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Network protocols incorporate all the processes, requirements and constraints of initiating and accomplishing communication

between computers, servers, routers and other network-enabled devices. Network protocols must be confirmed and installed by the
sender and receiver to ensure network/data communication and apply to software and hardware nodes that communicate on a
network.

There are several broad types of networking protocols, including:

 Network communication protocols: Basic data communication protocols, such as TCP/IP and HTTP.

 Network security protocols: Implement security over network communications and include HTTPS, SSL and SFTP.

 Network management protocols: Provide network governance and maintenance and include SNMP and ICMP.

Network Protocols are used for devices to communicate over a network, The protocols must define the
following:

o The format of the message, such as how much data to put into each segment
o The way intermediary devices share information about the path to the destination
o The method to handle update messages between intermediary devices
o The process to initiate and terminate communication between hosts.

Network Protocols: Basic Layers


Network protocols are broken up into categories called layers. Discussing the various layers is beyond the scope of this lesson, but
suffice it to say that the first layer is closest to the electrical components, like the network cable of a computer. The last layer is
closest to what a person interacts with, such as reading your email on the screen.

The Basic Network Layers


List of Common Protocols
Protocol Name Purpose

Hyper-Text Transfer Delivers webpages to your device, HTTPS delivers web


HTTP/HTTPS
Protocol/Secure pages securely using encryption.

Transport Layer
POP3 Security/Secure Socket Allows people to access their email.
Layer

Internet Message Access


IMAP A more modern protocol for people to access their email.
Protocol

SMTP Simple Message Transport Transfers email between email servers. Email delivery
Protocol service. May also be used to access email.

Assigns common easy to remember names to internet


DNS Domain Name System addresses (ie. www.google.com, instead of
216.58.219.100).

WiFi WiFi Provides wireless internet access.

Transmission Control
TCP Guarantees that what you send gets to the other side.
Protocol

Similar to TCP, but does not guarantee delivery. Useful


UDP User Datagram Protocol
for internet video.

One of the base protocols that runs the internet. Used


IP Internet Protocol
to transmit most types of data packets on the internet.

This list is a tiny subset of some of the most widely used network protocols.

A network port is a process-specific or an application-specific software construct serving as a communication endpoint, which is
used by the Transport Layer protocols of Internet Protocol suite, such as User Diagram Protocol (UDP) and Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP).

A specific network port is identified by its number commonly referred to as port number, the IP address in which the port is
associated with and the type of transport protocol used for the communication.

A port number is a 16-bit unsigned integer that ranges from 0 to 65535.

List of Well-Known Ports


Port numbers range from 0 to 65535, but only port numbers 0 to 1023 are reserved for privileged services and designated as well-known

ports. The following list of well-known port numbers specifies the port used by the server process as its contact port.

Port Number --- Description

1 TCP Port Service Multiplexer (TCPMUX)

5 Remote Job Entry (RJE)

7 ECHO

18 Message Send Protocol (MSP)

20 FTP -- Data

21 FTP -- Control

22 SSH Remote Login Protocol


23 Telnet

25 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

29 MSG ICP

37 Time

42 Host Name Server (Nameserv)

43 WhoIs

49 Login Host Protocol (Login)

53 Domain Name System (DNS)

69 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

70 Gopher Services

79 Finger

80 HTTP

103 X.400 Standard

108 SNA Gateway Access Server

109 POP2

110 POP3

115 Simple File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)

118 SQL Services

119 Newsgroup (NNTP)

137 NetBIOS Name Service

139 NetBIOS Datagram Service

143 Interim Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)

150 NetBIOS Session Service

156 SQL Server

161 SNMP

179 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

190 Gateway Access Control Protocol (GACP)

194 Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

197 Directory Location Service (DLS)

389 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)

396 Novell Netware over IP

443 HTTPS
444 Simple Network Paging Protocol (SNPP)

445 Microsoft-DS

458 Apple QuickTime

546 DHCP Client

547 DHCP Server

563 SNEWS

569 MSN

1080 Socks

 Well-known ports range from 0 through 1023.


 Registered ports are 1024 to 49151.
 Dynamic ports (also called private ports) are 49152 to 65535.