DEPTH AND HEIGHT PSYCHOLOGY
Nicolae M!rgineanu - op"iunea final!
Nicolae M!rgineanu a tr!it vreme de 16 ani calvarul de"inutului politic din închisorile comuniste. Nicolae M!rgineanu #tia, în 1979-80 c! este bolnav de cancer #i va muri curând. Nicolae M!rgineanu profesorul, de"inutul, omul aflat în pragul mor"ii, începea s! scrie cu fervoare despre în!l"imile #i adâncurile sufletului omenesc. Rezultatul - aceast! oper! neterminat! - Depth and Height Psychology - Psihologia adâncurilor #i în!l"imilor - cu rezonan"e testamentare, asupra c!rora vom schi"a câteva gânduri în cele ce urmeaz!. Manuscrisul acestei lucr!ri a fost conceput în SUA, între 1979-1980, în timpul celui de-al doilea stagiu oferit de Funda"ia Rockfeller distinsului psiholog clujean. El era destinat s! apar! într-o editur! american!, de aceea a fost scris direct în limba englez!. Dup! confirmarea diagnosticului de cancer de c!tre medicii americani, Nicolae M!rgineanu se întoarce îns! în "ar!, aducând cu sine manuscrisul neterminat. Moare în 13 iunie 1980, dar manuscrisul r!mâne #i vede acum lumina tiparului prin grija #i osârdia doamnei Daniela M!rgineanu ($!ranu); destin exemplar al unei familii de c!rturari ardeleni. Despre personalitatea complex! a unui creator afl!m mult mai multe intrând în atelierul s!u decât contemplând lucr!rile sale finite, terminate. C!ci în atelier vom g!si opere abia începute, proiecte, lucr!ri abandonate, eseuri, lucruri mai mult sau mai pu"in des!vâr#ite, capricii, simple schi"e sau exerci"ii. Or o personalitate se proiecteaz! nu numai în reu#itele sale ci #i în proiectele germinale, în erorile f!cute, în "pa#ii pierdu"i" f!cu"i în diverse direc"ii ale vie"ii. Depth and Height Psychology, oper! de atelier, înc! nefinisat!, spune mai mult despre personalitatea lui Nicolae M!rgineanu, decât oricare dintre crea"iile sale. Cartea trebuie a#adar citit! la dou! niveluri: ca o proiec!ie teoretic" #i ca o proiec!ie de personalitate. Din punct de vedete teoretic, lucrarea este mai întâi o tentativ" de a concilia, de a sintetiza dou" orient"ri psihologice majore, opuse: psihanaliza #i psihologia umanist". Sondând abisurile psihismului uman, S. Freud încerca s!-l reduc! la o colc!ial! de pulsiuni ale unui incon#tient libidinal. Dimpotriv!, C. Rogers, G. Allport, A. Maslow considerau c! esen"a uman! ultim! este pozitiv!, terapia având menirea s! descopere acest nucleu pozitiv #i s!-l ajute pe om s! #i-l manifeste. Nicolae M!rgineanu, prin chiar titlul lucr!rii sale,
încearc! s! concilieze în!l"area #i c!derea din om, psihologia adâncurilor #i a în!l"imilor psihicului uman. A#a cum nota autorul "cercetarea structurii psihologice a personalit!tii trebuie s! abordeze atât psihologia abisal! (depth psychology) a instinctelor #i incon#tientului, cât #i psihologia altitudinal! (height psychology) a valorilor umane sociale #i culturale care au umanizat specia uman!, adic! zoon politikon e logikon, cum a spus Aristotle". "Adâncurile" nu sunt numai con"inuturile reprimate studiate de Freud ci totalitatea rela"iilor trupsuflet, abordate repetat de marii gânditori, de la Aristotel #i Pascal, la Pavlov #i Watson. "În!l"imile" sunt (#i Nicolae M!rgineanu repet! obsesiv acest lucru) valorile fundamentale ale umanit!"ii: Libertatea, Adev!rul, Dreptatea, Iubirea #i Frumosul. Personalit!"ile carismatice, care au crezut în aceste valori, au scris cele mai glorioase pagini ale istoriei umane. Ele sunt mult mai relevante pentru ceea ce înseamn! fiin"a uman! decât bolnavii din clinicile psihiatrice, prea mult invoca"i în psihologia secolului nostru. Prin ei cerul coboar! sper p!mânt, cum spune Shakespeare, pe care N. M!rgineanu îl citeaz! adesea. A doua dimensiune teoretic! original! a lucr!rii psihologului clujean se refer! la patologia politic! #i rela"ia ei cu patologia psihologic!. Patologic! este acea ac"iune politic! ce violeaz! Libertatea, Dreptatea, Adev!rul, Iubirea, Frumosul. Dictaturile, cea stalinist! #i cea fascist!, spune M!rgineanu sunt exemple de patologie politic!. Tot în patologia politic! intr! #i rela"iile interna"ionale în care "!rile mari dicteaz! "!rilor mici. În general, orice politic! ce deviaz! de la valorile men"ionate, care încalc! Dreptatea, Adev!rul, Frumosul, Iubirea, nu este numai imoral!, este bolnav!. Mai devreme sau mai târziu ea creeaz! injusti"ie social!, seam!n! minciun!, suspiciune, urâ"e#te, priveaz! de libertate. Într-o vreme în care puternicii zilei fac elogiul
pragmatismului politic, a independen"ei politicii de axiologie, N. M!rgineanu ne atrage aten"ia c! pragmatismul poate foarte repede e#ua în patologic. Patologia politic!, ne spune autorul acestei c!r"i, este mult mai devastatoare decât cea psihobiologic!. Dictatura transform! rolurile sociale în m!#ti sociale, pe care indivizii trebuie s! #i le asume pentru securitatea proprie #i a familiei. Pentru destinul personal "a te na#te într-o "ar! bogat! #i democrat! sau într-una s!rac! #i dictatorial! este cu siguran"! mult mai important decât complexul lui Oedip, a#a cum Freud însu#i a avut o cazia s! se conving! singur când, la sfâ#itul vie"ii, a fost nevoit s! p!r!seasc! Austria, dup! invazia lui Hitler". textul sintetizeaz! nu numai medita"iile teoretice ale psihologului ci #i am!r!ciunea experien"ei personale. "În vremea noastr!, spune N. M!rgineanu, principala surs! a dramelor oamenilor este dictatura, care contest! drepturile omului #i imperialismului, care contest! dreptul na"iunilor #i libertatea lor de a se organiza în
Plimb#rile în curtea închisorii erau scurte "i rare. Iubirea !ine mai mult de axiologie decât de sex. Remediul nu este în psihanaliza individului izolat ci în igienizarea rela!iilor sociopolitice "to make the world safe for democracy". condi!iile inumane de via!# în care. Orice abatere de la regulament .pedeaps# cu încarcerarea într-o camer# de 60x60 de centimetri.are efecte mult mai ample. (s# facem lumea mai sigur# pentru democra!ie). hrana insuficient#. Aici nu avem de-a face cu o exaltare idealist# a valorilor general-umane. Construc!ia teoretic# "i proiec!ia personalit#!ii proprii converg îns# spre op!iunea fundamental# exprimat# de Nicolae M#rgineanu în Depth and Height Psychology: fundamentalismul axiologic. pentru o perioad# de 8-12 zile. Credin!a în valorile fundamentale ale umanit#!ii nu numai c# a dus la prop#"irea ei. revine acum obsesiv. cum sus!in psihanali"tii. c# iubirea este o valoare care !ine de excelen!a uman#. patologia politic# . a"a cum am men!ionat. M#rgineanu invoc# lucrarea lui Egon Frankl From death camps to existentialism pentru a argumenta un adev#r fundamental: "singura ap#rare a oamenilor împotriva tratamentelor inumane "i a nedrept#!ii este încrederea lor ferm# "i total# în triumful final al Adev#rului "i Drept#!ii". ci cu analiza psihologic# lucid# a situa!iilor limit#. mai dezastruoase. de în#l!imile ei. Convingerea ferm#.conformitate cu aspira!iile "i nevoile proprii". M#rgineanu consemneaz#: "cu mai pu!in decât minimum de calorii necesare. M#rgineanu vede tandre!ea cu care o iap# î"i ocrotea mânzul. mereu reprimat# în lucr#rile anterioare ale autorului. care au umanizat specia". aproape f#r#
. studiate de Freud. Într-o astfel de carcer# fiind. ci a "i salvat-o în momentele de grea cump#n#. tr#iau 350 de victime. printr-o hrub# din zid. M#rgineanu. nu dintr-o pornire sexual#. într-o celul# de 60 de metri p#tra!i. invocându-l pe pre"edintele american Wilson. Pentru prima dat# M#rgineanu descrie regimul de deten!ie. angajamentul axiologic total i-au ajutat pe cei încarcera!i s#-"i p#streze s#n#tatea mintal#. P#rin!ii sunt gata s# se sacrifice pentru copiii lor. F#cându-se ecoul atrocit#!ilor îndurate de ei însu"i prin închisori. nu de pulsiunile libinale ale incon"tientului. decât complexele rezultate din structurile familiei. cum subliniaz# N. Pe de alt# parte. Supravie!uitorii lag#relor de concentrare "m#rturisesc unanim c# singurul lucru care i-a men!inut în via!# "i i-a ajutat s# fac# fa!# atrocit!"ilor inumane la care erau supu"i a fost credin!a lor ferm# în principiile fundamentale ale valorilor umane.abaterea de la valorile care au consacrat umanitatea . În acest spa!iu ei erau nevoi!i s#-"i tr#iasc# propriul destin. poate pentru c# proximitatea mor!ii ne face s# reconsider#m experien!ele esen!iale ale vie!ii. Pe scurt. o experien!# pe care o invoc# adesea pentru a ar#ta c# dragostea e mult diferit# de sex. dintr-un sentiment al valorii. lucrarea de fa!# este o proiec!ie de personalitate a omului Nicolae M#rgineanu. revenind cam un metru p#trat pentru fiecare "ase oameni. Experien!a universului concentra!ionar. N.
Mircea Micle Universitatea "Babe!-Bolyai" Cluj
. Valorile au o parte de transcendent iar ancorarea noastr" în aceste valori. Dreptate. Realul î!i pierde din asprime. principiile fundamentale ale destinului omenesc. A fost sacrificiul lor o simpl" stupiditate? R"spunsul lui Nicolae M"rgineanu sun" ca un testament: "Ca unul dintre cei care au participat la lupta !i sacrificiile lor pentru principiile fundamentale ale Umanit"#ii în cei 16 ani de închisoare. Acest mesaj este c" nici un sacrificiu uman nu este prea mare pentru triumful principiilor fundamentale care au umanizat specia #i continu" s" amelioreze natura ei uman". mai pu#in dureroase cât" vreme credem în realitatea peren" a valorilor umane. cum l-am numit anterior. fundamentalismul axiologic. s" ne asum"m valorile perene. Fundamentalismul axiologic este condi#ia s"n"t"#ii noastre mintale. Recitit" acum. într-o perioad" de relativism axiologic. cum este cea din închisorile comuniste.este de a înt"ri spiritul în fa#a încerc"rilor vie#ii.ca !i a culturii în general .
Cluj. Iubire !i Frumos. social" #i cultural". când sute de milioane de oameni s-au sacrificat numai în acest secol pentru ele. încrederea oarb" în valorile umane esen#iale. luxul unui intelect deta!at de realitate. $i cum s" nu credem. "It was only the height psychology of mind.dr. Lec#ia care trebuie înv"#at" de aici este c" încrederea total" în valorile umane fundamentale. iunie 1998
Prof. Singura sintez" de psihologie umanist" din centrul !i estul Europei. nu este o op#iune intelectual". devine unica salvare într-o situa#ie limit".proteine !i f"r" vitamine oamenii cu încredere moral" în Libertate. în aceast" lume plin" de nenorociri. chiar dac" realitatea cotidian" le contrazice perpetuu. au reu!it totu!i s" supravie#uiasc"". încerc"rile vie#ii devin mai pu#in relevante. m" simt obligat moral s" transmit mesajul lor con!tiin#ei lucide a lumii. Ea ne îndeamn"." Aceasta este op#iunea teoretic" !i existen#ial" fundamental" din ultima lucrare a profesorului Nicolae M"rgineanu. that saved the lowest biology of the body". ea î!i p"streaz" actualitatea. Func#ia principal" a axiologiei . scris" într-o perioad" când umanismul fusese confiscat !i golit de sens de c"tre ideologia oficial". chiar atunci când ele sunt zilnic c"lcate în picioare. Fundamentalismul axiologic. dup" aproape dou" decenii. Depth and Height Psychology este ultima proiec#ie teoretic" !i existen#ial" a psihologului clujean. ne ridic" !i pe noi deasupra încerc"rilor vie#ii. ci este condi!ia esen!ial" a s"n"t"!ii noastre mentale. Adev"r.
Sooner or later. Nicolae M!rgineanu knew. The depth psychology is not concerned exclusively with the repressed instinct but with any interrlationship between soul. have argued that. Truth. M!rgineanu tries to bridge the gap between libidinal and spiritual self. in the light of a final analysis. A. the man facing the iminent death. Freedom. The individuals who embodied these values have been more relevant for human species than the residents of psychiatric clinics. Allport. in 1979-80 that he had cancer prone and he would die soon. Justice and Love. Freud and his posterity overemphasised the libidinal id as the core-component of the pesonality.g. From a theoretical point of view Depth and Height Psychology is a successful temptative to conciliate two opposed psychological currents: humanistic psychology and psychoanalysis. Justice and Beauty. mind and body as well. the professor. that is zoon politikon e logikon.the final option
Nicolae M!rgineanu experienced for 16 years the ordeal of the political prisoner in the communist prisons. Love. The heights are human values illustrated by the most charismatic personalities of humankind: Truth. paraphrasing Shakespeare. human nature is positive and concerned with human values and reality testing. that have made men human beings.) generates
. N. the political prisoner. said M!rgineanu.Nicolae M!rgineanu . underlining that "the study of the psychological structure of personality has to approach both the depth psychology of instinct and of unconscious and the height psychology of human social and cultural values. political pathology (e. C. Maslow. The book could be approached as a theoretical projection on the one hand and as a personality projection of the author on the other. The outcome . Nicolae M!rgineanu. imperialism etc. Pathological is any political action against Freedom. dictatorships. On the other hand. through them the sky comes down to Earth. the proponents of humanistic psychology.this unfinished work Depth and Height Psychology of testamentary resonances on which we shall outline below a few thoughts. As we all know. S. The second theoretical dimension of this book is the original approach of the relationship between political and psychobiological pathology. started writing with fervor about the depths and height of human soul. as Aristotel said". Rogers. C.
Depth and Height Psychology could be comprehended as a projective test of N. said N. N. eating less than 800 calories a day. in a laconic and salient expression of M!rgineanu "it was only the height psychology of the mind that saved the lowest biology of the body". It is the first time during his prodigious publishing activity when he mentions his experiences in various communist prisons. We found. Beyond the theoretical constrution. N. M!rgineanu and E. corroborating the testimony of N. like the substitution of social roles by social masks or pathological individual defenses against political power. hundred of milions of people have died for their fulfillment. relying not only on his research but also on his life-experience. Dictatorships that deny individual rights and imperialisms that dispute national rights generate more human dramas than any family conflict." Or. when the walk inside the prison courtyard was suspended for many years. M!rgineanu writes several lines of testamentary significance: "I am under the moral obligation to submit their message to the world conciounsness. Frankl .another psychologist. because they are prerequisites of our own mental health in limit situations. and every insubordination punished by severe incarceration.psychosocial discrepancies. along the history.a common pattern to cope with a limit situation: the axiologic fundamentalism. "To be born in a rich and democratic country or in a poor and dictatorial one is certainly more impotant than the Oedipus complex. The survivors of "death camps" confess that "against inhuman maltreatementand injustice the only defense of men is their full and firm conviction in the final triumph of Truth and Justice. Any deviation of political behaviour from human values is pathological. is much more devastating than any psychobiological pathology. M!rgineanu's personality. The sacrifices of these people are not stupidities or personal idiosincrasies. who survived nazi imprisonements . During his long years of inprisonement. when he shared sixty square meters with other 350 unfortunate prisoners. This message is that no human sacrifices are too great for the triumph of
. Psychological conflicts emerging from interrelations with parental figures (Freud's "complexes") are far less important than political misbehaviours. As one of those who fought 16 years in prison for the triumph of human values. and it is worth doing because. We need to belief in human values. His own survival during 16 years of inprisonement in such inhuman conditions and the survival of his comrades can be explained only by their unconditioned attachement to human values. M!rgineanu. The remedy proposed by M!rgineanu is related rather to therapeutic socio-political actions ("to make the world safe for democracy") than to individual psychoanalysis. as Freud himself had the sad occasion to convince himself at the end of his life". M!rgineanu forgered his belief in human values. a pragmatic politic can become easily prone to political pathology.
as a necessary prerequisites of mental health and cultural construction.
.e. Cercet!tor #tiin"ific în calitate de bursier al Funda"iei Rockfeller la Universit!"ile Harvard.the leading principles. specialitatea principal! psihologie. axiologic fundamentalism. Chicago #i Duke (1932-1934). the very last (unfinished) work of N. is the unique contribution to humanistic psychology in central and eastern Europe. cu men"iunea magna cum laudae al Universi"!"ii din Cluj. N. M!rgineanu. Yale. social and cultural nature". Columbia. Theoretical construction and projection of personality.
NICOLAE M!RGINEANU 1905-1980
ACTIVITATEA DIDACTIC! "I "TIIN#IFIC!
STUDII Licen"iat (1927) #i doctor (1929) în filosofie. Studii de specializare la Universit!"ile din Leipzig. after 16 years of political imprisonement. Berlin #i Hamburg (1929). M!rgineanu merges his theoretical and existential preferences together into a final option: the firm belief in human values i. Depth and Height Psychology. Docent în psihologie la Facultatea de Filosofie #i Litere a Universit!"ii din Cluj (1931). that have made men human beings and continue to improve their human. Facing a lethal cancer. Sorbona-Paris (1935) #i Londra (1935).
A. Profesor invitat la Universitatea din Hamburg (1972). 350 p.U. Invitat al Funda#iei Rockfeller în S. 180 p. 1929. la Cluj.
. 1931. la Sibiu (1941-1943). Profesor invitat la Universitatea din Bonn (1971). cu sarcini de cercetare !tiin#ific". Psihologie francez" contemporan". la Institutul de $tiin#e Pedagogice.
DETINU! POLITIC (1948-1964) Cercet"tor !tiin#ific principal. gradul II. 1929. 320 p. asistent (1928-1936) !i !ef de lucr"ri (1936-1938) la Institutul de Psihologie al Universit"#ii din Cluj.FUNC!II Preparator (1926-1928). Conferen#iar de Psihologie aplicat" la Facultatea de Filosofie !i Litere a Universit"#ii din Cluj (1938-1947). Profesor suplinitor. Se întoarce în #ar" când medicii americani confirm" diagnosticul de cancer. Profesor suplinitor de psihologie !i director al Institutului de Psihologie la Facultatea de Filosofie !i Litere a Universit"#ii din Cluj (1938-1942). la Catedra de Psihologie a Facult"#ii de Istorie !i Filosofie a Universit"#ii "Babe!-Bolyai" din Cluj (1971-1980). Director al Laboratorului Psihotehnic al Ministerului Muncii din Cluj. pentru anii 1979-1980. 158 p.
LUCR"RI La Editura Institutului de Psihologie al Universit"#ii din Cluj: Psihologia exerci!iului. Psihotehnica în Germania. 1932. Psihologie german" contemporan". 1930. Se stinge din via#" la 13 iunie 1980. 88 p. îns"rcinat cu Direc#ia filialei din Cluj (1969-1971). Psihologia înv"!"rii.
Ro!ca. Natura "tiin!ei. A. 39. Les facteurs psychologiques.
Alte edituri: Problema evolu!iei. Volum omagial. Un num$r de aproximativ 35 articole în revistele de specialitate !i de cultur$ general$.aspectul ei bio-psiho-social !i cultural. "tiin#ific$. Ed. 1931. 316p. 156 p. Alcan. 1929.coordonator !tiin#ific !i autor a cinci capitole. Dacia. Ed.
În limbi str!ine: Beiträge zur Psychologie der Ubung. Societatea de mâine. Rusu. Cluj. Psihologie #i literatur$. 1943.Psihologia configura!iei (în colaborare cu L. Ed. Psychol. Ed. 176 p. 1931. 260 p. L'Ann. Paris. Elemente de psihometrie. pt. dedicat lui P. Ed. 1970. Presa Universitar$ Clujean$. Todoran). Ed. Bucure!ti. Psihotehnica. Paris. Cluj. 376 p. Bucure!ti. Didactic$ !i Pedagogic$. Condi!ia uman$ . 1991. fi!e de observa#ie.. Ed. L'Ann. 216 p. 491-530. 304 p. 1971. f. 25 teste !i chestionare. 1941. 1938. 1972. 1942. 650 p. 1934. 1938. 84 p. D. Bucure!ti.. Zeitscher. La théorie des factures. plus aprox. Cluj. La nature da la loi scientifique et ses conditions d'exactitude. Psychol. Cluj. (postum). 25. Bucure!ti. Orientare #colar$ #i profesional$ . 350 p. Amfiteatre #i Închisori. Ed. 1973. Logical and Mathematical Psychology. 1997. aplicate în !coli !i uzine. Angew. Paris. 350 p.. Dacia. 1969. Psihotehnica în marea industrie. Literatur$. cuprinzând aproximativ 100 p. Dacia. (Lucrarea dezvolt$ lec#iile #inute la Universitatea din Bonn. 25. 350 p. Ed. în calitate de profesor invitat). Janet. 1934. Psychol. 85-102. 1975. (postum). 50-84. Psihologie logic$ #i matematic$. 574 p. Psihologia persoanei. Analiza factorilor psihici.
. "tiin#ific$. 504 p. 504 p. 32p. Sub semnul omeniei.
whi l e t hrough men the sky comes down to the earth.said Shakespeare . deprived of any possibility of decision about their own behavior. He defined human species as social beings wi t h conscious reason.Chapter I
IN TR O D U C TIO N
Man and mountain . Right and Beauty. Aristotle then promoted the same interpretation in sci ence and philosophy. they were mere machines. A similar conception of human nature is asserted in a stil more conspicuous way in the Bible.
. According to Descartes. t hat are Truth. capable of self-control and self-real i zat i on. which claims that first man was created by God himself in his own image. lacking consciousness. created to provide food and help. In opposition to human beings were t he animals.are alike except t hat through its mountains the earth tries to rise to the sky. i n accordance with the leading principles of human destiny.
not onl y t he ugly aspects of instincts. Indeed. who in this regard are worse than wolves. as his wonderful work about t he play and sex of animals and human beings proves. In any case the human species does not seem to be entirely different from the animal ones. Indeed. Copernicus' theory brought about the det hronem ent of our pl anet . followed by Descates. but merely the most advanced one. Therefore. Therefore. illustrated by Watson's dogmatic behaviorism and by Freud's not less dogmatic psychoanalysis. created in hi s own i m age and desi gned t o be t he m ast ers of their world. of t he survi val of t he fi t t est singul ars. like animals. Nevert hel ess. men. that is from Aritotle down to Wundt. The third revol ut i on was then that of Freud. Kant and Hegel. as Darwin said. It is nevertheless true that Shakespeare and Goethe themselves took a broader view of human nature and of its social condition and cultural development. human self-control and selfrealization were far from being satisfactory and a lot of their behavior resem bl ed t hat of ani m al s. its evolution is under the same law of the struggle for exi st ence. Moreover. as Freud did for instance. they seem to be the only species capabl e of organized wars against other human communities. Darwi n's t heory brought about t he det hronem ent of men. as well as in opposition to the philosophy of Socrates.In spite of these rather clamorous pretension of high psychol ogy. Plato and Aristotle. scientific psychology seemed to be at its beginning mainly that of instincts and reflexes on one hand and that of Unconscious on the other. The evolution of psychology in the first half of our century followed the same line of development and contradicted the main ideas of the previous centuries and even millenium. Thus modern science evolved in this way in opposition to the beautiful myths of the Bible and Shakespeare's wonderful aphorism. however. Darwi n saw. but also their positive sides. When hunger and sex came into discussion. but
. hi s theory about the origin of species was a dethronement of men from their unique position of God's chosen beings. were indeed capable of at t acki ng and even ki l l i ng t hei r fellows. claiming that consciousness is more a victim than a master of it. and even the beautiful ones. that m i ght di sput e t hei r food and t erri t ory whi l e t he ani m al s woul d at t ack only other species. Hobbes' statement that Homo homini lupus est is not an insult to wolves but to men. considered to be God's chosen beings. who contested the active role of consci ousness with its moral values in our self-control and self-realization and promoted the power of the Unconscious with its sexual Libido. consi dered t o be t he cent er of t he Uni verse. not only did Shakespeare write witty aphorisms.
Maslow and C.S.was their firm belief in the leading principles of human values that have m ade m en hum an bei ngs.A. Rogers in U. that the one view of human destiny with the accent upon sex and unconscious. emerged from the reaction to the atrocities committed i n t he deat h cam ps of Hitler and Stalin. Part I recognizes the power of instincts. where tens of million of innocent people l ost t hei r l i ves just for being of another race or ideology than those of the odi ous di ct at ors. the greatest tragedy of human history! Yet. he also wrote A Midsummer Night's Dream and The Tempest. Maslow said. and ot her similar works are testifying this basic truth: against inhuman maltreatment and injustice the only defense of men is their full and firm conviction in the fi nal triumph of Truth and Justice. Hence the fight of the United Nations Organization for human rights. Stendhal. to which they were submitted . prevails. social and cultural values was also asserted by Brentano and Dilthey in Germany. by Bergson. Thomae in West Germany. It was. It is merely in a certain literature of our days. to which Wilhelm Master's Wandering Years adds the educational and the cultural ones. Stern.psychoanal ysi s and behavi ori sm . in which he perceived both the wisdom and poetry of human life. the other two being . this noble fight for hum an rights does not have the chance to
. etc. however. however. in which the unconscious with its instincts triumphed over reason and consciousness. U. In my modest opinion. W. however.S.S. the few survivors confess unani m ousl y t hat t he only thing that kept them alive . Samuel Beckett and Eugen Ionescu went further and advocated the main role of absurdity. Goethe in Faust. And fot t hi s. Dickens. as the late A. The most convincing arguments for the fundamental rol e of human. However. has never been lost.breaking book of Egon Frankl From death camps to existentialism. social and cultural values in human destiny in our t roubl ed world. Allport and Gardner Murphy advocated the same completeness of determination.and helped them to escape from the inhuman atrocities. Humanistic psychology seems to be. The tradition of the broad view of Shakespeare and Goethe and then of Lessing. while Part II asserts human and social values. Balzac.in his opinion .A. G. and H.also dramas full of conflicts and even crimes. and England. indeed. Humanistic psychology then reached the highest peak of development with A. the third force in contemporary psychology. no price is too high! The heart . that have to be respected by all countries which j oi n the international organization. Part I and II promoted the same broad and humanistic view. The new psychology of personality promoted by W. indeed. The idea of height psychology with the accent upon human. James and Mc Dougall in France. written under the influence of Freud's psychoanalysis.
and duties . based upon individual freedom and soci al justice. when more than hundreds of m i l l i ons of i nnocent people lost their lives in a tragic and unjust way.cultural humanism and not only an individual one. Thus our humanism is no l onger that of the Greek cities. Consequently. but rather those of our very troubled century. in our modern epoch the only successful humanism is that of the whole triangle of human nature. but also economically and culturally through a large program of educat i on. reiterated by those of the R anai ssance t hat put the accent upon the individual. Consequently. based not merely upon science. but also upon literature and art. by promoting t hei r cul t ural development. namely upon all the values of our cul t ure and civilization. by bringing all the nations of the world in the ci vi l i zat i on of our century because human nature cannot be separated from its social condition and cultural development. promoted in the second part of his m ast erpi ece. To fight for it with all the possible means is none the less our supreme duty because otherwise an atomic confrontation might bring the collapse of all humanity.of the individuals. To be born in a rich and democratic country or in a
. Therefore. In order words. the problems of psychol ogy are not so much those of the love relations within the family of Fel i x Austria at the end of the last century discovered by Freud. we have to solve not only the right . but that of Goethe. To translate into fact this new complex humanism over the night is certainly not possible because we have to approach it not only politically. with two World Wars and with its death camps. Yet. but also on the positive versus negative si gni f i cance of t he economic relations between individuals and their working community on one hand and on the political rel at i ons bet ween citizens and their state. our psychological research has to focus not merely on the positive versus negative meanings and values of the love rel at i ons i n family. its com pl em ent ary sol ut i on i s that of Woodrow Wilson's device "to make the world safe for democracy".succeed as long as it refers merely to i ndi vi dual s and m akes abst ract i on of t he econom i c and political organization of their states. but also those of their societies. That is. on the other hand. being in this way a social . who saw t he dramas of individuals in the first part of Faust and real i zed t hat i t s solution requires the development of their social organi zat i on and human welfare. both materially and spiritually. social condition and cultural development. Under such circumstances. the real i zat i on of these complementary ideals is not possible unless all the nat i ons of t he worl d are brought up in the correct civilization of our century. because without the democratic organi zat i on of t he states the fight for human rights is illusory.
accessible to logical i nt erpret at i on. Thus. that are organical connected with the world of facts. promoted by Wundt. however. without reducing them to their biological infrastructure or to interpret them through their social superstructure. the most important structure is left out. that intervene economically. social and cultural values. t hat is to say through their own structures and functions. that directs its attention upon the meaningful interconnectedness of structural order of beings with their inherent significances in their own world. Koehler said i n hi s William James lecture at
. Actually. The most important relations for the individual destiny seem to be t hen the relations between the states themselves with the desperate struggle of the small countries against the imperialism of some bigger ones. called to unify the biological infrastructure with the social and cul t ural superstructures. as Freud himself had the sad occasion to convince himself at the end of his life. when he was forced to leave Austria after Hitler's invasion. Moreover. but the new relational and processual logic of contemporary science. In other words. proved to be too simple. like sensations and reflexes. that focussed on t he subt ant i val and attributive order of various classes of singulars. politically and even militarily in their internal affairs in order to subjugate and exploit t hem . accessible to observational methodology with logical determination. was the functional psychology. but also upon the complex and central functions of Ego and personality in relation to its own world. Thus psychology was split up into two opposed disciplines with different methodologies without any interconnection between them. Thi s l ogi cal i nt erpret at i on was no longer t hat of t he t radi t i onal logic of Aristotle. accessible to m at hem at i cal determination. but also that of correct significance of human.still believe in it. although som e scientists . This theoretical and methodological model of psychology as a science. as W. In opposition to this dualistic solution of psychology.poor and a dictatorial one is certainly more important than the Oedipus complex. advocat ed by Wundt. Wundt himself in his social and cultural psychology and anthropology took the opposite way of reductionism and tried to explain complex psychol ogi cal phenomena through their social and cultural values of soci et y and civilization. It attempted to explain psychological phenomena through t hem sel ves. namely the psychological one. Brentano and James focus their attention not only on simple and peripheric phenomena. promoted by Brentano and James. the nucleus itself of psychology was i gnored. t he new l ogi c is not only that of correct propositions about objective facts.in a certain delay with the evolution of science in the last decades of our century . Bacon and Mill.
Harvard University. This new logic was inaugurated by Goethe and Hegel, and further elaborated by Windelband, Dilthey and Max Weber on t he one hand and by Husserl, Heidegger, and Jaspers on the ot her. It aims to define the Logos itself, that is the logical significance of the parts in their whole and the wholes in their world, with their directions of evolution versus regress in more and more adequat e form s. One must never forget, indeed, that it takes a few hours to l earn t en rows with meaningless letters, because each row is to be det erm i ned in terms of its elementary units. If, however, one has to l earn t en rows with meaningful sentences, then their correct reproduction is possible in a few minutes just because of their meaningful si gni fi cances t hat gi ve t o t hei r m at hem at i cal m ul t i pl i ci t y a l ogi cal uni t y, as I have tried to show in my previous work on Logical and Mathematical Psychology. The theory of this book is operated with its logical and mathematical metatheory versus m et hodol ogy. It should then be observed that when the main t ransact i ons versus interactions between
individuals and their society come into discussion, then the psychology of personality is not only a study of individual in itself, taken solipsistically, but the study of the whole triangle of human nature, social
condi t i on and cultural development apperceived from the standpoint of the individual. Sociology approaches the same triangle from the point of vi ew of the society and cultural anthropology versus history, focussing it from t he standpoint of cultural evolution. Consequently, personality traits and functions are not longer approached as si m pl e at t ri but es versus functions of its structure, but as modes of transactions or interaction with society at a certain level of cultural development, depending upon all the three determining variables of hum an nat ure, social condition and cultural development. Thus, the significances themselves define not so much the relations between perceptions, intelligence, learning, motivations and emotions of the psychological structure, taken in itself, as rather the interrelation between individuals and their family, school, society, work community, social class, nations, etc. The cultural development adds their direction of evolution versus regress. The nodes and degrees of this individuation approach the social order and cultural development from the standpoint of individuals in their society at a certain moment of history. This does not mean that psychology in general and psychology of personality in particular have to direct their attention merely upon psychological structure in relation to its social and cultural superstructure because biological i nfrast ruct ure on one part and the unconscious with its repression and instincts on the other part are also important. Therefore, the study of the psychol ogi cal structure of personality has to
approach both the depth psychology of instincts and of unconscious and the height psychol ogy of human, social and cultural values, that have made men human beings, that is zoon politikon, as Aristotle said. Depth psychology, however, might be not only the psychoanalysis of the repressed instincts, as Freud thought, but also the profound study of Pascal, who aimed to approach the meaningful interconnectedness between body, soul and mind in the service of our true human, social and cultural being, as Goethe and Shakespeare also thought. The same is true of al l the great thinkers from Aristotle to Montaigne, Kant, Hegel, Brentano, James, Bergson, Dewey, Husserl and then W. Stern, G.W. Allport, G. Murphy, C.R. Rogers, A. Maslow, etc. Otherwise, the completeness of determination of biological, psychological, social and cultural structure of human nature cannot be reached. This means that the methodology itself had to be not only statistical and experi m ent al , but al so logical, clinical and observational, taken in the broadest sense of t he word. This psychology, eleborated with such a completeness of determination, has to focus not only on the failures of hum an destinies, but also on the healthy, honest and successful ones, who are the rule that prevails. Due attention is then to be given to creat i ve minds in science, literature, art, economics, politics, ethics, philosophy and ideology, that promote human progress and civilization. Sometimes even with the price of their life! The most glorious pages of human hi st ory are written thought the sacrifices of these men of charisma of hum an destiny, as Max Weber called them, and not by its failures in mental hospitals to whom so much attention is paid. The at t ent i on paid to help these failures honors us, but it is not in the l east a reason to neglect and ignore those who created human welfare, both materially and spiritually, with more Freedom, Justice, Love, Truth and Beauty, as the outstanding exponents of mankind. Through them the sky came down to the earth, as Shakespeare said so beautifully.
Cha p ter II
HUMAN NATURE SOCIAL CONDITION AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
Definitions of human personality are extremely numerous. About half a century ago in G. W. Allport estimation there where over fifty. Some three decades later McClelland considered the number three times larger. Today, i t m i ght be, i n al l probabi l i t y, at least double. Is this a reason to belive that psychology of personal i t y did not reach a satisfactory level of scientific development, as both Allport and McClelland were inclined to believe? If only their differences are taken into consideration, their argument might be pl ausi bl e. If, however, t hei r genus proximum is also considered, then their supposition is not justified because the number of common variables is much larger than the differentia specifica. Or, this fact is, to be sure, an argument for the satisfactory elaboratioan of the psychology of personality, al least for our present knowledge about it. The scientific elaboration of the psychology of personality has to be judged then not only from the standpoint of experimental methodology with mathematical determination, that aims for exactitude, but also from the point of view of the much larger methodology with logical interpretation, that strives for validity, too. From the standpoint of experimental methodology with metrical estimation, psychoanalysis, for instance, was considered to be at its very beginning - a kind of heresy. After half a century, however, its clinical methodology with logical interpretation opened a new way in scientific research, whose validity was much greater than that of experimental psychology with mathematical determination that, in its desi re t o follow only the physical model of scientific elaboration - that became almost an obsession - engaged sometimes on rather sterile roads of research. If this common denominator of psychology, with both m at hem at i cal determination and logical interpretation, is considered, then hum an personality might be defined as a bio-psycho-social and cultural structure that varies in space and evolves in time aiming toward more healthy, honest and creative selfrealization. The definition is, of course, rat her f ormal and does t el l very l i t t l e about i t s mat eri al content, yet it satisfies the main condition of comprehensive, extensive and evol ut i onary det erm i nat i on , t hat t he l ogi c of definition requires. Indeed, the notion of bio-psycho-soci al and cultural structure engages the comprehensive determination, while those of its variation and evolution engage the extensive and evolutionary ones. These determination are the three condi t i ons of the scientific definition in accordance with the present devel opm ent of l ogi c, as I t ri ed t o show i n t he chapt er
Consequently. that discriminate between healty development of the i ndi vi dual wi t h soci al intergration and cultural
development. pat hol ogi cal and cri mi nal devel opm ent . The last words of defi ni t i on. Of course. Stern . but em erge from the inner structure and functions in development of t he fact s themselves. honest and creative development of personality. are not the subj ect i ve projections of our intelligence upon the objective facts.promoted by Darwin and further devel oped by Stanley Hall. Binet and W. social and cul t ural sciences.as in the time of Wundt and even Brentano. For the time being they are present even in quantum mechanics. i t s sci ent i fi c explanation was supposed to be the determination of psychol ogi cal
. in relation to normal. t hat requi res t he di scri m i nat i on of the judgements of values in a world of facts. as Heisenberg cl ai m ed. Theoretical psychol ogy of our days is not only a general one . Both structural and functional determinations ought to be considered from the standpoint of their variation in space in terms of generality and specificity versus i ndi vi duat i on on one hand and in term of their evolution in time in terms of continuity and discontinuity on the other. concerni ng t he healthy.
B i o-p sych o-soci al an d Cu l tu ral S tru ctu re of H u man Person al i ty
As long as psychology was elaborated under the obsessi on of t he physi cal m odel of Newt on's m echani cs. add the necessary judgement of values to the previous j udgem ent s of facts. that by their very nature aim toward healthy self-realization in accordance with honest social i nt egrat i on i n vi ew of their harmonious and efficient development of product i ve and creative nature. the judgem ent s of value. Scientific theories are then called to fill the formal pattern versus matrix of definition with their det erm i nat i ons of t he material content in terms of substantival units versus st ruct ures wi t h certain attributes on one part and of their functional interreltionships in accordance with cert ai n l aw s and rul es on the other part. psychological. that are completely necessary in biological.on definition in my previous work on Logical and Mathematical Psychology.inaugurated by Gal t on and further developed by Cattel.but also a differential one . James and Freud . as Koehler said.and an evolutionary one .
i s t he psychological factor of health. which in their t urn were supposed t o be reduced t o chemical and physical processes. as K. but also from their degree of development. the biological infrastructure of human personality is not only a determining variable of its psychological structure. t hat integrate those of their infrastructures. association and thought. but also an effect of it in vi rt ue of t he feedback act i on. proposed by Hippocrates. All of these biological factors are also to be considered from the standpoint of their variation and devel opment . i n whi ch the age has its own role. The anatomy. physiology and morphology of the body are then to be considered not merely in relation to its psychol ogi cal structure. The biological i nfrast ruct ure of hum an personal i t y refers t o i t s body. but also in connection to its biochemical and bi ophysi cal processes as well as in their transactions with the geographi cal environment.phenom ena i n terms of the psysiological and neurological ones. reglemented by the law of rei nforcem ent . al t hough i t s impact upon the psychological structure of personality is less important than social superstructure with its cultural devel opm ent . dependi ng upon t he aut onom ous nervous syst em on one hand. 2. i n whi ch emotions and sentiments. 1. Psychological structure. It was an illusory hypot hesi s. They are the i nst rum ent of passi ve and active adaptation to environment. like in the old legend of the Greek mythology. Hum an abi l i t i es versus funct i ons or apt i t udes are those of perceptions. learning and intelligence with cognitive functions. Yet t he impact of the body upon personality is to be considered not m erel y from t he standpoint of the biological constitution. specific to their own structures. The most important one. It includes human abi l i t i es of one part and hum an m ot i vat i on on t he ot her one. that include memory. Kretschmer. Biological infrastructure. by adapting them to its new lawfulness. however. as Hellpach has shown. of rather substantial importance. whi ch i s t he m ai n image of its psychological and social identification. and wi t h t he norm al functioning of its heart and lungs on the other. Jung said. are introducing the world of values. t hat wanted to carry water in a bottomless vase. that requires an objective est i m at i on of bot h aspect s
. Under such conditions. An important bi ol ogi cal fact or seem s to be then its symmetrical development with agreeable aesthetics of head and face. with its metabolism. determined mainly by their endocrinological basis. because according to the present status of scientific investigation each level of organization of matter and energy adds its own laws. with its various biotypologies. Pende and Sheldon.
The same uni t y i n multiplicity of a complex and hierarchical order applies to our psychological structure of abi l i t i es. are the function
. whi ch i ncl ude different organs with numerous tissues. our inner organization on one hand and i t s transactions with the environment on the other. Therefore. their determination and i nt erpret at i on i s st ruct ural and f unct i onal and not at omi st and associ at i oni st . In vi rt ue of t hi s st ruct ural and functional interrelationship between the numerous part s and their whole. vol i t i ve and em ot i onal nat ure. but also the highest syntheses of our conscious Ego. t hat has a word upon al l our abi l i t i es. t endenci es and val ences wi t h t hei r emotions and sentiments.of real i t y. Both of them are under the law of reinforcement of our em ot i ons and sentiments. Under such ci rcum st ances. They i nfl uence t he Ego too. that introduces the world of values in their worl d of fact s. selfcontrol and self-realization are not only the m ost com pl ex st ruct ures of our personal i t y. as it was thought before. are not to be concei ved as a si m pl e pl ural i t y of i ndependent uni t s of cogni t i ve versus motivational nature . They are t he m ot or versus dynam i cal fact or of our t ransact i ons with the environment in view of our passive and active adapt at i on t o i t . t hat are t he ext ernal worl d on one hand and t he i nt ernal one on t he ot her.be they sensations or reflexes. Human motivation of our action includes both the biological needs and bio-psychological drives and t endenci es of hereditary nature as well as the economic. all of them with their specific structures and functions. social and cul t ural val ences of educat i onal ot her. t hat act s bot h consci ousl y and unconsci ousl y i n vi ew of t hi s m ost effi ci ent adaptation to environment. with its consci ous sel f-cont rol and sel f-l eadershi p. the behavior of our personality. whi ch serves t he conservat i on and devel opm ent of our bei ng i n its world. under the obssesion of the physical m odel of Newt on's m echani cs. in accordance with its world. The unity of our body is to be sure the most obvious percept i on although its structure is composed of various systems. Sensory and intellectual abilities with their actions and react i ons t o envi ronm ent are t hei r operat i onal i nst rum ent s. molecules. however. at t i t udes or val ues .but as a m ul t i pl i ci t y wi t h cert ai n uni t y of a hi erarchi cal order. percept i ons or t rai t s. cells. of cogni t i ve. under t he sel f-cont rol and self-ful fi l m ent of our Ego. Human abilities and motivations. that leads to its most successful conservation and development. t endenci es and val ences. in virtue of their dialectical reciprocity versus feedback. atoms and particles. our intelligence.
The most international values. Allport. social and political ones. they have to be considered in t erm s of t hei r soci al roles. Vernon and Li ndzey followed the general approach of Ed. with its i ncreasi ng international trade. work com m uni t y. aiming for uni versal i t y. church. that is on the way to prove that peaceful col l aborat i on bet ween nat i ons i s m ore wort hful t han wars. Theoretical and aesthetical types t hen were characteristic merely to a small minority of population.Social superstructure.
. but also economic. but with less success. school. that transgress the frontiers of the state.of al l of them. social class. soci al and pol i t i cal val ues. social. t hat does not have national frontiers and belongs to all hum ani t y. aesthetical and rel i gi ous val ues and t ypes. Indeed. Of course. 3. Therefore. The most concrete and uni versal t ype seem s t o be i n t hi s case t hat of t he fam i l i al rol e. To a certain extent the same aspiration toward universality characterizes more and more the economic conjuncture. In their Study of values. however. but also the religious ones. l i ke the social one for instance. Given the fact that differentia specifica charact eri zes not onl y ethical traits. that di fferent i at ed bet ween economic. theoretical. Spranger. t he approach of social integration in terms of social i nst i t ut i ons and rol es seems to be more adequate. political. nation and state as well as church with the observat i on t hat t he i deol ogy of some political parties has the tendency to include not only econom i c.with regard to the relations between individuals and their family.with regard to the relations between individuals and society in general . fai l ed t o be recogni zed. The second t ype seem s t o be t hat of t he professional role. with certain degrees of efficiency and development for each of them. profession. S om e of t hese general t ypes. t hat operat e i nsi de t he state. however. are those of sci ence. Other social roles are t hose of social class. school. because of their i nherent differentia specifica of ethnical order. A similar aspiration toward universality begins to be prom ot ed i n literature and art. These i nst i t ut i ons and roles refer to larger population. soci al class. that become dominant t ypes for social.more in concret e t erm s . which has a similar universality although its importance for a great number of i ndi vi dual s is smaller than that of the familial role. whi ch i s t he basi c nucl eus of soci et y. The same structural and fuctional i nt erpret at i on appl i es t o t he soci al norm s. being more concrete. for t he majority of people the most fundamental type of social i nt egrat i on i s t hei r fam i l y. In other words. political parties etc. the process of soci al i nt egrat i on i s t o be approached not so m uch i n abst ract terms . econom i c goods and cultural values of our family. nation and church.
t he m aj ori t y of wom en have al so l eft t hei r dom est i c preoccupat i ons. The m echani zat i on and aut om at i zat i on of work and product i on have brought other negative surprises and the people are al i enat ed not onl y from t hei r fam i l y. There is nevert hel ess t rue t hat t he new econom i c and soci al condi t i ons have brought revol ut i onary changes in our ways of living. In the past the number of various industrial workers could be counted on our fingers. Therefore. too. The m ost unfort unat e ones seem t o be t hose of pol i t i cal order. but al so from t hei r j ob. Our industrial civilization. t hat does not bri ng the fulfilment of their personality because of its one-sided operat i ons on one hand and of its fixed program of work on the other. The di vi si on of labor invaded then commerce and
administration. Today the number of their different categories is thousand times larger. commercial. The structure of family itself has changed enorm ousl y and i t s m em bers are l i vi ng l ess and l ess i n i t s ci rcl e. Thi s huge num ber of di fferent j obs are out of t he fam i l y. B et ween t he vari ous new soci al rol es t here are al so a l ot of confl i ct s. t oo. accessible to convenient solution. whose num ber i s great er t han t hat of t he workers i n bot h agri cul t ure and i ndust ry. C onsequent l y. It is nevertheless true that salaries have increased and the st andard of l i fe i s m uch hi gher. we have now over 50. t he st ress has increased and the number of psychopathic and neurotic persons becom es m uch l arger. Unem pl oym ent has appeared and i nfl at i on.000 jobs. Thus t he advant ages of i ndust ri al civilization seem to be the whole greater than those of its handicaps. has increased the division of social work tremendously. industrial workers were very few and commercial enterprises were still more limited because peopl e were producing their economic goods mostly inside the family. Thus. The free t i m e i s l onger and t he pl easure of art and l i t erat ure as wel l as t hat of t ravel l i ng i s enj oyed by t he m aj ori t y of popul at i on. Unpl easant i s al so t he dependence upon t he vari ous chi efs. Down the ages professional roles were exercised i nsi de t he family and the division of social labor was very limited. that have affected deeply the st ruct ure of hum an nat ure. The big enterprises of industrial. chi l dren are rai sed m ost l y in nurseries and schools. Under such conditions we have the new class of white-collar workers versus bureaucrat s. i l l ust rat ed by vari ous di ct at orshi ps on one si de and
. P easant work was of one and the same type. administrative order have brought also the hierarchical organization and leadership. however.political and religious leaders and agitators when t hese rol es become their professional ones.
4. but also their social ones. Hum an. society is their field of activity. but al so t hat of t he m ent al l y si ck persons. of our happiness and unhappiness. There i s nevert hel ess t rue t hat i n al l di ct at orshi ps t he norm al i t y of t he social roles is affected and replaced by the unpleasant social masques through which the poor citizens are defendi ng t hei r j obs and t he exi st ance of t hei r fam i l i es. econom i c goods and cul t ural val ues are t hei r product s. one should not wonder that dictatorships i ncrease not onl y t he num ber of i m pri soned peopl e. society and cul t ural are i ndeed t he basic factors of our destiny and history. commerce. They are the seal of our fate. Cultural devel opm ent i s t herefore one of t he m ai n fact ors of hum an dest i ny. Hence. the progress of human ci vi l i zat i on i s m ore pregnant i n t he fi el d of sci ence and t echnol ogy.di fferent i nt ernat i onal confl i ct s wi t h arm ed i nt ervent i ons on t he ot her. appl i ed t o econom i c product i on and m edi ci ne. and administration. of our epics and dram a. Cultural development. About t he di scont ent s of our cul t ure has spoken F reud. Mi l l i ons of peopl e have been Hi t l er and S t al i n' s victims and other millions are the victims of various di ct at orshi ps t oday although their reprisals are more limited and less criminal. has to be in accordance with social justice and in the servi ce of cul t ural values. Therefore. in whi ch we have a word to say. whi l e ot hers have prom ot ed m erel y t hat of t hei r soci et y or cul t ure. soci al and cultural values are in this way the goals of human nature and t he t hreads of soci al t i ssues. who need m edi cal assi st ance. The
. Personality. t he pol i t i cal st ress i n t hese count ri es i s m uch greater than the industrial stress in democratic countries with advanced t echnol ogy of product i on. Indi vi dual s are t he act i ve agent s of hum an progress. Our freedom of deci si on. wi t h l ess freedom and j ust i ce and wi t h i ncreased fear of imprisonment. The development of human and soci al ci vi l i zat i on changes not onl y t hei r bi ol ogi cal and psychol ogi cal structures. Consequently. of losing their jobs and aparments. t hei r feedback act i on upon t he structure of individuals and of society. as we shall try to prove it. t he ot her t wo bei ng t he i ndi vi dual s t hem sel ves and t hei r soci et y. F or cert ai n t hi nkers t hen t he rel at i ons bet ween i ndi vi dual s and soci et y were m erel y t hose of opposi t i on. Some thinkers have seen onl y t he act i ve rol e of i ndi vi dual s. and i n t he l ast decades to human and social organization in production. Its success or insuccess as well as its positive and negat i ve significance depend upon their collaboration. however. t hat keep t hem t oget her. that increases the effi ci ency of t hei r product i ve work.
unconsci ousl y. as Lei bni z thought . adaptation being the easiest and most effi ci ent way of conversat i on an devel pom ent . In t hi s i nt erference. They ai m for t he most efficient and parsimonious adaptation in view of the best conservat i on and devel opm ent of t he bei ng. Consequently. each bi ol ogi cal bei ng. One can i m agi ne t hen how i ncom m ensurabl e i s t he num ber of t he possi bl e com bi nat i on of our t housands of genes. and the human ones in particular. The l aw of rei nforcem ent and that of liberty define this free choice of the being in accordance wi t h t he needs and desi res of t hi s own i ndi vi dual i t y on one hand and wi t h t he possi bi l i t i es of t he gi ven envi ronm ent on t he ot her. mostly those of dialectical com pl em ent ary al t hough not everything is good in our culture and social order. especi al l y t he soci al one. Yet .
V ari at i on
Wi t h 24 l et t ers one can wri t e over si x hundred t ri l l i ons words and a si ngl e addi t i onal l et t er doubl es t he num aber. nei t her Vol t ai re was ri ght when he quest i oned Lei bni z's t hesi s m aki ng fun of i t . i n our days i n part i cul ar. however. soci al and cultural progress. Yet we have t o fi ght for hum an. The process of adapt at i on i s t herefore bot h passi ve and act i ve because t he behavi or of t he bei ng has t o consi der not onl y i t s needs and desires. seeks. t he m ost adequat e encount er of t hi s heredi t ary st ruct ure wi t h t hat of his environment. The same huge variety characterizes our environment. For hum an bei ngs t he probl em of choi ce i s st i l l m ore com pl i cat ed because i t has t o t ake i nt o consi derat i on not
. Therefore i t i s rat her probabl e t hat not t wo i ndi vi dual s are com pl et el y al i ke even i f t he whol e popul at i on of hum an hi st ory i s consi dered. their interference is a new source for i ncreasi ng vari et y. but also the possibilities of the environment. The balance of past successes and i nsuccesses j ust i fi es t he effi ci ency of t hi s fi ght .rel at i on bet ween t hese t hree basi c fact ors of our destiny are. however. The i dea of progress i t sel f i s t o be sure neither as clear nor as sure as it appeared in the XVIIIth C ent ury of Enl i ght enm ent .
but al so t hat of the logical determination. Thi s i s t he reason why t he curves of vari at i on of soci al i nt egrat i on are rather different from those of mental abilities and t em peram ent t rai t s i n whi ch t he heredi t ary fact or prevai l s. spouses. t he i ndi vi duat i on of our choi ce i s not an unlawful phenomena. but also from that of the differential versus i ndi vi dual one. good or bad. i s not m erel y t hat of t he curve of probabi l i t y. The deep penet rat i on i n t he i ndi vi dual si gni fi cance of each personal i t y wi t h reference t o i t s own worl d i s i n every case t he m ost effi ci ent way of understanding its nature. the study of hum an nat ure and of i t s soci al condi t i on and cul t ural devel opm ent can not be approached onl y from t he st andpoi nt of general psychology. The l aw of vari at i on. school s. but in accordance wi t h t he basi c l aw of hum an vari at i on. We have our own word. which defines the function and si gni fi cance of t he encount er of heredi t ary bi o-psychol ogi cal st ruct ure wi t h t he soci al condi t i ons and cul t ural pat t erns. Consequently. It defi nes t hei r very nat ure. Under such ci rcum st ances. i n whi ch t he hazard i s t he onl y param et er.onl y t he m ost adequat e sol ut i on for t he respect i ve m om ent . i n accordance wi t h t he prevai l i ng soci al norm s and cul t ural val ues. however. speci fi c t o statical estimations. el aborat ed al ong t he ages t hrough t he hi st ori cal experi ence of m anki nd. but also that of comprehensive
det ermi nat i on of each personal i t y wi t h respect t o i t s funct i ons and t rai t s on one hand and t o i t s soci al envi ronm ent on t he ot her. The vari at i on of m ent al abi l i t i es t hem sel ves fol l ows t he l aw of probal i t y onl y i n cert ai n soci al and cul t ural pat t ern wi t h si m i l ar st ruct ures. when t he m ai n accent i s on meani ngf ul i nt raconnect i on of t he part s i n t hei r whol es and of t he whol e i n i t s worl d. that is under t he huge em pi re of hum an vari at i on i n whi ch each i ndi vi dual fi nds hi s own sol ut i on. cl ot hes. t he l aw of vari at i on i s not onl y t hat of ext ensi ve determination of individuals in terms of similarities and di ssi m i l ari t i es. however. as Aristotle thought. Indeed. These choices are our own. profession. because t he process of vari at i on i s inherent. Thi s com prehensi ve det erm i nat i on appears i n cl i ni cal m et hodol ogy. No wonder therefore that the psychology of
. i n choosi ng our food. t hat provi des for each bei ng i t s own t ransact i ons wi t h i t s own Worl d and its own course of life versus Destiny. even when l i m i t ed. but al so t he m ost adequat e one for t he fut ure. house. not only to human nature. but also to its social condi t i on and cul t ural devel opm ent . etc.
conceived as an instrument of sci ent i fi c research remained for more than two millenniums a m et hodol ogy of ext ensi ve and com prehensi ve det erm i nat i ons. without evolution. wi t hout vari at i on. Actually. psychological st ruct ures are neither general. because processes in time are not merely continuous em ergences of di scont i nuous creat i on. An error. psychology treated m ent al abi l i t i es and t rai t s not onl y as general ent i t i es. but also dialectical reprocities between continuity and di scont i nui t y. Or. Both evolution and vari at i on t hen refer t o cert ai n
st ruct ures wi t h functions and traits. but also as static ones. indeed. but individual functions in cont i nuous development. at its very beginning. It was Hegel's dialectic that redi scovered t he evol ut i onary conception of Heraclitus and elaborated the new evolutionary det erm i nat i on of logic. as in the time of Aristotle. nor static. The majority of contemporary t reat i ses of l ogi c are st i l l ignori ng i t . inclined to belive that the det erm i nat i on i n space i s t he onl y one and t he det erm i nat i on i n t i m e i s m erel y i t s repetition. as he t hought .
E vol u t i on
The second of errors i n assessi ng and underst andi ng hum an personal i t y and i t s soci al condi t i on i s t hen t he st at i c character of psychology. The vari at i on i t sel f was a reprocity between identity and non-identity. Thi s i s al so t he reason why t he m aj ori t y of errors in assessing the structure of concrete personalities em erges from i nt erpret i ng t hem t hrough t he st ereot ypi c cl i ché of general psychology and not through the individual patterns of each personal i t y. that are concrete contents in concrete devel opm ent . It was Galton who called attention on their vari at i on and Jam es who i nsi st ed upon t hei r dynam i c and uni nt errupt ed fl uxus. whichis only now beginning to be applied to scientific research. deprived of any spatiality. logic itself. Indeed.personal i t y em erged from di fferent i al psychology and not from t he general one. He was convi nced t hat t he
. The science of the Antiquity was indeed mostly static and therefore Aristotle's logic elaborated merely its extensive and comprehensive det erm i nat i on i n space. B ergson went furt her and saw pure processualities.
and elaborated merely m at hem at i cal l y versus st at i st i cal l y. i n t hei r own i ndi ci duat ed way. Dealing with them in a di scursi ve way. however. Qual i t at i ve l eaps. accordi ng t o Ei nst ei n and Husserl t he det erm i nat i on i n t i m e m i ght suffi ce because i t s l awful ness i s l arger and i nt egrat es t hat of space. t hey don't cont est spat i al det erm i nat i on. t hey are t o be det erm i nat ed not m erel y as simple succession. t hat i s separat el y. The l awful ness i n t i m e i s al so t hat of em ergence versus creat i ve evol ut i on. It shoul d al so be observed t hat t he l awful ness i n t i m e i s not m erel y t hat of t he curves of growt h. Of course. seem s t o be. based upon t hose of variation taken at successive ages. wi t h m ore ef f i ci ent and aut onomous t ransact i ons wi t h t hei r envi ronm ent . That i s wi t h m ore freedom of choi ce i n accordance wi t h the self-realization of personality. Thus. C onsequent l y. The sci ence of our t i m e i s m ost l y evol ut i onary because t he det erm i nat i on i n t i m e seems to be more important than that in space. Therefore. but also as causal
and prospective det erm i nat i on wi t h meani ngf ul connect i on wi t h t hei r past and fut ure and wi t h a certain direction of evolution. however. accessi bl e onl y t o l ogi cal det erm i nat i on and i nt erpret at i on. which is that toward more com pl ex and superi or st ruct ures. m ore advant ageous.evol ut i onary det erm i nat i on was not necessary because t he event s i n t i m e were a repet i t i on of t he ent i t i es i n space. In t hi s t hreefol d det erm i nat i on we have t o l ook t hen not m erel y for t he si m pl e assesm ent of rough f act s. as part s i n t hei r whol es. wi t h t hei r most ef f i ci ent and parsi moni ous t ransact i ons wi t h t hei r envi ronm ent i n vi ew of t hei r m ost successf ul conservat i on and devel opment wi t h respect t o t hei r own
. are i nt egrat i ng t hem sel ves i n t he whol e course of l i fe. the comprehensi ve det ermi nmat i on of st ruct ures wi t h reference t o t he i nt egrat i on of t hei r part s i n t hei r whol es has t o be com pl et ed wi t h t he ext ensi ve det ermi nat i on of t hei r vari at i on i n space and wi t h t he evol ut i onary det ermi nat i on of t hei r growt h and devel opm ent i n time. but also for their meaningful i nt erconnect edness i n space and t i m e. The l awful ness of t hei r s ucces s i on and em ergence i s t o be s ought i n t hei r chai ns i n t hi s i nt egrat i on. as James called them. but i nt erpret i t in the context of the temporal one. B ergson saw m erel y t he vari ous creat i ve m om ent s i n t i m e and i n such condi t i ons he contested their accessibility to logical determination. with both mathematical and logical m ethodol ogi es. Indeed.
we have t o l ook not onl y t o be t he w orl d of f act s. John is two meters tall and weighs only sixty kilos. We also make the same di scri m i nat i on bet ween t he norm al and abnormal development of introversion and extraversion depressi ve and m ani c st at es. t hi s sent ence adds t he eval uat i on of t hei r norm al i t y and heal t h. wi t h t hei r ori ent at i on t oward m ent al heal t h and happi ness or m ent al pat hol ogy and unhappi ness. but t o t hei r w orl d of val ues. as cl ai m ed t he posi t i vi st s.i ndi vi duat i on. but al so i n t he t heory i t sel f. bei ng t oo t al l f or his weight and threfore has an abnormal development with predisposition to tuberculosis and schi zophreni a. wi t hout any eval uat i on of i t s normal versus abnormal development. t hat assess t he obj ect i ve di m ensi on of t he body.
Norm al an d A bn orm al Psych ol ogy
The sent ence John i s t w o met ers t al l and w ei ghs si xt y ki l os expresses a j udgem ent of fact s. defi ned by t he negat i ve meani ng of l i fe. but also that of abnormality. honest and creat i ve ci t i zens and not soci al fai l ures wi t h m ent al di seases or
. i nherent i n t hem . Hartmann in phi l osophy have sai d. Max Weber i n soci ol ogy. Di l t hey i n psychology. i ndeed. as Wi ndel band i n hi st ory. bei ng i n t hi s way a judgem ent of val ues and not onl y one of fact s. we di scri m i nat e not onl y bet ween t he m orphol ogi cal bi ot ypes of Kret schm er and S hel don. It is not merely that of norm al i t y. C onsequent l y i t i s not m erel y Sei n-exi st ence but al so Si nn-m eani ng. not onl y t hat of heal t h. econom i cs and pol i t i cs. but inherent to their structures. but also that of disease and crime. To t he obj ect i ve assessm ent of bodi l y di m ensi on. being as objective as the structure i t sel f. Aft er al l . These val ues are not our subj ect i ve proj ect i ons on t he obj ect i ve fact s. defi ned by the positive meaning of life. That i s t o say. Thus the judgements of values appear not merely in the practical appl i cat i ons of sci ence t o m edi ci ne. Heidegger and N. confi dence or l ack of confi dence i n l i fe. The order of l i fe i s. wi t h t hei r orientation toward health or disease. In t he educat i on of our chi l dren i n fam i l y and school we st ri ve t hem t o rai se heal t hy. but al so bet ween t hei r norm al and abnorm al const i t ut i ons. S om bart i n economics and Husserl.
ai m i ng for superi or st ruct ures wi t h bet t er t ransact i ons wi t h t hei r envi ronm ent i n vi ew of t hei r m ore successful adapt at i on. because t he chances of dom i nant genes are greater than those of the recessive ones. unabl e t o earn l i vi ng t hrough product i ve w ork. All these sent ences are not onl y obj ect i ve assessm ent s of fact s. conservation and development. This does not m ean t hat all evolutionary attempts are successful. Yet. It seem s t hat Mendel ' s l aws assert onl y t he l aw of probabi l i t y versus hazard. however. the process of evol ut i on has t o be approached not m erel y m at hem at i cal l y. being an i ncapabl e and di shonest man. t oo. Peter is less intelligent and has no character. The bi sexual m ul t i pl i cat i on i t sel f seem s t o be i n t he servi ce of evol ut i on. yet the majority of t hem are positive and not negative. J. who doesn't like to work. as C l . however. exercising in this way a law of selection in conform i t y wi t h i t s own st ruct ure. but also a process of qualitative changes wi t h certain directions of development. These j udgem ent s of val ues. that integrate them into a m eani ngful chai n. i ncapabl e of product i ve work. John i s hi ghl y intelligent and has character. but al so obj ect i ve assessments of values. but also toward its devel opm ent . but al so l ogi cal l y. The law of rei nforcem ent i s by i t s very nat ure a j udgem ent of val ue. Consequently. as Darwi n concei ved i t . but also their meaningful transactions with the
envi ronm ent i n vi ew of t hei r m ore effi ci ent and parsi m oni ous conservat i on and devel opm ent . from the multiple combinations of genes the envi ronm ent chooses onl y t hose i n accordance wi t h i t s possibilities. The process of creat i ve evol ut i on i s st i l l m ore obvi ous in the course of our life. as Koehler said. N i chol as i s a very i nt el l i gent man. bei ng a dishonest man. This means that it has to be defined both in terms of the j udgem ent s of fact s as wel l as i n t hose of t hei r val ues i n t hi s worl d of fact s.ant i soci al act s. The same is true of Cannon's law of hom eost asi s wi t h t he onl y observat i on t hat t he organi sm t ends not onl y t oward t he conservation of its equilibrium. Our evolution. being a healthy. as Monod claimed. etc. asserts not onl y a process of quantitative growth. but l acks charact er. have t o consi der not merely the structure of singulars with their different funct i ons and traits. The concept of evol ut i on i t sel f. assert s t he survi val of t he fi t t est organi sm and not of t he feebl e ones. Hul l hi m sel f has recognized. In order t o det erm i ne t he course of l i fe we al so have t o t ake i nt o
. honest and capabl e man.
consi derat i on t he past wi t h i t s det erm i ni ng causes and goal s t oward a m ore successful fut ure. Thus t he di rect i on of devel opm ent has to be determined both causally and teleologically versus purposi vel y. El em ent ary processes, l i ke sensat i ons and refl exes, are dependi ng m ost l y upon t he heredi t ary st ruct ure and t herefore t hey can be t reat ed as at t ri but es and funct i ons of t he i ndi vi dual s because t he i m pact of soci et y and cul t ure upon t hem i s l ess pregnant . Thei r vari at i on and evol ut i on were l ess obvi ous and t herefore t hei r approach was m erel y t hat of general psychol ogy. They were t hen accessi bl e t o experi m ent at i on wi t h metric estimation without any judgements of values. C onsequent l y, t hei r sci ent i fi c det erm i nat i on and
i nt erpret at i on was t hat of t he general psychology with experimental methodology and m at hem at i cal det erm i nat i on. Wundt gave pri ori t y t o t he st udy of sensations, considered to be the elementary processes of consci ousness, whi l e Watson transferred this priority to reflexes, taken as el em ent ary
uni t s of behavi or. Ot herwi se, t hei r expl anat i on was t he sam e, t hat i s t o say t he anal yt i cal one, t hat t ri es t o i nt erpret com pl ex st ruct ures wi t h qual i t at i ve funct i ons t hrough t he com bi nat i on of t hei r el em ent ary uni t s wi t h quant i t at i ve at t ri but es, t hat do not vary i n space and evol ve i n t i m e. The m odel of t hi s psychol ogi cal t heory was t hat of Newt on's m echani cs, t aken as a uni versal m odel of al l sci ences. Thus t he m et hodol ogy and t heory of general psychol ogy were al i ke wi t h t hose of t he cl assi cal mechanics. Psychological methods were similar to the experi m ent al m ethodol ogy of physi cs wi t h m at hem at i cal det erm i nat i on and under such ci rcum st ances psychol ogi cal t heori es t hem sel ves were al m ost i dent i cal wi t h t he anal yt i cal ones of m at eri al bodies. In psychology, however, such a methodology and t heory were i nadequat e and t herefore general psychol ogy, el aborat ed as a m echani cs of m i nd and behavi or, fai l ed. When hi gher personal i t y st ruct ures cam e i nt o di scussi on t hey al so proved t o be not m erel y t he frui t of heredi t y, but of l earni ng, t oo. Therefore, t hei r approach has t o be bot h bi o-psychol ogi cal and bi o-soci al and cul t ural . They are t hen not st at i c and general , but i n uni nt errupt ed evol ut i on and wi t h di fferent ways of devel opm ent . Consequently, their determination is not merely that of general psychol ogy, but al so t hat of di fferent i al and
devel opm ent al psychol ogi es. These new det erm i nat i ons are al so not onl y t hose of t he assessm ent of fact s wi t h m at hem at i cal exact i t ude, but al so t hose of t he assessm ent of val ues wi t h l ogi cal val i di t y, t hat i nt roduces t he di scri m i nat i on bet ween norm al and abnorm al psychol ogy, t hat i s bet ween heal t y development of personality with social integration and product i ve work on one hand and bet ween di sease, ant i soci al behavi or and l ack of product i ve work on t he ot her. Thi s di scri m i nat i on bet ween posi t i ve and negat i ve devel opm ent of personal i t y i s i n t he l ogi c i t sel f of phenom ena and not a proj ect i on of our knowl edge on t hem , as l ogi cal posi t i vi sm cl ai m s. A si m i l ar di scri m i nat i on occurs when t he concept of soci al st ruct ures and funct i ons com es i nt o consi derat i on and t herefore we are obl i ged t o di fferent i at e not onl y bet ween bi ol ogi cal and psychol ogi cal norm al i t y and abnorm al i t y, but al so bet ween t he soci al and cul t ural ones. Thus, theoretical psychology is not only general, differential and devel opm ent , but al so abnorm al , focussi ng i t s at t ent i on upon t he pat hol ogi cal and cri m i nal aspect s of hum an, soci al and cul t ural st ruct ures, wi t h t hei r vari at i on and evol ut i on.
C on sci ou sn ess an d Un con sci ou sen ess
Yet , t he t ransact i on bet ween i ndi vi dual s and soci et y i n t he cont ext of cert ai n cul t ural devel opm ent s, be t hey norm al or abnormal, are not merely conscious, but also unconscious. Therefore, psychol ogy has t o approach not m erel y t he phenom enol ogy of consci ousness, as i n t he t i m e of Wundt or B rent ano, p h en o m en o l o g y , w h o s e t r em en d o u s but al so t he unconsci ous si de of t hi s b een p r o v ed b y F r eu d ' s psychology.
i m p o r t an ce h as
psychoanal ysi s as wel l as by Adler's individual psychology and Jung's analytical Act u al l y ,
t h e fi rs t p s y ch o l o g i s t wh o cal l ed at t en t i o n u p o n t h e "p s y ch o l o g i cal
aut om at i sm " of t he unconsci ous was P . Janet , i n al l probabi l i t y under t he i nfl uence of C harcot . Al ong wi t h hi m and i n col l aborat i on wi t h hi m was Mort on Prince. Janet and Morton Prince, however, stressed more the bi ol ogi cal si de of heredi t ary unconsciousness and the psychological
automatisms of l earni ng, whi l e Freud, Jung and Adler focussed their attention upon the repressed unconsci ousness - i n t he case of F reud - upon t he frust rat ed one - i n t he case of Adl er and upon t he col l ect i ve one - i n t he case of Jung. The bi ol ogi cal and aut om at i c unconsci ousness represent s t he norm al foundat i on of heal t hy consci ousness. The same is true - at least to a certain extent - of the collective unconsci ousness of Jung. F reud' s
unconsci ousness, wi t h t he repressi on of S ex, and t hat of Adl er, wi t h t he frust rat i on of Ego, are i n confl i ct wi t h our consci ouns and generat e pat hol ogy. The process of norm al speech i s al so consci ous m erel y at t he l evel of t he i deas, whi ch are t o be expressed. The occurrence of sent ences i s hal f-unconsci ous, t hat of t he words i s m ost l y unconsci ous and t hat of t he l et t ers and sounds i s com pl et el y unconsci ous or aut om at i c, as Janet has shown. In t he begi nni ng t hey are al so consci ous. Aft er a l ong process of l earni ng, t hat l ast ed for months and years, their occurrence became automatic and unconscious in order to facilitate the concentration of consciousness on the ideas t hem sel ves. Hence, the definition of attention as the focalization of consci ousness on cert ai n i t em s and i ssue, of vi t al i m port ance i n order t o l et t hei r adj oi n st ruct ures wi t h repet i t i ve charact er i n t he care of si m pl er neurogi cal cent res. Under such conditions the relation between consciounsness and unconsci ousness are t hose of col l aborat i on, t he automatic unconsciousness being the foundation of consci ousness. The si t uat i on changes i n t he case of repressi ons and f rust rat i ons, when t he rel at i ons bet ween t hem and consci ousness are t hose of confl i ct , t hat underm i ne t he norm al funct i oni ng of consci ousness. R epressi on are i nhi bi t ed dri ves, t hat t he sel f-cont rol of our consci ousness does not accept , because t hey are i n cont radi ct i ons wi t h i t s soci al norm s and cul t ural val ues. F rust rat i ons are nonsat i sfi ed dri ves because t he consci ousness does not have t he possbi l i t y of grat i fyi ng t hem ei t her because of an organi c i m possi bi l i t y or a soci al one. There i s, i ndeed, not possi bl e t o sat i sfy hunger wi t hout food or t o grat i fy sexual dri ve wi t hout t he part ner of com pl em ent ary sex.
C on sci ou sn ess an d B eh avi or
but m i serabl e poor hum an bei ngs. In al l t hese cases. obliged to avoid soci al cont act on one hand and t o l i e t hei r econom i c and pol i t i cal rel at i ons on t he ot her. Thi s happens when econom i c. t he ci t i zens are obl i ged t o adopt a soci al m asque because ot herwi se t hey are i n danger of l oosi ng t hei r j ob and housi ng. Unfortunately. but al so for t hei r agent s am ong t he ci vi l i ans.
. They have t o wat ch out not onl y for t he st at e pol i ce. bei ng i n seri ous danger of bei ng fi nal l y i m pri soned and even ki l l ed. but also to the nei ghbouri ng ones. In contrast to the huge suffering majority is the small minority made up of those who have accepted to be the odi ous i nst rum ent of dictatorship. Similar social masques are also played by dishonest peopl e wi t h ant i soci al behavi or. as wel l as al l ot her di ct at ors are creat i ng not new m en. both materially and spi ri t ual l y. Under such condi t i ons. t he num ber of t hese vi ct i m s of econom i c. but al so bet ween consci ousness and soci al behavi or. m ore t han 10 % of the population. st udi ed by F reud. soci al and pol i t i cal pat hology was m uch l arger t han t hat of m ent al l y i nsane peopl e because of som e m i sfort unat e rel at i ons of erot i c nat ure. bel ong t o cri m i nol ogy and not t o m ent al pat hol ogy. Their m asques. t he self accepted discipline of individuals is no more possible and the st at e i s obl i ged t o resort t o an enforced di sci pl i ne by means of compulsory measures. who enjoy unjustified comfort. soci al and pol i t i cal order m oves away from i ndi vi dual freedom . are not only between consci ousness and unconsci ousness. Under odi ous di ct at orshi ps neurot i c peopl e wi t h deep anxi et y are i n t he t ens and even hundreds of millions and instead of mental hospitals they are offred i m pri sonm ent ! Affect ed under such unfort unat e ci rcum st ances i s even the moral consciousness of the individuals. suffering from anxiety and other mental diseases. as was the case during Hitler and Stalin's dictatorships. bot h Hi t l er and S t al i n. such odious dictators extend their com pl ul sory discipline not merely to their own state. resort i ng even t o m i l i t ary occupat i on. however. however. P ersons wi t h Oedi pus com pl ex m i ght be i n t he 1 t o m ost l y 2% cat egory. Unfort unat el y.The conflicts. The rascals do not hesi t at e t o become their agents and to denouce honest and capable people for t he si m pl e reason of t aki ng t hei r j obs and housi ng. soci al j ust i ce and does not provide human welfare. Therefore. who m ake t he effort t o appear as hyper-honest people just in order to cheat the honest ones.
When t he l aws of t he di ct at orshi p are agai nst t he interest of the people and of the country. advocat ed by hi s soci al and cul t ural hum ani sm . hum an personal i t y i s t he suprem e fort une and val ue. It i s nevert hel ess t rue t hat wi t hout t he act i ve agent of personal i t y. society is its adequate envi ronm ent and cultural values are their productions and goals. Personality is the creative agent. soci al condi t i on and cul t ural devel opm ent i s not an equi l at eral one. the citizens are obl i ged t o serve onl y t hei r count ry. by rem ai ni ng i n ful l conform i t y wi t h t he basi c pri nci pl es of hum an ri ght s and dut i es. In this way. The assert i on appears t o be t he "ori gi nal phenom enon" of hi s l i fe and work. but under t he ri ght cont rol of t he pri nci pl es of hum an ci vi l i zat i on.
Person al i t y
Accordi ng t o Goet he. t he t ri angl e of hum an nat ure. but also by offi ci al aut hori t i es. the relations between i ndi vi dual s and soci et y are not m erel y under t he unj ust l aws of t he i nvader. who have engaged i n t he ri ght course agai nst the unjust dictatorship. What is their duty in such ci rcum st ances? To serve t he odi ous agent s and bri ng t he m i sfort une on t he correct peopl e or t o hel p i n t he fi ght of t he correct peopl e agai nst t hei r odi ous oppressors? It i s no doubt t hat t hey have t o proceed as i f t hei r count ry were under m i l i t ary occupat i on when servi ng t he enem y agai nst t hei r own ci t i zens and i nt erest s i s bot h a crime and treason.A queer si t uat i on occurs t hen i n t he course of pol i ce i nqui ri es when honest peopl e are asked t o di vul ge t he nam es of honest ci t i zens. but wi t h a cert ai n t endency
. bei ng t he m ai n t hesi s of hi s Faust . t hat synt het i zes hi s concept i on on hum an personal i t y i n i t s soci et y and i n t he servi ce of t he l eadi ng pri nci pl es of hum an ci vi l i zat i on. that are to be respected not only by citizens. t he creat i ve rol e of soci et y i s nul l and t he cul t ural devel opm ent i s zero. A certain creat i ve rol e i n t he product i on of cul t ural s val ues has t he soci et y i t sel f because t he effect s of a book publ i shed i n a sm al l count ry i n a l anguage of rest ri ct ed and regi onal ci rcul at i on are rat her di fferent from t hose of a book publ i shed for a l ager ci rcul at i on i n t he Engl i sh l anguage for i nst ance. Therefore.
human personality represents t he cent ral probl em of psychology. says a F rench proverb. The cent ral t hesi s of t hi s psychol ogy of personal i t y. wi t h t he observat i on t hat t he hei gher t he posi t i on of personal i t y i n t hi s soci al and cul t ural hi erarchy t he great er i s its responsibility and duty in the service of larger social m asses.t oward an i soscel es one i n favor of hum an personal i t y. schol ari t y and professional training as well as social responsibility and l eadershi p are t he fi rst cri t eri on i n assessi ng t he vari ous degrees of devel opm ent of hum an personal i t y. Hi st ory. Kret schm er hi m sel f st udi ed human geniuses mostly from the standpoint of their pat hol ogi cal t roubl es wi t hout a word of t hei r i m m ense rol e i n t he progress of hum an wel fare. t hat were t he obj ect of m ent al pat hol ogy versus cri m i nol ogy. gave m ore pri ori t y t o pol i t i cal and m i l i t ary l eaders. Of course. Negl ect ed were onl y t he creat i ve personal i t i es as i f t hey were m ore a sham e t han a qual i t y. The assert i on i s cert ai nl y t rue when t he concept of nobl esse defi nes t he t rue worl d of val ues and not t hat of soci al cl asses versus power or m oney. wi t h t he negat i ve ones. however. t o whi ch Goet he refers. At its very beginning. however. and soci al order. m ent al pat hology and soci al decei t i s t he opposi t e one. N obl esse obl i ge. on t he ot her part . t he heal t hi er i s t hei r m ent al equi l i bri um and superi or are t hei r soci al i nt egrat i ons. Lombrozo went still futher and asserted a fatal connect i on bet ween creat i ve geni us and m ent al di sease. however. t he suprem e peak of our bi o-psychol ogi cal and cul t ural st ruct ure. Duri ng hi s l ong years of i m pri sonm ent t he aut hor of these lines. confoundi ng i n t hi s way t he posi t i ve devi at i ons from average devel opm ent of hum an bei ngs. but t hat of t he vert i cal hi erarchy of val ues. Much at t ent i on was al so gi ven t o feebl e m i ndedness. nor t hat prom ot ed i n t hei r curves of devel opm ent wi t h l ongi t udi nal grow t h. It i s. The hi gher and m ore cul t ured t he st ruct ures of hum an personal i t i es. Happi er seem t o be. is neither that asserted in the various curves of vari at i on of m ent al abi l i t i es wi t h hori zont al di st i but i ons of i ndi vi dual di fferences. Under such conditions. i ndeed. psychology of personality focussed i t s at t ent i on m ost l y on hum an fai l ures. whi ch i s t he m ai n source of hum an product i vi t y. not t hose wi t h poor m i nd but t hose wi t h a
. has concluded that the correlation bet ween hum an personal i t y. i ndeed. Therefore.
t oo. but al so from m i nd t o body.ri ch one. t he sky can i ndeed com e down on t he eart h. however. nam el y t hrough t he best of t hem . as S hakespeare sai d and Goet he confi rm ed. To be sure. goes not onl y from body t o m i nd. Let us t herefore pay at t ent i on t o t hem . t hat i s i t s biological infrastructure or substratum that influences the psychol ogi cal st ruct ure of our personal i t y. the sky doesn't come down to the earth t hrough al l m en. Thi s i nfl uence. Thus t hei r
. as S ocrat es sai d.
Cha p ter III
BIO LO G ICAL INFRASTRUCTURE O F PERSO NALITY
The body i s t he m at eri al i m age of our Ego. however. Through som e of t hem .
"subst ances". Aristotle recognized both material bodies and spiritual "subst ances". When the mind came into consideration. but by their biological and psychological. It shoul d be observed. however. because peopl e of hi gh
i nt el l i gence. They seem t o have t hei r "charact ers". whose heads resem bl e t hose of vari ous ani m al s. det erm i ned by t he predom i nance of one or anot her of Em pedocl es four
el em ent s: soil. The reversed si t uat i on i s al so t rue. Yet. A cert ai n correl at i on bet ween m i nd and
. Plato asserted its spi ri t ual "essences" versus "ideas" as the only reality. favorabl e soci al condi t i on and good educat i onal opport uni t i es are abl e t o have a norm al personal i t y even when t he const i t ut i on of t hei r bodi es i s seri ousl y handi capped. P eopl e wi t h heal t hy bodi es. t hat took into consideration merely the reality of spiritual "essences". he approached them merely from the standpoint of m orphol ogi cal biotypes with repercussions about apoplexy and tuberculosis and those from the point of view of their temperaments. In this way intelligence and charact er were not consi dered. Instead od Democritus' materialism. Nevert hel ess. fire and wind. have one type of personality and those with unhealthy bodies. were det erm i net ed not by t hei r body const i t ut i on. foxes.rel at i ons are t hose of di al ect i cal reci proci t y or feedback. because the healthy body alone cannot make a healthy personal i t y.
di sharm oni ous devel oped. i n whi ch t he "uni t y" was brought up by t he spi ri t ual "subst ances". In hi s charact erol ogy t hen he spoke about di fferent t ypes of m en. harm oni ous l y devel oped. he prom ot ed hi s i deal i sm . Accordi ng t o hi m . but m erel y a possi bi l i t y. prom ot i ng t he m at eri al i st
i nt erpret at i on of Em pedocl es. have anot her one. water. that consi derat ed t he m i nd as an at t ri but e of m at t er. Hippocrates saw these relation mostly from body to m i nd. Hum an speci es had al l of t hem . the matter being m erel y a simple shadow of them. as l i ons. t hat he spoke about three categories of immaterial "substances". These bi o-psycho-t ypes. pi gs et c. namely t hose of physi cal bodi es. bi ol ogi cal organi sm s and hum an bei ngs. t he i m pact of body upon personal i t y i s not a fat al i t y. t he bodi es were si m pl e "m ul t i pl i ci t i es" of m at eri al at om s. t oo. as i n t he case of Hippocrates. however. hi dden i n t he vari ous bodi es as a deux ex machi na t hat "m akes t he bei ng t o be what i t i s and t o di ffer from ot hers". ani m al speci es onl y t wo of t hem and physi cal bodi es one of t hem .
Ari st ot l e di d l ook for t hem at t he sam e hi gh l evel . t herefore. It is no wonder t herefore t hat F echner's psychophysi cs and Wundt 's psychophysi ol ogy were based upon the same psychophysical versus psycho-physi ol ogi cal paral l el i sm.body was nervert hel ess recogni zed al t hough t he bi ol ogi cal subst ance t hat det erm i nes t he const i t ut i on of t he body. however. but at t he l evel of bi ol ogi cal st ruct ure of t he body and the psychological structure of temperament and personal i t y. It i s no wonder. b u t t h o s e o f b i o -p s y ch o l o g i cal
i nt erconnect edness with certain psycho-social repercussions. This new i nt erconnect i on. Wundt fel t obl i ged t o el aborat e a new psychol ogy. In t he m eant i m e. t hese t wo ki nds of paral l el s. when body and m i nd evol ve paral l el . being of different nat ure. but not intraconnected psychologies. The success of Ari st ot l e's dual i sm was so great . t he sci ent i fi c i nvest i gat i on i t sel f has greatly changed. Descartes. that was completely different from that of psychophysi cs wi t h m at hem at i cal det erm i nat i on. dedicated mainly to the study of psychological phenomena. concei ved as a soci al and cul t ural ant hropol ogy. for t he st udy of psychol ogi cal phenom ena connect ed t o soci al and cul t ural val ues. approached with a new experimental methodology of logical order. t hat i t endured m ore t han t wo m i l l eni um s. were merely parallel and not interconnected. t he pri nci pl es and methods of the new social and cultural psychology were completely different from those of experimental psychology. Under such condi t i ons. l eft Lei pzi g i n order t o organi ze a new psychol ogi cal laboratory at Würzburg. Thi s. and t he psychol ogi cal one. consequent l y. concei ved as a
physi ol ogi cal psychol ogy. i naugurat ed by Hi ppocrat es and further elaborated by contemporary biotypology versus const i t ut i onal psychol ogy. In our cent ury. hi s best st udent and assi st ant . left out the most important phenom ena. however. Moreover. as S hel don cal l ed i t . too. nam el y t he psychol ogi cal ones. bei ng accept ed by Thom as de Aquino. on whi ch B rent ano and Jam es have al ready cal l ed at t ent i on. was di scovered not at t he l evel of cel l s and sensat i ons. Newton and Kant. Quantum
. t o t he dual i sm of m i nd and body of ont ol ogi cal order he added a new dual i s m of l ogi cal and epi st em ol ogi cal nat ure. t he rel at i ons bet ween body and mind proved to be not those psychophysical or psycho-p h y s i o l o g i cal p aral l el i s m . t hat Wundt rem ai ned wi t hout fol l owers and even Kül pe. but do not i nt erfere.
when m at eri al bodi es were si m pl e "m ul t i pl i ci t i es" of at om s. Al so t he horizontal relations with affinitive and complementary cooperat i on. their determination has to be not only subst ant i val and at t ri but i ve. Consequently. yet i t s ful l t ri um ph was brought about onl y by t he st ruct ural and f unct i onal el aborat i on of t he sci ence of our cent ury. of m ol ecul es i n cel l s. and t he vert i cal ones hi erarchi cal i nt egrat i on are not st at i c. The syst em of hum an body with the most complicated organization with a hierarchical character is to be sure the central nervous one. t hei r "uni t y" bei ng brought up by i m m at eri al "subst ances". concei ved as com pl em ent ary al t ernat i ves. t hat "m ake t hem t o be what t hey are". but by t he modes of organi zat i ons of t hei r part s and el em ent s. The sent ences t hem sel ves were det erm i ned by t he l ogi c of t he S t oi cs i n t he sam e rel at i onal way. Thei r i ndi vi duat i on appears on t he sam e way. that is in evolution. speci fi c t o gravi t at i onal fi el d. Ari st ot l e defi ned t hem by the attributes of the substantives. but also those of complementary cooperation. At i t s basi s i s t he concept of t he uni t y i n mul t i pl i ci t y. assert ed by Gi organo B runo i n one and t he sam e worl d and not i n t wo ones. of t i ssues i n organs and syst em s. of cel l s i n t i ssues. but dynamic. The new processual versus evol ut i onary rel at i ons are devel opi ng al l of t hem . det erm i ned by t hei r vel oci t y. but al so
rel at i onal . l i ke i n Ari st ot l e's dual i sm . Thus t he ol d dual i sm was deadl y broken. Thei r rel at i ons are t hen not onl y t hose of af f i ni t i ve cooperat i on. Yet t hi s organi zat i on i s not onl y t hat of part i cl es and waves i n at om s. specific to the
el ect rom agnet i c fi el d and t o t he rel at i ons bet ween m ascul i ni t y and fem i ni t y. The col l aborat i on bet ween
. but just two i nt erchangeabl e m odes of exi st ance. Thus. the various modes of organi zat i on are not onl y hori zont al . P hysi cal bodi es and bi ol ogi cal beings were also determined not by their hypothetical "subst ances". Eucl i d det erm i ned t hem by t he rel at i ons bet ween t hei r si des and angl es. The relational det erm i nat i on reappears i n t he l ogi c of B acon.mechanics has proved that matter and energy are not opposite categories of external reality. one of t hese syst em s bei ng t he nervous one wi t h i t s psychological functions. P l at o defi ned even geom et ri cal fi gures by t hei r spi ri t ual "essences" versus "subst ances". but al so vert i cal and have a hi erarchi cal charact er. but al so t hat of at om s i n m ol ecul es. No bodi es and bei ngs are what t hey are i n vi rt ue of t he modes of organi zat i ons of t hei r m at t er and energy.
A syst em at i c assessm ent of i t appeared i n Hel pach's t reat i se of geo-psychol ogy. wi t h t he observat i on t hat psychol ogi cal st ruct ures have t o be approached not onl y i n relation to their physical. wi t h i t s fact ori es.l ungs and heart on one si de and bet ween sym pat het i c and parasym pat het i c gangl i ons of t he neuroveget at i ve syst em on t he ot her. while that of the i m m at eri al subst ances was l ogi cal . as a resul t of our i ndust ri al ci vi l i zat i on. functional and processual conception of physi cal . due t o t he det eri orat i on of t he nat ural condi t i ons of t he envi ronm ent . Under such conditions. publ i shed aft er t he F i rst Worl d War. S i nce t hen t he effect s of physi cal and chem i cal envi ronm ent upon t he heal t h of our body. In Aristotle's dualism the det erm i nat i on of t he material body was strictly mathematical. One shoul d al so not e t hat t hei r det erm i nat i on i s bot h logical and mathematical. but al so i n rel at i on t o t hei r soci al and cul t ural superst ruct ures.
B i oph ysi cal an d B i och em i cal C on di t i on of Person al i t y
The i m pact of cl i m at e upon our body and personal i t y was real i zed even by Ari st ot l e and i n our t i m e by Tai ne. chemical and biological i nfrast ruct ures. bi ol ogi cal and hum an sci ences. seem s t o be m erel y t hat of affi ni t i ve and com pl em ent ary cooperat i on. t hat pol l ut e so
. personal i t y and soci et y have been st ressed st i l l m ore. the relation between the bi ol ogi cal i nfrast ruct ure of our body and psychol ogi cal st ruct ure of our m i nd and personal i t y have t o be consi dered i n t he cont ext of this structural.
Duri ng m y st udi es wi t h t he l at e professor Wi l l i am S t ern at Ham burg Uni versi t y he asked m e once whet her I found i t di ffi cul t t o adapt t o t he nort hern posi t i on of t he Hanseat i c ci t y because t wo decades earl i er.
. wi t h repercurssi ons on soci al l i fe. The unpl easant noi ses of ci t i es are anot her dam agi ng fact or. hi s em ot i onal m ood and sci ent i fi c act i vi t y had been seri ousl y affect ed for al m ost t wo years. t he prot ect i on of physi cal . which are more important. perhaps because I was younger. Gobi neau and C ham berl ai n. A l ot of Jews. had such di ffi cul t i es and som e of t hem coul d not adapt t o t he new cl i m at e even aft er m any years and were obl i ged t o m ove t o West ern Europe.seri ousl y t he ai r. econom i c. cl ot hes and heat i ng and t herefore had l i t t l e t i m e for rest and creat i on. C anda and U. who em i grat ed from C ent ral Europe t o Israel . S . Indeed. when he had com e from B resl au t o Ham burg. however. but al so i t s bi ochem i st ry. assert ed t he advant ageous condi t i ons of t he nort hern races j ust because of their continuous fight against the unfavorable condi t i ons of t he envi ronm ent . had t o work t oo m uch for t hei r food. but al so i n our product i ve work. The at om i c react ors have brought a new danger. Ari st ot l e expl ai ned t hrough t he effect of t he sunshi ne not onl y essent i al changes i n our t em peram ent and em ot i onal m ood. pol i t i cal and educat i onal ones. More fort unat e were. A. because t he high temperature determines a loss of their vigor. m aybe t he m ost seri ous one. I act ual l y di d not feel t he sam e di ffi cul t y. wi t h i t s sci ent i fi c and art i st i c creat i ons. Act ual l y. The peopl e from nort hern part s of t he eart h. Those near t he equat or work m uch l ess. i s not a reason for the omission of the geographical ones with their bi ophysi cs and bi ochem i st ry. however. sai d he. for i nst ance. however. The ignorance of these factors. was one-si ded and m i st aken because i t negl ect ed t he psychol ogi cal . soci al . as wel l as i t s physi ol ogy and psychol ogy. The di scri m i nat ory l i nes bet ween physi cal and chem i cal environment are hard to be drawn because sunshine. chem i cal and bi ol ogi cal envi ronm ent becom es a seri ous probl em for t he st at e i t sel f. the citizens of Athens because of the i nt erm edi at e posi t i on of t hei r count ry. B ecause of al l t hese unpl easant effect s. t hei r expl anat i on of hum an
ci vi l i zat i on i n t erm s of geographi cal and bi ol ogi cal fact ors. affect s not onl y t he t em perat ure of t he body. according to him.
where temperature is high and the air polluation intense. Similar hard conditions of work are in metallurgy. beaches et c.S i m i l ar di ffi cul t i es are al so fel t along t he successi on of seasons. Therefore. aft er t en years of cont i nuous work i n m i neral and coal m i nes m ore t han a quart er of workers are get t i ng si ck. even i n t hese condi t i ons. Moreover. The l i ght i t sel f has i t s i m port ance and t herefore our bi ol ogi cal rhyt hm requi res t o work duri ng t he day. Unpl easant are t hen t he condi t i ons of habi t at i on i n bi g ci t i es wi t h t hei r hi gher noi se. Hum i di t y and noi ses i n fact ori es and ci t i es are anot her seri ous t roubl e. Hence t he reduct i on of l abor i n m i nes t o si x hours. Thi s i s t he m ai n reason t hat for t he t i m e bei ng t he exodus of t he popul at i on from agri cul t ure t o i ndust ry has st opped and we al ready see an i nverse m ovem ent from industrial work to the agricultural and zootechnical one. Travel l i ng i s al so very devel oped because it brings a change of the physical and social envi ronm ent . zoot echni cal fi el d and forest ry al t hough t he condi t i ons out doors are rat her hard duri ng bad whet her. The impact of biochemical environment upon organism and m i nd i nt ervenes not onl y i n t he breat hi ng of pol l ut ed ai r and i n t he effect of t he sunshi ne upon our body. that troubles the m et abol i sm . t oo. The effect s of at om i c radi at i on are st i l l m ore perni ci ous. Thus t he product i vi t y of l abor duri ng som e very hot sum m er days or very col d wi nt er ones i s l ower. causing grave di seases. Healthy seems to be merely the work in agriculture. Yet . Unpl easant i s even t he whi t e-col l ar work i n offi ces because of its sedentary conditions. P eopl e are al so m ore nervous. i t i s no wonder t hat urban popul at i on feels the necessity of vacantioning in another environment. t he chem i cal pol l ut i on of t he ai r i s a det erm i ni ng cause of di sease. Anot her seri ous handi cap i s t he l ack of natural light and sufficient air in mines. The forge is very noisy. pol l ut ed ai r and l i m i t ed space for m ovem ent . wi t h fresh ai r. Thei r em ot i onal m ood i s m ore depressed and t hei r t em peram ent al osci l l at i ons are l ess equi l i brat ed. but al so i n our
. sunshi ne. sport .
however. work and soci al i nt egrat i on. whi ch i s rat her del i ci ous wi t h fat and m eat . Moreover. but com pl et el y t ast el ess wi t hout t hem . Yet . Too m uch food i s not good and t oo l i t t l e i s st i l l worse.but t hose of t he Hi t l eri st and S t al i ni st pri sons of our cent ury. The si t uat i on
. wi t hout prot ei ns and vi t am i ns. Thei r ski n was cal l ous and wi t h a l ot of abscesses.accused by Marx and Engel s and descri bed by Di ckens. but actually it never weighed more than 60 grams. whi ch i ncl udes t oo m uch corn. vi t am i ns and m i neral s. for i nst ance. but also the emotional mood. Zol a. . S t i l l worse was t he one-si ded nut ri t i on wi t h cabbage. Haupt m ann. for i nst ance. very hard t o di gest . The nut ri t i on. In al l t hese causes t roubl ed i s not only the metabolism. were 350 persons. t he obsessi on of hunger was l ess unpl easant . gl uci des. The food t hen has t o be a harm oni ous bal ance of prot ei ns. whi l e t oo m uch ri ce causes beri beri . deprived of any social l egi sl at i on t o prot ect t hei r heal t h and safet y . t oo. The dai l y bread was 75 gram s. S t i l l unbearabl e nevert hel ess was t he ai r because i n a room of 60 square m et res. One must also not forget that one third of the globe population suffers from malnutrition with substantial repercurssi on upon t hei r heal t h. t em peram ent and capacity of work. sl eepi ng on t wo rows of deal broads and on t he ground. barl ey was t he onl y food avai l abl e and t he great est t roubl e was not so m uch t he uni l at eral i t y of di et . even i n hospi t al s wi t h peopl e si ck wi t h t ubercul osi s.di et . but t he scarci t y of food (l ess t han one hundred seeds of barl ey i n a port i on. The m ost i nhum an condi t i ons of physi cal and chem i cal envi ronm ent were. It was no wonder t herefore t hat t he poor i nnocent vi ct i m s l ost al m ost a hal f of t hei r wei ght and of t here t eet h. not t hose of t he workers i n t he factories during the last century. making di ffi cul t t he act i vi t y of heart and brai n. G. l eads t o pel l agra. The abuse of fat and gl uci des causes arteriosclerosis with high blood pressure. Gorki et c. t hi s uni que wi ndow was cl osed for hours. The vitamins were completely lacking. i n som e pri sons. t hat i s 15-20 gram s). Bones and pot at os were sel dom served and of course i n st i l l sm al l er quant i t i es. In t he great m aj ori t y of cases such room s had onl y one wi ndow and t hat one broaded up al l t he t i m e. The onl y subst ant i al food was a ki nd of bread m ade of m ai ze. F or t wo and a hal f years. even t hi s di ffi cul t y of assi m i l at i on was m ore a qual i t y t han a handi cap because duri ng t hi s sl ow and hard di gest i on.
C o n s eq u en t l y . m any years. t here i s no wonder t hat t he fight for a correct environment became one of the most i m port ant bi ol ogi cal . S uch i nhum an l i vi ng condi t i ons di dn't l ast t hen for cert ai n weeks or m ont hs. In such inhuman si t uat i on t he rel at i ons bet ween m i nd and body were not under t he act i on of t he bi ol ogi cal st ruct ure of t he body. t hat i s fi ve. Vari ous m edi cal t ext books cl ai m t hat a person of norm al wei ght can not l i ve l onger t han si x m ont hs wi t h l ess t han 800 cal ori es a day. F reedom and Just i ce agai nst l i es. t en or fi ft een years. The m aj ori t y of Hi t l er and S t al i n' s unfort unat e vi ct i m s survi ved from fi ve t o t en years! S om e of t hem were physi ci ans and few of t hem professors at vari ous m edi cal col l eges. bound t o wi n at any pri ce t he vi ct ory of Trut h. psychol ogi cal and soci al m ovem ent of our m uch t roubl ed cent ury. val i d m erel y i n norm al l i vi ng condi t i ons for average norm al persons and not i n abnorm al condi t i ons for except i onal peopl e. but under t he sel f-cont rol of t he m oral consci ounsness. but al so a new social and political movement. Thus t hey had num erous occasi ons t o m ake fun of t hese t heori es.was st i l l worse i n wi nt er because t here was no heat i n t he room s. Given the importance of the biophysical and bi ochem i cal condi t i on of our body and m i nd. bei ng al so connect ed wi t h t he ot her s t ruggl e against atomic weapons.
. Indeed. di ct at orshi p and i nj ust i ce. The condi t i ons of l i vi ng were not bet t er i n sum m er because t he room s were so crowded t hat even a needl e coul d not fi nd i t s way t o t he fl oor. Under such condi t i ons t he onl y appropi at e t i m e t o sl eep was t he t wo hours aft er each of t hree m eal s. t he ai r was si m pl y unbearabl e! Yet t he onl y wi ndow avai l abl e was nevert hel ess cl osed for a num ber of hours each day. when t he hot wat er of t he m eal warm ed t he bodi es of t he i m pri soned peopl e. but for m any. as t he m aj ori t y of t hem real l y were. that might destroy mankind. In such si t uat i on t he onl y way t o endure was onl y t hrough t he m oral bel i ef of t he unfort unat e pri soners i n t he j ust i ce of t hei r nobl e fi ght for F reedom and Just i ce on one hand i n t he final triumph of their noble cause on the other. t h e s ci en t i fi c i n v es t i g at i o n o f o u r b i o p h y s i cal an d b i o ch em i cal
envi ronm ent becam e not onl y a new sci ence. on an area of si xt y square m et ers t here were no l ess t han 350 persons! C onsequent l y.
bi ochem i cal and bi ol ogi cal i nfrast ruct ures and processes.Thus. speci fi c t o t hei r own l evel of hi erarchi cal organi zat i on. The transaction of our personality with its social envi ronm ent have an i ncreased coeffi ci ent of aut onom y and i ndi vi duat i on because t he bi ol ogi cal st ruct ure of t he body. it asserts both the obj ect i ve assessm ent of fact s and t he necessi t y of t hei r evol ut i on t oward correct val ues of hum an nat ure. The m orphol ogy and physi ol ogy of vari ous organs and syst em s of t he organi sm exerci se t hei r i nfl uence upon t he cent ral nervous syst em on one hand and t he neuroveget at i ve syst em on t he ot her. functional lawfulness and processual development only through the bi ochem i cal and even physi cal pri nci pl es and l aws i s not possi bl e. t he psychol ogi cal structure of the personality and the economic. social and pol i t i cal st ruct ure of t hei r soci et y wi t h cul t ural devel opm ent are m uch m ore com pl ex and superior. Thus biophysical and biochemical
. funct i ons and processes. but al so upon our personal i t y and conduct . The new val ues. Different are also their functions and development. but al so t o t hei r bi ophysi cal . t hey l eave t hei r di rect i m pact not onl y upon our em ot i onal m ood and t em peram ent .
B i ol ogi cal C on di t i on I Morph ol ogi cal Types
The bi ophysi cal and bi ochem i cal condi t i on of our body and personal i t y act m ore upon our cel l s and t i ssues wi t h di rect i m pact upon t he physi ol ogy and m orphol ogy of t he organi sm and i ndi rect repercurssi on upon t he psychol ogy of personal i t y. We al so have t o consi der t hei r own st ruct ures. t he expl anat i on of their structural order. C onsequent l y. soci al condi t i on and cul t ural devel opm ent . Therefore. The adapt at i on of our body t o t he physi cal and chem i cal envi ronm ent i s m ore passi ve t han act i ve and m ore general t hen i ndi vi dual because t he i nner act i vi t y of physi cal and chem i cal st ruct ures as wel l as t hei r i ndi vi duat i on are sm al l er. however. soci al and cul t ural st ruct ures and funct i ons i n evol ut i on. are i nherent not m erel y t o psychol ogi cal .
to be sure.and so m uch st ressed by som e posi t i vi st and neoposi t i vi st t hi nkers wi t h physi cal t rai ni ng . To t he correl at i on of hi s bi ot ypes wi t h t wo of t he m ost i m port ant som at i c di seases Kretschmer added the correlation with two of the most i m port ant psychoses provi ng i n t hi s way t hat t he st ruct ural const i t ut i on of t he body exerci ses i t s i m pact not onl y upon som at i c and m ent al di sease but al so upon personal i t y and i t s soci al i nt egrat i on.i naugurat ed by P l at o and reassert ed by som e few i deal i st t hi nkers of our t i m e . neither com pl et el y i ndependent nor com pl et el y i nt errel at ed and. bi ol ogi cal and soci al -hum an l evel s. wi t h i t s concret e versus abst ract t hi nki ng and wi t h i t s act i ve versus passi ve adapt at i on t o soci al envi ronm ent .determination of body and
personal i t y have t o be com pl et ed wi t h t hei r m orphol ogi cal . bot h t he pri nci pl e of physi cal reduction of all phenomena. inaugurated by Empedocles and Dem ocri t us . Therefore. bi ochem i cal . H i p p ocrates. asserting a correlation bet ween t hem and the somatic diseases on one hand and between humoral secret i ons and t em peram ent on t he ot her. Anot her i m port ant cont ri but i on of m odern sci ence i s t hat of t he ret i cul ar act i vat i on syst em of neurol ogi cal order. To t he i m pact of endocri ne secret i ons upon t em peram ent he al so added t he i nfl uence of sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglions of the neuroveget at i ve syst em upon t he euphori c and depressi ve st at es of t he em ot i onal m ood. sociological and cultural ones. psychological.
physi ol ogi cal and endocri nol ogi cal det erm i nat i ons as wel l as t he psychological. payi ng due at t ent i on t o t hei r speci fi ci t y and part i cul ari t y. t herefore t o t reat t hem as ent i rel y aut onom ous and m erel y si m pl y i nt erdependent i s m i st aken.who underst ood t he importance of the morphological types with their connected physiology of humoral secretions. determinations are.and m ay be of al l t i m es . being the principal ways of i nt errel at i on bet ween
.as wel l as t he opposi t e pri nci pl e wi t h reduces physical phenomena to hypothetical entities of spi ri t ual i st order . The t rue founder of bi ot ypol ogy was t he great physi ci an of
Ant i qui t y . t hat t akes i nt o consi derat i on al l t he modes of organization of matter and energy with their hi erarchi cal i nt egrat i on at physi cal . bi ol ogi cal . Thus t he morphological structure of the body with its physiological funct i ons and endocri ne secret i ons are col l aborat i ng wi t h t he central nervous system.are m i st aken. etc. Biophysical. functional and processual i nt erpret at i on of cont em porary sci ence. The correct sol ut i on seem s to be merely the structural.
but al so hi gher degree of warm t h. but al so i n t erm s of t hei r emot i onal mood. caused by their arterioslerosis. but al so t he i nfl uence of t he psychol ogi cal processes upon t he physi ol ogi cal ones. however. The correl at i on of these morphological types with the psychological ones was not real i zed. Indeed. In opposi t i on t o such peopl e are t hose wi t h t hi n and t al l bodi es wi t h sm al l er t runks and l onger l i m bs. If t he four t em peram ent s are t o be i nt erpret ed i n t hi s new fram e of reference. whi l e t he act i ons and react i ons of phl egm at i c t em peram ent s are not onl y sl ower and l ower but al so l ess ani m at ed and col der. t he sci ence and art of hum an di pl om acy t hem sel ves have di scovered t he st rat egy of usi ng good food and alcoholic drinks in human transactions. t he hi gher or l ower degrees of activity and warmth were correlated to the predominance of Empedocles's elements of water and soil in apathetic and m el anchol i c t em peram ent s and wi t h t he preval ance of fi re and wi nd i n chol eri c and sangui ne t em peram ent s. It shoul d be al so observed t hat t em peram ent and t em perat ure have t he sam e radi x. This means that the
. Hippocrates realized indeed that certain people with a more devel oped appetite get fat and therefore the trunk of their body is more devel oped t han t hei r hands and l egs. Indeed. t hat charact eri zes t he opposi t i on bet ween euphori c and depressi ve st at es as wel l as i n t erm s of nervous react i on. t he ci rcul at i on of t hei r l arger quant i t i es of blood i n t hei r vei ns and art eri es becom es harder and t herefore t hey t end t o become victims of apoplexy. i t was di scovered onl y i n our t i m e. As regards t he correl at i on bet ween t em peram ent and bi ot ype. As regards t he hum an t em peram ent . who becom e i l l wi t h t ubercul osi s. Thus. assert not onl y t he i m pact of body upon m i nd.body and m i nd. t hen one has t o observe t hat t hei r di fferent i at i on i s not onl y i n t erm s of hi gher versus l ow er degrees of act i vat i on. If we represent t he degree of t he act i vat i on of our energy on t he ordi nat e of a coordi nat e syst em and t he opposi t i on bet ween t he apopl ect i c and pht hi si cal t ypes on t he absci sa. pretending that arguments reach bet t er t he brai n of t he opposi t i on i f t hey pass t hrough t hei r st om ach fi rst . These i nt errel at i ons. dynamic temperaments have not only higher degree of act i vat i on. t hen t he bi sect ors represent t he four t em peram ent s. t hat charact eri zes t he opposi t i on bet ween i rri t abi l i t y and l ack of irritability.
emotional mood of sanguine and m el anchol i c t em peram ent m i ght be m ore under t he i nfl uence of sym pat het i c gangl i ons of t he aut onom ous nervous syst em . whi ch proved to be more relevant. It should be observed. discovered in our t i m e. t he bi ology and m edi ci ne of our century directed their attention upon the complex structure of t he body i t sel f with its four systems. The experimental results of Wundt 's physi ol ogi cal psychol ogy were rat her st eri l e. In t hi s way Hi ppocrat es' t heory of bi ot ypes and t em peram ent s was redi scovered and further elaborated. that Hippocrat es' som at i c t ypol ogy was never ent i rel y forgot t en and was furt her elaborated not only by Galenus. however. The i nt errel at i on bet ween bi ot ypes and psychot ypes of t he new bi ol ogy and psychol ogy of personal i t y are i ncom parabl y m ore si gni fi cant for bot h t heory and pract i ce. The sci ence of t he l ast cent ury was under the principle of reduction with analytical expl anat i on of t he whol e t hrough i t s part s and el em ent s. The hi gher synt heses of t he four syst em s of hum an body and t hen of i t s own const i t ut i on versus st ruct ure were st i l l not consi dered. accordi ng t o t he physi cal model of Newton's mechnics. Psychology followed the same way and focussed its search upon the higher configurations of personality. Psychology attempted to det erm i ne t he propert i es of t he m i nd t hrough t he associ at i on of sensat i ons. t he rel at i ons bet ween body and m i nd were no l arger sought at t he l evel of nerves and sensat i ons. i naugurat ed by Lom brozo and furt her devel oped by Vi ol a and P ende. S i gni fi cant cont ri but i ons were nonet hel ess t hose of t he It al i an school s. while the irritability and apathy of choleric and apathetic temperaments might be more under the i nfl uence of t he ret i cul ar activation system of the central nervous system. A similar explanation of the organism was proposed by Max Verworn's cellular physiology. Virchow's conception of medicine attempt to explain various diseases through the anatomy and physi ol ogy of organs. as t he m onum ent al t reat i se i n four vol um es of B rugsch& Lewy proved. but at the level of various biotypes. equivalent to physical atoms. Mod ern B i oth yp ol ogy. psychotypes and even soci ot ypes. taken as elementary units of psychical structure. of t he F rench school . In consequence. but also by a lot of other physi ci ans afterwards. el eborat ed by R ost an and furt her devel oped by
. Since this analytical determination of body and mind t hrough t hei r el em ent ary uni t s or l ower synt heses di d not succeed i n offeri ng a sat i sfact ory expl anat i on. whose number is too large to be registered.
Sigaud and McAullife and of the German school. ast heni c bi ot ype i s si m i l ar t o t he cerebral one and seem t o be more under the impact of the central nervous system. S hel don adheres t o t he sam e t hesi s. while those suffering of m ani ac-depressi ve psychosi s had a pi cni c one. l ess devel oped. The ast heni c const i t ut i on was t hi n and wi t h longi l i n growt h. Their psychol ogi cal t ypol ogy was. identifying it with the normal one. Up to now the correlations of this new bi ot ype wi t h t he psychol ogi cal one are l ess rel evant . whi l e t he pi cni c one was fat and wi t h l at eral growt h. P eopl e wi t h ast heni c const i t ut i on of t he body have l onger hands and l egs and sm al l t runk. al t hough i t s el aborat i on i s m ore i n t erm s of t he t rai t s t heory of t he fi rst edi t i on of Al l port ' s cl assi cal t reat i se on Personal i t y and pays l ess at t ent i on t o be sel f-real i zat i on of Ego. A. si m i l ar t o t hat of Hi ppocrat es. poi nt ed out by Al l port hi m sel f i n hi s second t reat i se. that cont rol s our adapt at i on t o envi ronm ent . yet S hel don proved t hei r si gni fi cance. Vi ol a nad P ende i n It al y and Kret schm er i n Germ any proposed a t wofol d bi ot ypol ogy. For the time being. consi dered i t t he m ost frequent biotype. P i cni c bi ot ype i s si m i l ar t o t he di gest i ve one and i t seem s t o be m ore under t he i m pact of t he aut onom ous nervous syst em t hat cont rol s hi s m et abol i sm t oget her wi t h hi s i nt ernal processes. whi l e t hose pi cni c const i t ut i on have shot er l i m bs and t he wel l -devel oped t runk. yet i t s const i t ut i onal psychol ogy seem s t o be m uch bet t er devel oped. however. B et ween t hese t wo opposi t e t ypes i s the athletic one with strong
. S . Kret schm er consi dered i t l ess frequent and put t he accent upon t he opposi t e t ypes of Hi ppocrat es. Vi ol a and P ende. R ost and and S i gaud t ook as poi nt depart ure t he basi c systems of the human organism and therefore proposed a fourfol d biotypology of digestive. however. Duri ng hi s experi ence as di rect or of P sychi at ri c C l i ni c of t he
Uni versi t y of Tübi ngen. Pat t ern and Grow t h of Personal i t y. Kret schm er observed t hat pat i ent s sufferi ng of schi zophreni a had an asthenic appearance of the body. promoted by Kretschmer and continued by Conrad. the most complete el aborat i on of t he rel at i ons bet ween body and m i nd i s t hat of S hel don i n U. respiratory and cerebral types. K retsch mer. Yet i t evol ved l at er t oward a t hreefol d bi ot ypol ogy by t he i nt erpret at i on of t he at hl et i c bi ot ype bet ween t he apopl ect i c and phthisic ones.
Th e rel at i o n b et ween b o d y co n s t i t u t i o n an d men t al d i s eas es Bo dy co ns ti tuti o n Ma ni a c-depres s i v e ps y cho s i s As t h en i cs At h l et i cs At h l et i cs -as t h en i cs Pi cn i cs Mixed picnics forms Di s p l as t i cs Non-classifiables To t al 4 3 2 52 14 0 4 85 81 31 11 2 3 34 13 175 Schi zo phreni a
In vi rt ue of t hese dat a. who i ncl i ne not onl y t oward schi zophreni a. but al so t oward hyst eri a. t hree concl usi on are drawn up: There is a high correlation between the picnic const i t ut i on of t he body and t he m ani ac depressi ve psychosi s. developed chest and shoul ders. based upon the observation and m easurem ent of t he body const i t ut i on of t hese bi ot ypes on one hand and upon t he cl i ni cal di agnosi s of t hei r m ent al di sease on t he ot her proved t hei r correl at i on bet ween body const i t ut i on and m ent al di seases. An intensive study. A rather high correlation occurs between schi zophreni a and the asthenic constitution of the body and lower one between schi zophreni a and t he at hl et i c or dyspl ast i c const i t ut i on. t he i nfl uence of t he dyspl at i c bi ot ype upon t he psychol ogi cal di sposi t i ons seem s t o be not di rect . A second observat i on concerns t he dyspl ast i cs. wi t h t he observat i on that the athletic type tends more toward paranoid schi zophreni a. as i n t he case of ot her bi ot ypes.muscles. Yet . as t he l at er st udi es i ndi cat e. The resul t s are gi ven i n Tabl e 1.
and i n al l tissues . psychotypes and even sociotypes with respect to the whole of population. fat. That is. he looked for the relations bet ween t he bi ol ogi cal st ruct ure of body const i t ut i on and t he psychol ogi cal one of t em peram ent . who di d not ent er t he hospi t al s j ust because of t hei r norm al devel opm ent of body and m i nd. based upon 4. owever. but a threemodal one. t hat i s t hrough t he i nferi ori t y com pl exes generat ed by t he dyspl ast i c form s of t he body. that is with certain types of feeling.000 patiens from other German clinics this threemodal variation of the respective biotypes becomes. On t hi s accord we find the average weight. ext rem i t i es . but al so heal t hy one. wi t h a ski n poor i n secret i on and bl ood. who l ooks t al l er t han he i s. Thi s defi ci ency i n t he t hi ckness devel opm ent i s present i n al l part s of t he body . personal i t y and even character versus social integration.but i ndi rect . l ess obvi ous. which represent s t wo t hi rds of t he frequency. t he ext rem e bi ot ypes
represent i ng onl y t hi rd of frequency equal l y di st ri but ed. The body of the asthenic biotype seems to be charact ei zed through "a deficiency in thickness combined with an average unl essened l engt h. S hel don has found a si m i l ar di st ri but i on. claiming that certain bi ot ypes correl at e wi t h cert ai n psychot ypes and soci ot ypes. neck. In the meantime Kretschmer himself extended his research work t o t he creat i ve m i nd of geni uses.skin. Viola and Pende on the other hand have found an uni m odal curve of variation with a normal biotype in the middle. t runk. t hat i s one si xt h for each bi ot ype. In this new and large frame of reference with respect to the whol e population. t hat are soci al l y despi sed. He also sought the relations between biotypes. bone and vascular system t hroughout . In a later study. approachi ng i n t hi s way t he rel at i on bet ween body and m i nd norm al condi t i ons and not onl y i n t he pathological ones. both consci ousl y and unconsci ousl y. as well as the total ci rcum ference and breadt h m eansurem ent . muscle. the definitions of the biotypes are the following ones.face. According to Kretschmer the frequency of the above di m ensi ons of the body constitution seems to indicate not an unimodal di st ri but i on. Yet al l of t hem have st udi ed not onl y i l l peopl e from m ent al hospi t al s. i nt el l i gence.
. bel ow t he general val ue for m al es…a l ean narrowl y bui l t m an. yet with certain overlapping between them. thinking and acting.
the magnificent fat paunch prot rudes from t he deep vaul t ed chest whi ch broadens out t oward t he l ower part s of t he body". on which we can count the ri bs. a soft broad face on a short massive neck. the musculature and the skin…A middle-sized to tall m an. When normal people are concerned t hen t he correlation between mind and body is applied not only to t em peram ent . which are somatic diseases. They were already present in Hippocrates' theory. being "rare. The m ai n di m ensi on of t em peram ent i s t hat of i t s rhythm. rounded figure. a long. wi t h t hi n m uscl es and del i cat el y boned hands. but al so t o t hei r way of t hi nki ng. a t hi n st om ach…" "The m al e at hl et i c t ype i s recogni zed by st rong devel opm ent of the skeleton. wi t h a sharp ri b angl e. which defines the various degree of activation of the bio-psychol ogi cal energy on one hand and the degrees of quick versus slow mot i l i t y. Kret schm er connect ed t hem wi t h schi zophreni a and
m ani ac-depressi ve psychosi s. Hi ppocrat es connect ed hi s bi ot ypol ogy onl y with tuberculosis and apoplexy. on t he other.wi t h narrow shoul ders. wi t h part i cul arl y wi de proj ect i ng shoul ders. breast and st om ach) and a tendency to a distribution of fat about the trunk… middle height. surprising and ugly". The psychological structure of the mind is defined by its t em peram ent . personal i t y and charact er. thinking and social integration. To t hem Kret schm er added t he em ot i onal m ood of pi cni c bi ot ype wi t h his oscillation between euphory and depression and the react i ve versus i rri t abl e mood of the schizophrenic biotype with the oscillationa between nervosi t y and i nsensi bi l i t y or st upor. The pi cni c t ype i s charact eri zed "by t he pronounced peri pheral devel opm ent of t he bodi es cavi t i es (head. narrow. a fi rm st om ach. too. The dysplastic biotype represents a deviation from this m orphol ogi cal continuum. a supeb chest . flat chest. The rhyt hm of afect i ons and react i ons wi t h m ore or l ess energy and in a quicker or
. which are mental diseases. personality. si t t i ng between the two shoulders. from whi ch hang l ean arm s. and a trunk with tapers in its lower region so that the pelvis and the m agni fi cent l egs som et i m es seem al m ost graceful com pared wi t h t he si ze of t he upper l i m bs and part i cul arl y t he hypert rophi ed shoul ders".
The opposition between energetic and non-energetic t em peram ent characterizes both picnic and asthenic biotype. In this way the di st ri but i on of psychot ypes i s nearer t o t hat of t he uni m odal curve of vari at i on al t hough hi s bi ot ypol ogy gave m ore credi t t o t he bi m odal di st ri but i on. E. When t he processes of t hought are consi dered. Accordi ng t o t hem . t he excessi ve secret at i on of thyroid determines the Basedow disease. reglemeting the transactions of the individual with its envi ronm ent . generating euphoric st at es and wi t h i t s parasym pat het i c gangl i ons. t hen hi s thesis the intelligence of the picnic biotype is more concrete and percept i ve. and W. Thus. t he m ost i m port ant gl ands bei ng t hyroi d. whi l e t hat of t he ast heni c bi ot ype i s m ore abst ract . Yet . yet their em ot i onal m ood i s di fferent because t he pi cni c bi ot ype seem s t o be m ore under t he i m pact of bi ot onus and vagot onus of t he aut onom ous nervous syst em . t hat when t em peram ent comes into discussion. Sometimes he refers even t o t he professi onal t ypes. generat i ng depressi ve st at e.
. Jaensch al so recogni zed t hei r rol e. taking into consi derat i on not onl y the cognitive logic. Is shoul d be observed. they connect energet i c t em peram ent wi t h what t hey cal l Basedowian biotype. In opposition to it is the tetanoid biotype. which in the time was not yet known. det erm i ned by an i nsuffi ci ent secret at i on of t he t hyroi d and an excessi ve secret at i on of t he parat hyroi d. parat hyroi d and epi physi s. that seem to be more frequent than the extreme ones. but also the emotional one. The emotional mood with its oscillation between euphori a and depressi on seem s t o depend m ost l y upon aut onom ous nervous system with its sympathetic ganglions. he al so speaks about the emotional thinking of poets and artits. but al so t hei r i nt erm edi at e form s. whi l e t he ast heni c bi ot ype seem s t o be m ore under t he influence of the reticular activating system of the nervous cent ral syst em . Kretschmer speaks not only about energet i c and non-energetic temperament with euphoric and depressive em ot i onal m ood versus nervous and cal m react i ons. The nervosity versus stupor that characterizes the act i ons and reactions of the schizoid biotype seems to depend upon the ret i cul ar activating system of the diencephal.slower tempo seems to depend m ai nl y on endocri ne secret i ons. however.
for i nst ance. i nt roversi on and extraversion. coveri ng t wo t hi rds of popul at i on.
. The biotype seems also to influence character. Goet he. whi l e chol eri c and apat het i c t em peram ent s are specific to asthenic type. S i nce t he at hl et i c bi ot ype appears t o be an i nt erm edi at e one. hi s t hesi s was t hat t hi nki ng processes of pi cni c bi ot ype were m ore percept i ve and concrete. t hat were consi dered t o be t he basi c ones. whi l e t he ast heni c bi ot ype gi ves m ore credi t t o t he l eadi ng pri nci pl es of human consciousness and behavior and tries to judge the concret e si t uat i on i n t hei r fram es of reference. while those of asthenic biotype were more abst ract . The pi cni c biotype then takes the world as it is and is disposed to com prom i se. but two additional ones. whi l e Kant represent ed t he ast heni c bi ot ype wi t h abst ract i nt el l i gence. wi t h l ess frequency t han t he order t wo opposi t e t ypes. whi l e chol eri c and apat hi c t em peram ent are m ore nervous or non-calm. but as a secondary t ype. however. sangui ne and m el anchol i c t em peram ent s are m ore emot i onal or col d. pl eadi ng for an act i ve adapt at i on t o t he worl d. Thus. Sanguine and melancholic temperaments are speci fi c t o pi cni c bi ot ype. The fourt h correl at i on of t he bi ot ype i s t hat wi t h t he i nt rovert versus ext ravert ori ent at i on pf personal i t y. whi l e t hat of t he ast heni c one i s m ore act i ve. One concerns the role of endocrine secretions. It should be observed. because the adapt at i on t o soci al envi ronm ent of t he pi cni c i s m ore passi ve. Jung's psychotypology is connected with Kretschmer's bi otypol ogy.Thus. t he pi cni c being more of an extravert and the asthenic more of an i nt rovert . hi s psychot ype and soci al t ype t end t oward a synt hesi s bet ween concret e and abst ract t hi nki ng. that Kretschmer consi dered i t not as t he norm al t ype wi t h l argest frequency. passi ve and act i ve adapt at i on. i l l ust rat ed t he pi cni c bi ot ype wi t h concret e i nt el l i gence. that are personal i t y t rai t s. This is also the reason why the osci l l at i on bet ween t he m ani ac and depressi ve st at e i s m ore em ot i onal . which has been al ready and t he second one makes the relation with introversion and extraversion. while the alternation between agitation and non-agitation of schi zophreni a i l l ust rat es t he opposi t i on bet ween nervosi t y versus i rri t abi l i t y and apathy versus stupor. When i nt el l i gence cam e i nt o di scussi on. It should be also observed that Kret schm er's conception of temperament did not merely use the above two determinations of temperament.
Yet if the body is too big. Another. whi ch has t he great est chance of bei ng t he m ost harm oni ousl y devel oped bot h bi ol ogi cal l y and psychol ogi cal l y. psychot ypol ogy and soci ot ypol ogy m i ght be t o a cert ai n ext ent a di fferent one. and l ess from t he poi nt of vi ew of t hei r psychol ogy. It should then be observed that the neurological subst rat um of i nt el l ect rem ai ned
unapproached because t he t heory of B roca on cerebral l ocal i zat i ons of m ent al funct i ons becam e obsol et e and t he new theories of the general activity of brain with some few di fferent i at i on
. One reason of t hei r negl ect i s perhaps t he m i nor rol e of t he at hl et i c t ype. Therefore. but also for self defence. wi t h m ore vol um e. t he at t ent i on of Vi ol a and P ende as wel l as t hat of McAul l i ffe and l at er S hel don and C onrad was focussed m ai nl y on t hi s bi ot ype. The third observation concerns the fact that the rel at i ons bet ween body and m i nd are consi dered m ost l y from t he st andpoi nt of t hei r m orphol ogy. generating a com pl ex of i nferi ori t y. One has t o add. t hat are i m port ant not only for physical work. psychotypol ogy and soci ot ypol ogy refer m ost l y t o m al es and l ess t o wom en. t hat t hese fem i ni ne t rai t s are not a reason t o i gnore t hem .It should also be observed that the biotypology. but one t o consi der t hem m ore seri osl y because t hei r bi ot ypol ogy. t hen t he advantage of its development becomes a handicap. wi t h t he accent upon i t s posi t i ve val ue of heal t hi er devel opm ent . A concession is made only when endocri nol ogi cal subst rat um com es i nt o
di scussi on because t hei r effect s upon bot h body and m i nd recei ved m ore at t ent i on. as Mat hes cl ai m ed. The sam e fact occurs i n S hel don's vast and wonderful research. ignored dimension of the body is that of its devel opm ent . wei ght and force or wi t h l ess ones. however. with the observat i on t hat persons wi t h l arger body and great er force are m ore confi dent t han those with smaller body and little force. al t hough physi ol ogi cal processes are t o be sure t he most important ones. The fourt h observat i on concerns t he j udgem ent of val ue about t he m ost effi ci ent and harm oni ous const i t ut i on of t he body from t he st andpoi nt of i t s heal t h and product i ve work on one hand and of t he psychol ogi cal happi ness and soci al effi ci ency on t he ot her. who are l ess accessi bl e t o such a st udy because of t hei r fem i ni ne t rai t s of great er sham e and di scret eness.
m esom orphi c and ect om orphi c bi ot ypes. we shall deal later on aft er t he present at i on of t he m ost i m port ant researches i n t hi s fi el d. F rom Jung and Kretschmer he learned the value of clinical observation perform ed i n a syst em at i c way and from Vi ol a and P ende he t ook t he t echni que of m easurem ent and t he i nt erpret at i on of i t s resul t s i n t he cont ext of t he curve of vari at i on. the development of the head and of the body trunk. prom ot ed by S ki nner. S h el d on . however. et c. t he l engt h of hands and l egs.wi t h respect t o cert ai n abi l i t i es proved t o be beyond t he m orphol ogi cal di scri m i nat i on of t he anat om y of hum an skul l . perform ed by one group of com pet ent peopl e upon not l ess t han 4. With these observations. Thus. Thei r est i m at i on was i n t erm s of 17 vari abl es. l i ke t he hei ght and wei ght of t he body. He appl i ed. Aft erwards. Thi s res earch. t he rel at i ons bet ween t hese t wo m ai n variables. The definition of the endomorphic biotype is the following one: "The individual who is high in this
. but al so t o t hose of rat i ng m ethod. S hel don had bot h psychol ogi cal and m edi cal t rai ni ng wi t h a doct orat e degree i n bot h fi el ds. however. t he di st ance bet ween neck. i s onl y ps ychol ogi cal and not
neurol ogi cal . um bi l i cal cord and sex. obt ai ned at t he Uni versi t y of C hi cago. With the help of these data. t he ski n t i ssues. S . taking also an i nt erest i n t he bi opsycho-t ypol ogy of Vi ol a and P ende. The t heory of operant behavi our. t he curve of vari at i on not onl y t o experi m ent al dat a wi t h m et ri c est i m at i on. he st udi ed bi ot ypol ogy wi t h Kretschmer and psychotypology with Jung. i l l ust rat es such a phenom enol ogi cal st udy of behavi or. A. among which was the late professor Stevens from Harvard Uni versi t y. 000 phot ographs of di fferent persons. nam el y t hose of S hel don and of hi s col l aborat ors. submitted to a statistical el aborat i on i n terms of seven degrees of development. t he devel opm ent of m uscl es and bones. however. consi dered t o be i n hi s t i m e t he m os t out s t andi ng exponent of experi m ent al m et hodol ogy wi t h m at hem at i cal det erm i nat i on i n psychol ogy. Thi s does not m ean t hat t he l awful ness of m ent al processes i s i t sel f beyond t he pos s i bi l i t y of res earch. t he m ai n rel at i on bet ween m i nd and body i s st i l l i gnored. so hi ghl y appreci at ed i n U. one differentiates am ong t hree t ypes of body const i t ut i on: t he endom orphi c.
He i s usual l y t hi n and l i ght l y m uscl ed. of tissue. that have derived from the ectodermal embryon layer. Such an individual has low specific gravity and floats high in the water. with a predominance of bone and muscle. he shows a predom i nance of m ass over surface. advent urous or professi onal sol di er m i ght best be endowed wi t h t hi s t ype of physique. "A physique heavily developed in mesomorphic componenet and showi ng a descrem ent i n bot h t he ot her com ponent s. The dominant portions of the physique have derived mesodermal embryonic layer. 2 and 1. The fact that the digestive viscera are highly developed in this physique and that the functional elements of those structures develop primarily from the endodermal embryonic layer accounts of the use term endomorphy". Grades 5-4-2 show a physique with average endom orphy and rat her l ow ect om orphy. m esom orphy. He al so has t he l argest brai n and cent ral nervous syst em i n proport i on t o hi s si ze…hi s physi que i s m ade up. show a biotype very highly developed from the standpoint of the mesomorphic const i t ut i on and very lowly developed from the point of view of the endom orphi c and ect om orphi c const i t ut i on. The m esom orphi c body is strong. Grades 1-7-1. Grades 2-2-6 show a physique with rather high ectomorphy and rather low endom orphy and mesomorphy. a l i t t l e hi gher pri m ari l y from the
.component and low in the others is characterized by softness and spherical appearance. Consistent with the softness and rounded quality is an underdevelopment of bone and muscle and a relatively low surface-mass ratio. resistent to injury. "An individual who is at the upper extreme in the ect om orphi c componenet and low in the other components is linear and fragi l e. is over exposed to external stimulation. for instance. but also by the low devel opm ent of t he com pl em ent ary t ypes. The athlete. R el at i ve t o hi s m ass t he ectomorph has more surface area than the other types of physi que. Grade 4 represent s t he m i ddl e bet ween t hei r hi gher versus l ower devel opm ent . hence the term m esom orphi c". charact eri zed by fl at ness of t he chest and del i cacy of t he body. This is a physique poorly equipped for com pet i t i ve and persi st ent physi cal act i on". 6 and 7. graded 3. In t hi s way bi ot ype i s det erm i nat ed not onl y by hi s preval ent traits and dimensions graded 5. The ect om orph. more than the other physiques. and generally equi pped for strenuous and exacting physical demands. because of hi s l arge proport i onat e surface area. i s hard and rectangular. tough.
In opposition to this thesis. that gives priority to environmental influences.Besides these three mixed biotypes. The At l as of men gi ves t he di st ri but i on and evol ut i on of 46. Ol d age seem s t o bri ng a new preval ence of t he ect om orphi c bi ot ype. 18 and 65 years ol d. To t hi s end. The tables are el aborat ed for t he age of 5. In t hi s way t hey drew a l i st of 650 expressi ons that have a such a function of psychological description and charact eri zat i on. S h el d o n an d S t ev en s l o o k ed fo r t h ei r
correspondi ng psychot ypes. a proof t hat t hei r det erm i nat i on i s mainly hereditary. The const ancy of t he bi ot ypes al ong t he age seem s t o be rat her si gni fi cant . P ende and S hel don seems to be that of Sigaud and of the French School of biotypology in general. promoted by Kret schm er. They al so pai d speci al at t ent i on t o Al l port and Odbert 's ext ensi ve st udy of t he m ost si gni fi cant Engl i sh words. conforming to the curve of vari at i on. expressi ng such psychol ogi cal t rai t s. On ce t h es e b i o t y p es es t ab l i s h ed . wi t h t he observat i on t hat m al es are m ai nl y mesomorphic. represent ed by t he m esom orphi c bi ot ype. t here are very few bi ot ypes t hat devi at e from t he continuum of the normal curve of variation. while males a combiantion of mesomorphy with endo-and ecto-m orphy. Thi rt y graduat e st udent s t rai ned i n psychol ogi cal assessm ent were t hen asked t o descri be t he num erous bi ot ypes i n t erm of
. The i nfant i l oi d t ype i s a non devel oped m al e versus fem al e. The differentiation between endo-meso-ectomorphy also appl i es t o fem i ni ne popul at i on. gynandorph and hypodevel oped bi ot ypes. Accordi ng t o Kert schm er t he age of 32 gi ves pri ori t y t o t hei r equi l i bri um . while women are mostly endomorphic. The bi ot ypes of chi l dren are m ost l y endom orphi c and t hose of adol escent s are m ost l y ect om orphi c. 000 persons with reference to these three biotypes. t hey resort ed t o an ext ensi ve st udy of t he vari ous personal i t y t rai t s. Kret schm er has undert aken a si m i l ar st udy of bi ot ypol ogi cal evol ut i on upon a m uch sm al l er popul at i on. Thus wom en appear to be a combination of endomorphy with mesomorphy and ect om orphy. The dyspl ast i c one i s si m i l ar t o t hat of Kretschmer. t hat i nt ervene i n t he research work of t he m ost out st andi ng exponent s of t he psychol ogy of personal i t y. The gynandorph type defines males with feminine const i t ut i on versus fem al es wi t h m ascul i ne t rai t s. They are the dyspl ast i c. that is to food and work.
Physiological overresponse () 3. Mental overintensity Hyperattentionality Apprehensiveness
6. these ecpressions represent the alternatives 20 vari abl es. Here are t hese t hree constellations of traits with unimodal variation. In fact. whi ch sat i sfi ed these double conditions. with the observation that t hei r vari at i on i s a uni m odal and not a t hree m odal one. The energic characteristic () 4. Love of risk and chance
() 6. Slow reaction 4. Selfconscious mobility of the eyes and face
() 8. Love of privacy () 5. A l i st of 60 expressi ons was sel ect ed. Love of polite ceremony
() 7. the most rel evant ones being preceded by double
parentheses. that is correlating highly positive with t he respect i ve bi ot ype and rat her negat i ve wi t h t he opposi t e ones. Sociophilia
() () 8. Love of eating 5.t hese psychol ogi cal at t ri but es. However. Relaxation in posture and movement () 2. emotional restraint
() 7. Love of physical adventure () 3. Assertiveness of posture and movement () 2.60 with their corresponding biotype and correlation of -0. Sensitiveness of feeling. t hey were asked t o use m erel y those expressions that indicated a correlation of minimim +0. Need and enjoyment of exercise 5. whi ch i nt roduce a cl ear di scri m i nat i on bet ween t he t hree psychot ypes correlating with the three biotypes. Boldiness of manner
() 7. Sociophobia
. Love of physical comfort () 3. that of somatotonies with mesomorphic biotype and that of cerebrot oni es wi t h ect omorphi c bi ot ype. Overly fast reaction () 4. Socialization of eating
Somatotonies () 1. tightness 2. Love of domination
Cerebrotonies () 1. The term Viscerotomies occurs i n rel at i on wi t h t he psychol ogi cal equi val ences of endom orphi c bi ot ype. Restraint in posture and movement.30 with its opposite bi ot ypes. Pleasure in digestion
() 6. Physical courage of combat
Viscerotonies () 1.
Orientation toward childhood and family relationship 18. love of polite ceremony. evenness of emotional flow. i s defi ned by t he fol l owi ng const el l at i on of t rai t s: rel axat i on i n post ure and m ovem ent . Orientation toward the later period of life 17. Resistance to habit and poor rutinization 11. Assertiveness and aggression under alcohol 19. introversion 11. Vertical mental cleavage. Horizontal mental cleavage. Ruthlessness. Orientation toward goals and activities of youth 18. that is
. Resistance to alcohol and to other depressant drugs 19. the intempered charact eri st i c. The intempered characteristic () 16. correspondi ng t o t he endom orphi c bi ot ype. chronic fatigue () 16. Inhibited social address 10. Need of affection when troubled 20. Claustrophobia 12. Poor sleep habits. Greed for affection and approval () 9. The unrestrained voice () 13. Deep sleep 14. extraversion 18. Evenness of emotional flow 11. easy communication of feeling. Psychological callousness 10. Agoraphobia 12. Relaxation and sociophilia under alcohol 19 Need of people when troubled 20. complacency. Overmaturity of appearance () 16. Spartan indiference 15. l ove of physi cal com fort . Vocal restraint and general restraint of noise () 14. freedom from squeamishness (0 13. Unpredictability of atitude
Thus t he vi scerot oni c psychot ype. Tolerance () 13. Need of solitude when troubled 20. slow reactions.9. General noisiness of sleep 14. smooth and easy communication of feeling. Orientation to people () 12. Competitive aggressiveness 10. Youthful intentions of manner and appearance () 17. Smoothly. extraversion 17. Complacency 15. Hypersensitivy to pain 15. tolerance. sociophilia. Indiscriminate amability () 9.
Somatotony -0. need and enj oym ent of exerci se.34
Heboid diseases .
Affective diseases Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy + 0. physical courage of combat.25 . mental overintensity and hiperattentionality as well as apprehensiveness.0.79 .0. inhibited social address. competitive aggresiveness. mesomorphic biotype correlates positively with paranoid diseases and negatively with
.23 .54 .0.29 + 0. vocal restraint and general restraint of noise. love of privacy. sociophobia.0.0.0. boldiness of manner. youthful intentions of manner and appearance.68 + 0.0.59
Paranoid diseases .0.41 . correspondi ng to mesomorphic biotype.0. selfconscious mobility of the eyes and face.0.64
Thus endomorphic biotype correlates positively with affective diseases of maniac-depressive states and negatively with paranoid diseases (paranoid schizophrenia and paranoia) and heboid diseases (schizophrenia without paranoid one). overly fast reaction.extraversion. are: restraint in posture and movement and tightness. corresponding to the ectomorphic biotype.57 . the energetic charact eri st i c. sensitiveness of feeling and emotional restrain.83
Similar correlations are discovered between biotypes and psychoses.32 .53
Cerebrotony . are: assertiveness of posture and movement.58 + 0.82 . love of physical adventure.04 + 0. and unrestrained voice and overmaturity of appearance. The most reprezentative traits of the cerebrotonic psychotype. The most representative traits of the somatotonic psychotype.0. The intensive study of 200 cases shows the following correlation between biotypes and psychotypes:
Viscerotony Endomorphy Mesomorphy Ectomorphy + 0. love of risk and chance.
The research work undertaken by Sheldon and his collaborators is to be sure the most intensive. Other research workers. too. the grading researchers asked to look not only for the positive correlation. have found lower correlations. Or. who did not insist upon this checking of the positive correlations between certain biotypes and their corresponding psychotypes with the negative correlations of the same biotypes with their opposite psychotypes. seems to be rather important. systematic and elaborate one. that to a certain extent the high correlation between biotypes and psychotypes could be explained through their technique of research. Thurstone and other research workers have submitted such correlations between biotypological and psychotypological traits to factor analysis. Further correlations are discovered with reference to organic diseases.affective and heboid diseases and the ectomorphic biotype correlates positively with diseases and negatively with affective and paranoid diseases. its correlation with paranoid diseases was not apprehended. a lower one between delinquency and endomorphic biotype nearer to mesomorphic biotype and the lowest correlation appears between delinquency and ectomorphic biotype. when dysplacity is grave. however. Since Kretschmer did not pay much attention to the athletic biotype. One should note. Indeed. It should be observed. A new research work by Sheldon and his collaborators approaches the problem of delinquency. The social environment. The new discovery was the correlation between mesomorphy and paranoid diseases. this condition could be understood as a certain reinforcement for intensifying the opposition between positive and negative correlation of various biotypes with their corresponding psychotypes. The highest correlation was found between delinquency and mesomorphic biotype. though they are not so conspicuous as these two ones. when dysplacity is not too accentuated and schizophrenia. A number of 400 young deliquents were studied during 8 years with reference to their biotypes and psychotypes and with due attention to their education and social environment. however. The dysplastic biotype generates inferiority complex and hysterical reactions. confirming their conclusions but in a more moderate way. The assessment of Hipocrates and Galenus are confirmed and new correlations are found with other diseases than apoplexy and tuberculosis. that temperament does not reflect merely the biotype. but also for the negative ones. Gynandromorphy versus inverted sexuality generates homo-sexuality. however. but also the degrees
Jaensch. that emerge from their opposite morphology.
. Kretschmer seemed to adhere to the same opinion and therefore asserted not only the opposition between the picnic and the phthysic temperament. Ch. seems to have a complementary character. If this opposition is connected mostly with the breast and the sexual organs. The same treatment of this opposition was made by Kretschmer. but only with reference to inverted sexuality. Spearman also believed that the activation of energy was a general factor of temperament equal in importance to the general factor of intelligence and will. Mathes. too. Klages in its characterology and then by W. though perhaps it is not so obvious as in the case of two extreme and opposite temperaments. thought that this opposition had a rather important function in normal types. although a certain feedback is present in the general biotype. Therefore. When the opposition between masculinity and femininity comes into consideration. are not only emotionally versus nervously biased. Consequently. as in the case of endomorphic versus ectomorphic biotypes. this opposition did not receive the same credit. Indeed. as well as by P. and W. thought that these degrees of activation of energy were the main dimension of temperaments. on one hand and the tetanoid temperament. depending upon the three biotypes. but also oscillate between manic and depressive states of mind in the case of the endomorphic temperament. Their physiology. women have less developed shoulders and larger pelvis. Wolf and G. asserting relations of dialectical reciprocity. Janet in his theory of effort and fatigue of personality. however. with low secretions of thyroid and high secretions of parathyroid. and that one must speak about normal masculine and feminine types. then their physiology perhaps is more important than their morphology. depending upon the secretions of thyroid and parathyroid on one hand and the reticular activating system on the other. proposed by Sheldon. and between agitation and stupor in the case of the ectomorphic temperament. however. the reactions of the three temperaments. as we have already observed. The same thesis was asserted with other arguments by L. E. then it is more obvious.of activation. but also their oscillation between the manic and depressive states in the case of cyclothimic temperament and between agitation and stupor in the case of the schyzothimic temperament type. The same oscillation of the degrees of activation of energy occurs in the mesomorphic temperament. The opposition between masculinity and femininity appears in Sheldon's gynandromorphic type. with large secretions of thyroid and high degrees of activation of energy. on the other. too.W. while males seem to have larger shoulders and less developed pelvis. generating the opposition between the Basedowian temperament. Allport in their studies of expressive movement. and not with the general constitution of the body. In the scale of temperament.
however. In very case the relations between them are those of reciprocity and therefore independent variables are not merely morphological structures. the truth is that the influence of the physiological processes on the morphological structures seems to be more important. Or. but also physiological processes versus functions. Physiological functions.
Biological Condition II Physiological Types
Morphological traits are to be sure more accessible to concrete observation than physiological processes. this double assessment of body structures and functions was considered from the beginning. are not in the same situation and socially were not appreciated from the standpoint of physical labor.Another observation might be that of the various degrees of physical force. in the case of all biotypes one has to speak not only of lateral opposition of their physique. Indeed. the relation between morphological types and physiological processes were asserted from the very beginning by Hippocrates himself. however. It is true that persons with a very large or very small physique can be considered as dysplastic types. The accent was. it is not wonder that they have received more attention. Actually.
. Those with physique above the average development. generating various degrees of mass and force. their Ego assertiveness. on morphology and not on physiology and therefore physiological processes appeared as effects of the morphological structures. however. connected with the mass of the body. althrough morphological aspects received more attention than physiological processes versus functions. when he established the correlation between tuberculosis and phthisical biotype as well as that between apoplexy and apoplectical one. courage and physical combat are more developed. but also about a vertical one with higher versus lower degrees of development. Therefore. seem to be more important than their morphological structures and consequently the relations between body and mind have to be considered from their stanpoint. too. Indeed. Therefore. The reciprocity of the determination versus feedback is still more obvious in endocrinology.
unable to move and breathe properly. Imagine twelve people crowded in an 8 sq. Since this influence of the mind upon its body had to last many years. one has to speak not merely phthisic versus apoplectic biotype. Real miracles. are nonetheless ill. might be not only hereditary. approaching the phthisic type.Therefore. Those who survived did so because of their moral confidence in final Justice and Truth. Yet this miracle asserted not so much the impact of the body upon its mind. pancreas. The same changes of biotypes occurred in the Hitlerist and Stalinist prisons and death-camps after only a few months of hunger and inhuman conditions of housing. who are frequently ill. a fact that affects not only their metabolism . kidney etc. The same fact happens then in normal people with abnormal constitution of the body. with six small beds. yet with a superior health just because of their better physiological balance versus homeostasis. the relation between body and mind has to be considered from the physiological point of view. upon which somatic and mental health versus diseases depend. that is unchanged. but also of physiological types with normal versus abnormal metabolism. so crowded that a needle could hardly find its way to the ground! No wonder then that everybody grew thin and weak. One speaks also of people in good health. such conditions affect even their biotype and therefore it is no wonder that the majority of these people suffering from undernutrition illustrate a phthisic biotype. Is it then possible to expect from them the same degree of somatic and mental health.These physiological frames of references are obvious in a lot of somatic and mental diseases. when the morphology of the body remains the same one. but that of the mind upon the poor body. as in morphological biotypes. but also their mental states and dispositions. with less than the minimum of required
. yet with 350 persons inside. It is also true that this physiological balance. however. Some adult people then suffer from constipation. but also acquired through correct diet and exercise in a favorable environment. A seeing or hearing defect in particular might have similar effects. meters cell. fallen teeth. with the same capacity of effort and work? Actually. A third of the human population suffers then from malnutrition and lives in inadequate housing. contradicting all medical textbooks. Given this fact. etc. indeed. who are rarely ill and feel almost always well and of people in poor health. or 60 square metres cell with a single boarded up window deprived of the minimum of fresh air. No wonder then that the majority of them died. too. their superhuman resistance of pure psychological nature was beyond any expectation. The patients. Other physiological types are then those with unsatisfactory functions of their liver. with skin abcesses. some of them making no physical effort and showing a continuous lack of good disposition.
predisposed to tuberculosis and schizophrenia. Jeansch or Kretschmer and Pende. These oscillations are. with their repercurssions on the emotional states of mind of the endomorphic biotype. and W.calories. It should also be observed that the development in the course of life of the bio-psychological energy of temperament has a certain rhythm. E. Lersch consider them as the main dimension of temperament. Truth. Love and even Beauty. however. Downey in U. the leading principales of human destiny in this troubled word.
In the light of the above investigations about relations between mind and body. Janet. Justice. P. and W. and on the nervousness and irritability of the ectomorphic biotype. and schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis on the other. predisposed to apoplexy and manic depressive psychosis. that saved the lowest biology of the body. that the idea of height psychology took shape in my mind. They were also asserted by Spearman. L. Klages considered this rhythm as the real core of temperament. have nervertheless survived! Yes. A similar opinion was asserted by Ch. it was only the height psychology of the mind. although they did not look for their morphological and physiological infrastructure of temperament. as E. although the convincing proofs are still few and without much precision of determination. with larger or smaller oscillations between higher or lower activation of energy. and then Ph. that the emotional reactions of the endomorphic biotype are more under the influence of the
.A. Rather obvious are then the relations between endomorphic and ectomorphic biotypes on one hand. the following conclusions might be attempted: The correlation between the biological structures and the functions of the body on one hand and the psychological structures and functions of the mind on the other seem to be beyond any doubt. and not by Sheldon. The most obvious relations seem to be those between the endocrine secretions and the reticular activating system on one part and the energetic reactions of temperament on the other. The higher or lower degrees of energy are estimated after the intensify and celerity of actions and reactions. It was then. Klages. Janet in France and J. Jaensch. Downey etc. It should be noted. almost a total lack of proteins and no vitamins! Yet people with moral confidence in Freedom. clearly recognized only by Kretschmer. Spearman in England.S. however.
A second argument against their
. But it might be less adequate if one considers that one third of the world population. being more disposed to compromise. while the nervous reactions of the ectomorphic biotype are more under the influence of the central nervous system. This thesis might be true in certain conditions of satisfactory food and comfortable housing. Temperament correlates not only to endocrine secretions and reticular activating system. both Kretschmer and Sheldon were disposed to believe that their determination is mostly hereditary. children are more endomorphic. Since biotypes are rather constant. This personality trait concerning the social integration of the individual. On the contrary. Hippocrates' four temperaments appear to be the bisectors of a system with two coordinates. paying more attention to rational rules and principles. in which the ordinate represents the degrees of temperamental energy and the abscissa the opposition between endomorphic and ectomorphic biotypes. paying attention to concrete facts. It seems rather probable that extraversion correlates to the prevalence of the autonomous nervous system of the endomorphic biotype. being less disposed to compromise. but also to the morphological biotype. in their opinion even these evolutionary changes were hereditary. Indeed. while that of the cerebral biotype with introvertit orientation toward his own Ego seems to be more abstract. and adult males more athletic. Therefore his adaptation to social environment is more active than passive. Kretschmer then thought that the endomorphic biotype with extravertit orientation and intuitive intelligence took the world as it is. while introversion correlates to the predominance of the central nervous system of the ectomorphic biotype. with an obvious predominance of the ectomorphic type. Under such conditions. too. which suffers from malnutrition. the ectomorphic biotype introvertit attitude and abstract intelligence pays more attention to rational principles. Thus his adaptation to society is more passive than active. because the proportions of various biotypes in such conditions is different. that is his character. Thus both Kretschmer's and Sheldon's biotypology seems to correlate to Jung's psychotypology. with their emotional versus nervous bias. Yet. According to Kretschmer the intelligence of the endomorphic biotype with extravertit orientation toward the world seems to be more perceptive. However. too. in the course of life some changes occur and they recognized them. adolescents more ectomorphic.autonomous nervous system. is recognized by Sheldon. In Sheldon's work this relation is less accentuated. that gives its emotional versus nervous bias.
One of the reasons that Kretschmer and Sheldon could nor assess in a more adequate way the role of the environment. In the physiological processes. the relations between mind and body have to be approached with both mathematical and logical instruments. Indeed. this discrimination between normal and abnormal conditions was not merely in terms of mathematical assessment of facts.thesis is then the changes in the constitution of political prisoners in Hitler and Stalin's death camps. This is perhaps the most important discovery. Yet. their evolution was not only toward the ectomorphic type. In a few months only they were loosing more than one third of their body mass. the discrimination between the development of a healthy body and an unhealthy one is not possible. just because they were less accessible to measurement. Consequently. In the light of contemporary science. The morphological determination of biological structures was mostly descriptive and therefore did not perceive it. but also toward their equivalent psychotype. that characterized more than two third of them. In this way the physiological factors were to a certain extent neglected. it is only the logical instrument that introduces the discrimination between the harmonious and healthy development
. This dramatical experiment on a huge scale of human experience proved also the fact that the relations between body and mind are not only the result of the impact of the body on the mind. but also a logical one. Yet. This struggle for exactitude. Rather significant was also the fact. but also in biology. continuously helped by their moral consciousness. but only in the physiology of their processes. be it under hitlerist versus stalinist dictatorships. functions seem to be more important than structures. not only sociology and psychology. the same discrimination was easier and obvious. social and cultural values. Otherwise. The physiological determinations of biological functions and processes were more explanatory. however. In other words. supported by the moral consciousness of the individual. Indeed. without the logical significance of human. but also in those of logical assessment of values. increasing the percentage of ectomorphic types. Thus in the morphological description of various biotypes the descrimination between normal and abnormal conditions was less pregnant. has sacrificed the stress on validity. however. this tremendous resistance could not be perceived in the morphology of their biotypes. that they became more nervous and introvertit. one can not understand the miraculous resistance of political prisoners against their inhuman treatment. more accessible to metrical estimation. was maybe the fact that they gave priority to morphological criteria. The sacrifice was still more accentuated because the assessment of validity required not only a mathematical determination. but also of the influence of the mind upon the body.
through the intervenient variables of social norms. correlated to that of his dramas. Our century goes back to the ancient criteria of judgements. predisposed toward tuberculosis. Indeed. for instance. Our century gives more credit to the healthy constitution of the athletic type. It is only from the social standpoint that such contradictions appear. Mens sana in corpore sano. that these social and cultural criteria of discriminating between positive and negative appearance of physique are relative in certain cultural epochs. The contemporary movement toward physical activities. Thus. the inferiority complex is generated only in this indirect way. which introduce their inherent judgements of value. Toward the end of the last century feminine beauty was to a certain extent correlated to thin figures. The hard physical labor required on farms has given peasants strong bodies and the same can be said for industrial
. yet without giving more value to the physical force of the body constitution with larger mass. geographical environment and professional conditions. The odious dramas of Hitler and Stalin's death comps illustrate then the fight and the final victory of the height psychology over the lowest biology. etc. Murger's La Bohème and Dumas's La Dâme aux camellias. The Greek and Roman civilizations. with the most efficient and parsimonious ways of reaching them. because the somatic deformities are in opposition with the social and cultural judgements of values. their preoccupation for the harmonious development of body and mind was so great that Euripide himself participated in national competitions. humanity fought not only for high psychology and high sociology but also for high biology. illustrates this hygienic preoccupation for the positive value of health. As for the Greek.of various functions in view of the best adaptation of the organism to its environment. stressed the principle of mens sana in corpore sano. From the point view of their physiology the dysplastic constitution of the body might not contradict the principle of biological and psychological health. while the Middle Ages put the accent upon the moral side of the spiritual development. outdoor exercises. These reciprocal relations between body and mind are not merely direct but also indirect. illustrated by N. There are only these social and cultural criteria that stress their handicaps in their mating and social relations in general. Actually. was indeed the most popular Roman saying. Needless to say. although the Greek and Roman civilization stressed it. The last centuries did not know it. the inferiority complex of the dysplastic biotypes is not so much psychological as more social. running completely naked with a burning torch in the darkness of the night in order to make more obvious the beauty of his physique. that leads to its conservation and development. along the centuries.
. In other words. Both Kretschmer and Sheldon. this assertion is true. with their different secretions. determined with the principle of dialectical reciprocity. as well as Pende and McAulliffe. that have been already mentioned. They illustrate so to say the division of labor. mesomorphic and ectomorphic constitutions. The differences between endomorphic. As far as the realtions between body and mind are considered from the common denominator of both sexes. the sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglions of the autonomous nervous system and the reticular activating system. the unimodal variation of endomorphy . They are different functions that fit together in virtue of their differences and not of their resemblances. Consequently. In Aristotle's logic the principle of contradiction is the negation of that of identity. all of them have to be approached and interpreted with the dialectical logic of cooperation between opposite contrarities and not through Aristotle's logic of cooperation through identity. for instance. the differences between sexes are to be sought in their complementary integration and not in their affinitive variation. the differentiation between sexes is to be found not in their genus proximum of the relations between their endomorphy and ectomorphy with the predominance of the autonomous nervous system versus central nervous system. while the electromagnetical field. etc. The same dialectical collaboration through opposite contrarities seems to intervene in the cooperation between the thyroid and parathyroid. but in the specific morphology. Consequently. elaborated in terms of resemblances and differences versus similarities and dissimilarities of affinitive order. the differences between sexes are meant just to assure their complementary cooperation. as Durkheim would have said. as Kretschmer thought. Indeed. physiology and endocrinology of their sex and organs. they are a new morphological. are following the law of attraction through opposition of dialectical order. mesomorphy and ectomorphy seems to be unimodal. then the assertion is no longer valid. thought that their biotypes and psychotypes were characteristic for both males and females. The differences between the morphology and physiology of sexes. Pende and Sheldon have proved. follow the law of the normal curve of variation. in Hegel's
. as Viola. while clerical work seems to appeal to the cerebral type. with certain differences. but in differentiation of sexes with their attraction and cooperation through opposition. If the differentia specifica of each sex are considered. Consequently.workers. mesomorphy and ectomorphy seems to follow the attraction through affinity of gravitational field. Thus the bimodal variation is not to be sought in their distribution of affinitive order. physiological and endocrinological dimension with other laws of collaboration. Indeed. The variation of endomorphy. that follow a different law of variation. however. determined with the principle of identity.
At the beginning of our century Flechsig proved that brain activity is more general than regional. the correlation coefficients themselves are to be applied not only to the affinitive through similarity of the gravitational field versus Aristotle's logic. The same dialectical determination and interpretation has to be applied to the different factors. The last century attributed greater veracity to the neurological substratum of mental abilities. S. but also to the relations through opposite contrarities of the electromagnetical field versus the dialectical logic of Hegel. has shown. Fortunately. with their neurological substratum. however. Under such conditions. like Terman and Cox. His theory on their cerebral localizations. It approaches indeed merely the formal aspect of their activity. have ignored. taking place in our phylogenetic development between the human organism and its environment. could not be proved. intellectual processes are very complex and by their very nature are reffering to certain concrete problems and situations. as Guilford. though they recognized a certain differentiation according to Spearman's two factors theory of mental activity. In their research work on brain mechanism and intelligence K. Under such circumstances their study continues to be mainly psychological. at least for the time being. for instance. Or. Jackson on the other hand demonstrated that its structures and functions have different levels of organization. The new electronic encephalograph has brought about fewer results than have been expected because its investigation can not discriminate between the content of various processes. J. Needless to add that Maxwell's vectorial approach of electromagnetical field illustrates the mathematical complement of Hegel's dialectical logic. Consequently. that appeared and developed in an evolutionary way. identified by factor analysis. that previous researchers. focussing its attention on their phenomenology. it does not realize necessity of its different logical approach. without correlating it. The imperious necessity of this logic is still more obvious in quantum mechanics. the investigation of brain activity can not ignore these facts. that happened in the brain. H. the new psychology of sexes seems to realize their intrinsec differences. For the time being cretain localizations are recognized although the mass action of the brain seems to prevail. Unfortunately. as Heisenberg claimed. according to the various modes of transactions. investigated by Gall.
. and cannot penetrate in the various significances of the content of their different processes. Lashley and his collaborators pointed out again the action of cortex.dialectical logic of cooperation through opposite contrarities the principle of contradiction is a basic condition of the new cooperation and integration.
with more efficient adaptation to environment in view of better conservation and development of the being. but also a function of the sexual and adrenal glands. for instance. namely their convergent action with their proportional impact. The physical strength itself is largely reduced and the voice is also changed as well as the growth of the beard. Not only does the sexual appeal disappear. with their functional significances in the struggle of the organism for better morphology. but also the desire to fight.Nevertheless. brings fundamental changes not only in the morphology and physiology of the body. Under such conditions the highest performance of experimental investigation is to approach both categories of variables. Therefore its causal determination is double and the proof of genetical determination does not exclude the presence of environmental influence and conversely. When society comes into discussion. then to the higher strife of biology and psychology one has to add that of higher sociology. of course. as in the case of sexual glands and to a certain extend of the adrenal glands. the relations between mind and body proved to be not only those connected with certain formal structures of biotypological and psychotypological order. Indeed. as Dollard and Miller claimed in their wonderful work. Thus. Therefore. but also those connected with a certain definite content. like Kretschmer's and Sheldon's. the extirpation of the sexual glands. with higher physiology and psychology. the aggression seems to be not only the result of frustration. And.
. but also hereditary. but also in the behavior of animal organisms versus human individuals. the source of aggressive behavior is not only acquired.
etc. learning and intelligence with their included abilities. Janet asserted before him. emotions and sentiments add the mechanism of their control. are the instrument of their fulfilment. As such. like memory and association. in accordance to its hereditary equipment on the one hand and to the order of Nature. based upon the law of reinforcement of our behavior and consciousness. their operations represent the cognitive substructure of personality. The discrimination between these substructures of human mind and behavior was inaugurated both by Plato and Aritotle. as K. Life and society. represent the various modalities of control and adjustement of our behavior. Baumgarten and Herbart and further developed by Wundt. As such. Drives and values or internal tendencies and external valences are the dynamic motor of its activity. Brentano. they introduce the world of values in our consciousness and behavior. that is the internal and external causation of behavior. All of them had also the tendency to identify psychological phenomena with
. on the other. conceived as a transaction between individual and his environment. performed with a certain attention. Perception. they are the dynamic substructure of personality. To these basic substructures of personality. in view of its conservation and development. that adapts to its environment in a passive and an active way. James. that discriminate between successful and unsuccessful operations. taken in its broadest way and significance. In modern times it was reasserted by Locke. As such. In other words. as P.Chapter IV
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE I
Cognition The psychological structure of human pesonality is: an open system. Jung said.
In opposition to this psychology of consciousness and unconsciousness was that of Pavlov. In the fourth and fifth decades of our century there was also a tendency to reduce psychological structure to its cognitive and dynamic substructures.A. This is the case of Gestalt psychology and to a still
. one has to observe that the attention upon unconscious phenomena was in fact called by Charcot and the first systematic study of them was that of P. those who follow Watson's dogmatic behaviorism ignored them because of their inaccessibility to overt behavior. paying due attention to their unconscious aspects.those of consciousness and to give priority to their cognitive substructure. In opposition to these views was Darwin who stressed the basic role of instincts. Psychological automatism. which has influenced so much Morton Prince. In accordance with Darwinian tradition of English and American psychology on one hand and with that of Freud on the other. As regards the study of unconscious phenomena. however. too. to which he attributed the greatest importance. that the present trend of psychological research directs its attention more on their interrelations than independence.. Jung and Adler.S. however. In U. Janet. the completion of determination of psychological phenomena prevails and the emotional substructure of human personality is approached under its own independent variables and lawfulness. Freud added the study of unconscious phenomena. which was the act of independence of American psychology from the old european one and prevailed so much between the two World Wars. As far as the independence of the three substructures of personality is concerned. conceived as a study of conscious phenomena with the stress upon the cognition. there is an international tendency of agreement on the nature of psychology as a science. Bechterew and then Watson. some outsatnding European psychologists are nonetheless still inclined to give priority to cognitive substructure. Herbart and then Wundt in Gremany. it should also be observed. English and American psychology pursued the tradition of Darwin. which according to the operational interpretation of behaviorism was the only object of psychology. For the time being. too. it is now accepted all over the world. Following the old tradition of European psychology of associationism. the founder of American behaviorism. emotions and sentiments being considered as the inner side of Motivation. while German and to a cretain extent French psychology remained in agreement with the old tradition of psychology. After the Second World War. inaugurated by Freud. promoted by Locke and accepted by Condillac and Taine in France. that deals both with consciousness and behavior. previously accepted by Locke and other English empirists. Yet. there is also a tendency to give priority to dynamic substructure.
the function of perceptions and of cognition in the general structure of personality. Its interpretation was associationist and in full accordance with the atomist conception
. Classical psychophysics focussed its attention mainly on sensations. too. that is in its conception about his destiny in his world.greater extent of the new generation of psychologists. A similar attitude was promoted by the existentialist psychology and philosophy of Heidegger and Jaspers. to which the concept of meaning adds its significance. the significance points out: the univocal equivalence between perceptions and their objects. who found their inspiration in Husserl's phenomenology. that have influenced Heidegger. Lindschotten. In its turn. considered to be the elementary units of human cognition. Strauss in Germany. in clinical psychology in particular. Snyggs and Combs and then Rollo May are their main spokesmen. that found some adherents in American and English psychology and philosophy. The following discussion of psychological structure follows the course of historical development and therefore starts with the cognitive substructure although the dynamical one is logically more relevant for the understanding of human nature and of its social condition and cultural development. which determine them and. who was the follower of Husserl at his teaching post at Freiburg University.
Perception is usually defined: as a structure of sensations. Graumann. Yet. McLeod and others gave more credit to Husserl's phenomenological investigations. as Merleau Ponty in France. The notion of structure defines the unity of perception in the multiplicity of sensations. recommended by Husserl himself. with a certain meaning versus significance.
conceived as the equivalent of the law of gravitation. Indeed. How were the new qualities brought about by the process of creative synthesis to be explained? Nobody could tell because both Mill and Wundt did not appeal to Ars combinatoria of Leibniz. similarity.of Newton's mechanics. which was its model of inspiration and elaboration. which could have explained them. that is conjunction. that in Newton's mechanics the law of gravitation operated between the sun and its planets and not between the atoms and their bodies. Their combinations were completely unknown. disjunction and implication. One forgot. however. In their turn. Mill. he resorted to the chemical model. Their togetherness was determinated by the law of association. Its form depends upon the container in which it is kept. that is through the creative synthesis of the various combinations of sensations. as in Democritus' time. Water as such is a simple aggregate of its molecules and therefore does not form a unity. that transgress the principle of homogeneity and assert the heterogeneity of the new qualitative leap of the creative synthesis. In order to introduce a unity in the multiplicity of sensations Wundt appealed to the process of creative synthesis from chemistry. Thus he explained an unknown variable through another unknown one and consequently his explanation was mere verbal and lacked experimental proof. the principle of identity of traditional logic operated merely on similar and repetitive processes of homogenous nature and not on those with creative processes. His explanation was analytical. contingency and so on. only the operators of the mathematical logic. The molecule of water has a unity because its form or structure depends upon the creative synthesis of two atoms of hydrogen with one of oxygen. but to the traditional logic of Bacon and Aristotle. Simple aggregates were all of them. which could not explained them. Thus perceptions were associations of sensations. judgements themselves were associations of ideas. promoted by J. No more successful was Wundt's explanation of the concept of meaning through the process of apperception with attention in conditions of awareness because the concepts were also undetermined variables.
. could explain the new qualities. yet instead of mechanical determination of the whole through the simple association of their parts. which explained the whole through the creative synthesis of their parts. depending upon their proximity. The unity of perception in the multiplicity of its sensations appears in the same way. Under such circumstance perceptions were considered to be simple aggregates of sensations. The relations between sensations were those of mere contiguity. images were associations of perceptions and ideas were the products of the general association of images. S. Indeed.
In opposite to them are the reactive theories of Pavlov and Bechterew. admitting both analytical and configurational interpretation. Koehler and Koffka and then the structural psychology of Krueger and
. with cognitive lawfulness. conceived as complementary determinations. The elaboration of his logic. that has a dialectical character. the notion of meaning is inherent to perceptions and not an additional phenomenon. Between these two opposite theories of perceptions with analytical or configational determinations the later evolution of psychology attempted a synthesis. operated with the mathematical logic in the most explicit and well-elucidated way. however. namely their cognitive nature. recognized later. Wundt's psychology as well as Gestalt psychology of Wertheimer. They also treated perceptions as functions and not as substantival contents. Despite their difference the above three theories od perception have one common denominator. perceptions were considered to be. In this way they considered perceptions. Yet he interpreted it not only with the help of the cognitive logic. that had to be explained by cognitive logic. is not explicit enough. that itself left the analytical determination of the traditional logic and promoted the configurational one. It asserted. Thus. that proposed an explanation of the cognitive process of perceptions in terms of action versus behavior. cognitive processes. Piaget. according to Wertheimer and Koehler. Wellek. however. similar to Goethe's original phenomenon. that is the basic notion of contemporary science. Associationist psychology. as primary units of knowledge and instead of explaining the wholeness of perceptions through the combination of sensations. The new configurational interpretation was under the influence of Husserl's phenomenological logic. the follower of Wundt at the direction of the Psychological Laboratory of Leipzig University. The second structural theory of peceptions in particular and of psychology in general is that of J. Koehler and Koffka took a stand against both mechanical and chemical models with analytical determinations and sought the explanation in the opposite direction with configuration interpretation. as Wundt and Titchener in particular did. indeed. that has to be explained separately. that integrate themselves in a reciprocal way. and not sensations. further developed by the behavioral theory of Watson. they tried to interpret sensations as parts of their perceptions versus configurations or Gestalten. but also with that of the emotional one. the new theory was in accordance with the new concept of structure.No wonder therefore that the new Gestalt psychology of Wertheimer. taken as their parts. as one of his pupils. In psychology it was introduced by the structural psychology of Felix Krueger. who approached it under the influence of Dilthey's logic. only the determination of parts through their wholes and contested the impact of parts upon their wholes.
As cybernetics was not elaborated. as in the new mathematical. accessible to mathematical and logical determinations of cognitive order. Bühler in Wien. All these theories. their chief preoccupation was the discovery of the objective laws. as in the traditional logic of Aristotle and Bacon. elaborated by cybernetics. gave priority to cognitive processes. Hull and Tolman has further developed this behavioral determination. Tolman interpret learning itself in term of cognition. Brentano and James asserted the role of personality and later of society and cultural development. As such they could be treated as independent variables and not as parts in the structure of personality. They have to be explained in term of overt behavior. yet without an elaborate methodology of mathematical versus logical determinations. that exlain in terms of conditioned reflexes even cognitive processes. but relational. for Wertheimer and Koehler they were those of the phenomenological one and for Piaget and Hull they were those of mathematical logic. but the assertion of certain truths in which the ideas are simple parts. the law of feedback. but as functions and acts. taken as structure with certain content. They also explain them through cognitive lawfulness.that in order of sequence followed them . be they as different and even contrary to each other as they are. both theoretically and methodologically.Piaget. operated with mathematical logic. In other words. Bechterew and Watson gave priority to reactive processes. Thus the approach of cognition was no longer substantival and attributive. Hull maintained the priority of reactive processes over the cognitive ones and proposed an axiomatic elaboration of learning and perceptions. that influences and determines them.seemed an
impossibility. Under the influence of his European studies with Wertheimer and Koehler in Berlin and K. functional and processual. Indeed. The new behaviorism of Cl. All these laws were inherent to the nature of perception itself and therefore have an objective nature. the processes of cognition as well as consciousness itself were considered to be reactions to environment. C. they foccused the functions of I see. The same functional interpretation was applied to the process of thinking and therefore the judgement was no longer a simple association of ideas. Pavlov. that govern them. Yet. this explanation of cognitive processes through their reactive ones . I hear and I think of the Ego and not the visual versus auditory perceptions. They also approached them as processes in time and not as structures in space. yet in a different way. made the retroactive explanation possible. Perceptions were explained in the same cognitive way. that in order of appearance are the first ones.
. For Wundt these laws were those of the traditional logic. have a new common denominator: the formal elaboration. as Titchener claimed. they treated perceptions not as substantival content versus structure. like other human activities. Indeed. Consequently.
In the context of the old psychology of consciousness James and Freud spoke of Ego. cognition. but also in relation to its biological. volitions and feelings. As such it is the truth of men as Subject and not only of world as Object. as Titchener claimed. but also relational and processual. volitions was labelled functional and not structural. Pragmatism is a philosophy of this new subjective meaning. According to James. but also from the standpoint of the projection of the structure of our mind in it. The reflection itself is not merely substantival and attributive. from the standpoint of their projection. the best assistence of Wundt. Structural psychology looked for objective laws. Functional psychology started with personality itself and studied its functions as processes or transactions with the world in view of its adaptation. Bechterew and Watson on the other. but a dynamical torrent versus fluxus of functions and processes meaningfully interconnected. Therefore. Consequently. left the substantival and attributive conception of his mentor and studied with his collaborators the process of thinking as functions and not as association of ideas. The functional elaboration of perceptions. that have so much influenced the process of thinking along more than two millenniums. conservation and development. emotions. and therefore the truth has to be verified not only in relation to the objective reflection. to that of Aristotle and Plato focussed on substantival entities. psychological. and further developed by Galton. Woodworth on one hand and by Pavlov. The formal elaboration of perceptions and cognition in general looked for their inherent laws in relation to the objective reality reflected in them. That is to say. similar to the physical ones. Its positive versus negative value is generated by their encounter. James. the truth is not only the product of the reflection of the object in our mind. consciousness itself was not a kaleidoscope of substantival perceptions. inaugurated by Darwin. Their torrent was akin to the imagination of Heraclitus focussed on the process of fire.dialectical and phenomenilogical logic. in the context of the new psychology of behavior. learning and thinking treated them as functions of personality and therefore the meaning was approached not only from the standpoint of the objective reflection of the object. Personality itself was considered as a simple aggregate of cognitions. one speaks about personality. the meaning itself refers only to the objective reflection of the object in our mind. as Aristotle and Thomas de Aquino thought. The new psychology of perceptions. in our mind. Binet in France asserted a similar interpretation and Külpe himself. social and cultural value for human nature and its social condition and cultural development. McDougall. but also the result of our projection into this reflection. Thus it started with
phenomena and ended with personality. as mathematical logic on one hand and dialectical logic on the other
. images and ideas.
their melody or lack of melody is quite different and the tones themselves appear to be changed. the relational identity versus isomorphity of the melody remains the same although the substantival identity versus homogeneity of the tones has changed. about which Ribot wrote so beautyfully about one hundred years ago in his Affective logic. If the person lacks intelligence. affecting both our realistic conception of the world as well as its truths. with correct social integration and cultural development. better said its mistakes. the reflection of the World or Object into our mind and the projection of our mind or Subject into it are not opposite phenomena. that of projection brings about the laws of emotional logic. If one sings the same tones in a reversed way. Society and Culture. the relational and processual reflections seem to be moe important than the substantival and attributive ones. The role of affective variables seems to
. that integrate themselves reciprocally. Yet. The process of reflection illustrates the laws of cognitive logic. our conception of the World is based upon both of them although the role of cognitive logic is greater in the apperception of the physical world and that of affective logic seems to be an important variable in the interpretation of Life. The Apperception Thematic Test of Murray and Rosenweig is performing the same service. If the same bodies and beings are seen from the standpoint of their relational and processual identity. but also that of the correct projection of our mind into it. The truth is its product and our judgements are realistic. reflected in our general conception of the World and not only of its objects. Indeed. but also their melody of which they are a part. No wonder therefore. the same world appears as a unity in multiplicity with a continuity in discontinuity. by Freud in particular. that the functions of projections in perception and thinking were discovered in clinical psychology. Under such circumstances the lawfulness of our perceptions is not merely that of their objective reflection in our mind. The same assertion remains true for the processual identity. If the person is intelligent and healthy. then this dialectical integration of reflection and projection succeeds. in music we reflect not merely the tones. then this encounter does not succeed and subjectivism appears. Moreover. but complementary ones. Science was supposed to apply the laws of mathematical and cognitive logic. If bodies and beings are seen merely from the standpoint of their substantival identity. physical and mental health as well as social integration and cultural development. the same melody at one scale higher or lower. Jung and Rorschach undertook a technique of its experimental assessment. Freud identified them through the analysis of dreams and the cure of free talking. Actually. however. literature and art were supposed to apply the laws of affective logic. the world appears as simple conglomerate of objects.show. If one sings.
Brunner and D.
Perceptions do not appear ready-made. Life and Culture. that of learning introduces the adaptation of this actualization to the conditions of environment. but also on those of human. They collaborate together in a mutual and reciprocal way. that has the final word on our conception of Nature. as Poincaré and Hadamard have asserted and Einstein has recognized. Thus to speak about a single type of learning is not possible although some common factors exist. however. It should be observed that the synthesis between the cognitive logic of reflection and the affective logic of human. Krech. but interrelated and complementary. R.
. etc. Ramsay. Under such circumstances. social and cultural projection. needs. depending upon both heredity and environment. the works edited by J. The notion of maturation defines the actualization of hereditary potentialities. however.occur even in mathematical intuition. Life. Both processes then apply not merely to our motor skills and mental operations. and more obvious in the study of our whole conception of Nature. while in some other cases the role of learning is more important. The conception of the World is their final product. social and cultural projection is submitted to the verification of the volitional logic of action in practice. are not independent and still less opposite processes.R Blake and G. as Pallas Athena from Zeus' head but are the results of a long process of elaboration. W. Maturation and learning. the new experimental research of perception in particular and of cognition in general has focussed not merely on the objective laws of reflection. Therfore. This general conception. The role of projection is less obvious in the study of perceptions. for exmple. that is to our whole life. their total separation and categorical differentiation is not possible and we have to treat them in a dialectical way. Society and Culture. social habits and cultural ideals as well as to our emotions and sentiments. Their synthesis is reinforced through practice in a processual way. however. has to be approached not so much from the standpoint of their substantival attributes of perceptions as more from the standpoint of their relational pattern. that binds them together and gives a unity to their multiplicity. but also of learning and thinking. In some cases the role of maturation is larger and prevails. taken as substantival units. but also to our drives. is not only the result of perceptions. show.
memorizing a poem. depending upon society and civilization. these laws seem to be mostly those of exercise and reinforcement of the acquiring of motor skills on one side and those of insight and planning in the understanding of perceptive field on the other.Hilgard and Bowen . seems to be the normal activity of our visceral processes. mannerisms and autistic gestures without utility for life. differentiation and integration. Under such conditions. In other words. being in the service of the adaptation of the being to its world or against it. the process of learning is to be connected mainly with the activity of the central nervous system. in view of its conservation and development versus lack of conservation and development. according to Hilgard and Bower.learning is a process by which an activity originates or is changed through reacting to an encountered situation. with its perceptions. learning to operate a typerwriter. as: acquiring a vocabulary. drugs. maturation or temporary states of oragnism (e. which operates and controls the transactions with the external world and sometimes even with the internal one. Therefore. the process of learning applies to such different activities. fatigue. this intervention does not appear in the transactions of our body with its environment at its biophysical or biochemical level. it defines the changes in abilities. that rather different and complex structuralization. however. according to Hilgard and Bowen. Between these two apposite transactions of our being with its environment. that the laws of exercise and effect versus reinforcement intervene also in animals without nervous system. It is nonetheless true. one has to do with the application of certain laws and principles that guide and control the processes of adaptation. comes into discussion.
. Yet. according to the same competent authors . provided that the characteristics of change in activity cannot be explained on the basis of native response tendencies.Due attention is to be paid to their differentia specifica.)". as in the case of the effects of various rays upon our organism. depending upon our biopsychological structure of personality and those of norms and values. and acquiring of certain tics. The activity of the nervous system is necessary in both cases. This does not mean.g. acquiring of prejudices and preferences as well as of social attitudes and cultural ideals. Therefore. the process of learning seems to appear with life itself. consevation and development. which require the intervention of the nervous system appeared in the mean time. When the concrete field of our life. drives and needs. Indeed. In all these cases. however. etc. reglemented by the autonomous versus vegetative nervous system. too. Its effects might be good or bad.
Moreover. but also in intelligence. to which one answers with new operations. however. This does not mean that dynamical factors do not have any role because the importance of interests in learning was already asserted some hundred years ago by Herbart. as more from Herbart and Kant. which strives for a synthesis between English empirism and French rationalism and asserts the primacy of volitive factors over the intellectual versus cognitive ones. according to both of them. however. psychological processes start with perceptions and ideas. that does not immediately imply a "reacting to an encountered situation" in terms of afection versus behavior. as in the process of maturation . as Hilgard and Bowen claimed.and not only to the repetitive ones. the difference seems to be connected with the field of their application on one hand and with the operators of their functions on the other. one has to distinguish between: the kind of changes and their correlated antecedents.intervenes not merely in learning. that the definition of Hilgard and Bowen can hardly be applied to the old experimental approches of Ebbinghaus and Meumann because. that of intelligence applies also to abstract
. but also cognitive. the follower of Kant at the University of K!nigsberg. that is with cognition. What is then the difference between learning and intelligence? According to Binet. promoted by Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. which are included as learning and the related kind of changes and their antecedents. Claparede and Stern. Yet. which are not included as learning. A voluntarist interpretation of psychological processes was then asserted by Wundt. It requires merely an understanding of the new situations of cognitive field. It should be observed. effect versus reinforcement and insight versus meaningful interconnection of perceptive nature applied to the new situation of life. Ed. Consequently. in pedagogy his theory remained a classical one. as H. Stern have shown. the adaptation to the new situation . the process of learning is to be defined merely by: its laws of exercise. that are not noly reactive. effect versus reinforcement and perceptive interconnectedness. learning is mainly a cognitive process. according to him the accent upon volitive factors seems to be the main trait of the German idealism. who took his inspiration not so much from the irrational will for power and life. In order of apparition. Binet. Claparede and W. in order to identity and define it. The process of learning applies more to the world of concrete perceptions and operates with the laws of exercise.Consequently. as well as to Wertheimer and Koehler.
However. Moreover. clear-cut differentiations between learning and intelligence are not to be sought. The most relevant truths against their one sided conception were.problems and operates with the laws of logic. as E. The process of trial and error occurs in both of them. represented by Wundt. however. even Meumann. Brentano and their followers. yet the insight of intelligence has the tendency to come in a sudden way. reinforcement and even perceptive insight of the learning have the tendency to act in a gradual way. while Külpe and Bühler as well as Wertheimer and Koehler promoted a phenomenological and configurational interpretation. Condillac and Herbart up to Wundt. Bechterew. not the only rich and substantial contributions of European psychology. but also a social and cultural one. specific to symbol thinking. Mc Dougall and Watson because Wundt himself conceived animal psychology as a science of behavior. that stressed the action of the wholes upon their parts. Thus the cognitive theory of learning has a longer history and actually was the first one. Under such circumstances. Werner proved. the discrimination between perceptive Gestalts and Sign-Gestalts introduces their differentia specifica. Cassierer claimed and H. while that of intelligence refers to what Tolman called Sign-Gestalts. It should be then observed that the meaningful interconnectedness was asserted not only by Wertheimer and Koehler. It characterized indeed the evolution of all European psychology from Locke. that is abruptly. however. that is Brentano's functional psychology. Brentano and their followers. who took his inspiration from Wundt and Herbart. the process of learning refers to the simple perceptions versus concrete Gestalts of restructuration of perceptual order. because their interrelationship is much higher than that of heredity and environment for instance. but the psychoanalysis of Freud. but also by Külpe and Bühler. proposed an analytical explanation. while the laws of exercise. Wundt and Meumann. The study of behavior was also introduced not only by Darwin and further developed by Pavlov. that asserted the action of parts upon their wholes. Pavlov and Watson consist not so much in their elaboration of psychology as a science of behavior but in their more or less dogmatic thesis that psychology can be elaborated merely in this behavioral way. Thus the originality of Bechterew. In other words. This symbolic thinking. who took their inspiration from the same source. whose contributions to psychology and
. Bechterew was a student of him. however. the concept of insight versus meaningful interconnectedness represents their genus proximum. when psychology was conceived as a science of conscious and unconscious phenomena. pointed out the same process of meaningful interconnectedness versus understanding. is not only an individual experience.
that recognized merely the action of the parts upon their wholes and of the causes upon their effects. brought on by the organization of the brain. Hull and Skinner as well as Tolman also gave up the physiological interpretation of Watson and followed the psychological interpretation of behavior in terms of his units of actions. that is the German expression for educational psychology. too . Lindschotten. Yet . as himself. he considered his work as a physiology of higher processes of the brain although later on he pointed out the importance of the secondary signals of language. leaving their physiological and neurological substratum in care of physiology and neurology. like Watson . that stressed the action of the whole upon their parts and attributed the main role to goal behavior and not to causal one. who treated even the process of thought in terms of psychological processes. although he also recognizes the role of intervening variables.S. as well as to James. Guthrie. while Hull and Skinner took a broader view. As for Pavlov. It should then be noted that the first experimental approach of learning in behavioral terms was that of Thorndike and not of Bechterew or Pavlov. In opposition to him is Hull. Yet the research he did with William James for his doctoral thesis.A. Therefore Graumann is right in considering him as pure phenomenologist. Spiegelberg. as Wigotski claimed.under such conditions . that interprets sensory stimuli and elaborates
. like Thorndike.and Ebbinghaus. Skinner's theory of operant behavior goes further and does not make any reference to its physiological and neurological basis.psychiatry remain the most fundamental ones in spite of their overemphasized exagerations. he makes due references to Ebbinghaus' work and to Meumann's similar treatise on Experimental pedagogy. which Thorndike did not exclude.human behavior is no longer an object of neurology but of individual. that plays the role in human behavior. Yet Guthrie proposed a mechnicist explanation. Guthrie. In his Harvard's lectures then he classified himself as a connectionist psychologist and not as a behaviorist because his research work was in psychological terms and not in physiological ones. introspective methodology could not be applied. Yet. and put the accent upon his law of effect. digested in his monumental treatise on Educational Psychology in three volumes. Strauss in West Germany or Merleaux-Ponty in France and McLeod in U. was in the field of animal psychology. labelled now under the new name of reinforcement in order to annule any trace of introspective methodology. while Tolman promoted a configurational interpretation. as those of Bechterew and Watson. The interconnectedness of acts and phenomena in the process of learning is recognized by all of them. In his later work. where even according to Wundt. social and cultural psychology.put the accent upon the old laws of contiguity and succession of associationist order.
Hull and developed by French. while Pavlov promoted the biological model. Still lacking is only the logical determination and interpretation of learning elaborated in an explicit way and not merely in an implicit way with empirical character. which represent their higher structures. too. The old cognitive theories of Wundt. further elaborated by Husserl's phenomenology. realized their connectivity. Mathematical determination of learning was inaugurated by Thorndike and reached its highest peak with the contemporary theories of mathematical order so wonderfully developed by Atkinson. Since he studied only animals. based upon simple contiguity and that of exercise.responses to them. promoted by Wertheimer. yet more in physical terms. the new ones gave credit to Brentano's functional psychology and intentional logic. Koehler. the problem of personality was not considered. The mechanical model of Bechterew. Bechterew and Watson and to a certain extent even Ebbinghaus and Guthrie have adopted the mechanical model of Newton's physics. As to Skinner. his theory of operant behavior is mostly descriptive and takes notice only of overt stimuli and reactions. Watson and Guthrie assert merely the law of
interconnectedness. Intervenient variables are not considered because of their inaccessibility to overt behavior. To their substantival. Estes. to which the biological model added law
. specific to the application of the traditional logic to the old cognitive theories of Ebbinghaus and Meumann and to the new cognitive ones. that proved to be more efficient. The origin of species. C. however. etc. yet Hull unlike Tolman interprets it in an analytical and causal way and not in a configurational and purposive way. Against Thorndike's elementary units was then Tolman. Mosteller. He also avoids any speculation about analytical versus configurational or causal versus purposive determinations although his description seems to put the accent upon the behavior of the personality as such and not upon its molecular versus atomist units. Lewin and Tolman. attributive and relational determinations in space Stanley Hall added the processual one in time. which is a relational determination. The relational interpretation in biological and psychological terms was introduced by Brentano and James and further developed by Angell and Dewy. etc. The formal elaboration of axiomatic order was introduced by Cl. The goal-seeking behavior is also recognized. The old associanist explanation of Ebbinghaus and Meumann followed the old tradition of Locke and Herbart and put the accent upon the substantival and attributive determinations of elementary units. Ebbinghaus and Meumann were elaborated with the help of traditional logic. Busch. who proposed the study of the molar ones. Thorndike. anticipated by Hegel in his Phenomenology of mind and by Darwin in his still more revolutionary work.
with its civilization. Frazer and Boas and enjoys a great popularity in U. Yet among the various theories debated by Hillgard and Bowen. in the vast research work of genetic epistemology. who followed the tradition of Hegel. Angell and Woodworth. Binet and Janet. but also social and cultural. that require a meaningful interconnectedness between his transactions with his own world.S. however. in view of its conservation and development. introduced in psychological thinking by Mc Dougall. Along the many years of public instruction in elementary and secondary schools as well as in academic teaching. that is applied not only to the human beings. which is that of society. which seems to be the most important. either. All these three models are based upon a logical interpretation. but also a logical one. The cultural model was inaugurated mainly by Tylor. but also to their transactions with their society at the various stages of cultural development. Hillgard and Bowen do not register them. etc. but not for the creative intelligence of human beings
. It also requires not only a mathematical determination.A. we learn indeed this human and social experience of humanity with its cultural progress. founded upon cultural values. by Whiting. Werthmeier and Koehler. but also psychological and social beings with cultural development. To be sure. on one hand and by Dilthey and Spranger. The social model was introduces by Wundt. Similar contributions were those of the French and English social psychology and sociology. The psychological model was promoted by Brentano and James as well as by Wundt and Meumann and than by Külpe and Bühler. and the cultural one. The social value of social learning was stressed by Bandura and his associates. Therefore the laws of their physical and biological bodies have to be completed with those of their psychological. promoted by Piaget and his collaborators. who developed the ideas of Lazarus and Steinthal.of reinforcement. based upon social norms and. that promotes only the acquisition of those motor skills and intellectual processes. on the other. Men. the logical interpretation of learning is conspicuously lacking. however. Therefore its meaningful interconnectedness is not merely psychological. Dewey. etc. their model are very efficient for the automatization of production in industry and administration. due to the work of their brilliant social and cultural anthropologists. social and cultural beings. elaborated with the same methodology. An encounter between mathematical and logical determinations of learning appeared. although they gave so much attention to the mathematical models as well as to the cybernetic one of Norbert Wiener and the informational one of Shannon. that serve the active adaptation of the organism to the new conditions of its environment. taken as psychological individuals. The meaningful interconnectedness of biological order determines them. created by him.. are not only physical and biological bodies. Mead and others.
etc. however. wrote. Brengelmann. Janet. animals and human beings. fixations. Mental health is its product. but also to the intervening variables in term of stimuli-organism-response. by a long process of extinction and then in the restructuralization of personality by long process of relearning. etc. it should be approached in terms of all its determining variables. According to Freud. In the light of this discussion. with their cultural developement. Under such circumstances. Under the same circumstances and because of the same reason. Still more important is the process of learning in the new behavioral psychotherapy. Eysenck. is hardly possible. proposed by Skinner. about which P. our integration in family in particular and society in general is controlled by the pleasure principle of the Id and by the reality principle of the Super-Ego. which develops the transactions between human nature and its social condition. the mechanical model. Morton Prince. but also cognitive as well as emotive. K. means just a misplaced abstraction. Their models are also deprived of any value for the understanding and restructuralization of human beings in ciclics and prisons. on the other. common to those of the machines. Of course. as Whitehead would have said. as both N. Freud. in the works of Massermann. can be applied merely to repetitive processes. common to automatons. Its failure generates mental diseases. promoted by Ebbinghaus and other exponents of the old associationist psychology with cognitive character on the one hand and by Bechterew's reflexology and Watson's dogmatic behaviorism. An analysis of the process of learning from this standpoint appeared. that is S-O-R. In consequence. that are not merely reactive. pointed out by S-R theories. introduced by Wooworth and further developed by Toldman and Cl. because otherwise the completeness of determination can not be reached. although certain
. taken as a psychological structure. etc. taken as a biological infrastructure. A. A. To apply it to other processes. C. The process of learning intervenes in both of them and therapy consists in the annihilations of anxiety. S. repressions. bearing in mind that the intervening variables concern not so much the organism. Adler. but the personality.in their social condition and at their cultural levels of civilization. Sullivan. specific to biological. Therfore. among which the Ego seeks a synthesis. to which one has to add its social condition versus super-structure and its cultural evolution. psychological and social structures. to speak about a single and unique process of learning. Hull. S. the following conclusions might be drawn up: The process of learning is a very complex one and includes a great variety of operations. Wiener and Shannon said. one has to give full attention not only to its direct variables in terms of stimuli and response. Jung.
taken as a biological infrastructure is considered. nation. including the rats. are not exclusive but cumulative. The situation changes with skilled workers. as well as the rote memory studied by Ebbinghaus. to elaborete a theory of human learning merely in terms of this animal behavior is not possible. Mayo and his collaborators have also proved that the professional integration of these workers in their factory environment depends not only upon their skills and knowledge. which are now the most frequently used animals in laboratories of animal psychology. The professional training of unskilled workers is more in accord with the behavioral theories of learning in terms of stimuli and reactions. come into discussion. It should then be observed. but also upon the social attention accorded to them as human beings with social status and cultural development. When the organism itself. applied to their cognitive processes. than the meaningful interconnectedness becomes the main law. becomes the basic one. as both Koehler and Yerkes proved. The professional training of skilled workers seems to favour cognitive theories. their social integration is based mainly upon social learning. that are the most efficient ones for the adaptation of the organism to its environment in view of its consevation and development. Imitation and suggestion. state. however.common factors versus genus proximum exist. Nonetheless. are not only psychological processes. however. class. the transactions of human personality with its own society at a certain level of cultural development are considered. but also that of the social integration in our family. that the majority of professional jobs are still those of unskilled workers. This does not mean that a certain perceptive insight can not occur at some superior animals. in which the process of learning by imitation and suggestion has its role. If. Still more adequate are the cognitive theories of learning for intellectual professions with academical training. their professional training lasting only a few weeks and even a few days is still based mostly upon the law of exercise. Or. and religion. It selects only those movements and operations. as Tarde before the First World War and then Mc Dougall and Ross afterwards have shown. It should be observed. Therefore. The same seems to be true for mammals in general. however. as they were inclined to
. studied by Pavlov. As far as motor skills and sensorial abilities. because their differentia specifica are more conspicuous. however. with a professional training of a least two to four years. Genus proximum and differentia specifica. based upon mainly sensorial and motor abilities. however. The same is true for the dogs. when the law of meaningful interconnectedness. that the course of our life includes not only the professional activity. then the law of reinforcement takes the leading role. social community. they follow the law of exercise.
The peripheric processes of learning with causal explanation occurred more in the passive adaptation to enviroment. but also social and cultural. During the period of associationist psychology. with causal explanation.believe. psychotherapy becomes that of catharsis. Bandura and his associates elaborated the laws of their social learning. The first category of processes of learning strived for a mathematical elaboration. Under the influence of Freud's psychoanalysis. that approached human personality as a structural whole. which gave priority to its social transactions with society at the higher level of its cultural development. It should be also observed that cognitive and reactive theories of learning elaborated by associationist psychology gave more attention to peripheric learning. reformulated by Gestalt and Structure psychology. to which the structural and configurational determination of learning added their relational lawfulness with processual development. while the same theories. Freud has analysed those processes without an explicit theory of learning. Causal explanation was mainly analytical. paid more attention to their central processes with prospective interpretation. the second category of theories strived for a logical interpretation. Dollard and Miller elaborated it in an explicit way. The main difference consists in the fact that these laws engage the entire personality and not only some of its sensory and motor skills or intellectual operations at lower level. theological interpretation was mostly synthetical versus configurational. which are rather different from the biological and psychological ones. sleep and repetitive work. The atomist determination of learning put the accent upon the substantival units of sensations and reflexes. central processes of learning with teleological interpretation intervened more in the active adaptation to environment. the biological and psychological therapy in the clinics of psychiatry have been those of rest. The peripheric processes of learning with analytical and causal determination were accessible to a formal
. The evolution of psychology and psychiatry toward an Ego theory of personality. has pointed out the process of restructuralization of human personality and of its professional and social reintegration at work and family in the conditions of our civilization. that considered sensations and reflexes as the elementary unites of our personality.
they are also used more empirically and without their due explicitation.elaboration of mathematical order with deductive operations. we learn mostly in this way. and to decide about their appropriete solutions in practice. For the reproduction of one hunded words of letters without any meaningful interconnectedness of logical order. one needs less than one hour. in secondary ones in particular. For the reproduction of the logical interconnectedness of ideas without having to use the same words. the central processes of learning with structural and prospective determination required a logical determination in terms of their meaningful interconnectedness in space and of meaningful connection between causes. taken separately.as we had already seen . however. In schools. one or two readings are enough. The searche for these solutions and decisions.
Thinking and Intelligence
Binet. As far as the process of learning in academic teaching comes into discussion. Claparede and Stern have defined intelligence .as the general ability to adopt to the new situations of the environment. No wonder therefore that the process of learning in school is based mostly upon the meaningful acquisition of interconnected ideas in the context of a logical system and not upon the role memory of various items. one has to memorize them for interconnectes. it has: to resolve the problems that occur. is not only a psychological process. As such. Is then admissible that just its logical laws are the most neglected ones? And sometimes even ignored! As far as their use. but also a
. goals and effects in time. this logical learning is the only one.
Wundt and James as well as their followers. Yet this observation was made later. Werner in Germany. because he approached it with the traditional logic of Aristotle and Bacon. as Külpe. that colored them. The content of these functions. Wundt and Titchener as well as Ebbinghaus foccused mainly on the substantival structure and proposed an analytical explanation of the process of thought in term of its parts.social and cultural one. James and Ribot added the role of emotions. which were the determining factors. In opposition to Ebbinghaus. taken as a whole and tried to understand the functions of the parts in their configurational context. Külpe and his collaborators went further and asserted even the existance of an imageless thinking. Both of them asserted that thesis with experimental proof. Moreover. G. A similar thesis had been promoted previously by Binet in France. To their functional interpretation of thought in terms of pure thinking. The exponents of the analytical explanation considered judgements as a creative synthesis of perceptions and ideas. conceived as pure function.E. The same limitation occurred in Ebbinghaus.. who proposed an associationist explanation of thought. Müller and Th. to Claparede the ideas themselves appeared as a structure of operations and not as a synthesis of substantival perceptions. etc. Bergson and Dilthey went further and interpreted the process of thought as an act of pure intuition. Thus the judgements were merely their products. Wundt and Titchener were Brentano and then Külpe and Husserl who foccused their attention upon the relational and functional aspects of the process of thinking. based upon the priciple of identity and not with Ars combinatoria of Leibniz. by E. Titchener and Husserl limited their attention to the process of thought. that is their substantival ideas were considered to be their product. Mead in U. that operates both intellectually and emotionally. yet without analysis and synthesis. The exponents of the functional interpretation of thought reversed the problem and attributed the primacy to the function of thinking as such. who elaborated their thesis under the
. In the beginning intelligence was approached merely from the standpoint of its structure and functions. further elaborated by Boole and based upon the principle of interrelationship. borrowed from chemistry. remained undetermined. The stress upon the description and analysis of these processes was so assiduous that most theoretical psychologists stopped at their phenomenology and did not engage in their social and cultural determination in their further application or in its practice.A. that is to say from the thinking processes of the individuals. by J. Cassierer and H. A similar interpretation was proposed by Max Scheler and M. Thus. Dewey and Ch. Siehen.S. Heidegger. Thus Brentano. Its concrete way of acting however. For the interpretation of the new qualities of judgements Wundt appealed to the process of creative synthesis.
de Morgan. Piaget. contradiction and excluded tertium. Ars differentiatoria of functional and phenomenological logic
. takes into consideration merely their general relationships of intellectual operations without paying attention to their meaningful interconnectedness of specific order. however. Husseerl himself. asserted by Heidegger. that Piaget and his collaborators applied mostly the Ars combinatoria of Liebniz. proper to mathematical methodology in general and make abstraction of their meaningful interconnectedness. that Stumpf was interested more in auditive perceptions and in music. Pierce. A synthesis between the analytical and configurational approaches of the process of thought and intelligence was asserted by the theory and methodology of factor analysis. disjunctive and implicative combinations of the parts. conceived the act of intuition that leads to scientific truth as a pure cognitive process.influence of Husserl's phenomenology. did not use the functional calculus of Frege. and the role volition. The inter-and intrapropositional calculus of mathematical logic. It should be observed. Husserl then took his habilitation as docent with Stumpf. Wertheimer. Wertheimer and Koehler are recognizing the similarity of their ideas with Husserl's phenomenology.. Koehler and Koffka became interested in the richer field of visual perceptions and the productive thinking. Koehler and Koffka were Stumpf's students and not Brentano and Husserl's. In fact. however. however. was recognized in the field of ethics and politics. was recognized merely in literature and art. Therefore. that determines the properties of the whole through conjunctive. that proved experimentally their ideas. however. promoted by Scheler. The research work of Gestalt psychology proved experimentally his basic ideas. they approach the operations of thought merely from their formal point of view. proper to the logical one. operated with mathematical logic on the other. while Wertheimer. however. which could determine not only the action of the parts upon their wholes but also the action of the wholes upon their parts. In this way they offered an explanation of the new creative synthesis. based upon the principles of identity. that introduced the determination of the parts through their wholes. but not its direct impact on their research work. The role of emotions. One has to observe. applied to the interrelations of the words in a sentence. connected with them. Yet Stumpf and Husserl had been Brentano's students. Thus. that Wundt could not explain with the methodology of traditional logic. To this analytical determination of the wholes through their parts Piaget added then dialectical interpretation of Gonseth. yet with certain new and original interpretations. discovered by Spearman and further elaborated by Thurstone on one hand and by the genetic epistemology of Piaget and his collaborators. etc. further elaborated by Boole.
Watson started with ideas and aimed to explain psychological phenomena nor merely as an
. too. elaborated their theory with the methodology of functional. namely Meumann and Kraepelin introduced the same method in educational psychology. etc. Piaget asserted the same structureal interpretation yet with an essential difference. Krueger's conception was labelled Struktur Psychologie just because it admitted the action of the parts upon their whole.who considered that the action of the wholes upon their parts is more important than that of the parts upon their wholes. that require a dialectical interpretation. however. like biology. Pavlov added the conditioned ones of the superior functions of the brain activity. although they gave a certain credit to general logic. yet without contesting the value of introspective psychology. physiology and neurology. but also by that of the emotional ones. It should then be observed that the old controversies between the analytical and functional versus configurational interpretation of thinking were elaborated merely from one standpoint of introspective psychology although Wundt himself recognized the value of extrospective observation of behavior in animal psychology. taken as the elementary units of behavior. Krueger oriented himself more toward the functional interpretation of Brentano and Cornelius . phenomenological and dialectical logic..remained unconsidered. this action of the wholes upon their parts is asserted not only by the meaningful interconnectedness of the cognitive logic. The dialectical interpretation of logic seems to be their common denominator. It added an explicit determination of Binet's measurement of intelligence. in psychiatry. According to him. while Piaget and his collaborators elaborated their structural interpretation chiefly with mathematical logic. According to Spearman and other exponents of factor analysis the role of emotions intervenes merely in volitional and emotional factors and not in the intellectual ones.his teacher . Later. elaborated only empirically. inaugurated by Spearman and Krueger. however. love and hate. Bechterew wanted to interpret even all psychological phenomena in terms of reflexes. The same analytical and functional interpretation of the structure and of its operations appeared in the first study of intelligence based upon factor analysis. Therefore Bechterew. Pavlov and Watson promoted the assertion that extrospective study of behavior is the only basis for the elaboration of psychology as an objective science. as Wellek observed. to the primary reflexes of children and animals. Krueger and his collaborators. The chief difference between the laws of cognitive logic and those of the emotional ones seems to be the dialectical oscillations of emotional states between pleasantness and unpleasantness. Sanders and Wellek. Two of his students.
Werner. on the other. It is also a cultural one. as Skinner claimed. investigated by Piaget. The new interpretation found its most outstanding exponents in the neobehaviorism of Cl. however. as F. Chomsky reasserts their thesis with new arguments in his critical commentaries in William James Lectures at Harvard University. Indeed. the process of thought was reduced to the movements of larynx that occur in speech. depending mostly upon the endocrine glandes. who gave up both his assosciationist interpretation of behavior in terms of reflexes and his reductionism of psychological phenomena to the physiological ones. but also a social one. is not merely a psychological process. Graumann felt justified to conclude that there was not much difference between his own phenomenological interpretation of psychological phenomena in terms of introspective methodology and that of Skinner's in terms of extrospective versus behavioral one.had already asserted. C. Skinner with the observation that the first two scientists foccused their research work mostly upon learning. conceived as verbal behavior. had claimed. they operate not only with concrete perceptions. These symbols. but also social and cultural. As to Skinner's interpretation of thought as verbal behavior in the context of his theory of operant behavior. etc.and then Dewey and Mead . de Sausure. as Wundt . however. being an interior speech. Bloomington. Hull. Thus. conceived as their general symbols. because of this reason on one hand and the complete renouncement to the interpretation of psychological process through the physiological ones. Toldman and B. as shown by E. The most efficient argument against his thesis was his last elaboration of the process of thought in which he claimed that we actually think not merely with movements of our larynx and with the secretions of our gland. Thus it was only Skinner who gave due attention to the process of thought.activity of the nervous system. but with all our body! The assertations of the children of 3-5 years. but also as an activity of muscles. Toldman also proposed a cognitive theory of learning that contested not only Watson's reactive theory.. Language. the process of thought and of intelligence itself is not merely psychology. Under such circumstances. they studied instead the behavior of human personality as an action without considering it a simple association of reflexes and reducing it to the physiological. one has to observe that his interpretation is closer to the structural one. follow not only the
. it was considered a simple talking to oneself. but also with ideas. neurological and endocrinological processes. were giving about the same answer. No wonder threfore that his over-exagerated behaviorism determined the reaction of the behaviorists themselves. Cassierer and H. but also Hull's. that assert the reciprocity between the action of the wholes and that of their parts.
It is nevertheless true that this abrupt emergence of solutions appears merely in simple problems. that assured the most parsimonious demonstration of theorems. Euclid's geometry elaborated mathematically and Plato's ontology.psychological laws of individuals. Hence the impression of the sudden elaboration of solution. under certain laws of mathematical and logical order. generated by language. during which a lot of solutions are imagined. in our imagination. conceived as primary truths with universal validity from which a given number of theorems with secondary truths might be obtained in a deductive way. axioms were not absolute truths. This seems to be in fact the main difference between learning and intelligence. or of another big task. entirely independent of human intelligence. gave up the pretension to such absolute truths because even the axioms of Euclid's geometry were valid only in the plane space of his geometry dimensions and not in the curved space of Lobachewski and Riemann with more than three dimensions. however. Modern axiomatization of logic and mathematics. but also the social ones. The elaboration of a book. with objective and even absolute truths. were the first attempts. to which intelligence adds the operations with ideas at the abstract level of thought. which are the adequate institutions for the acquiring of this social experience of humanity. The social experience of human culture is.
elaborated logically. that requires less time. In their concrete field of perceptions animals and children find the solution to the new problems of the environment by trial and error. and not in complex ones. in fact. specific to the process of learning.
. as we have already seen. Questioned then was also the independence of the axioms. The process of trial and errors intervenes. with the whole experience of social experience crystalized in our culture. Because of this reason the ideal of mathematicians and logicians down through the ages to elaborate the laws of thought in a formal way. but few selected. They were dependent upon it. following certain rules and in accordance with certain definitions. takes longer time. that is to say at once. Cultural evolution develops the transactions between them. however. sometimes even years. that claimed full exactitude and validity. being not only an objective reflection of the World's Logos in our mind. We think. which is the chief instrument of social communication. that is in terms of certain axioms. learning operates mainly on the perceptive field of perceptions. for instance. Consequently. but also a projection of our mind into it. According to the above researchers we actually don't only think with our mind. Hence the necessity of instruction and education in schools. but also with that of society. too. Therefore the main trait of intelligence in this process of thought is based upon logical and mathematical principles and laws. while the symbol thinking of adult intelligence finds them more or less abruptly. Indeed. however.
attempted to introduce it in biology and psychology. Consequently. like that of reinforcement and of meaningful interconnectedness with logical insight. functional
.even in our modern time . The majority of other writers . but from the unity of personality with the help of a few but basic principles and laws of logic. but also the methodology with greater chances in obtaining the higest exactitude. Consequently.The process of axiomatic elaboration of mathematics in mathematical logic. although the gain in their mathematical exactitude implied a very substantial sacrifice of their logical validity. where it succeeded. as Kant about two hundred years ago and Wittgenstein in our century have claimed. Indeed.are working mostly with three variables. connected to the active adaptation of the beings to environment in view of their conservation and development. No wonder therefore. These few variables then are approached not from the multiplicity of sensations and reflexes. with tautological character. where the success was much smaller. applied to rote memory. Why? Because of the simple reason that mathematical determination applies merely to the general aspects of psychological phenomena and therefore it is obliged by its very nature to make abstraction of the individual and particular ones. Balzac and Dostoewski. which practiclly transcend the possibility of our intelligence to catch up with them simultaneously. that lead to 54 theorems with 110 corollaries. It is only the genius of Sakespeare and Goethe. mathematical instrument approaches merely the relations of contiguity and succession. that in order to determine the law of reinforcement. like Woodger and Hull. that govern the meaningful transactions of individuals with their society at a certain stage of their cultural development in view of their conservation and development. Hull needed 18 axioms versus postulates with 10 corollaries. Thus mathematical determination of psychological processes was applied not only to quantitative processes of sensations and reflexes. however. These few principles and laws of logic are not so much those of Ars combinatoria of Leibniz as more those of Ars differentiatoria of the dialectical. but also to the process of thought and intelligence. the characterology of Aristotle and Teophrast operated mostly with one basic trait to which La Bruyère added its transactions with society. it was also adopted in physics and some scientists. Or these relations of strict contiguity and pure succession of tautological order can be applied merely to the laws of mechanical exercise and rote memory and not to other ones. too. with the help of mathematics and of mathematical logic. proved to be not only the most persimonious elaboration of scientific truths. who approached the character of their personages in terms of 5 and even 7 variables.
and phenomenological logic of Hegel, Brentano and Husserl, etc. The reciprocity between these two complementary arts was asserted by Ars structuraris of the original phenomenon of Goethe and reasserted by the structural interpretation of contemporary science. In literature and arts these laws and principles have been those of emotional logic, applied in an implicit way. In the psychology of personality of our time they are those of the dialectical, functional, phenomenological and structural logic applied in an explicit way. In economics, ethics and politics they are those of the volitional logic of action, based upon both the cognitive logic of science and the emotional logic of literature and art. Which are these principles and laws? According to J. Piaget and his collaborators, they are only those of the mathematical logic with its conjunctive, disjunctive and implicative combinations, based upon the principles of universal interrelationship and of the traditional logic of Aristotle, Bacon and Mill, founded upon the principles of identity and contradiction with exluded tertium. In consequence, he takes an opposite attitude against Husserl's phenomenological logic, Bergson's intuitional logic, because the intitutional approache refuses the determonation of the wholes through their parts. Piaget omits, however, the fact that intuitional methodology was asserted not only in logic, but also in mathematics. Moreover, Brouwer claimed that his source of inspiration was not so much Poincaré - the first and the main spokesman of mathematical intuitionism - but Bergson, who also asserted its emotional nature. Weyl denied the role of emotional factors in mathematical intuition and therefore his source of inspiration was Husserl's phenomenology, that asserts merely the cognitive process of intuition. Consequently, the function of intuition in contemporary logic, and even in mathematics, is far from being infirmed. On the other hand, Aristotle himself asserted not only the analytical determination of truth, with deductive operations, promoted in his Analytica, but also the action of biological, psychological and social "essences" of non-material order upon their material bodies, that "make the being to be what it is and to differ from others". Thus, it was only Bacon, who introduced the explanation of all beings in terms of there original elements, which were supposed to be the atoms of Democritus. In order to explain the new qualities of the wholes Mill and Wundt resorted to the creative synthesis of chemistry and applied it to the process of thought, yet without being able to explain it. It was only Ars combinatoria of Leibniz, rediscovered and further developed by Boole and de Morgan that could explain it. As to the configurational determination of beings through their non-material substance, promoted first by Plato, it was reiterated by Hegel's dialectical logic and by Husserl's phenomenological one. The reciprocity between analytical and configurational determination was also promoted by
Goethe and reasserted by the structural determination of our days, also accepted by Piaget. Yet his position in this regard is not explicit and clear enough, because he applied mostly Ars combinatoria of Leibniz, and not the functional calculus of Frege, that can be applied to both analytical and configurational determinations. A broader view of the mathematical and logical determination of intelligence is that of Guilford. It has, however, two handicaps. On the one hand, it operates with 120 variables and as such it also transcends the possibility of our intelligence to operate with them simultaneously. On the other hand, it ignores the evolution of logic, that would have helped him to find a much more parsimonious methodology. Indeed, from the standpoint of logical determination of the order and lawfulness in evolution and variation of phenomena, we have merely three solutions, namely those of: extensive, comprehensive and evolutionary determination. The logic of Aristotle and that of the Stoics asserted the first two determinations and it was only Hegel, preceded by Vico and to a certain extent by Goethe, who added the evolutionary one, which became the most important one although the traditional logic of Aristotle, Bacon and Mill ignored it. This ignorance, however, proved to be the main cause of its decay.Indeed the main trends in contemporary logic are now those of the mathematical one on one hand and of dialectical, functional and phenomenological one, on the other. Dialectical logic was proposed by Hegel and further develop by Marx and Engels in materialist terms, by Windelband, Dilthey and Max Weber in spiritualist ones. Functional logic is that of Brentano, further developed by the phenomenological logic of Husserl. Külpe and his collaborators pleaded for a similar interpretation. To these rather opposite trends one has to add the logic of structures and various systems, that strive for both analytical and configurational determinations. Seen with our eyes, the world appears as an aggregate versus totality or multiplicity of bodies and beings, accessible to description and classification in terms of resemblances and differences, operated with the principles of identity versus contradiction with excluded tertium. Extensive determination approaches this order of classes and is based upon the comparison of one singular versusu structure with all other singulars or structures. In consequence, it represents a co-structural determination, that operates laterally in the extension of singulars, taken as simple totality.Aristotle's botany illustrates it. It also occurs in the biotypology of Kretschmer and Sheldon, in the
psychotypology of Jung, in the sociotypology of Max Weber and in the cultural typology of Windelband, Spengler and Toynbee. Seen with our microscopes and telescopes the world appears as a unity in multiplicity versus a totality with a totum, accessible to analysis and synthesis, in terms of parts and wholes, operated with the principle of universalinterrelationship at the level of physical, biological, psychological and social organization of the world. At the level of the physical organization of Nature the interrelationship is mainly that of mathematical order, that occurs in the theory of relativity. When the structure of atoms comes into discussion, then the relations between their particles seem to be not merely mathematical, but also logical, as Heisenberg claimed. At the level of the biological organization of the being the interconnectedness is both mathematical and logical, yet in terms of biological functions and it serves the adaptation of the organism to the environment in view of his conservation and development. At the level of psychological, social and cultural level of human personality the interrelationship is mostly logical and operates with the meaningful interconnectedness of psychological, sociological and cultural order. This determination of the psychological structure of personality in relation to its biological infrastructures on one side and with its social super-structures on the other one, represents a comprehensive determination in terms of parts and wholes, approached by analysis and synthesis. It operates vertically and approaches the order of structures. Under such conditions, extensive determination of the order of classes in terms of resemblances and differences operated laterally by comparison and comprehensive determination of the order of structures in terms of analysis and synthesis, applied to their parts and wholes vertically, are complementary determinations, that complete each other in a reciprocal way. Extensive determination, operated with the principle of identity approaches the order and lawfulness of phenomena, that repeat themselves, being equal and identical. Comprehensive determination, operated with the principle of interrelationship applied both analyticallty and configurationally, intervenes in the creative order and lawfulness of phenomena, that do not repeat themselves, as the late professor McIves stated in his wonderful book Social Causation. The third determination is that of their growth and development of the order of classes and of the order of structures, that are in continuous evolution. The new evolutionary determination operates upon antecedents and consequences in terms of causes, goals and effects and with due attention to their direction of development toward the organization of matter and energy in complex structures at physical, biological and human levels of
mathematical determination is accessible to a formal eleboration in terms of axioms versus primary truths from which one deduces certain theorems versus secondary truths following some given rules and laws. deprived of any content. logical determination is both formal and material. as Koehler said. Logical determination applies to the meaningful interconnectedness between singulars and their classes in extensive determination. It operates at their highest abstraction and under such conditions includes operations with abstract units versus numbers in the context of a formal system. parts and wholes. Contemporary mathematics gives more credit to the structures of higher algebra. between parts and their wholes in comprehensive determination and between causes. but also judgements of values in a world of facts. that are a totality with a totum versus a unity in multiplicity or a system. All these determinations are both logical and mathematical and satisfy the completeness of determination. when phenomena do not repeat themselves. Mathematical determination is applied to suprema generalia of extensive determination. goals and effects in evolutionary determination. it operates not only with judgements of simple assessments of facts. Yet it continues to make the same abstraction of the physical. being simple succession. biological and social content of bodies and beings to which these formal structures are applied. Under such conditions. Working at the supreme generality and universality with supreme continuity. with due attention to the organization of matter and energy in more complex structures at physical. and upon the principle of meaningful connection of emergent versus creative order. Mathematical determination of the Antiquity accorded priority to Pythagoras' arithmetics of natural numbers. that is at their highest generality and abstraction. Life and Society.structural organization. biological and human level. when their qualitative content is
. goals and effects. as Kant and Wittegenstein said. Under such conditions. because other determinations are not possible. mathematical relations are merely those of contiguity and succession. to suprema universalia of comprehensive determination and to suprema continuitas of evolutionary one. Its highest ideal is exactitude. conceived as a totality of punctual locations in space and time of bodies and beings. The truthful value of the meaningful interconnectedness becomes more relevant at the biological and human levels. Working with the meaningful relations between singulars and classes. It operates longitudinally and is based both upon the principles of identity when phenomena repeat themselves. causes. that is to say with complete abstraction of the content of Nature.
integration and differentiation which act in a reciprocal way. that divides and integrates itself continuously. one has to introduce the third process. man. in accordance with its own structures and the patterns of the environment. In this reflection the activity of our intelligence has its own contribution and role. Life and Society as well as that of our thinking about them. Consequently. applied to b) extensive. but also to our whole conception of Nature. According to Comte and Spencer the evolution of Nature.
. but a reciprocal collaboration with the reflection of the world in our mind. that generates the Truth. have to reflect in our mind the order and lawfulness of the World in evolution. the judgements of intelligence have to satisfy not only the mathematical and logical lawfulness of thinking. however. Therefore. being in fact their original phenomenon. namely that of structuralization. This reciprocal collaboration increases the efficiency of their encounter. as Goethe would have said. Differentiation and Integration
Which are then the thinking processes upon which intelligence is based? They are those of a) structuralization. in order to understand their reciprocal actions. Life and Society of which they are a part. This process of structuralization is not so much their effect as more their cause. Life and Society in our mind. was the product of two complementary processes. Our cognition with its perceptions. ideas and judgements. differentiation and integration. Yet. the laws of its productive thinking are not arbitrary projections of our mind upon the world. complementing each other. ideas and judgements develops in the same way. our intelligence depends not so much upon the mathematical exactitude and the logical validity of perceptions. Yet. Both exactitude and validity. in which they are a part.
Structuralization. The same process of structural organization by both differentiation and integration applies then not only to our perceptions. comprehensive and evolutionary determinations with logical and mathematical operations. Its ideal is validity. Indeed. for instance. but also the objective reflection of Nature. begins as a single cell.richer and pregnant. Both the philo-and onto-genetic evolution of beings is illustrating it.
The operation of cognition refers to perceptions and that of memory to the traces of parts experience and to its reevaluation in the service of the present and future experience. The same process intervenes in the structural interpretation of mathematics. that a person with an elementary education. sociology and economics. which is more an encyclopaedia of divergent ideas than a well organized treatise. It also appeared in the mathematical intuitionism of Poincaré. differentiation and integration. pointed out by Goethe and then by Brentano. Units and classes occur in the extensive determination of the order of classes. classes. Hence. by Dilthey and Koehler in psychology. Heyting. etc. No wonder therefore. in their logic. yet with an well-organized mind. Weyl. Let us now turn back to the model of intelligence. Unfortunately. The operations of structuralization. the necessity for schools. Their trensformations and
. too. relations. K!lpe. in the tradition of Comte and Spencer and does not perceived their original process of structuralization. Gödel. relations and systems intervene in the comprehensive determination of the order of structures. these logical and mathematical laws of the whole conception of the World .have been disregarded by all mathematical and logical textbooks. proposed by Guilford. promoted by Piaget and his collaborators. As regards the operation of evaluation. of course. it intervenes in the judgements of values. systems. Husserl. however. although they are. and try to reinterpret it in the light of the above cognitive processes of structuralization. on one hand and by Gestalt and Structure psychologists like Wertheimer. Binet and Bergson. but more upon the organization of our culture and intellect. the most important ones. with logical coherence and mathematical symmetry is quite superior to that of a mind. He conceives them. that complete those of the simple assessment of facts. transformations and implications. and. which are the chief instruments for the acquisition and organization of the social experience of humanity for a better understanding of the world and for better decisions in life. Durkheim and Max Weber in history. proposed by Bourbaki collective. Indeed. can solve much easier and quiker the usual problems of life than one with higher education. The thinking operations by differentiation and integration occur in what Guilford calls divergent production by analysis and convergent production by synthesis. Tarski. They are assessed by Windelband.ideas and judgements. which is more an encyclopaedia of divergent ideas then a well organized textbook.and of our Destiny in it . in all probability. Koehler and Krueger. Borel and Haddamard. differentiation and integration with applications to the judgements of facts and those of values are applied by Guilford to units. and by the structural interpretation of logic. intelligence of a well organized mind. and of Brouwer.
According to the results of factor analysis. Thus intelligence is a rather long process that begins with imagination. while reasoning refers to the abstract ones. taken as singulars. and after a long process of their trials ends with certain conclusions. This means that the process of inteligence is not only a psychological one. that raises certain working hypotheses. Other types of vocations seem to be those in literature. our power of understanding depends not only upon the general factor of intelligence. As regards the processual nature of intelligence. Numerical ability defines the operations with numbers and mathematical systems. Verbal fluency indicates the facility of finding words in the process of social communication. Perceptual speed and spatial visualization refer to the application of intelligence to concrete situations. technical. verified both experimentally and rationally.implications are occuring in the evolutionary determination. Logical thinking gives more credit to the meaningful interconnectedness of theories. In what the general conception of Nature. semantic and behavioral. The majority of these group factors reappear in Thurstone's seven factors. Society and Culture is concerned it should be observed that
. based upon differentiation and integration. that is from axioms to theorems in accordance to certain definitions and rules. one should be remembered that mathematical thinking proceeds more deductively and in a formal way. As regards the "contents" of these "operations" and "products" they are figural. but also upon the group factor. while the verbal and social ones indicate a talent in logical operations. are reciprocal functions. verbal comprehension concerns the understanding of sentences. elaborated both inductively and deductively by our imagination and has to be controlled by reasoning and proved by facts. Binet and Spearman have recognized both role of language in intelligence. but also a social and cultural one. that are a generalization of relations. symbolic. painting and music as well as those in business. verbal. Figural concepts are a generalization of the common traits of perceptions. Intuition intervenes in the process of structuralization. functions and processes. Life. The figural ones are a psychological generalization of individuals. social talent in mathematical operations. the symbolic ones are a psychological generalization accredited by society and reinforced by cultural development. Symbolic concepts are various archetypes and abstract signs. determined by its application to concrete versus abstract thinking or to mathematical. in which analytical versus configurational determination. Semantic concepts are referring to the meaning of words and sentences and the behavioral ones call attention to the transactions of individuals with their society. that integrate each in a dialectical way.
Mythological thinking operates with symbols and archetypes. Its logic is more emotional than rational. social and cultural. but also that of human Dubito. economic inequalities. European conception of Nature. more dangerous appears to be the opposition between the historical lags of the old religious mentality of Asia and Africa based upon various beliefs with dogmatic character. Society and Cultural is asserted by humanists. succumbing to the blond beasts of the Slaves. however. The determination of Nature is more mathematical and technical. Yet. accessible to mathematical and logical determination and lawfulness. Nonetheless. Scientific determination assert the mathematical and logical invariance of the Order and lawfulness in Evolution of Nature. the opposition between the new material civilization of the technocrats and the old tradition of European humanism might bring the decline of Europe itself. however. A similar opposition between the material civilization of our time and the spiritual values of Europeam humanism was reasserted by Snow. Indeed. Technocrats promote the practical application of the science of Nature. that combine the buoyancy of their mysticism with American technology . and into Hazard and Chaos. Plato and Aristotle. is merely that of probability and not of certitude.without the humanism of occidental Europe. Life and Culture is no longer that of the Medieval dogmatism but more that of Descartes. rational and scientific nature of its ideas on the other. Life and Culture in the concrete variance of empirical facts. deprived of any order and lawfulness. but also those of comprehensive determination. are not merely those of the extensive determination of variation elaborated mathematically. The judgements of probability. social and political contradictions. Society and Culture is more psychological. but also into Cosmos and Logos. that of Life. He asserted not only the principle of scientific Cogito. as well as cognitive dissonances are
. differentiation and integration on one hand and upon the mythological. In the rational thinking of Socrates. Its elaboration. and European mentality.its success depends upon its formal elaboration in terms of structuralization.as Stalin claimed . elaborated logically. archetypes become spiritual "essences" and "ideas" that do not vary in space and do not evolve in time. that characterize primitive mentality. The evolutionary determinations of their growth and development assert their processuality in time. that of Life. These "essences" and "substances" could not determine all phenomena and therefore the world was divided not only into material bodies and spiritual substances. founded upon the relativity of scientific truths. yet without Spengler's sinister prophecy which Hitler and Stalin were on the verge of translating into concrete reality. that has infirmed the danger of dogmatism and has increase the chances of peaceful understanding between the people and nations of the world. According to Spengler and even to Toynbee.
but because of the religious fanaticism of certain Asian and African countries.endangering this peaceful understanding. That is to say. as Spengler. but also the firm belief in the human value of Freedom. The task is a tremendous one. however. who refused to follow their dogmas. is generated not so because of the opposition between culture and civilization. The trouble. yet of dramatical necessity. like Hitler and Stalin who did not hesitate to kill milions of innocent people. there is a single solution: to promote economic welfare with the aid of technological production and to integrate all the people and nations of the world in the same mentality. Toynbee and Snow have prophesised. without engaging in disastrous dogmatism.
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE II
. Therefore psychological research has to be focussed not only upon laboratory experiments an rats. on their sensations and reflexes. that asserts not only the technology. by homogenization of geography through syncronization of history. Justice and Truth. but also upon the huge experiments of human history. because otherwise an anatomic confrontation might bring the end of Humanity itself. and the dogmatism of certain European political ideologies. In order to avoid such tragedies. that challenge our destiny so critically and dangerously. fanatically embraced by uneducated dictators.
Banished was not merely the sex. The mechanization of labor and the automatization of production are its
. completely naked. Individual freedom and social justice become true sisters and the ideal of humanity was to promote their reciprocal integration. that is healthy mind in a healthy body. that along the ages has changed their structure and balance. Under these new circumstances. The ruling principle of the Roman life was Mens sana in corpore sano. that reaches the highest peak with the Century of the Enlightenment. based upon freedom and justice. Consequently. The Medieval Age. The citizens of Athens went still further and considered the harmonious development of body and mind as the supreme ideal of our life. Thus the naked body was not a shame and Euripides himself ran during their Olympic Games with a torch in his hand.Motivation
The motives versus incentives of our behavior and action are biological. just in order to prove that he reached perfection not only in his plays. asceticism and obedience to the severe law of God became the supreme target of the life on this earth. based upon the applications of science to production. which in their opinion was the main source of all the sins. accessible to cultural development. but also in his beautiful body. changed this conception and considered the body not only as a shame. Therefore. Yet our century has also proved that human welfare and social justice are to be reached not so much through a new repartition of goods. Transactions between individuals and their environment are both of them the only difference being that in some cases the releasing cause comes from the interior structure of our personality. The Renaissance attempted to go back to the ideal of the Greek and Roman civilization. psychological and social tendencies and valences. based upon social justice. Yet the social movements of the last century proved that the harmonious development of human personality can take place only in a democratic society. the social motives and goals of our action become equally important with the biological and psychological ones. while in other cases the realizing goal comes from the external world. valences or incentives are excitations coming from the environment. but also as a source of sins. however. but through the huge increase of industrial production. Tendencies or drives are urges emerging from our interior structure. conceived as a temporal trial of men for the eternity coming after death. but also the pleasure of eating. the harmonious development of body and mind has to go hand in hand with the harmonious development of social order.
but that of the cultural gap between the affluent society of the industrial civilization of our century and the two thirds of humanity. which did not enter into it and live many hundreds of years. however. that lasted up to the beginning of our century. It was also characteristic only for the free people having slaves. Otherwise. health and social organization. The ancient ideal of the harmonious fulfilment of personality stopped at the home at its family and at the frontiers if its country. Individual freedom and social justice. on the order. on one side. Thus the standard of life has tremendously increase although the World population became three times larger than it was at the beginning of our century and promises to be quadrupled at the end of it. and to the avoidance of its catastrophe through an atomic confrontation. the crisis of our industrial civilization is not so much that of the opposition between its technology and its humanist and spiritualist tradition. as Woodrow Wilson said. The fulfilment of these threefold goals is the only road toward human happiness. still suffers from hunger and the only solution toward a peaceful international order is the expansion of our industrial civilization with its technological production to the whole World. that have changed our whole style of life. Indeed. Our ideal of the harmonious fulfilment of human nature in its social condition. are also not possible without bringing all the nations of the world into the civilization of
. based upon justice. to the modern ideal of our century is almost as revolutionary as the applications of science to production. In consequence. This means that the motives and goals of our behavior and action are not merely those of human nature. and by the human welfare of our industrial civilization. on the one hand. One third of the population.product. the harmonious development of body and mind has to be completed by the social and international order. the peaceful understanding between the peoples of the World is not possible and the United Nations Organization remains futile because the battle for human rights is not possible without making the world safe for democracy. and with its material and spiritual welfare. maybe even millenniums. based upon technological production and not upon the labor of slaves. is valid all over the world. The passage from the ancient ideal of human destiny. however. Under such circumstances. Toynbee and later Snow claimed. as Spengler. the chief differences between the peoples and nations of the world are not those of physical geography. who worked for them. back in history. but also those of its social condition and its cultural development. on the order. but those of human history and therefore the only solution for the homogenization of human geography is the syncronization of its history.
occidental countries, that have elaborated these individual and social ideals of humanity and made them possible by their economic welfare. In fact, it is a nonsense to pretend human rights in a social organization based upon dictature and it is equally impossible to get understanding between the United States of America, for instance, and the dogmatic mind of Khomeini, who remained some few hundred years, if not millenniums, back in the history of humanity. In conclusion, human motivation is to be approached in these broad frames of reference, with reference to the whole world with its entire history because the motives and incentives of our action and behavior are not only biological and psychological, but also social and cultural. These aspects, however, are not independent, but also meaningfully interconnected, and one has to approach them as such.
Biological Drive and Needs
Along the ages, hunger and sex have been considered as the main motors of our life. The assertion, however, is only partially true because besides these basic drives of human nature, common with those of the animals, or, in any case, mammals, there are other drives, specific to hman behavior, like the self-fulfilment of personality, the foundation of a family, the education of children, etc. As regards the human sex, its nature then is not only biological, but also psychological and social, because it concerns not merely the pleasure of individuals, but also the conservation of family and species, which appears to be its main reason. A still more social one is love for children. Other biological drives, besides hunger, are then the thirst, the need of air and adequate temperature, the need of physical activity and the avoidance of disease and physical injuries, etc. The deprivation of air brings death in some few minutes and that of water is also more dangerous than that of food. Hunger appeared to be also important because of its scarcity on one hand and of the hard labor to get it, on the other. A third of human population still does not have enogh food to satisfy properly its hunger and therefore its main struggle in life is that for food. Equally important is that for a shelter, to have a place to rest and sleep without feeling cold and enduring bad weather. Industrialized countries, on the other side, begin to suffer from air and water pollution. In Nazist and Stalinist prisons people also suffered not merely from hunger, but also of the
deprivation of air because in a room of eight square meters were crowded more than twelve persons and in a room at 60 square meters were sometimes more than 350 poor victims, that is almost 6 individuals on a square meter. Moreover, the majority of these rooms had only one window, blocked with wood, in order to make the aeration still harder and to increase the sentiment of incarceration by making it impossible to look out. The walking for ten minutes daily in the yard of the prison was also suspended for many years. Under such inhuman circumstances, in order to have the possibility to look out for a while, the poor victims were obliged to make a small hole in the wood with a needle, large enough to see some leaves of the trees and small enough to escape the inspection of the guards. In case of their discovery, the punishment was an incarceration in small boxes of 60 x 60 centimeters and with wire tacks in their walls in order to be obliged to avoid them. Such inhuman incarceration didn't last some few hours or days, but 8-12 days and nights, of course, without interruption. In this interval of time the food itself was reduced to half portions. Through such a small hole the author of these lines saw one day a brood mare with her little colt, born merely some few hours before. To keep himself on his lags, the colt had to prop up his small body on that of his mother, who walked slowly and with the greatest care in order to help the colt lean on her. From time to time she was also kissing him. What a human behavior some animals have sometimes and what a savage one is that of some men with other men! I note this scene just to point out that biological drives are far from being a polymorphic perversity, as Freud described them, but have their beauty and poetry, as Darwin and Lorenz have shown. As transactions of the organism with its environment in view of its conservation and development, biological drives and needs are just two reciprocal aspects of the same dynamic process, that can be aroused both from the interior of the organism and from the external world. If the arousal comes from the interior, then one speaks of drives, conceived as incitations; if the arousal comes from the environment, then one speaks of excitations. The organism is hungry and looks for food. The cause of its search for food is said to be the internal drive. The organism is not hungry, but sees a delicious food, that excites its appetite. The cause of eating is said to be a need. Drives are tendencies, emerging from the organism, while needs are valences, emerging from outside. Yet, tendences are the interior complements of valences, while valences are external complements of tendences. They are always meaningfully
interconnected. When tendencies do not meet their complementary valences, then some false connections occur. This is the case, for instance, for males who don't have the possibility to fall in love with a female just because in their environment females do not exist, like in the army, marine or prisons. Homosexuality is such a false connection of love transactions between individuals of the same sex. This proves, however, that in the case of biological drives with strong heredity, the role of internal tendecies is more important than that of the external valences. People are not dying because they are deprived of highly exciting foods with delicious taste, but they die when the food does not have the minimum of fat, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Moreover, in such cases of food deprivation, their organism does not feel the need for the delicious foods of a highly civilized kichen with all the delicassies in its refrigerators, but for the basic foods with enough fat, proteins, vitamins and minerals. The hunger of the poor victims of Hitlerist and Stalinist prisons was, indeed, not that of certain organism with social status, but that of their cells, tissues and organs, without this social status. At the superior level of human motivation, the role of social and cultural values, coming from society, might be, however, heavier than that of internal tendencies. Yet, both internal tendencies and external valences are always present and therefore speaking about motivation, determined merely by one category is not possible. This does not mean, however, that their complementarity takes the rigid forms, which are specific to the relations of the gravitational versus electromagnetic field, as Descartes or Loeb have thought. The organism is not a machine because it has its own way and choice in its transactions with its environment. Therefore, its lawfulness is biological and not mechanical. The law of reinforcement is in accordance with its own choices, that represent the best solutions for the transactions with the environment. In this scope, the organism tries to choose its environment, preferring the one which ensures the best conversation and development of its being. For the same reason, the process of motivation is not merely the product of heredity, but also the result of learning. The effects of learning, however, act more upon environmental valences than upon organismic tendencies, although they might determine a lot of changes in the world of tendencies themselves. We are born with the necessity of feeding us, but not with that of eating only the highly delicious food, produced by our civilization. We are also born with the necessity of keeping constant the temperature of our body, but not with that of wearing beautiful and expensive clothes, of dwelling in large and comfortable apartments with luxurious
were. the second one that reduced psychological phenomena to biological ones and the third that recognized both biological and sociological aspects of psychological phenomena. but failed to identify the autonomy of psychological phenomena themselves. Yet this larger variety of needs is the product of our civilization. Yet this explanation was connected not so much with their biological resistance as more with their moral consciousness.Watson ended his career. the trouble being not so much the unilateral diet. A miracle? No. In Hitlerist and Stalinist prisons the daily food has been usually under 800 calories and deprived of any vitamins. because an explanation existed. etc. where J. asserted Adolph Mexer. Brentano. he attempted to determine human behavior in terms of physiology and endocrinology. Wundt. professor of psychiatry at John Hopkins University. The poor victims. It concerned their fight for a noble cause and the desire to see their family again. Three scientists and three solutions: one that pointed out the social side of human nature. resisted beyond all limits. the late professor of sociology at the University of Chicago. Plato and Aristotle in Antiquity. Under such circumstance. but they have their own identity. the range and variety of the biological needs of civilized people are much larger than those of the people from undeveloped countries. being the most important ones for the understanding of human
. who started his career as professor of psychology at the same university. dwelling in small cottages. James and Ribot in our modern times. Without the confidence in themselves in some few weeks they would have been lost. The nature of human nature is both biological and social. replied J.
Psychological Tendencies and Valences
The nature of human nature is social. of the opinion that psychological phenomena are not only an encounter of social phenomena with biological ones. Watson. but the insufficient food. however. being convinced that psychological lawfulness is their product. the founder of behaviorism. described in the medical treatises of specialists. Nonetheless. sometimes even on the street and eating the same poor food daily. Consequently. however. said Faris.furniture. The nature of human nature is biological. the resistance of the organism in such poor conditions is sometimes much greater than expected.
Otherwise the adequate answers to the challenges of the environment are not possible because these challenges
. one has to revise the very definition itself of instincts. Ribot . yet he considered human unconscious with its instincts more important than human consciousness with its social and cultural values. common to all the individuals of a species and even to their genus proximum.and even Darwin . Heredity. Murphy and H.claimed.W. Therefore instincts are never stereotypical patterns of behavior. Fromm. James. and W. Instinctive behavior has been usually defined as: an hereditary pattern of reacting. Are the urges of the Id and the tendencies of the Ego inborn behavior versus instincts. A similar interpretation of psychological character was promoted by Freud's psychoanalysis. He assimilated human life to a drama. Since by Freud the emergence of the Ego from the Id remained rather mysterious . have believed? In order to give an adequate answer. but merely up to ninety percents or even less. is never hundred percent complete. Hence the identity between the instincts of men and those of the other mammals. accessible to learning. of course. Adler and K.asserted the same priority and function of the Ego. as Brentano.to which the daughter of Freud has finally adhered . The new psychology of the Self-realization of personality. generated by the failure of the Ego to mediate a compromise between the instinctive urges of the Id and the social norms and cultural values of the Super-Ego. however. The new Ego-psychoanalysis.personality. to cretain stimuli. Alexander and further developed by E. promoted the same thesis. with the observation that in normal cases its fight for a synthesis between the inborn urges of the Id and the social norms and cultural values of the SuperEgo is successful and the failures occur merely in cases with mental diseases and antisocial behavior. Leahy and Maslow. Mc Dougall on the other . Karen Horney and Erickson in particular . Otherwise. control and self-fulfilment. elaborated by G. Allport. G. Jung considered the Ego itself as the original phenomenon. but malleable ones. as Freud and Jung on the one hand. F. both the instinctive urges of the unconscious as well as the aspirations of the consciousness are psychological structures. promoted by Hartmann and F.and in any case could not explain its fight against both the Id and the Super Ego. Murray and later by Rogers. Consciousness versus self-consciousness and world consciousness were their chief agency of guidance.
as the instinct of sex. but not in that of Ego. as well as their transactions with the environment. with the accent mostly upon their universality does not annul the great variation of their degrees of development. Lorenzo and Tinbergen take a much more moderate point of view. but also a specific morphology. It should be also observed that in sex. at least. as L. the Ego has to be studied only within its own phenomenology. In the case of man in particular. anger and fear one has not only a particular versus specific connection between stimuli and reactions. represented by the sexual organs with their exocrine and endocrine secretions. that excessively pointed out both their hereditary pattern of reflection and their specificity. which seems to be a general agency of conservation and development of the being and. maybe ever fifty procent. fear and aggression. It is also not a surprise that contemporary determinations of the Ego. which by its very structure and function. common to all the singulars of a species and even of a genus proximum but not by the specificity versus particularity of relations between stimuli and reactions. that one of the most outstanding determination of its phenomenology remains that of Oesterreich in this Phenomenology of Ego. as such. in human species in any case. For the same reason it is also the most malleable one. the body being its material image. which is. therefore. No wonder. but not in the case of Ego. what remains conspicuous and constant is only its universality.are more or less new. Yet it is not merely a social attitude. Because of this reason. not only psychological and social. However. that occur merely in some cases. instinctive behavior has to be defined merely by: the predominance of heredity over learning. in our civilized society.
. however. refuses a rigid connection in terms of specificity versus particilarity. is a general agency controlling the other ones. as it was called. but also biological. too. that is with the greatest accessibility to learning. like those related to sex versus fear and anger. it is not possible to deny the hereditary basis of the instinctive behaviour.L Bernard was inclined to believe in his attack upon Mc Dougall's conception of instincts. although the impact of culture and society upon it is very large. Still less rigid are the relations between stimuli and reactions. Therefore. that occur as such only with certain inborn patterns of behavior. Under such circumstances. which in case of some singulars are much higher than in other ones. written in the spirit of Brentano's and James' psychology and under the influence of Husserl's phenomenological logic. Endocrine secretions are occurring by anger and fear.
however. but in the service of all other tendencies and valences. that represent various centers of interests. like in the case of human vocations and talents. The products of learning and education are only the highly cultural types of social organization. H. Pavlov and E. the children are its fruit. W. fear and anger. The love of sex is the flower of Eros. that appears after the familial one. as Herbart would have said. Allport. but their original trunk. This exploration. the social nature of human beings concerns not only their acquired social values and cultural norms. which seems to be much stronger than the love for sex. although its original phenomenon is of a psychological nature.promoted by G. the love for the opposite sex and that of the offsprings versus progenity are by their very nature inborn social behaviors. Thus. Rogers and Maslow follow the same line of thought. which is the original one. Therefore. more important. Thus it lacks not only specificity. like that of attention. like sex. to be sure. as Woodworth has showm. The social norms and the cultural values are. G. Murray. but also as social ones. Indeed. Murphy and then by Leahy. added he. Yet social beings are not only the human species. zoon politikon. is not in the service of knowledge as such. Freud has unjustly identified the notion of Eros with that of Sex. being a general drive and function. namely for its own satisfaction.
Social tendencies and valences
Aristotle has defined man as a social being. which is the original social group. or the hereditary one. men are born not merely as biological beings. but the great majority of animal ones at least during the period of love and procreation. but also autonimy. for instance. K. but also their instinctive endowment. conspicuous in animals and children. is the Ego not only psychological. Yet this does not annul the hereditary social nature of men. For all of them the Ego is not a special branch of instinctive behavior. Sokoloff after him also spoke about an exploring instinct of cognitive nature. For the same reason. A minority of husbands are ready to die for
. but also social and biological. but the concept of Eros is certainly larger and includes at least the love for the children.
To reduce. is also a mistake because the range of these social norms is larger and includes not only the family. Under such circumstance the wisdom is to find the most efficient solution for the right collaboration between opposite tendencies. as Freud was inclined to do . but they are not a rule still less a law with hereditary determination. however. If one succeeds. that between performance and recompense. To pay all people with equal salaries. is not only that of the equality between individuals. that brings economic welfare. this new equality introduces the hierarchy of values.their wives and the same is true for the wives. but also through the same successful integration in the job. If
. even when they belong to animal species. for which humanity has always fought. The affection of such poor mothers for their children seems to resemble the affection of the brood mare for her colt. regardless of their performance. social discipline becomes freely consented. They are less frequent in poor families. They also depend not upon the hereditary endowment of the child. everybody starts at the same moment and from the same place. One of the proofs of this conditioning is the fact that Oedipus and Electra Complexes occur mostly in well-to-do families with a lot leisure time. In a competition for running. means to destroy production. then the social norms and values to the familial ones. but also that of the equality between performance and reward. Consequently. This is the equality of opportunities. but also the working community and that of the state with its economic. then have proved that the political integration itself has important role because the number of mental patients has doubled during their odious dictatorships. Or. Therefore it is rather strange that Freud did not realise it and reduced the love for children to various complexes. This justice. Freud himself defined mental health not only through the successful integration in the family. It has nothing sexual in it. respect for truth and a certain degree of love. is possible only in a social order. considering the child himself just a polymorphic perverse. that differentiates. Which are the ruling principles of the healthy integration in family. described some few pages before. For their childern the great majority of parents are ready to die. for mothers in particular. Individual liberty. based upon justice. In fact. The prize itself. that fight with the difficulties of life. is garanted in accordance with the second equality. however. however. working community and state? They are those of free consented discipline. social justice and human welfare. social harmony goes hand in hand with the productivity of labor. for instance. means to destroy social harmony and to risk revolution. To suspend their equal opportunities. These principles. but upon their social conditioning through their parents. are neither absolute. but relative and interrelated. Hitler and Stalin. nor independent. Such complexes are certainly occurring. based upon individual freedom. educational and political institutions.
sociology and civilization and not that of the low ones. Thus Freedom. indeed. Labor is not only hard work. nor labor and intellligence emerged with men. As regrads the productivity of work. In what their food is concerned. human beings are not only social and rational beings. In fact. The range of human motives illustrates their order of value with hierarchical character. most of the days. but also a social and cultural one. brought up by the new technology of labor. but also the fulfilment of our personality. human beings fight not merely for the fulfilment of their personality versus self-realization. are the opening of new factories and the decrease of the number of working hours and days. that have made men human
. Therefore. in order of efficiency and importance. for the time being. the motivation of present human activity is that of high psychology. free discipline is no longer possible and dictatorship is unavoidable. on the other. it is not only an individual affair. obsessed by hunger and lack of social security. as Skinner is inclined to believe. Truth. Under such circumstances. Love and Productivity of labor through Creativity are far from being myths of political demagogues. the main attribute of men. they seek it too. As regards human personality. the exploitation of men by other men is not necessary and the most important production factors are the advanced technology. it depends not merely upon manual labor. but also a good job in a free society based upon justice. upon which human welfare is based. the highest goal of his life is not only the same foundation of a family. Yet. but also for the social realization within their family and country and for the cultural realization in their work. In our time labor is both a duty and right for everyone. the productivity of labor is based not only upon individual work. It is. but the ruling principles of Human Nature and of its Social Condition and Cultural development. social organization afterwards and individual effort remains at the end. neither sociality. Justice. The most efficient weapons against unemployment. Yet. because in that time hard labor was done by slaves. Consequently. In consequence. To be sure. technological progress comes first. their effort is not organized work in social conditions. as human labor is. Aristotle has defined men as social and rational beings and not as working ones. Moreover. Therefore. but also working ones. but also upon the technological progress and the talent of organization. that provides not merely our economic welfare. injustice appears. all human progress is based upon creative work. but also a vocation. because almost all animals are social beings and some of them have also a certain degree of intelligence. but also upon its social organization and its technological progress. Their freedom oncludes all three variables.one does not succeed. created by some highly talented men on one hand and the power of social organization of the managers.
All these directions in psychology. like H. For certain psychologists with biological orientation these are reflexes. Configurational and Structural Determination of Motivation
Analytical determination of motivation attempts to interpret human motivation in termn of its elementary units. with a sociological orientation they are various social habits. which are the most elaborate ones. represented by Wertheimer. both of them evolved toward a structural interpretation of personality. Reflexes and instincts are considered to be hereditary units. Murray. while for others. being considered as conditioned reflexes. taken as a whole. and by the existentialist psychology of Snygg. conditioned reflexes and instincts.
Analytical. Original units are emerging from the interior of personality. based upon the clinical observation of the patients of Harvards's Psychological Clinic. Allport tried to interpret it in terms of personality traits. The configurational approach of personality was promoted by Gestalt psychology of Berlin. In this way tendencies and valences became functions of personality. Near to phenomenological and existentialist psychologies are the interpretations of C. Maslow. being considered as inborn tendencies. Koehler and Koffka. etc. G. Rogers and A. Later. attempted to determine human motivation in terms of 20 needs versus tendencies and 16 pressions versus valences.beings. yet they are based upon some new ideas and principles. applied to its motives. Combs and Rollo May. Their investigation was applied mainly to cognition and it was Lewin only who applied tha same determination to motivation. Explorations of Personality. acquired units are the impact of society upon personality.
. Lindschotten. An analytical approach of human motivation is also promoted by some outstanding exponents of the psychology of personality. but also as dynamic ones. W. have one common denominator: Husserl's phenomenological logic. too. A similar approach and interpretation was promoted by the phenomenological research of Graumann. that is Gestalt. too. rather different from Gestalt psychology. phenomenological and existentialist psychologies as well as the new conceptions of Rogers and Maslow. who in his monumental work. conceived not merely as cognitive and emotional units. habits are acquired ones. however.
Th. the founder of factor analysis.that interrprets the functions of the parts in terms of a meaningful interconnectedness as a whole. Consequently the structure takes the model of a pyramid with various levels of organization. The same structural approach with various levels of integration was promoted by Ch. Spearman. his first paper in which he asserted such a structural determination of psychology was published in collaboration with Krueger in Psychologische Studien of Wundt. The structure itself is defined as a unity in multiplicity with various levels of hierarchical integration in which elementary units form complexes ones. each level being determined through its infrastructures and suprastructures. which in their turn are parts of more complex ones. Spearman also took his doctor's degree in psychology with Wundt. Thus it tries to prove both the action of the superior levels of organization upon the inferior ones and the action of the inferior levels of organization upon the superior ones. It also accepts both causal and teleological determination. reasserted by Ebbinghaus.
.E. while Krueger gave more credit . Analytical determination perceives the base of the pyramid. Therefore. Actually. Structural determination aims to approach the entire structure of pyramid with its various levels of hierarchical organization. Müller. G. that satisfies the completeness of determination. Analytical determination explains the whole through its parts. was the first psychologist to speak about such an explanation. The structural approach accepts both these opposite interpretations and looks for a synthesis of them.to logical determination. Krueger. F. that structural psychology is connected mostly with their vast researches approached mainly with mathematical logic. No wonder. the new psychological school of Leipzig was labelled under the name of Structure Psychology as opposite to both Gestalt psychology of Berlin and to old associationist psychology of Herbart.I might say almost the unique credit . A structural interpretation of psychology was finally asserted by the vast research of Piaget and his collaborators. the follower of Wundt at Leipzig University. but without excluding the general one. Ziehen etc. as Ehrenfels called them. represented by elementary units and tries to explain the various levels of organization through them. The only difference between him and Krueger is in their methodology because Spearman paid more attention to mathematical determination. Configurational interpretation appreceives the highest peak of the structural organization and attemts to interpret the rest through its Gestaltqualitäten of relational order. therefore.
L.which proved to be so successful in botany and zoology. Needs were tendencies emerging from the interior of personality. Therefore the meaningful interconnectedness of various factors in the structure of personality was more or less neglected. Chomsky and others. determined by the principles of identity. contradiction and excluded tertium. however. He also interpreted the structure of intelligence through seven factors. Thus. Murray proposed to interpret human motivation in terms of 20 needs and 16 pressions. Under such circumstances the various needs and precissions are descriptive units of psychological phenomenology and have no explanatory value. It should be also noted that chronologically the first approach of the structural conception was that of Bloomington. Guilford promoted the same hierarchical organization of the various factors of personality. operated with Aristotle's logic of genus proximum and differentia specifica. further developed by Worf. then he resorted to the notion of simple structure with dependent variables on the one hand and with various levels of hierarchical integration on the other. Thus. Thurstone chose the idea of independent variables. configurational and structural determinations of human motivation. The methodology of all of them. As regards the analytical approach. some predecessors were Durkheim in sociology. then the above 36 isolated units would have become parts and aspects of some higher units. was mostly mathematical rather than logical. while pressions were valences of the exterior environment. B. Parsons in sociology. Let us now illustrate practically the various methodologies of these analytical. in psycholinguistics.In his first studies of factor analysis. the determination in merely substantival and atributive. they are results of description and classification of various symptoms of the patients. R. If such a meaningful interconnection had been sought. etc. operated with the principle of meaningful interconnectedness. meaningfully interconnected. that offered the most parsimonius explanation. and avoids any analytical and synthetic determination in terms of parts and wholes. H. L. Their assessment is based upon the systematic observation of patients in Harvard's Psychological Clinic. Their relations are those of contiguity and not of interconnection. Cattel and G. Yet when he approached the structure of personality itself. Lévi-Strauss applied it in social anthropology and T. According to Althusser and Foucault. performed by his numerous collaborators under his own guidance. Marx in economics and history and Freud in psychology. Jacobsen. like the
This discrimination between hereditary motives and the acquired ones. capable of productive work and fails in mentally sick people and in those with antisocial behavior. however. lacks precision and the laws of learning remained undetermined. although some very valuable conclusions were reached. It was merely the genius of Goethe. The approach of this style of life is the most parsimonious and efficient key of determining in a meaningful way the structure itself of personality in relation with its social condition and cultural development. Shakespeare and Dostoewski . the completeness and adequacy of their determinations are far from being satisfactory. Therefore. He also involved the evolutionary determination in terms of maturation and learning with a certain direction of development. Little attention was then paid to their hereditary versus environmental determination. that influences the style of life of human personality.who worked with seven variables. that represents the fighest peak of bio-psycho-social structure of personality.5 variables. Freud procedeed from the beginning in this structural way and finally interpreted human motivation in terms of the three interconnected substructures of Id. This synthesis succeeds in people with mental health and social integration. that introduces the discrimination between the constant traits of heredity and the changeable ones of environment. their scientific determination would have been much more parsimonious and accessible to our intelligence. Freud's discrimination between the instincts of life and
. Thus.as has already been said . The changeability of needs and pressions in the course of life was also neglected because evolutionary determination was not considered. yet only in animals.instincts of Life and Death of Freud. Murray started with analytical determination of personality in terms of 20 needs and 16 pressions and ended with a structural approach of their hierarchical order in terms of some 5 . conceived as functions of the Ego. Its structure approaches the model of a pyramid. which can not work logically with more then 3 . Super-ego introduce social norma and cultural values.7 higher units. Id represents hereditary tendencies versus instincts. In this way. Ego and Super-ego. It was the merit of Dollard. No wonder therefore that a few years later Murray himself felt these handicaps and proceeded to the comprehensive determination of human motivation in terms of meaningful interconnectedness with hierarchical organization. Ego attemts their synthesis. Miller and Sears to determine them.
St. Truth and peaceful understanding between people and nations. Indeed. All of them have been imprisoned because of their mature resistance against the injustice and tyranny and because of their struggle for Liberty. as well as the various tendencies toward regression. have shown and not by the remote troubles in early infancy. as Adler. etc. the political pathology of Hitler and Stalin has doubled the number of patients in mental clinics. Striking is merely his failure to discriminate between hereditary and acquired motives. rather strange and without much meaning when one has to do with persons with mental healts and social integration. their mental diseases have nothing to do with the troubles of their early infancy. but also its multiplicity. However. church. That the fixation of life to these phases might occur in pathological cases in rather probable. nation property. Freud speaks about catexis. It is also rather strange that Freud does not mention the love of parents for their children. Justice. objects or ideas. The positive role of social norms and cultural values is lacking and the evolutionary determination is applied only to the evolution of Libido up to puberty and not to the whole course of life. Sullivan. catexis itself is a function of the individual and not one of the environment. but this does not mean that he understood it as a transaction between individual and environment. social class. then. depending upon both the Individual and the Environment. In what the complacency in dreams and fantasies is concerned. so that the tragedy was still greater. The majority of mental diseases then seem to be determined mostly by later conflicts in marriage and profession.those of death remained. to interpret the whole course of life during maturity and old age in terms of the above mentioned phases of childhood is not possible. His determination is nonetheless structural and approaches not only the unity of motivation.if it really exists . colleagues. etc. but with the oppressions of their dictatorships. facilitating the applications in practice. conceived as a fixation of the persons upon certain persons. are social habits versus conditioned behavior and not hereditary drives.. because his explanation is mostly individual. Freud's evolutionary determination of human motives is only in terms of the individual and not of society and cultural development. H. However. Or. as the love of one's own body or that of sex. Indeed. which can not be determined in terms of oral.. Other tens of millions were imprisoned. the love of friends. Adolph Meyer.as a polymorphic perversity. Jung. phalic and erotic phases. Therefore. Yet such fixations do not occur in normal and healty cases. anal. which seems to be the most powerful one. Freud's psychoanalysis has not realized them and
. Still more absurd is the interpretation of child sexuality . Thus. they are more pathological symptoms then needs. marriage and professional life bring new motives.
whose inspiration goes back to Lavater. After his arrival in the U. the importance of social environment and investigated it as a relational property of what he called topological field. promoted by Bechterew. that he pointed out the cardinal importance of the Ego. This interplay. in which both personality and social environment were determining variables.. similar to the low psychology of reflexes and conditioned reflexes. Klages . however. It should be also observed that the characterology of L. Both of them neglected the interpretation of human beings through their norms and cultural values. that made human beings. The differentiation between various factors of personality and society was not considered.A. that influences the whole structure of personality.therefore remains not so much a depth psychology.promoted the same configurational approach and tried to interpret the structure of personality in terms of its style of life. In opposition to analytical determination of human motivation is the configurational one. with the only difference that existentialist
. they are nearer to the configurational approach of Gestsalt psychology than to the analytical one of Wundt's psychology. of sexuality in particular. he realized. for all of them. personality traits are not original units but mostly aspects of personality. so much praised by Goethe . Actually. as well as by the various exponents of phenomenological and existentialist psychology. promoted by Gestalt psychology. Pattern and Growth of Personality. V. Yet Wertheimer and Koehler focussed their attention only upon cognition and motivation was approached only by Lewin. Tomae's work The individual and his world. An Ego psychology was also promoted by C. as it was called. Therefore.S. was sought merely from the standpoint of the topological field. During his research work at the University of Berlin he approached it merely from the standpoint of the individual. but more a low psychology of instincts. Allport on personality as well as those on expressive movements were done in terms of traits. Thus. The same interpretation was present in his classical treatise on personality and it was only in his later works. human behavior was considered an interplay between the tendencies of personality and the valences of society. A similar interpretation of the structure of personality in terms of traits appeared in Cantril's work on the Pattern of Human Concerns and in H. Nonetheless the first studies of G. Pavlov and Watson. The Studies in Expressive Movements by Allport and Vernon are influenced by both Lavater and Klages. however. Maslow. It should be noted that the first psychologists who stressed the importance of Ego in psychology were Brentano and James. Rogers and A. Their stress upon the unity of personality is still greater.
etc. As regards the structuralist conception of science. The same is true for Rogers and Maslow. it characterizes not only the structural interpretation of psycholinguistics. As regards Husserl's phenomenological logic applied by all these thinkers. that are relational systems. Husserl.. are more under the influence of Heidegger and Kierkegaard. The main ideas of his conception are also rather original. its application is a rather different and not a unified one. Bruno. I might say. elaborated by J. characteristic to the structuralist conception of contemporary science.A. he reconsidered Plato's "ideas" through the original phenomenon of Goethe and even through the dialectical ones of Hegel. Marx's economics and Freud's psychoanalysis. He also promoted only the determination of the parts through their wholes. It were only G. as well as Durkheim's sociology. however. etc. but also the structuralist determination of psychology and social anthropology. As regards tendencies and valences it should be observed that they are dynamic drives and needs. however. who are also deep and original thinkers.S. however. Piaget and Levi-Strauss with the help of mathematical logic. Snygg and Combs. The motor
. Krueger. one has to recognize that up to the time being. In other words. but as complex "phenomena". conceived them not as simple "nomena". and Mounier in France. Graumann and Lindschotten as well as Spiegelsberg in West Germany and then McLeod in U. although they do not assert it in an explicit way. who conceived human life as a drama. Sartre. promoted by Bloomington. It is also characteristic to factor analysis and. Indeed. Its first elaboration. The same depressive interpretation of life in the light of its anxieties and alienations was promoted by Camus. Merleau-Ponty. are nearer to the phenomenological psychology of Husserl. This is maybe the reason why he labelled his conception under the same name as Hegel did just in order to connect it with Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind. one has to observe that is origins go back to Plato and Aristotle. to the majority of practical applications of the psychology of personality. that evolve in time.psychologists. but an evolutionary one.. is that of F. that are complex units with affinitory and complementary relations. like Plato and Hegel. was nearer to Gestalt Psychology. who have interpreted the manifestations of human nature through its spiritual "ideas" versus "substances". like Rollo May. conceived as substantival units with various attributes. Spinoza and Goethe who accepted the reciprocity between the action of the wholes upon their parts and the action of the parts upon their wholes. Therefore their approach has to be not a static one.
The love for children is
. with furniture and other commodities. The majority of thinkers and men of literature and art. The adjoining valences of the instincts of life are those connected with the conservation and development of life. A third of world population still lives in poor conditions. with the only difference that to Ego and Sex one has to add the Love of children. with various attentions and intimacies.of these changes are various causes and goals. Consequently. called by Freud the Instincts of Life. followed his way of thought. Nietzsche on the other hand gave priority to aggression. Aggression and fear are in their service. goals are various aspirations and desires. in order to avoid hunger. however. emerging from fear. on the other. The basis tendencies are those of the conservation and development of our being and species. The same joy of life and love was asserted by A. elaborated an existentialists system of psychology and philosophy without stressing Death instincts. Valences then continued with the struggle for better homes. Heidegger and other existentialists. Freud has called them Instincts of Death. Bergson and James did go further and praised the joy of life and love. that emerge from the planning of the future. but also that of development of personality and of its prestige in society. we have to approach both tendencies and valences as well as their causes and desires as processes of structuralization with continuous differentiation and integration. that make life more social and agreeable. It was only Kirkegaard who gave priority to various anxieties. Maslow in his wonderful work. have identified the essence of our life mostly with Life instincts. The tremendous increase of economic goods and human welfare enriched the structure of tendencies themselves. that appear in the course of life. Motivation and Personality. About a quarter of the population in civilized countries reached this last level of development. Because of their destructive operations. Emperor Wilhelm. Hitler and Stalin have applied his ideas in practice. The majority of contemporary civilization lives in these conditions the last valences are then those of comfort and luxuries on the one hand. but a longer one. Causes are tendencies and valences that act from the past to the present. cold and bad weather. The succesive ages of the growth and development are its product. They start with the necessity of food and shelter. Jaspers. Ego instinct is not only that of the conservation of the body. like Mounier and Sartre. and of self-development of personality through high education. The love itself is not only the short court that precedes the sexual life. however.
Yet the danger of the atomic confrontation menaces them. to approach the process of structuralization. which have remained under the law of force and not of justice. They are complementary principles. that affect the life of hundreds of millions of people. based upon the equality of people before the laws. for the time being the main source for human misfortune are international conflicts and injustices. that Freud spoke about. have a minor importance. is a great mistake. If compared to them. Under such circumstances. on the other. It is nonetheless true at least half of humanity reached the level of a decent life. The same organization. Without social justice individual freedom is not possible. In order to make the social organization of labor more productive. differentiation and integration of human motives merely from the standpoint of their generality and universality. when the training in schools ends. all citizens have more or less the same opportunities of instruction and edication and are equally protected by the laws. Unfortunately. increasing the possibility of defence and social progress. that have to defend honest people. Their variation then is not only related to profession and social classes. then. in the context of the same economic and political organization of the nation. are the differences of history because the majority of the world population did not enter the civilization of our century and continues to live hundreds if not thousands years back in the history. as well as with freedom of thought. based upon justice. These large social organizations have brought up the system of social norms and laws. has been attempted in international relations. The source of human troubles and misfortunes remained merely the relations between folks and nations. Consequently. At the basis of this increase of human welfare is the organized labor on the one hand and the creativity of human intelligence. with enough food and rather comfortable homes. the homogenization of their
.prolonged up to their mature life. but is also related to the international order. because their variety and particularity is still very large. who gain their life through honest labor against those who instead of working prefer to steal. Still larger. nations are neither equal nor with the same level of development. In the context of nation. economic and political valencies were added to those related to family and community. the troubles of the interior structure of the family. expression and travel. Therefore.
playing a little role under normal life circumstances. but also upon that of performance and recompense. This bio-psycho-social structure of the Ego increases with the cultural development. but also to its genus proximum. however. Consequently. the conservation and development of species versus family through the love of sex and raising children. Since social integration is a rather complex one is based not only upon the equality of educational opportunities. indeed. because the basic tendencies are the same. came through its life in a society. the chief agency of self-control and leadership in the context of the social order and cultural development. job and marriage has go hand in hand with the duty to respect the freedom of others in accordance with the social laws and cultural values. Its transactions with the social environment are those of affinitory and complementary cooperation with hierarchical organization. namely the conservation and development of the Ego. This does mean. It is not only hereditary.
. This means that the freedom to choose his school. home and other forms of property. is not so much a problem of geographical unification as a problem of historical synchronization. and of its society with their various transactions of cognitive. that their structure is just the same and the biological evolution did not enrich them. It is. The main enrichment of human tendencies. depending both upon biological force and health and economic goods. the assertion of the Ego is that of equality in family and profession and that of the right hierarchy of values. In fact. From the standpoint of hereditary tendencies. these basic drives are common not only to human species. but also educational and cultural. based upon the equality between performance and recompense. like that of their mentality. Its transactions with physical environment are those of the material Ego. as well as to other genera. depending upon his abilities and honesty on the one hand and upon the social order based on justice on the other. human consciousness of the Ego is not only that of its body with its biological tendencies and valences of conservation and development. clothes. their hereditary structure itself has greatly changed and has better possibilities of development. brought up through social work and creative intelligence. such a homogeneization of motivation is possible. Therefore. The defence mechanism of aggression and fear are in their service. but also that of its personality. represented by food. however. volitive and emotional nature. based upon social laws and work developed by creative intelligence.motivation.
C. being their development. Thus. social and cultural evolution is of such a nature that their role is decreasing and not increasing. promoted by Goethe. that played such a great role
. Indeed. but also that of the fulfilment of life. A. as well as by R. with its strivings and ideals. but also its social and cultural ones. conceived as their active and creative agent. however. differentiation and integration. An identical process of structuralization. it requires the planning of life. Social-realization and Cultural Development
The theory of Self-realization versus Self-actualization of Self-fulfilment was promoted by William James and further developed by G. Maslow. The love or sex itself is submitted to the same process of enrichment through further structuralization. although their main is the conservation of species. Kelly. has to go hand in hand with that of species because individual structure is by its very nature both social and cultural and not only bio-psychological. with the only observation that human. May. followed by G. The aim of literature and art at their turn is not only that of catharsis. etc. remained on the Self-realization of the Individual. Murray. Snygg and Combs. Under such conditions even the love of sex and children are parts of it or at least under its control. Murphy and H. that diminishes the role of fear and aggression. but in cultural development. The conservation of the being. the final ideal of humanity is the peaceful understanding between people and nations of the world. Allport. promoted by Aristotle and Freud. however. Spencer and Bergson. Rogers and A. its product. W.Yet. G. this bio-psycho-social Ego is not static. Schiller. to a greatextent. The stress. The same is true regarding the love for children for whom the majority of parents are ready to give their life.
Self-realization. Literature and art are. All of them have pointed out not only its bio-psychological structures. differentation and integration occurs in the instincts of defence. In other words their conception remained in accordance with American individualism. that are to be in continuity with the past. based upon individual and national freedom with social and international justice.
Roosevelt.in American history. both in production and social organization. indeed. as Jefferson desired. its main motor. American legislation became social and not only individual. still alive although U. however. A certain nostalgia for the old individualist democracy of Jefferson is. It was required even for the new industrial structure of the individual democracy of U.D. not only in American economy and politics. Keynes. As long as U.S. This new tendency toward the old individualism was maybe also a result of the fact that after the First World War and still more after the Second one the majority of European Countries took an orientation toward socialism and even toward communism. One forgets. W. advocated by H. with its noble fight for human rights. was mainly a country of farmers without frontiers. recommended by J. Since its economic and social structures have changed and the frontiers have been closed. that required not only social legislation. M.A. It is nevertheless true since Th. The majority of American economists of that time were in agreement with him and those of the time being insist still more upon its necessity.S. however. Hoover between the two World Wars although the economic crisis of 1929 proved its inadequacy. Therefore. Roosevelt. but also in American psychology with its stress upon Self-realization.S. Roosevelt. however. among which was England itself during the government of the labor party. For a New Freedom pleaded even Th. is no longer a country of farmers. the fight for human rights has to go hand in hand with that of the democratic organization
. The accent. This nostalgia for the individualist style of life of the farmers persists. however. remained still upon the individual initiative although the economic structure becomes that of the larger corporation. individual initiative was.A. Wilson and F. however. and not only for European countries with their orientation toward social democracy. After the Second World War. but also the intervention of the State in time of crisis.A. the principle of individual freedom was completed with that of social justice. its main aim being the reciprocal integration of Individual Freedom with Social Justice. Roosevelt. D. promoted by the social freedom of Wodroow Wilson and F. as Jackson Turner has claimed. American conception of life manifested a certain tendency to get back to the old good principle of rough individualism. that Carter's present fight for human rights is not possible without Wilson's fight to make the world safe for democracy because the dictatorship is by its very nature a negation of them.
Indeed. Isn't it too much? No. however. as Skinner said in his much debated book. They are the Material and Spiritual Welfare. along the centuries have remained more or less the same. far from being the false myths of political demagogues. but also in that of the Dubito of Descartes. whose mentality is that of the remote past. Yet with the present means of cultural diffusion we might expect to realise it in one or two hundred years. for which W. Carter's fight for human rights has to go hand in hand with Wilson's fight for democracy on the one hand and with the synchronization of human history on the other. In order to make possible this synthesis between human freedom and democratic organization. Under such circumstances. one has. Otherwise one can not get an understanding with Komeini. indeed. to bring all the nations of the world to the civilization of our days. They are.of the state. however. all of them have to be debated not only in the Credo of Antiquity and Medieval Age. We have to live all with individual and national Freedom and with social and international justice in the light of the scientific truths of our days. Therefore. though they were in continuous development. Consequently. Wilson pleaded. but also for a better understanding. Was their sacrifice just a simple stupidity then? As one who joined their fight and sacrifices for
. more than hundred of millions of peaople have died in our century for their further fulfillment. that. Since scientific truths did not reach perfection. with Freedom and Justice for all the people and nations of the World and in the light of Truth. Upon the convergence of individual tendencies and social valences I have already insisted. Indeed. because the experience of human adventure down to its history was digested in the leading principles of humanity. A great task. which over the night is not possible. Beyond Freedom and Dignity. the Self-realization of the Ego has to be completed with Social-realization of the State and in the Cultural Development of our Century. Some few words about their cultural aspirations are still necessary because the transactions between individual tendencies and social valences are always in the context of the cultural aspirations. a certain degree of Love is necessary not only for the reciprocal integration between individual and national Freedom and social and international Justice. their solution is to be elaborated in the frame of reference of the history.
but also from great experiments of human history. Spranger's book. elaborated in the course of history. the world's frames of references were
. the patterns of their concerns were the same: the fight for Human Welfare with Freedom and Justice for everybody and with the respect of Truth in order to reach the peaceful understanding between all the people and nations of the World. conceived as attributes of the absolute Mind versus God. other ones communists as well as developed or developing ones. considering themselves human. The Forms of Life. Wilson's fight for democracy. James pleaded for the same interpretation of human motivation through the leading principles of human destiny. some of them capitalist. social and cultural beings and not merely biological ones. Justice. Their central organization motive. Hitler and Stalin's victims have then fought for the same principles. This message is that no human sacrifices are too great for the triumph of the leading principles. E. based upon the investigation of 623.the leading principles of Humanity during 16 years of imprisonment. Truth and Beauty. asserted by all religions although in different forms. I am under the moral obligation to submit their message to the World's consciousness.000 persons from 31 countries. The variety of religious experiences of W. Nevertheless. Nonetheless. social condition and cultural development have to be approached not merely from the standpoint of experiments with animals about their conditioned reflexes. that have made men human beings and continue to improve their human. specific to geographical conditions and cultural development. Still more ignored was the cultural development. The same noble fight of Humanity for Human Rights is attested by Cantril's monumental research on The Pattern of Human Concerns. and Kerschensteiner's work on The Theory of Education reflect similar preocupations of high psychology and not merely of the low one. Truth and Love. Justice. human nature. That is in accordance with Freedom. without which human rights are not possible. COM. for which no sacrifice is too great. was the belief in Freedom. upon which both human rigjhts and democracy depend. social and cultural nature. submitted to conditioned reflexes. Consequently. It is nevertheless true that my distinguished colleague and friend has approached them merely from the standpoint of human rights and not from the point of view of W. Europe has realized it because Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind attempts to understand human mind in the social context and in accordance with the leading principles of human destiny. With its much troubled history. which is a continuous fight for these principles.
Consequently. shelter. might be determined by the absence of satisfactory social valences. The self-control of the Ego is insufficient versus deficient in both cases. partner for love. however. Their effects. that can not assure satisfactory food. generates more oppression. the person is a victim. Some of the conflicts are determined by the social inhibition of individual tendencies. It is also to note that oppressions in general and sexual oppressions in particular occur mainly in well-to-do families. It is the case to observe that religion acts mainly through families. so much asserted by the present theory of their convergence. however. to be sure. who needs help. like that of the Medieval Age. some conflicts are unavoidable and people with mental diseases on the one hand and those with antisocial behavior are proving it. It should be also observed that the cultural development has its role in both mental diseases and antisocial behavior. Some other conflicts. They are the oppressions pointed out by Freud's psychoanalysis. They are the frustrations. Frustrations and Transgression
The transactions between the tendencies of the individuals and the valence of their environment are. under the law of their complementaryity. Yet social laws are based upon the equality of all individuals and by their very nature pay little attention to their variation. however. but also transgressions against social norms. In mental diseases. based upon false principles of economic and social organization. while in antisocial behavior the man is a person who transgresses social laws and therefore society is justified to take measures against him. A society that can not assure a correct standard of life produces more frustrations. clothes. that stress too much their prestige and
. A civilization that stresses too much social and especially religious norms. shelter and commodities.
Repressions. etc. are not merely mental diseases. pointed out by Adler's individual psychology.considered and human nature was not approached merely through the conditioned reflexis of its biological being. This is the case of all political organizations. that is to say by the lack of food.
For the time being the colonialism has disappeared. is still alive and more than one hundred millions of people are its victims. but also its social organization and cultural development because the effects of social pathology are more nefarious. Still less considered are the historical lags. of course. too. then the number of persons with various anxieties of pathological order might reach 10 or even 20%. that are still so different and with such grave repercussions for the human standard of life. But these basic tendencies define merely the genus proximum of human beings.
. capable of productive work. People of poor families are suffering mostly of frustrations. however. and do not include the differentia specifica of their economic and political organization with various religions. as Cantril proved. but a duty because the laws themselves are just a defiance of the elementary principles of justice. In opposition to people with mental diseases and antisocial behavior is. Therefore. political pathology is more dangerous than the bio-psychosocial one. but only after the Second World War. As regards the basic tendencies of human beings. but also their morale and religion. the patterns of their concern are the same. taken as individuals. In the remote history some of the victims were taken as slaves. The imperialism.in this way confound social roles with social masques. In this situation are more or less 90 or even 95% of the population. The percentage of mentally sick people in such countries submitted to political occupation and economic exploitation is still larger. then frustration is common to all the citizens. Therefore. with its social integration and productive work. who support their families and raise their children in a satisfactory way. that inhibit the integration in the civilization of our century. social and political ideologies. When the political system is based upon false economic organization and can not assure a decent standard of life. When the political system does not realize the free consented discipline and resort to the imposed one through force and imprisonment. that exploits it and in order to increase the exploitation tries to change not only their economic and political organization. The same is true of cultural pathology. the majority of those with mental health and social integration. the revolt of the oppressed people in such cases is no longer a crime. As regards the antisocial behavior. excepting those with high position in the bureaucracy of the party. doing their duty to the state. the patterns of human concerns have to consider not only human nature. that occurs when a country is occupied by another one.
Still more unfortunate are.
FEELINGS. EDUCATION AND SENTIMENTS
. however. the poisonous lags of history.then those of individual pathology.
euphory and disphory. but also of art and literature on the one hand of ethics on the other. approached with the help of the affective logic of feelings. Scheler and Heidegger added the emotional logic of art and literature that debate our harmony and happiness and the volitional logic of ethics. W. the emotional states of our mind do not include only emotions and sentiments. that their function is identical. They introduce in our life the judgement of values. Consequently. This does not mean. but those of Health and Hapiness. Kant and Hegel followed their example.Emotions asn sentiments are so tightly interconnected with motivation that the majority of psychologists treat them together. Our social action and productive work aim to fulfil our duty. Consequently. approached with the help of the cognitive logic of science . are neither those of Truth. The transactions between tendencies and valences are under the control of social norms and in accordance with the laws of ethics. forcefulness and weakness. Jung said. but also about that of the Right in ethics and politics and that of the Beauty in aesthetics. B. Indeed. as K. emotions and sentiments as an independent aspect of psychology is then the fact that they are connected not merely with the motivation of our conduct. according to Max Scheler and Martin Heidegger philosophy as a love of wisdom is not only a synthesis of sciences. Jung did not differentiate them. but also with degrees of activation of our temperament. perhaps also of Beauty. Husserl insisted upon the cognitive logic of science. emotions and sentiments. asserted by mental hygiene and promoted by art and literature. Yet these judgements of values. but also their system of control. represented by the feelings of pleasure and pain. approached with the help of the volitional logic of action. depending upon the harmonious development of our personality. although both Plato and Aristotle wrote not merely about the logic of Truth in science. The transactions between hereditary emotions and acquired sentiments are under the control of our inner health and happiness. specific to art and literature. while tendencies and valences appear to be its overt one. attraction and repulsion versus love and hate. that has to govern our action in economics and politics. however. Emotions and sentiments are considered to be the inner side of behavior. that are the inner side of tendencies and valences. Perhaps to our Art of Life. our inner peace of mind aims to assert the identity with ourselves. too! K. The second argument for treating feelings. nor those of Right and Good. Cannon defined the feeling of biotonus and
. introduced by emotions.
Physiological Substratum of Emotions
Perceptions. As regards the social tendencies and valences. In fact. endocrine and sometimes even exocrine secretions. respiration. The laws of temperament are also correlated mostly with our biological infrastructure. learning and intelligence are functions of the brain and therefore their psychological structures are to be studied in connection with their neurological processes. etc. emotions and sentiments. said James and Lange. Yet. the truth is inverse. blood pressure. The correlation between body and mind is a rule in the case of emotions. Still more irrevelant proved to be the correlation between cognition. fear and rage. that are an emotional polarity. although the interpretation of cognitive operations through neurological processes proved to be of little relevance. the expression itself of emotion comes from that of motion. sociotonus and culturotonus with their opposite vagotony. A similar correlation does not exist in the case of Ego or parental love. the states of euphory are simultaneous with those of force and conversely. Therefore. Or. which have an endocrinological substratum. it was asumed that we cry because we are under the strain of a psychological pain and we laugh because we are happy. they do not
. pulse and metabolism. when cry and laugh precede pleasantness and unpleasantness. No wonder therefore that emotional states of mind are accompanied by conspicuous changes in respiration. but also as forcefulness and weakness. but merely in the case of some few hereditary tendencies. James and Lange have sought their explanation in these various vasomotric changes. No. pulse. From Aristotle up to Wundt. A certain correlation between body and mind occurs in motivation. if such situations arrive. while those of motivation and conduct are correlated with the control of our social superstructure. that are temperamental degrees of activation. The same bimodality versus bidimensionality
characterizes the feelings of psychotonus. they are without an identified physiological versus anatomical substratum. this correlation might be considered as the third trait of feelings. Therefore. that seem to precede them. like love. these states of forcefullness and weakness follow the laws of temperament and not those of social conduct versus character. We are sorrow because we cry and we are happy because we laugh.vagotonus not only as euphory and dysphory.
Janet also insisted. on which P. Therefore. The most important discovery. hunger. that is before the systematic elaboration of endocrinology. James. The function of the limbic area of the forebrain was also unknown. The occurrence of such situations seems to be even more frequent. As a rule. while that of parasympathetic ganglions is correlated with a feeling of vagotonus. when we feel well and strong. when we cry and laugh because we are sorrow and happy. More progress then has been realized in the field of the autonomous nervous system. Darwin was right when he treated such primary emotions as the interior feelings of instincts. studied bodily changes in plain. identified with electronic technology. RAS. however. P. that increases and decreases the degrees of
. Shand and Mc Dougall have followed his interpretation. Thus. for the time being. but also emotional states of force and fatigue. A. for instance. He also investigated the function of the autonomous nervous system and proved that the activity of sympathetic ganglions is connected with an increased biotonus. and the discovery of the function of thalamus and hypothalamus. Therefore. laughing and crying are going hand in hand with sorrowness and pleasantness and are under the law of the feedback reinforcement. It should be observed. Cannon. on the one hand. however. Indeed. however. on the other part. was that of the reticular activation system. biotonus and vagotonus are not only emotional states of euphory and dysphory. that this interpretation of cry and laugh through vasomotric changes could not explain the primary emotions of various instincts.exclude the converse ones. while their behavioral expression appears to be a function of hypothalamus. B. In such cases emotions and instincts appear to be two aspects of one and the same process. that has its own role in emotional biotonus and vagotonus. James and Lange have published their theories in 1884 and 1885. Papez and McLean. on the other. as James himself has realized. of the neural network of the lower part of the brainstern up to thalamus. Bard made further discoveries about the diencephalic mechanism in rage with reference to the sympathetic nervous system. W. electrical stimulation of these parts of the brain by aniumals determines both visceral changes and overt behavior reactions. have discovered a relationship between the limbic area of the forebrain and the visceral responsivity of emotional order. Cannon's theory is connected with his name. when we feel depressed and weak. fear and rage and discovered that their emotional resonance is produced by the stimulation of thalamus.
talking. A volume of the German Treatise of Psychology in 12 volumes edited by H.
Psychological Structures and Functions of Feelings and Emotions
Locke. Thus contemporary discoveries have reactuzalized the theory of Hippocrates about temperament. Werner Wolf and G. Condillac and Herbart reduced psychological phenomena to sensations. In fact. Vernon have verified experimentally some of their observations. Wundt. Thomae pays attention to these emotional expressions. Consequently. spoke about three categories of elementary units. etc. emotions and reflexes and tried to interpret psychological processes through their various combinations with creative synthesis. Condillac and Herbadt were following the model of Newton's mechanics and explained everything by simple
. J. The last decenniums have also called attention about the effects of various biochemical factors upon the polarity of biotonus and vagotonus and that of forcefulness and weakness. taken as psychological atoms. applying the laws of mental chemistry. their reduction to motivation is no justified.force and speed of our reactions. The same is true of psychological pharmacology. namely those of sensaions. S. Mill. that seems to exercise its impact more upon the state of euphory and dysphory. that emotions and sentiments are connected with temperament and not only with motivation and character. Thus they spoke about a single category of primary units. gesticulation. The emotional states of pleasantness and unpleasantness were considered to be their interior experiences and reflexes of their overt behavior. Locke. No wonder therefore. however. the process of biotonus seems to be determined mostly by RAS than by the symphatetic and parasympathetic ganglions of the autonomous nervous system. W. Allport in collaboration with Ph. as the physiognomy of Lavater and the characterology of Klages show. the effects of alcohol and various drugs were rather well known from the beginning of humanity. E. those of sensations. considered to be their atoms. although their connection with it is the most important one. proposed by. reflected also in gait. It should be also observed that the emotional states of euphory and dysphory have obvious repercussions on our face. Actually.
When working community and even home community are considered. excitation and tension was not possible because their functions were different. but also about that of excitation and non-excitation and that of tension and relaxation versus relief. that asserts the complementarity between opposite contrarities. The followers of Brentano. have their own autonomy. The students of Stumpf. conceived as their trunk? In the first place it is the Ego itself. Thus. that is Wertheimer. The identification of primary emotions with instincts was also asserted by James. force and rest. but also an emotional and volitive one. however. considered to be the equivalent of gravitation. resorted to the same explanation. Koehler and Koffka. Ego claims to be not only assertion. yet reciprocal functions. Its inner sentiment is that of self-love. proposed by Brentano. like in the case of Wundt. but more altruism. that is love of the mutual partner and of the children. that promotes the right hierarchy of values. It should be also observed that Wundt spoke not only about the emotional polarity of pleasure and pain.association. In order to realize the meaningful interconnectedness between their different. yet his interpretation of psychological phenomena was not so mucj the model of mental chemistry with analytical determination as more that of Ego psychology. Shand and Mc Dougall went back to Darwin and identified psychological units with instincts. founded Gestalt Psychology. The two fundamental emotions. but their primary variables were units of behavior and not states of affective feelings. yet without renouncing to any analytical explanations of the wholes through their parts. that asserts the conservation and development of the being in the context of its physical and social environment. Thus complex emotions and sentiments were considered to be manifestations of the Ego. as we already saw. Pfänder. reflected in our overt action versus behavior. Their explanation was also analytical. but also domination versus submission in accordance with the law of justice. one has to resort to the dialectical law of emotional logic. When the family comes into discussion. etc. Nonetheless. etc. Neither explanation did succeed. Lipps. the explanation of emotions and sentiments through their feelings of pleasure. Husserl. like pleasure and pain. The Struktur Psychology of P. The most important structure seems to be the volitional one. like Stumpf. Which are the main structures of the emotional side of the Ego. Krueger and his collaborators promoted a similar interpretation. Ego is not so much egoism. The possibilities of their combinations were much larger. which is not merely a cognitive structure. Its further
Since personality is in continuous evolution. however. Ego is the expression of our whole personality in relation to its environment and society. but by love of the mutual partner and of the children. however. as in working and home community. as Goethe claimed in his theory of affinitive elections. are not those of opposition. representing the conservation of species. that in certain moments. Social sentiments are their expressions. Yet they are social beings not merely through learning and conditioning. in the beginning of maturity when the tendency toward procreation is very strong. but social ones. Yet they depend
. Under such circumstances the reactive and emotional side of tendencies can be treated as functions of the individual. with which it is in continuous transactions. in the context of the family they are bound up together not so much by law.branches are the defence tendencies. They are in fact the inner side of their transactions. In other words. Their relations. however. however. are not solipsistic beings.
Emotions. The love of children seems to be the prolongement in time of both Ego and Libido. Men. Freud considered Libido as more important than Ego. but also through heredity. The instincts of defence are in the service of all of them. like in working community. At the social level of emotionality the role of valences seems to prevail. For a certain period in our life this is the strongest sentiment. but those of mutual cooperation and help. At the biological and psychological levels of emotionality the role of tendencies seems to be more important. Therefore. like in family. its failure gives birth to lack of confidence. Indeed. The comparison with the success of other people generates envies and jealousies. The fulfilment of their aspiration versus ideal generates a confidence in itself. their relations are not those of competition. Sex seems to be stronger then Ego. the self-love and self-estime of the Ego are also an aspiration toward a certain level of existence. represented by fear and aggression when a certain danger occurs. but those of reciprocity. but also the inner experiences of the valences. It should be observed. are not only the experiences of out tendencies. This happens in adolescence.
Freyer. certain changes in sentiments are connected with temperament and not only with motivation and character. The first to treat social sentiments as the reflection of social norms and cultural values in our subjective mind was Hegel! Marx and Engels followed his interpretations and stressed the importance of economic values. W. but an active one. F. Bernard who put the accent on social institutions and the measurenment of social attitudes. In opposition to them were Hans Freyer and Ed. H. elaborated by L. community. Tönnies. although their connection with it is the most important one. Condillac and Herbart reduced psychological phenomena to sensations. Durkheim and his followers put the accent on the social institutions and studied the role of the family. Ed. Ribot in France. I. those
. Thus they spoke about a single category of primary units. Hence the belief that communism might bring a new type of men. however. Consequently. Shand and Mc Dougall in England and to a certain extent James in U. considered to be their atoms. Thurstone. Max Weber. Yet L. followed the same interpretation.
Psychological Structures and Functions of Feelings and Emotions
Locke. Spranger followed the tradition of Hegel and stressed the role of values. treated even social sentiments as the inner aspects of the individual tendencies and not as the inner experiences of social valences.S. their reduction to motivation is not justified. nation and state. Thomas and Znaniecki followed the German tradition and in their monumental study about the Polish peasant in Europe and America applied the same interpretation. In the beginning. aesthetical and religious values. Spranger who stressed the importance of social. being the results of their transactions. Windelband. but also upon personality. L. Durkheim in France and Max Weber in Germany treated them as the inner experiences of social institutions and cultural values. In other words.not only upon society. working.L.A. is greater than that of individual tendencies. it is in acordance with the personality of the individual. The importance of social valences. political. The reflection of social institutions in our emotional states is not a passive one. When Marx's doctrine came into praxis. The emotional states of pleasantness und unpleasantness were considered to be their interior experiences and reflexes of their behavior. however. intellectual.
force and rest. yet reciprocal functions. conceived as their trunk? In the first place it is the Ego itself. Pfänder. excitation and tension was not possible because their functions were different. Neither explanation did succeed. the explanation of emotions and sentiments through their feeling of pleasure. In order to realize the meaningful interconnectedness between their different.of sensations. like Stumpf. yet his interpretation of psychological phenomena was not so much the model of mental chemistry with analytical determination as more that of Ego psychology. that is Wertheimer. as we already saw. proposed by. Thus. etc. considered to be the equivalent of gravitation. Thus complex emotions and sentiments were considered to be manifestations of the Ego. The identification of primary emotions with instincts was also asserted by James. Lipps. like pleasure and pain. J. The followers of Brentano. The most important structure seems to be the volitional one. that asserts the complementarity between opposite contrarities. namely those of sensations. that asserts the conservation and
. Which are the main structures of the emotional side of the Ego. Husserl. applying the laws of mental chemistry. but also an emotional and volitive one. spoke about three categories of elementary units. Mill. reflected in our overt action versus behavior. Locke. Krueger and his collaborators promoted a similar interpretation. Nonetheless. Condillac and Herbart were following the model of Newton's mechanics and explained everything by simple association. The Struktur Psychology of P. like in the case of Wundt. The possibilities of their combinations were much larger. It should be also observed that Wundt spoke not only about the emotional polarity of pleasure and pain. Their explanation was also analytical. however. Wundt. founded Gestalt Psychology. The students of Stumpf. emotions and reflexes and tried to interpret psychological processes through their various combinations with creative synthesis. but their primary variables were units of behavior and not states of affective feelings. which is not merely a cognitive structure. Shand and Mc Dougall went back to Darwin and identified psychological units with instincts. etc. taken as psychological atoms. Koehler and Koffka. resorted to the same explanation. one has to resort to the dialectical law of emotional logic. S. yet without renouncing to any analytical explanations of the wholes through their parts. but also about that of excitation and non-excitation and that of tension and relaxation versus relief. proposed by Bretano. Its inner sentiment is that of self-love.
that promotes the right hierarchy of values. are not solipsistic beings. Since personality is in continuous evolution. like in family. are not those of opposition. however. as in working and home community. in the beginning of maturity when the tendency toward procreation is very strong. When the family comes into discussion. This happens in adolescence. The two fundamental emotions. Indeed. It should be observed. their relations are not those of competition. The comparison with the success of other people generates envies and jealousies. Ego is not so much egoism. The love of children seems to be the prolongement in time of both Ego and Libido. but those of mutual cooperation and help. representing the conservation of species. For a certain period in our life this is the strongest sentiment. Its further branches are the defence tendencies. Men. but social ones. The instincts of defence are in the service of all of them. but those of reciprocity. but more altruism. with which it is in continuous transactions. like in working community. In other words. Therefore. Ego is the expression of our whole personality in relation to its environment and society. but also domination versus submission in accordance with the law of justice. in the context of the family they are bound up together not so much by law. but also through heredity. The fulfilment of their aspiration versus ideal generates a confidence in itself. represented by fear and aggression when a certain danger occurs. but by love of the mutual partner and of the children. however. as Goethe claimed in his theory of affinitive elections.development of the being in the context of its physical and social environment. Freud considered Libido as more important than Ego. Sex seems to be stronger then Ego. the self-love and self-estime of the Ego are also an aspiration toward a certain level of existence. however. have their own authonomy.
. When working community and even home community are considered. Ego claims to be not only assertion. that is love of the mutual partner and of the children. its failure gives birth to lack of confidence. Yet they are social beings not merely through learning and conditioning. however. Their relations. that in certain moments.
Ed. They are in fact the inner side of their transactions. The importance of social valences. Durkheim in France and Max Weber in Germany treated them as the inner experiences of social institutions and cultural values. Spranger followed the tradition of Hegel and stressed the role of values. In other words. W. but also the inner experiences of the valences. Under such circumstances the reactive and emotional side of tendencies can be treated as functions of the individual. however. In the beginning. The reflection of social institutions in our emotional states is not a passive one. Bernard who put the accent on social institutions and the measurement of social attitudes. intellectual. Yet they depend not only upon society. Yet they depend not only upon society. Tönnies. I. being the results of their transactions. are not only the experiences of our tendencies. Thomas and Znaniecki followed the German tradition and in their monumental study about the Polish peasant in Europe and America applied the same interpretation. however the role of tendencies seems to be more important. is greater than that of individual tendencies. At the social level of emotionality the role of valences seems to prevail. treated even social sentiments as the inner aspects of the individual tendencies and not as the inner experiences of social valences. nation and state. Shand and Mc Dougall in England and to a certain extent James in U. Spranger who stressed the importance of social. Under such circumstances the reactive and emotional side of tendencies can be treated as functions of the individual. In opposition to them were Hans Freyer and Ed. Freyer. being the results of their transactions. In the beginning. The first to treat social sentiments as the reflection of social norms and cultural values in our subjective mind was Hegel! Marx and Engels followed his interpretations and stressed the importance of economic values. Max Weber. followed the same interpretation. working. however. it is in accordance with the personality of the individual. Durkheim and his followers put the accent on the social institutions and studied the role of the family. community. L. however. Thurstone. political. Hence the belief that communism might
. but also upon personality. Yet L. but also upon personality.A. elaborated by L. At the biological and psychological levels of emotionality the role of tendencies seems to be more important. Ribot in France. Social sentiments are their expressions. Windelbland. H.S. At the social level of emotionality the role of valences seems to prevail. L.Emotions. F. aesthetical and religious values. but an active one. Social sentiments are their expressions.
In the second case one has to make clear its success versus insuccess. however.bring a new type of men.
. remained the same. In order to control this inner fulfilment of our identity with ourselves. The basic structure of human nature. connected with tendencies. In the first case one has to indicate the particularity versus differentia specifica of the emotion versus sentiment in activity. and of sentiments. In order to reach this control and leadership. which is the genus proximum of all of them. Emotions and Sentiments
We have already attempted to show that the functions of our inner feelings. one has. connected with their corresponding valences. From the standpoint of their particularity versus differentia specifica one speaks of primary emotions. psychological and social order. The emotional states of pleasantness and unpleasantness are defining it. one has to determine and know the opinions that the judgements of values have to be based upon the judgements of facts. however.
Feelings. to determine and know a) which emotions and sentiments are we experiencing and b) which is their success and insuccess. Both of them might be of biological. emotions and sentiments are to control and realize the identity with ourselves through the harmonious reciprocity between tendencies and valences from the standpoint of our peace of mind confirmed by bio-psychotonus that asserts our states of euphory and forcefulness. When Marx's doctrine came into praxis. certain changes in the economic and social condition of human nature appeared. The same implant of the judgements of values upon those of facts was still more exigent in ethics and politics.
however. but in continuous transactions with their environment and therefore their structures and functions depend not only upon them. for instance. psychological and social. determined by the degrees of force. the movement of attraction is accompanied by a certain exchange of tenderness. like mammals.From the standpoint of their genus proximum one speaks of pleasure and pain. that stresses pleasure and pain. as well as Pavlov. but also upon their environment. They generate the movement of attractionbetween being and environment in case of their convergence and that of repulsion in case of their divergence. however. Jung then spoke merely of the emotional states of pleasantness and unpleasantness versus happiness and lack of happiness. which appears to be the genus proximum of the three instincts of life versus love. Human and biological beings. like various jewels. Under such circumstances. Sometimes we caress even flowers and physical objects. based upon tendencies and valences. promoted the law of effect. Watson and Skinner had in mind the overt behavior. C. that stresses their force. Pleasure and pain are determining its quality. the genus proximum of the success versus insuccess of emotions and sentiments seems to be bimodal. determined by pleasure and pain. Some beings then are also social because of their very heredity and not only because of their conditioning. because Thorndike. that animates the sentiment of effort and fatigue. By superior animals. that might be also biological. Consequently. K. as Aristotle has thought them. Is the dichotomical polarity of pleasure and pain the unique genus proximum of the success or insuccess of tendencies and valences versus emotion and sentiments? In all probability not. while Cl. while P. E. The opposition between them is determined by the fact that Thorndike and Jung had in their mind the inner states of emotionality while Janet and Hull. statues and other goods. while the degrees of their force are determining its intensity versus degrees of activation. Janet spoke of the degrees of psychological force and feebleness. Hull promoted the law of reinforcement. spoke of both the states of emotionality. A good number of psychologists are calling them feelings. are not isolated and autonomous entities. Kretschmer. In opposition to these
. being the product of their convergence. The same genus proximum of tenderness is applied to our friends and even to our dogs and cats. but also in his transactions with the environment. Sex and Children. namely that of the Ego. completely independent of their environment. the success versus insuccess of these transaction is reflected not only in the emotional states of pleasantness and unpleasantness and in the various degrees of their forcefulness and fatigue of the individual. and of the states of motility versus psycheshesie. Bechterew.
It should be also noted that the genus proximum and differentia specifica of some feelings. As great scientist we can afford the luxury to ignore this rule and define certain notions. with their accompanying emotions and sentiments. with its biotonus and vagotonus. sexual love is a function os sexual organs. The error of Freud was to ignore them. they treat various types of human civilizations as different styles and forget the fact that they are branches of the same trunk.sentiments of caress and tenderness are those of hate. the degrees of force and fatigue depend upon the secretion of thyroid and parathyroid on the one hand and upon the reticular activating system of thalamus and hypothalamus on the other. that accompanies the movement of repulsion. however. that define the genus proximum of love or hate. or only through their differentia specifica. are lacking in the case of sentiments. fear and anger are connected with adrenal glands. accompanied by the sentiment of caress and tenderness versus that of hate. merely through their genus proximum as Freud. Such anatomical and physiological correlations. for instance. connected with various valences. As young pupils in school we are thaught that the correct definition of a notion has to define both its genus proximum and differentia specifica. Indeed. our instruments of emotional control from the standpoint of our inner harmony versus identity are not only the emotional states of pleasantness and unpleasantness and the degrees of force and fatigue. Maternal love might have to do with the feeding of the child through her breast. however. The genus proximum of these emotional polarities applies to biological. Under such conditions. etc. This does not mean that Ego. depends upon the sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglions of the autonomous nervous system. as Spengler or even Toynbee in their philosophy of history. which are the search for identity in the case of Ego.
. its over-emphasis. the search of Eros in the case of Sex and the protection of children in paternal affection. They occur in both fear and rage. but also the movement of attraction versus repulsion. As a trunk of all the other tendencies. that occurs in paranoia and paranoid schizophrenia. emotions and sentiments have also an anatomical and physiological substratum. According to Sheldon. seems to correlate with the athletic constitution of the mesomorph. Sex and Love of children do not have their differentia specifica too. the general tendency of Ego seems to lack it too. that are their differentia specifica. The law of homeostazis. psychological and social tendencies and valences.
In early infancy the determination is mostly causal and its fulfilment depends mainly upon parents. that becomes the chief modality of adult tendencies and valences with their emotions and sentiments. Adler on the one hand and to Robaye on the other. The planification of our goal behavior brings the level of aspiration. can not
. Later the determination is also teleological and as such its planification depends mostly on our Ego. Their thesis is certainly true. whose transactions with social environment did not succeed. this relation between aspiration and concrete attainment seems to be the main modality of approaching and understanding human nature and its social condition with cultural development.Yet human beings are not only existence in space. our interior feelings are those of the lack of confidence in ourselves and of the lack of enthusiasm in our action. but also development in time. When the bio-psycho-social collaboration does not succeed and the fulfilments of our ideals is not attainded. but only from the standpoint of human victims. Therefore. He also deserves the merit of observing that happiness in life depends not so much upon the superiority of our ideals as more upon the possibility of attaining them. but also a new modality of their determination. emotions and sentiments. The same thesis. the above model of representing our world of emotions is not static but in continuous development. our inner feelings are that of confidence in ourselves and of enthusiasm in our activity. Goethe was right when he asserted that personality is the greatest luck in our life. W. are inclined to conceive emotions as broken instincts. When the cooperation between emotions and sentiments versus tendencies and valences is that of successful convergence and the level of aspiration is translated in facts. however. Therefore. It is nevertheless true that the ideal itself has its own world because our happiness is smaller when we strive for simple food and sex and infinitely larger when we strive for our self social and cultural realization. who are the object of mental pathology. This development brings not only an enrichment and growth of our feelings. James anticipated them.
Emotion as Broken Instinct
Freud and other psychiatrists. According to A. who approached mental life and human behavior merely through the consequences of their conflicts and troubles.
Their emotions and sentiments are the inner experiences of successful tendency and valences. as literature proves. emotions and sentiments are not so much broken tendencies and valences as more successful ones. than of enthusiasm. This progress. as Socrates. Thus. The great steps in human progress have been realized in this way. Or. Justice. elegy and satire. human emotions and sentiments are not only under the feelings of vagotonus. Suffering itself is not only an effect of trouble and failure. but also under that of creative force. that have so often troubled the peaceful understanding between people and nations. as
.be applied to healthy people with social integration and cultural development. all what one can say is that human life and history are epics and dramas as well as lyric. They are also not only under the feeling of feebleness and fatigue. but the dignity of life is not to accept suffering as a fatality. The confidence of human beings in themselves occurs in the majority of cases and the enthusiasm of creative action. Moreover. the states of depression are more seldom than those of euphory. have registered a continuous progress and the standard of life has increased in spite of various wars and political conflicts. Health and normality are to be defined through them and not through depression and lack of confidence. but also an incitation toward fight and final victory. too. Therefore. although human history is not only a page of glorious epics. however. sociotonus and culturotonus than their opposite states of vagotony. Science and technology. however. Therefore. is by its very nature a success and not a failure. The process of human civilization is their product. Consequently. being its normal rule. they are more frequent than those of hate and aggressivity. They are the inner experiences of healthy people with social integration and cultural development. this normal rule asserts more biotonus. that prevails. It is nevertheless true that art and literature have dealt more with human dramas than with human epics. but also one of dramas. psychotonus. As regards love and tenderness. but also under those of biotonus. Love and Truth triumphs even if their supporters fall. that represent the majority of population. Jesus and many others are proving it. They also have been more the work of catharsis. based upon productive work. sometimes even painful dramas are modalities of success because the fight for Freedom.
is still worse. that at their turn are common with those of other superior species of animals. as K. Jung said. is it possible to say that the cultured people of our civilization are happier than those of the primitive culture? The answer of literature and art is mostly negative and therefore Rousseau pleaded for the return to primitive life. specific to affective logic. with individual freedom and social justice. tenderness and hate. Or. however. unfounded pessimism. operated through a continuous reorganization of their increasing structures by means of differentiation and integration. Futilc optimism is not right. from this standpoint of view human beings have remained almost the same and their similarity with mammals seems to be still greater.
Evolution of feelings. Its function is to introduce in our life the world of values. to the feelings of pleasure and pain. that are completing each other in a reciprocal way. force and feebleness. The same restructuring occurs in the case of primary emotions and social sentiments with the only difference that inborn tendencies and their adjoined emotions remain about the same and the process of restructuring by multimplication and enlargement applies merely to social valences and cultural values and to their adjoined sentiments. Tolstoi. Consequently. has a universal application. but to increase the states of health and joy of life. Under such circumstances. hereditary tendencies of human beings are almost the same like those of mammals. that are submitted to the dialectical law of opposed polarities. Contemporary movements of academical youth have also
. in the course of their history. based upon recompense versus pleasure. like that of Schopenhauer. cemented by love in the light of truth. Therefore in this regard we have few changes. This process of growth and development through further differentiation and integration of structures does not apply. emotions and sentiments
In the previous two chapters about cognition and motivation we attempted to show that their evolution is a process of growth and development. the law of reinforcement. Moreover. asserted similar ideas. and punishment versus pain. who advocated the simplification of life by reducing our needs versus valences.Dostoewski claimed.
that all developing countries strive for the same application of science to the mechanization and automatization of production. etc. large possibilities of travel and entertainment. Heidegger found wisdom and consolation in the existentialism of Kirkegaard. that their process of mechanization and automatization of production has departed us too much from the old conditions of work out on the field. sometimes identical with those of animals. songs and love. Consequently. beautiful clothes. In fact.engaged a systematic fight against the affluent society of Occident with its material civilization of various commodities for which one has to work too much. Unamuno also wrote about our "tragic existence" and M. They forget. that were healthier. we reached the level of an affluent society. It is true. that tries to save us from the troubles of our dramas. The satisfaction of work has also diminished because of the excessive division of labor when workers are producing merely pieces and do not have the
. for which Bergson pleaded in our time Dostoewski went further and asserted that the dignity of life consists in accepting its dramas with its suffering. No wonder therefore. Ionescu claimed that life itself is absurd because of its too many conflicts. R. In these conditions stress has increased and freedom of decision has decreased. transforming them in their annex. Moreover. that increased enourmously the productivity of work and made possible the affluent society. they plead for more music. Are they right? I hardly believe because Faust of Goethe sought the while of happiness. that help us to regain the identity with ourselves from which the material civilization has alienated us too much. with plenty of food. Beckett and E. Indeed for Aristotle himself the literature of catharsis. that one third of human population still suffers of hunger and their condition of habitation is almost inhuman. full of depression and anxieties. wonderful homes. Did we succeed in fulfiling this social and cultural humanism of Goethe for which he pleaded in Faust? It is beyond any doubt that science and technology have resolved human welfare wherever they have been applied. however. however. It also increased the dependence of men upon machines and fixed program of work. S. Yet he sought it not merely in his self-realization. but in its reciprocal integration with social and cultural realization by teaching human beings to improve their conditions of life by social organization and productive work. literature and art in general paid more attention to human dramas than to the triumph of human epics. is more frequent than of the joy of life.
Actually. but merely the alternation of pleasure and pain. The work is also easier. it is only after hunger and hard work that one feels the
. the dialectical law of feelings itself. have increased. that is before our industrial civilization with its stress and alienation of Nature. however. In consequence. and the powerful ones have always abused of the smaller ones. What is the explanation of this difference? One is the fact that along the ages the literature of catharsis has been more frequent than that of the joy of life. working hours are fewer and free time is larger. as Aristotle has observed. which has been paid for our industrial civilization. force and feebleness. population and wealth. although he lived at the highest peak of hellenism. Consequently. Persons tend to be equal as opportunities of development and their work is paid in accordance with its quality and quantity. hope and despair that reinforce themselves in a reciprocal way. This means that literature by its very function looks more for the consolation of people in suffering than for the joy of life of those who succeeded in life. The proof is that all the countries fight for it.satisfaction to finish the whole product. but the process of education and cultural development seems to be the best way toward the self consented discipline of democracy with due respect of human rights. The applications of science to medicine proved to have the same efficiency. Salaries. In the interior of the State the relations between individuals became those of juridical order and the transgression against them is lower. to be sure. The majority of serious diseases have been jugulated and the longevity of life in our century become double. the answer of science about human welfare and its social condition and cultural development seems to be different from that of literature and art. Religion took the same point of view but in the last time evolves toward a more optimist apperception of life. The spectrum of apocalypse reigns merely in the international relations because due to the various conditions of geography and history nations are not equal as territory. the price. Nonetheless colonialism and imperialism are on the way of disappearing because modern technology of work allows a better condition of life than the exploitation of subjugated people and nations. So the principle of equality between performance and recompense is also respected. love and hate. that does not assert a process of increase and growth though further differentiation and integration of bio-psycho-social structures. In the field of social and political organization the situation is less satisfactory. was worth. The second reason is.
Hence his pessimism. inherent to its very nature. however. that raises up to 90%.pleasure of eating and rest. is their victim. because Shakespeare in The Tempest asserted the same wisdom. as Goethe claimed. who have succeeded in life. however. this means that the unpleasant feelings of effort. who need consolation! The second source of misapprehension of human destiny is then the hedonist conception of life. as Unamuno said. which are short. Praxiteles. Brancusi and Moore are then a praise of life. is not alone. love of others and productive work. Michelangello. too. with all his variables. etc. all of them assert that human dignity consists in accepting his tragic destiny versus existence. happiness and joy of life and work do not appear merely at the end of our efforts and strivings. More or less. the troubles of our life are not its unavoidable conflicts. that integrates and differentiates them in the context of our increasing and developing structures. Delacroix and then of almost all impressionists. that sees human destiny only though the differential states of pleasure and pain. Van Dyke. love and hate. In the perspective of the whole course of life. etc. represented by the great majority of those who succeed. and not in the joy of life. that succeed each other. The sculptures of Phydias. Bourdelle.
. It is nevertheless true that such false apperceptions appear also at other thinkers like Kierkegaard and his numerous followers in our time and then at Dostoewski as well as Tolstoi and their numerous adepts. The same joy of life animates the paintings of Rubens. but the way we resolve them. but during their development. hope and despair. Psychologically. striving. David. If one succeeds in defeating them. and not through the whole course of life. it is only after a long courting that one feels the happiness of love and it is only after long studies that one feels the satisfaction in competent work. Yet. however. Gainsborough. Rodin. the exception and not the rule. if one does not succeed. Goethe. Monet and Renoir in particular. Such human victims certainly exist. like Manet. Maybe because paintings are bought by people with money. That is in the context of self-realization in accordance with the social order and in the direction of our cultural development. work. that animates also his aphorisms. as Schopenhauer said. They constitute. his judgement was wrong because the feelings of pleasure. Mental diseases and social aggressions are the proof. force and feeblemess. The process of self-realization illustrates it. while literature of catharsis is bought by tens and hundreds of millions of people with less money. is their master. are longer than the pleasant feelings of success.
duration and intensity also mean that the positive feelings of pleasure. One reason of this increase in divorce is the separation between family and working community and the fact that women have got new jobs in working communities out of the family. The relations between individuals also seem to enjoi more freedom than those of the past. such a progress exists because the feelings of cultivated people in our civilization are richer in their content. like in our century. but more dramas. feebleness and hate? The answer is more difficult. in which they were more conspicuous. although the states of euphory are prevailing over those of dysphory.
. The increase and prevailing of the positive states of feelings over the negative ones seem to be attested by the tremendous increase in economic welfare of industrial countries on the one hand and by a similar increase in their longevity. etc. the price that civilized people are paying for the increase of their positive states of feelings is greater than that of the uncultivated ones although their positive feelings are prevailing over the negative ones. like in the previous centuries. Consequently. however. the increase in the aplitude and duration of oscillations might also mean the prevailing of euphoric states over the dysphoric ones. confirming the successful versus unsuccessful development of the tendencies and valences reflected in them? As regards the amplitude and duration of the oscillations between pleasure and pain. yet a lot of arguments seem to indicate such a prevail. force and feebleness. Consequently. Does this increase in amplitude. Thus the amplitude of their emotional resonance is larger and its duration is longer. It should be observed. Freud has considered only these familial conflicts. His examples then are only those of Greek tragedies. love and hate and not only in the increasing structures of emotions and sentiments. Superior maybe is also their intensity. The intensity of familial conflincts has then decreased and do not generate painful tragedies. forcefulness and love are prevailing over those of pain. that this prevail does not mean that the amplitude and duration of the dysphoric states are not more developed than those of the uncultivated people. that has handicapped the education of children. are we justified to speak even about a certain progress in the feelings of pleasure and pain. about which these feelings are assessing a judgement of value.Under such circumstances. euphory and disphory. Thus the amplitude and duration of the negative feelings of cultivated people themselves are larger and longer than those of the uncultivated ones. on the other. It is nonetheless true that the liberalization of familial relations has brought up an increase in divorce.
as Woodrow Wilson said. population and wealth that makes the international order extremely hard. G. Yet the organization of workers in trade unions on the one hand and the new socialist parties on the other have succeeded in diminishing them. Gorki. B. The highest peak of the protest against them was Marx. The social conflicts of labor. etc. Dickens. Without it the fight for human rights is futile because freedom and tyranny are excluding reciprocally. specific to the tragedies of the Antiquity.The last half of the previous century has brought an increase in social dramas. connected with the biological determinism. The opposition between culture and civilization. Prometheus has finally won. about which Spengler. the world has to be made safe for democracy. because we have succeeded in mastering and adapting them to human nature and its social condition. although for the time being its success is limited to well developed countries with higher education and welfare. The second source of dramas. Therefore. for the time being the main sources of human dramas are no longer those of the unlucky interference of the physical determinism with the human and social one. Shaw. Hauptmann. have diminished through the effort of trade unions and of socialist parties. that assert the reciprocal integration between individual freedom and social justice. Snow and even Toynbee have
. whose political order is based upon the respect of the laws. The greatest trouble then is the fact that an atomic confrontation between the big superpowers might bring a catastrophe for all humanity. People living under dictatorships are still victims of various desports. Oedipus and Electra complexes in the family are less frequent and intense because the present structure of family is more liberalized. Democracy is also in progress. a great quantity of small nations are still abused by the larger ones. The situation is still worse in international relations because of the inequality of nations as territory. determined by the hard conditions of work of that time and by the social inequity of income and salaries. although colonialism is more or less out of date. The dream of Hippocrates became also true. are illustrating them. In conclusion. Consequently. has also disappeared because the main diseases are jugulated and the longevity of life has doubled. emerged in the middle of the last century.
Consequently. but also upon its relations to society. Thomas Mann. The return to Nature took also place. is diminishing. they are transactions between personality and society. Therefore one can not speak about the process of alienation. determined by them. Their victims are tens and hundreds of millions! Toward the end of his life. due to the increase of the free time and the vast possibilities of travelling in weekends and vacation. An atomic confrontation then might bring the collapse of the whole humanity. too. Husserl. too. because present conditions of working and habitation are much better than those of the past. In fact. for the time being the main sources of human dramas are dictatorships. From Aristotle up to the last century psychological traits and functions have been treated as mere
. and imperialism. that contest human rights. Solzenitzin and other outstanding intellectuals who couldn't continue their creative work which gave so much splendor to our time. Freud himself has been one of their victims and then Bergson. Yet cognition. that contest national right and the freedom to organize themselves in accordance with their specific needs and aspirations. motivation and emotion depend not merely upon the bio-psychological structure of the individual.made too much noise. Einstein. they have to be studied in relations to their social suprastructure. Unfortunately.
We have studied psychological structure and its relations with the biological infrastructure.
sociology and anthropology. emotions and sentiments have to be studied not only in relation to their psychological strucutre and biological infrastructure. as in the case of animals. the functions of the absolute mind versus God are nothing else but the leading principles and goals of our cultural patterns. published under the title of Folks Psychology. In addition to the subjective mind of the individual and to the objective one of society. In order to catch it in an adequate way the relations between individuals. that are the main reasons of the social organization of the individuals. Wundt himself has realized the necessity of this multilateral approach of psychological phenomena. In consequence. however. cemented by love and in the light of truth and beauty. he also spoke about the absolute one of the Universe. yet in dialectical complementarity to it. but his solution was not the right one because it led to the separation of psychology in two independent branches. Indeed. society and cultural development was not caught in a satisfactory way. but also in relation to their social suprastructure and cultural development. are also most of the animals and few of them are intelligent. human society is based not so much upon hereditary equipment that asserts more or less fixed patterns of social relationship. that are improving continuously the relations between individuals and society in view of their cultural development. Indeed. that is capable of abstract thinking. expressed by language.
. both human nature and its social condition are open systems accessible to evolution. motivations. Social beings. Aristotle defined man as social and rational being. which defined our search for material and spiritual welfare. with different methods and theoretical explanations. This was the way followed by later psychology. According to Aristotle and Rousseau society itself was a simple contract between them. society and culture have to be dealt up simultaneously. with individual freedom and social justice.attributes of the individuals. In fact. psychological
phenomena of the individuals were approached in his Physiological Psychology and his Outline of Psychology. that represents the real differentia specifica of human nature and of its social condition and cultural development. Under such circumstances the meaningful interconnectedness between individuals. From the standpoint of empirical sciences. as more upon the creative patterns of learning and intelligence. zoon logikon e politikon. It was merely Hegel who asserted that social lawfulness is different from that of the individuals. Yet not a single species of animal is rational. while social and cultural phenomena were approached in his social and cultural anthropology. too. cognition.
states and society in general.
In the beginning it was the action. Hence the tremendous importance of education in human society. in the free accepted discipline of democracy and in the cultural development. In highly developed countries more than a quarter of population is in schools. but also one of education. continues in schools and is improving in jobs. which begins in family. social institutions are not merely those of economic enterprises and of political organization. Down the ages the education in family was under the supervision of the church. Therefore. Since both action and education are based upon mutual understanding. in accordance with certain rules. society is also a system communication. professions. the main factor in the productivity of work. nations. society is not merely a system of action. Yet language is not a simple multiplicity of words. From the standpoint of the philogenetic evolution of men. priority is to be given to words. John claimed. Therefore. a few words about language are necessary. According to certain linguists of the last century. but also those of cultural development through education. said Goethe. John's Evanghel in Greek used the expression of logos. indeed. however. that expresses it. based upon language. that did not change since many hundreds of thousands years. The instruction and education in schools entered under the leadership of the state. which in Greek means both rational thinking and speech. which is also our instrument of thinking. in the beginning were neither the
. Consequently. schools. that engages now from one quarter of our life to a third part of it. Goethe is right. that integrates them in various sentences. the original transcription of Sf. that follow the laws of our thought. Therefore. Action follows after the due process of training and education in view of it. motivation and emotions in family. and not the word. as the Evanghel of Sf. before analyzing the process of socialization of our cognition. but also a system of grammar. that were the main instrument of socialization in the beginning of our life.and not closed ones. Scholarity became. like those of the bees and termites. From the point of view of their ontogenetic evolution. however.
The first words were simple morphemes. but that of the logic. namely that of the logic. The same methodology might be applied to the combination of morphemes in words. its determination is semantic and operates in terms of logos. three and even more morphemes. They are the independent units of lexical order. it becomes the leading thread that keeps the parts together. In order to learn a meaningful text with the same number of words. lacking any meaningful interconnection. Their combination in sentences generates the elementary units of syntactical order. depending upon the function of the word in the context of the sentence in which it appears. operated with mathematical logic. of paragraphs in chapters and of chapters in books. that are its parts. Between sounds and words are the morphemes. Consequently. that defines the relation between word and its object. morphemes and words are a combination of sounds in accordance with certain laws of ars combinatoria of Leibniz. Thus. the meaningful interconnectedness versus logos represents the qualitative invariance of logical order that helps us to memorize the quantitative variance of the words of mathematical order. words have one or even two. giving them a meaningful interconnectedness. on the order. the second one is the syntactical meaning. the structure of a morpheme is accessible to a mathematical determination in terms of its sounds. not the words. conceived as a general theory of meanings. its determination is no longer that of ars combinatoria. From the standpoint of phonetics. Ars combinatoria of mathematical logic operates in this way. as Bartlett provd it. but the majority of the later ones becoms combinations of two. When the meaning appears. on the one hand. one needs less an hour. expressed by words. Sounds and morphemes do not have a meaning. of words in sentences and of sentences in phrases. Their determination is analytical. Their meaningful interconnectedness is the leading thread that helps us. Under such circumstances. The evolution of memory itself develops in the same sense. At the level of propositions in paragraphs. The first one is the lexical meaning. and in terms of their relations. They are valid for all languages. conceived as a meaningful thought. Thus the impact of the meaning upon the structures of grammar introduces a new determination of language.logos. that is from parts to their wholes. that represent the elementary units of morphology. one needs a whole day and may be even more. that are the elementary units of phonetics. Yet in their case the completeness of determination can not be reached because the organization of words in a sentence
. In order to learn one hundred of separate words. but the sounds. operated with mathematical logic.
but also with our hands and our whole body. Yet their lawfulness is biological and psychological and concerns mostly the individual. the word of ma-ma expresses all his logos. that intervenes in growth and development. including the emotional expressions of face. The laws of semantics are mostly logical. although Gestalt psychology proved the emergence of certain logical insight even in their cases. It should be also observed that such expressive movements of the
. Sapir claimed. of morphemes in words. asserted by Goethe. Yet even today we speak not merely with our tongue. Therefore. that isolated them from other movements of the body and gave them their new function. the word of the German translation of the Bible or the action of Goethe? Apparently. from this point of view the right assertion seems to be that of Goethe. What was then in the beginning: the logos of the Greek transcription of the Bible. The expression of ma-ma in the mouth of a child. Therefore the child appeals to her any time he wants something. although the laws of ars combinatoria are also present. represents its whole way of behaving and resolving his needs because his mother gives him to eat. because the first words were not lexical units. It is only the need of social communication. but parts in this behavior. independent of behavior. mouth and throat. etc. tongue and mouth appear also to animals. the first morphemes seems to be the expressive movements of throat and mouth. From the standpoint of the philogenetic evolution of mankind. conceived as a general theory of meanings. Their role however is a small one. Sounds and morphemes started as part of behavior and became isolated through the process of differentiation. The other modality of restructuralization is the integration of sounds in morphemes. as E. however. not with sentences. that appear together with other expressive movements of hand and gait in hunger. More over. for instance. fear. caresses him and loves him. Thus the laws of phonetics are mostly mathematical. rage and love. Consequently. but also the laws of meaningful interconnectedness of phenomenological logic. cleans his clothes and bed. the answer seems to be in favor of the principle of action. defends him of danger.follows not merely the laws of ars combinatoria of mathematical logic. The syntactical determination of the words in a sentence and of sentences in a complex sentence versus phrase seems to be both mathematical and logical in equal proportions. Indeed. These original words however had the function of a sentence because their meaning is very large. such expressive movements of throat. the answer seems to be in favor of the wordbecause human language began with morphemes and words.
but proceeds further and engages the combination of simple sentences in the complex ones. in accordance to certain syntactical rules. but also one of thought and action and even of emotions and sentiments. Unfortunately. but also social and cultural. the combination of morphemes in words and of words in sentences follow the laws of the syntactical base of language. The final result of the new transformations of superior order is the surface structuresof the developed languages. is common to all languages. According to some keen observers of animals such social communication occurs by termites. that approaches the deep structure of language. accessible to syntactical determination. as literature proves it. when they are hunting in groups. No animales however resort to articulated words. approached with the help of semantics. this language is first of all logos and only afterwards words. tongue and mouth might also have the function of social communication. This languages is the privilege of men. that are not only those of mathematical logic. Yet. the logic of language has to be approached not only from the point of view of psychological structure. It is also not merely a system of communication. it illustrates not merely the laws of cognitive logic. as Ribot. organized in a sentence. The roar of a dog to another one who troubles him illustrates it. accessible to semantic determination.throat. Thus it engages the whole triangle of human nature. The deep structure of languages represents their genus proximum. generating new structure of higher order. approached with mathematical logic. They follow the laws of transformational grammar. Its methodology is that of mathematical logic. but also those of semantics. According to the transformational-generative grammar of Noam Chomsky. In consequence. social condition and cultural development. applied to their meaning versus logos. The surface structures of the developed languages. Its lawfulness however is not merely psychological. The child of our days learns this language. Consequently. bees and even wolves. Noam Chomsky does not approach these
. the surface structure of languages represents their differentia specifica. are specific to each of them. The structure of various languages does not stop at these lower levels of combination of words in sentences. common to the grammars of all languages. affective and volitive logic. applied to their syntax. Krueger and Scheler proved it and then those of the volitional logic of action upon which Heidegger insisted. Its elaboration started with mankind itself and evolves continously. The deep structure. but also those of affective logic of emotions and sentiments. but also from that social and cultural structures with the due consideration of its differentiation in cognitive.
semantic determination with the help of the dialectical and phenomenological logic. applied to semantics. sentiments and aspirations. Therefore. Its determination is analytical because the wholeness of the words is explained through its parts. but also upon the community of ideas. words. Or. paragraphs. elaborated by Hegel and Husserl as a general theory of meanings. the structure of the language seems to be that of the hierarchical integration and differentiation of morphemes. syntactical structures can not be separated from the semantic ones because the form and contentof each language go hand in hand. Thus the leading theme of his work was the qualitative invariance that gives a unity to the quantitative variance of the words.
. sentences. asserted through the content of the sentences. the adequate elaboration of semantics can be approched merely with this phenomenological logic and not with the mathematical one. Mathematical determination. there is only one. not by combining words in sentences. Carnap himself recognized that he writes his books in the same logical way. attempts to interpret the variance of the words through the invariance of their morphemes. promoted by Carnap and Traski. chapters and books. not by combining words in sentences. completing themselves in a reciprocal versus dialectical way. In the context of an interview. Faust of Goethe has about eight thousand different words. The possibility of translation from one language into another is also based not only upon the community of the formal structures of sentences. sentences in phrases etc.. applied to syntax. Its determination is configurational because the various words and sentences are explained through their own significance. Its aim is that of the elaboration in terms of some few axioms. proceeds differently and tries to interpret the quantitative multitude of the words and sentences through the qualitative invariance of their meanings. The number of the possible
combinations with them with the help of ars combinatoria is almost incommensurable and therefore its determination is practically impossible. but by developing the meaning of his conception about his social and cultural humanism. Under such circumstances. rules and principles. Logical determination. He found it. however. etc. that has the right meaning. namely that of the genius of Goethe. Yet in this incommensurable number of various combinations. that is by starting with an idea and by developing it further. phrases. And of course.
Sucht erst den Geist heraus zu treiben. Fehlt leider nur das geistige Band. From the standpoint of mathematical logic the impact of the language upon personality is only that of the formal laws of syntax. that assert the search for human welfare with individual freedom and social justice. The higher part of the hierarchical organization is accessible to semantic determination. with due attention to beauty. according to Goethe. Logical and Mathematical Psychology. as one of his verse asserts it so beautifully:
Wer will was Lebendiges erkennen und beschreiben. the laws of grammar do not express it. the insistence of logical positivism to reduce the language to formal logic with
. Dann hat er die Teile in seiner Hand. The laws of semantics express it. In fact.The low part of this hierarchical organization is accessible to syntactical determination. Hence the attempt of Husserl's phenomenology to elaborate the logic as an ontology of meanings versus logos. That is to say. and not merely as a syntax of language as logical positivism claims. the impact of language upon personality is that of the leading principles of psychological. Therefore. social and cultural patterns of our cognitive. but also the psychological. as I have tried to show in my previous work. From the standpoint of semantic. Consequently. action and feeling. cemented by love and in the light of truth. The relations between these two approaches are not those of opposition. the true heart of the language is its logos. but those of dialectical reciprocity versus complementarity. that the language by its very nature obliges us to think in accordance with the laws of mathematics and formal logic. approached with phenomenological logic.*
Therefore. the economy of thinking is reached not so much through the formal structure of mathematics and mathematical logic as more through the basic principles of ontology. through language we learn not only the formal laws of mathematics and mathematical logic. that have made men human beings. social and cultural patterns of thought. conceived as a general theory of meaning. operated with mathematical logic. operated with dialectical and phenomenological logic. affective and volitional logic together with their meanings and leading principles.
but also as the unique one. Thus the parts are in his hand. however. His thesis. the child thinks first in accordance with the laws of emotional logic and meets the laws of the cognitive one only in school. they lack the spiritual band. Piaget realized them. But unfortunately. as it occurs in our industrial civilisation when the mother has an extra-familial job. that of life and job. Important are not merely the first three years. The laws of cognitive logic are apprehended merely after ten and eleven years. In fact. if the child is not taken to a nursery.mathematical operations eliminates from language its most important thing. In his genetic epistemology J. was disapproved by the later evolution of psychoanalysis itself. but also the emotional and volitional ones. Of course.
This logos however is not only the cognitive one. Bühler and Kainz took a broader view. In their psychology of language K. as Goethe said. but also the following two or three. that is its logos. although a greater number of children spend now a good deal of their time in kindergarten. that decides the whole course of life. some of them merely to mathematical one. like that of Piaget. They speak only about affective logic in connection with art and literature. Werner and Kaplan asserted a similar approach in their Symbol formation. Looks first to throw out his spirit. the way in which he describes and analyses the emotional logic of children up to five and six years is just wonderful. Decisive impacts on our personality have then other social
Who wants to know and describe life.
In the first three years of life family is the whole society of child. Most of American linguists however pay attention mostly to cognitive logic. Because of this reason Freud inclined to consider the family not merly as the first laboratory of human life. The volitional logic appears in the way in which he meets the challenge of school and later. that settles the basis of our personality.
which sometimes becomes the most important one. Their occurrence is also determined more by the psychopathic personality of parents. as Freud himself has realized toward the end of his life. A similar vision of the love relations in the family was asserted in other religions as well as in the various mythologies. that is supposed to generate the
. as Freud claimed. marriage and state. as Freud saw him. but with the hygiene of evacuation. In consequence. The fact that the relations between mother and child are mainly those of nutrition and evacuation. of mother in particular.communities. which is a conditional behavior. connected with mouth and anus. which is the international order. working community and the economic and political organization of the state. but they represent pathological cases and not the normality of the healthy ones. to explain the digestive type of biological order through the buccal one on psychological nature is nothing else than a misplaced abstraction. as Whitehead would have said. because the feeling of love is common to all the instincts of life. Therefore its identification with the differentia specifica of the sex is a faulty solution because the sexual intercourse intervenes merely in the affinitive elections between men and women. the meaningful interconnectedness between them is completely lacking. who is by no means a polimorph perverse. there is very hard to explain the formalist type of personality through the mother's insistence about cleanness. A similar role has the marriage. False relations between children and parents might occur. however. are dictated by the biological needs of the child and not by his polimorph perversity or by the mother's psychopathic disposition. This does not mean. about which Goethe wrote. however. requiring so much time for its correct training. Nonetheless. school. the trouble is not so much with nutrition and sleep. in which the mother plays a capital role. In fact. yet without serious consequences. representing their genus proximum. which preceded them. which is a conditioned behaviour and not a hereditary one. In our time appeared the seventh one. family. like school. What remains however true in his thesis is the fact that the relations between children and other members of the family during their first three years of life are mostly those of love. the determining variables of our personality are heredity. like the digestive type. Oedipus and Electra Complexes are also frequent enough. Some troubles. than by the child. might appear in the case of evacuation. when the person founds his own family. which are inborn behavior. Therefore. that the love relations have a sexual nature. The role of heredity can not be denied either. The vision of all the painters who have materialized the image of the Holy Familyor that of the Madonna with the child are contradicting him. Actually. profession.
said the Romans. through the free evacuation of faecals.constipation of the child. but also the most stable and consolidated one. German scientists praise mostly the social organization of community. The relations between individuals in a Gemeinschaft versus community are both hereditary and culturally.
. described by W. is that of discrimination between Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. perhaps due to his studies in Germany. Thomas. His symphaty however goes toward the modern type of society. It is not only the cell of society. that is community and society. but he introduce a new distinction. I. athough their acception is not right the same like that of the German language. and not a centrifugal one. because the laws regulate human egoism. Gemeinschaft and pretend that the economic and political organization of the state has to be based upon it. are those of the sexual relations between parents when the children are sleeping in the same room with them. A similar discrimination appears in Durkheim's sociology. Such communities are those of the families. Dura lex. determined hereditary and common not only to both parents. in sociology and even economics in special. Thus in their view the family is not only the oldest type of social organization. Or. based upon juridical laws in accordance with the principle of justice. It is also rather doubtful that the principle of discipline is taught merely by the father. clans and tribes in tha past and those of various folks in undeveloped countries today. The symphaty of Tönnies and Max Weber in sociology and of W. mother caress is just a paternal love. but also with the kind understanding. anywhere and anytime. Sombart in economics went for the old type of community. The juridical laws of the society are by their very nature strict and therefore their application has to be made not only with measure. so wonderfully described by Sumner in his Folkways. when mother represents both the principle of love and that of discipline. generated by love. The relations between individuals in Gesellschaft versus society are those of written laws. while those of modern society are of complementary cooperation. egoism is by its very nature a centripetal tendency. based upon mutual understanding in the spirit of love. however. Still harder is the explanation of the bohemian type of personality. One of the most discussed topic in the German social sciences in general. but the best model of social organization. who begins to exercise its influence upon the personality of the children later and not in the first years of life. about which Thomas Hobbes wrote. They live under the non-written laws of customs and habits. that keeps up together the members of a family. but also to mammals in general as well as to other species of animals. The relations between individuals in the community of the past were those of affinitive cooperation. sed lex. The most critical scenes. Otherwise. brought up by the division of labor.
there are all the reasons that plead for the family as the most successful and durable organization. When the grandparents are living in the same home the care and education of children is not much affected. which makes more difficult his later integration in school and job. This principle of love however does not apply merely to the complementary attraction between husband and wife. Therefore. but also to the parental love for children/ Few husbands or wives might be ready to sacrifice their life for their partner. Due to the separation between job and family on the one hand and mother's activity in extrafamilial job on the other. A great majority of parents. The only child in the family seems to give a higher percentage of maladjustement. as Thomas Hobbes described them. too. whose educational failed. The evolution of contemporary family. but also altruist ones yet only when the principle of love comes into discussion. it is the result of learning and not of heredity. The beauty of this balance is that it
. The juridical laws then are not made for honest people. but for incorrect ones. generating both mental diseases and antisocial behavior. The same is true of animals. In this case. is ready to sacrifice their life for the welfare and happiness of their children. A better solution is that of the nursery or kindegarten where the children have the possibility to play with other ones of their age. Why? Just because of too much love and caress. Consequently. etc. the number of broken houses through divorce has tremendously increased. Goethe. as more through their norms of love. then the balance of equity is reestablished even in love. however. The number of children and their order of birth are also important. Under such conditions the children are raised by hired persons. however. For the parents the divorce means more freedom in the choice of their partners. when two persons love each other in equal measure and every one is ready to serve the other one. Hence the desire to be sacrified for the welfare of the beloved ones. but also a working one. Unfortunately. our industrial civilization has brought a lot o changes in it. The family of the past has been not only a home community. Jesus Christ. and to a certain extent in the cultural areas of nations. who are animated by love. In half of the cases the mother herself has a job. both animals and men are not only egoist beings. however. is toward the structure with two generations and not three as in the past.like the altruism of love. Today it remained in the great majority of cases merely a home community. who are correct by their own education. Unfortunately. Therefore. obtained not so much through juridical laws. For the children the effects are always negative. love itself is to be with measure and not without a certain obligation for reciprocity. In fact. so much praised by Plato. it exists merely in family.
regulates altruism and not egoism.1980/ 13
I NTR ODUC TI ON/ 1 7
.the final option/ 10 NICOLAE M#RGINEANU 1905 . as in the social relations of the working community and of the state.
Co nt ent s
Nicolae M!rgineanu .op"iunea final!/ 5 Nicolae M!rgineanu .
SOCIAL CONDITION AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT/ 25 Bio-psycho-social and Cultural Structure of Human Personality/ 27 Variation/ 34 Evolution/ 37 Normal and Abnormal Psychology/ 39 Consciousness and Unconsciousness/ 43 Consciousness and Behavior/ 45 Personality/ 47
BIOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY/ 50 Biophysical and Biochemical Condition of Personality/ 55 Biological Condition I Morphological Types/ 60 Biological Condition II Physiological Types/ 84 Conclusions/ 86
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE I/ 95 Cognition/ 95 Perception/ 98 Learning/ 105 Thinking and Intelligence/ 119 Structuralization.HUMAN NATURE. Differentiation and Integration/ 132
emotions and sentiments/ 192
Language/ 202 Family/210 PAGE 216
. EDUCATION AND SENTIMENTS/ 173 Physiological Substratum of Emotions/ 174 Psychological Structures and Functions of Feelings and Emotions/ 177 Social Sentiments/ 180 Psychological Structures and Functions of Feelings and Emotions/ 181 Social Sentiments/ 184 Feelings. Configurational and Structural Determination of Motivation/ 152 Self-realization. Emotions and Sentiments/ 186 Emotion as broken instinct/ 190 Evolution of feelings. Social-realization and Cultural Development/ 165 Repression.PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE II/ 138 Motivation/ 138 Biological Drive and Needs/ 141 Psychological Tendencies and Valences/ 145 Social tendencies and valences/ 149 Analytical. Frustrations and Transgression/ 170