may be in the order of 10-30 GPa and aggregates about 45 to
85 GPa. The concrete composite is then in the range of 30 to 50 GPa.
-Thermal properties
-Expansion and shrinkage
Thermal Conductivity
-Shrinkage cracking
Tension cracking
-Water retention
-Concrete testing

8.factors affecting the strength of concrete

Quality of Raw Materials.
Water / Cement Ratio.
Coarse / fine aggregate ratio.
Aggregate / Cement Ratio. ...
Age of concrete. ...
Compaction of concrete. ...
Temperature. ...
Relative humidity.


10.Workability of Concrete Definition

Concrete workability is a broad and subjective term describing how easily freshly
mixed concrete can be mixed, placed, consolidated and finished with minimal loss of
homogeneity. Workability is a property that directly impacts strength, quality,
appearance, and even the cost of labor for placement and finishing operations. But
opinions don�t matter much when testing and documenting concrete properties, so how
can we define these qualitative characteristics in quantitative terms? This blog
post will cover everything you need to know about concrete workability, factors
that can affect it, and necessary equipment.


12.Compressive strength test

Three samples of cubes or cylinders shall be taken for compressive strength test,
but it is not commonly three samples, sometimes it is two depend on the
specification. You might ask why sometimes there is extra of one sample? Good that
you asked. This one sample extra shall be tested �if!� the two cubes or cylinders
samples are tested from the three and if it is failed and the remaining sample is
passed. If the consultant is not satisfied with the result (definitely not!) and he
wishes to test the extra one. It shall be tested in 60 days.