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DEVELOPMENT IN HIGHWAYS ENGINEERING

Satander Kumar

Consultant NCB and Former Deputy Director Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi

D 24, Amar Colony, Lajpat Nagar IV, New Delhi 24


+91 9971974477 / satander50@yahoo.co.in

July 2018
July 2018
.
.
Contents

Sl No. Page
No.
1. Determination of Pozzolana Content in Portland Pozzolana Cement 1
2. Estimation of Pozzolana Content/ Adulteration in Portland Pozzolana 4
Cement*
3. Use of Recycled Aggregate in Concrete Pavements 9
4. Make Waste into Wealth in Rural Road Construction 21
5. Lime Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Concrete for use in Road 29
Construction
6. Comparative Techno- economic Aspects of Flexible and Rigid 51
Pavements for Highways
7. Systematic Approach for Structural Evaluation of Rigid Airfield 56
Pavements
8. Magnesium Phosphate Cement- An Alternate for Emergency Repair 62
of Concrete Pavements
9. Causes of Distress in Rigid Overlays 77
10. Profitable Exploitation of waste materials for Construction of High 91
Speed Corridors.
11. Quality of Cement and Some Suggestive Measure for its 100
Improvements
12. Use of Industrial waste Materials in Road Construction* 108
13. Role of Industrial by-product as Resource Materials- Eco friendly 112
Road Construction
14. Role of Pozzolana in Energy Saving for Construction Activities 127
15. Material Characterization of Marginal Concrete Aggregates and 129
Their Harmful Constituents
16. Discovery of a New Binder for Emergency Repair of Concrete 140
Pavements Magnesium Phosphate Cement *
17. A Simple Process for Construction of Roller Compacted Concrete 143
Pavements*
18. Some Aspects of Aggregate Characterization for Airfield Paving 148
Concrete
19. Some Aspects of Durability Assurance in Concrete Practice 156
20. Application of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete in Overlays 165
21. Rapid Setting Magnesium Phosphate Cement for Repair of 174
Concrete Pavements- Characterization and Durability Aspects
22. Design & Construction Problems for Foundation of Roads in India 187
23. Sulphate Attack on Rigid Pavement and the Role of Tri Calcium 198
Aluminates
24. A Systematic Approach for Design of Rigid Overlays on Pavements 210
25. Recent Advances in Construction of Concrete Pavements 215
26. Indian Experience with Rollcrete pavements for Medium Traffic 219

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27. Roller Compacted Concrete Pavements in India for Heavy Duty 233
Container Yard
28. Present R&D Profile, Future R&D Needs and Strategies to fulfill 243
them in Relation to Construction of Rigid Pavements
29. Techno-Economic Aspects of Rigid Pavements 249
30. Some Thoughts on Privatization of Highways in India 259
31. Effect of Reactive and Unsound Aggregate in the Paving Concrete- 267
Diagnosis and Prevention
32. Production, Transportation and Placement of Ready mixed 275
Concrete for pavements
33. Rollcrete Developments in Pavements 285
34. Materials for Quick Repair of Surface Distress on Cement Concrete 298
Pavements
35. Good Quality Concrete Roads and their Maintenance 302
36. High Performance Concrete for Pavements 310
37. Characterization of flyash, Silica fume and Granulated Blast 319
Furnace Slag for making High Performance Concrete
38. High Performance Concrete for Construction of Cement Concrete 328
Roads
39. Past, Present and Future of Composite Pavements 335
40. Some Aspects of flyash Characterization and Utilization 348
41. Techno-Economic Benefits of Flyash Mixed Simply Reinforced 353
Cement Concrete Pavements Over Conventional Flexible
Pavements
42. Quality Requirement of Water and Admixture IS: 9103 and IS: 456 367
43. Utilization of Fly ash in Construction of Base Courses for 374
Pavements
44. Design Considerations for Semi-Rigid Bases in Road and Airfield 380
Pavements
45. Developments in Restoring Skid Resistance of Cement Concrete 386
Surfaces for Prevention of Skidding Accidents
46. Udan Rakh Ke Abhilakshnic Gun Aur Upyogita * 390
47. Quality Control Evaluation of Rigid Pavement * 396
48. Roller Compacted Concrete-An Innovative Technique for Road 411
Construction
49. Utilization of Flyash for Road construction 417
50. Potential Gains Through Welded Wire Fabric for Rigid Pavements 421
51. Rehabilitation and Maintenance of Cement Concrete Roads 427
52. Cement Concrete Roads: Future of Road Infrastructure in India 437
53. Use of Flyash in Roads and Embankments 451
54. Construction of Rural Roads using Fly ash 459
55. Interlocking Concrete Block Pavement- An, Innovative, Friendly 477
Paving System.
56. Current Concepts on the use of Flyash for Road Construction 486
57. Use of Flyash in Cement Concrete Roads 495
58. Technical Education System , Where Do We Stand 506
59. Use of Flyash in Plain and Reinforced Concrete 512
60. Use of Mineral Admixture to Control the Reinforcement Corrosion 520

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in Reinforced Concrete Structures
61. Techno-economic Analysis for Choice of Cement Concrete 529
Pavement
62. Cement Concrete Roads- Suitability and Economics 543
63. Functional Evaluation of Roads 555
64. Road Construction using Waste Materials, 561
65. Use of Fly ash in Cement Concrete Road Construction 575
66. State-of the Art Techniques on Concrete/Rigid Pavement being 585
Used for National Highways
67. Use of Mineral Admixtures (Particularly Fly ash for High 598
Performance Concrete.
68. Use of Different Types of Cements in Concrete Roads and Their 602
Construction
69. Advantages Against Corrosion of Flyash Admixed Reinforced 609
Concrete
70. Techno-economic Choice for Flexible and Rigid Pavements 621
71. Durability of Corrosion Resistant Concrete for Bridges and other 634
Concrete Structures
72. Choice of Blended Cements and Fly ash for Cost Effective and 645
Durable Concrete Roads
73. Cement Concrete Roads in India- Review of Construction Practices 654
74. Recent Development in Materials and techniques for the 663
Construction of Rigid Pavements
75. Innovation in Road and Structures 670
76. Use of Chemical Admixtures for Production of Pavements Quality 681
Concrete
77. Ultra Thin White Topping in India- Development, Research & 692
Application,
78. Causes of Distress and Maintenance of Concrete Roads 706
79. A Visionary Approach for the Health Monitoring of Ultra High 720
Performance Bridges in Indian Conditions
80. Application of Fibres as Secondary Reinforcement in Concrete 732
81. Fly ash Based Specifications for Making Concrete Roads 735
82. Construction of Pre cast Box Culverts- A cutting Edge Technology 746
83. Durability of Reinforced Concrete Pavements and Other 750
Structures,
84. Structural Evaluation of Cement Concrete Roads in Mumbai City 758
85. Whitetopping- A Cost Effective Rehabilitation Alternative for 768
Preserving Bituminous Pavements on Long Terms Basis
86. Causes of Cracking of Concrete Pavements Types and Repair 786
87. Effect of Flakiness Indices on the Properties of Aggregates and 793
Cement Concrete
88. Soil and Aggregate Stabilization for Sustainable Pavement 799
89. New Pavement Technology: Soil and Aggregates Stabilization for 804
Sustainable Pavements
90. Cable Stayed and Suspension Bridges and Their Solution 812
91. New Solutions for Indian Challenges 815
92. A Case Study on Rapid Pavement Construction by In-situ 825
Stabilization

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93. Dimension in Construction and Maintenance of Concrete Roads 834
94. Self-Compacting Concrete for Structural Components 838
95. New Dimension in Construction of Rigid Pavement including Toll 843
Plaza Technical
96. Cable Stayed and Suspension Bridge- A Way Forward 851
97. Alternate Material for Civil Engineering Construction 855
98. Use of Construction and Demolition Waste- A Way Forward 859
99. Design and Construction of Sustainable Composite Pavements 864
100. Forensic Engineering in Cable Stayed Bridges 871
101. Current Concept on Durability of Concrete Structures 879
102. History of Asphalt and Methodology for Construction of Asphalt 888
Pavement including CTB.
103. Ultra High Performance Concrete for Pavements 904
104. Innovation in Bridges 911
105. Innovation Corrosion Control Practices to Provide Long Term 916
Durability of Concrete Structure.
106. Selection of Bitumen for Highway Pavements- A Need of the Hour. 925
107. Innovations in Repair to Maintain Pavements and Structures 937
108. Tyre Bursting on Expressway of Rigid Pavements 950
109. Use of Byproducts and Fibres in Making Ultra High Performance 956
Concrete for Construction of White topping Over Hot Mix Asphalt,
A case study of CRRI campus Road
110. New Materials and Techniques for Infrastructure Development in 968
Accessible area
111. Fully Pre Cast Structures- Good Green Technology 976
112. Pragmatic Approach For Development of Urban Infra Structure 994
113. Ways and Means for Creation of Smart Roads In Smart Cities 1001
114. Amazing Revelations In Concrete Roads 1009
115. Amazing Rising Visions In Highways 1022
116. Development of State And National Highways in India 1031

*papers in Hindi

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111. FULLY PRE CAST STRUCTURES- GOOD GREEN TECHNOLOGY

1. CONCRETE PRODUCTS : There are following pre cast concrete products:

1. Box Culvert
2. Girder- Pre-stressed IRC:112/Pre tensioned IRC:SP:71
3. Retaining wall/wing walls
4. Drains and drainage spout
5. Piles and pile cap
6. Piers
7. Crash barriers
8. Kerb Stone
9. RE Panel and dirt wall
10. Panel for slop protection
11. Railway sleepers
12. Door Frames, Poles, drains for housing,
13. Pre Cast Cored Units for roofing developed by CBRI
14. Waffle Units
15. Prefabricated brick Panel for Housing

2. OVER VIEW OF PRE CAST COMPONENTS: With the passage of time,


thickness of components is being decreased by increasing strength and
doing pre-stressing as shown in the following Figure:

976
Components of precast concrete piles are shown as under:

Typical Piers types for steel bridges are given as under:

977
Typical cross-section shapes of piers for crossings or viaducts on land are given as:

Typical X section shapes of piers for crossings for river &waterway crossings are given as:

Typical cross-section stitch Segment between Pier head and Pier are given as:

978
Pre cast Pier is shown as:

Disadvantages of insitu construction:

 More theft,
 More spillage of materials
 More space
 Uncleaned area
 Difficult to have stable form work

Following is shown as Insitu Construction of drai

979
Comparative construction of City roads with insitu construction and Pre cast Paver Block
construction

Insitu concrete road construction may have ravelling as shown because of early
movement of traffic as shown:

Howrah Bridge under Construction and after construction. Methodology almost similar to
Pre cast Technology

980
Pre cast Mould, Spine segment at Pre cast yard

Launching of Pre cast Girders and pier heads, placing, transportation etc are shown as:

981
982
PRE CAST GIRDER Self Compacting Concrete (Higashi-Oozu Viaduct, Japan)

Segmental Construction in progress using Pre stressed Pre cast Segment

983
JJ Flyover: Precast Components First Bridge with High Performance Concrete:

Pre cast :Push Segment Construction:

984
Precast Retaining walls are shown as:

985
Pre cast Box Culvert /components avoids growing of trees during construction. Some
other precast bridge components are shown as like Drains, panel etc

986
Pre cast Dirt wall

Precast RE wall Panel Under Construction:

987
Pre cast Friction Slab

Limitation – Pre cast Components at Curve portion asshown:

Damage in Conventional may not be easily repaired, where as in case of precast ,


component may be replaced easily. Height and horizontal gauge is must both for
insitu bridge and conventional construction bridge, otherwise damage may reduce life
of bridge as shown in Delhi Bridge near railway station:

988
989
Bally Bridge- MAY BE TRIED WITH PRECAST CONC RETE GIRDERS

CASE STUDIES:

6 Lanning of Chandikhole- Jagatpur Bhubneshwar Km 419- km 62, NH 5 Cuttack Orissa -


NHDP – V

Arch Box Culvert Karnataka:

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Precast Drain in New Delhi:

ADVANTGES OF PRE CAST Bridges

High strength with reduced size

More utility space

No difficulty in erection forms

Avoid theft and Less spillage/wastage of material

Full curing- faster in use

Less disturbance to public

Pre cast Bridge Deck/Replacement 991


Pre cast Longest span cable stayed Bridges

Miscellaneous Precast
Components

Page +992

+
Typical Small Stream Crossing

CONCLUSION

 Strong and durable and easy recoverability


 Faster under very poor condition
 Construction speed not affected due to rains/winds
 Good finish & Low maintenance
 Green Technology
 Minimum pollution

993
112. PRAGMATIC APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENT OF
URBAN INFRA STRUCTURE

ABSTRACT

India has undertaken the most comprehensive and planned urbanization. Between now and
2030, 700-900 million sq. mt. of urban space is to be developed every year in order to
accommodate 40% of the total Indian population that is expected to be based out of the urban
areas by 2030. By 2030, cities may contribute to around 66% of the country’s GDP and close
to 90% of tax collection.

Planned urbanization shall be decided by the Centre and urban local bodies as well. The
pertinent issues regarding the development is of not only smart city, smart roads, smart bridges,
with smart design and smart monitoring but also other components of the urban infra structure
development such as mall, toll plazas, hospital, community centres, gardens, parkin facilities
with stringent securities, industries for sufficient job creation, safety measures/fire station,
communication, electrification, drinking water, local transport system, smart facilities for kids,
children, ladies, senior citizen and disabled persons, domestic and other all kind of animals
having habitation in the cities with proper care and settlements, proper factual treatment of
patients and their travel.

Last but not the least simple rules and practically being enforced in public life including proper
and working CCTV camera installation at critical location atleast. All old/accident and dumped
vehicles which may not be repairable and lying on public places not allowing to utilize the
rare available space shall be removed atleast within one year of accidents or disputes.

Any court/disputed cases shall not take more than 1-2 years for its final judgments. This is the
basic demand of the public particularly senior citizens, disabled persons and ladies for having
developed infra structure at the time of the need.

The disputed case must and must be settled preferably with in one year as compared to the
court /police cases which are being settled and dealt within a weak or so in many Arabian
countries and others. The paper describes some realistic/ practical problems and their remedial
measures/solution.

1. INTRODUCTION

There is significant amount of momentum in urban areas and things may work with due to
either simple design or its implementation in making smart cities, roads, bridges etc: liveability,
employability and productive use of public spaces.

Progress is being made for making Smart urban infra structure at the level of government &
local bodies in order to pursue cities to become smart for infra structure developments
(Figure 1). 994
Figure 1: Development of Infra structures – smart cites, with smart roads, b ridges and
buildings

Today, the attachment of word ‘smart’ to any noun has become synonymous with thinking,
connected and mobile technologies, as well as the Internet of Things. Smart phones, smart
watches, smart cars, smart cities, smart roads … it’s an ever- increasing list of ingenuity.

2. SMART ROADS

Smart roads mean that roads that think, feel and predict the needs of the people and the vehicles
that travel on them. Roads that have an environmental conscience, charge our vehicles with
fitted sensors in the roads using sola and help to improve our safety. Roads that actually make
a difference to the world.
FUTURE OF SMART ROADS IN SMART CITIES:
Presently, roads are a fairly simple science. They help us get to and from places in the safest,
most efficient manner. They connect us to other people, cities and towns. Roads are the literal
Well planned, animated beautiful system and implementing
bedrock of future transport. On other hand, smart road is a well-planned, animated, beautiful
warning systems, multilevel parking, roads
system and implementing warning system, with multilevel parking and roads. (Figure 2.)

Figure 2: Smart Road


Figure 6 : Smart Roads 995
3. SMART CITIES

On the other hand, creating smart cities is to improve the quality of living of all sections of the
society living in urban areas for fast development of urban infra structures. Quality of Physical
Infrastructure is first and foremost in creating smart cities. In the absence of quality
infrastructure any amount of effort will not yield desired results. For creating smart cities,
maximum focus should be on improving the quality of existing & developing new physical
infrastructure with proper monitoring. This may include:

i) The most pressing problem of urban areas is the ever-growing undeveloped number
of private colonies and clusters and non-availability of quality housing for all needy
people.
ii) The problem is aggravated by increasing number of shifting population. There shall
be well planned private housing colonies and clusters as per standard municipal
drawings in the cities.
iii) There shall be appropriate very easy to use rules and regulations and building bye
laws for Private Colonies and clusters and the enforcement of the existing rules
whatsoever.

2,855 projects worth Rs 1,35,459 crore are in various stages of implementation while 147
projects worth Rs 1,872 crore have been completed and 396 projects with a cost of Rs 14,672
cores are currently under implementation. (Ref: Central Chronical News 2 Jan 2018, E
paper: Agencies, New Delhi).

4. SMART BRIDGES IN ACTION

This tragedy may have been prevented had the bridge been equipped with a network of smart
bridge sensors providing continuous monitoring of various properties. For instance, the six-
lane, 2.9 km Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge (Rion-Antirion Bridge) in Greece has 100 sensors
(300 channels) that monitor its condition. Soon after opening in 2004, the sensors detected
abnormal vibrations in the cables holding the bridge, which led engineers to install additional
weight to dampen the cables.

Only a handful of other smart bridges across the globe incorporate sensors of various types,
including accelerometers, strain gauges, anemometers, weigh-in-motion devices, and
temperature sensors. The Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong, the world's seventh longest
suspension bridge, is equipped with more than 350 sensor channels. The bridge, which can
handle wind speeds up to 341 kilometers per hour, uses GPS sensors mounted on the towers
and cables to measure wind speed. About 100 photonic sensors are used to monitor the strain
on the bridge’s cables. Signature Bridge (Cable Stayed Bridge) under construction is being
fitted with such types of sensors in Delhi near ISBT by MEGEBA Kolkatta. Additional smart
bridges in action include the following.

 Geumdang Bridge, South Korea: Low-cost wireless sensors monitor the bridge’s response to
speeding and overloaded trucks.
 Gi-Lu Cable-Stayed Bridge, Taiwan: Wireless sensors and accelerometers monitor its
structural health.

996
 Brooklyn Bridge, New York City: Fiber optic sensors measure displacement and temperature.
 Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge, Cape Girardeau, Missouri: Strong-motion sensors,at a cost of
$15,000 per sensor, acquire and transmit data via Ethernet (Figure 3 and Figure 4)

Figure 3 Smart Bridges with Smart Design

Figure 4: Bridge Component with Sensors for Smart Monitoring

5. GLOBAL VIEWS ON URBAN INFRA STRUCTURE

Steffen Sorrell, focuses on two over-arching benefits of smart cities: sustainability and
efficiency. To that end, he identified following five essential components of a smart city or
intelligent infra structure developments:

i. New Technologies
ii. Buildings 997
iii. Utilities
iv. Transportation with Intelligent advance system & road infrastructure
v. The smart city itself

One of the first countries to implement roads (with inbuilt facility of charging vehicles) that
charge electric vehicles was South Korea. In 2013, the Korea Advanced Institute of Science
and Technology (KAIST) installed the first electronically charged bus route in the city of Gumi
that was able to charge the electric buses that drove on it.

In the UK, trials started in 2015 for similar technology after a feasibility study commissioned
by Highways England highlighted the need for more charging points for electric vehicles. Not
only will this improve journeys, it’ll also “create a more sustainable road network”.

At the more innovative end of the spectrum is the work of Studio Roosegaarde, which is
utilising the power of the ‘SUN’ to help cyclists and motorists navigate at night with colourful,
affecting lighting, as well as temperature-controlled paint that lights up to warn drivers of
dangers such as ice on the roads.

Juniper Research, USA recently compiled its list of top-five “smart cities listed below:

Barcelona New York City London Nice Singapore

Figure 5: Top Five Cities

Chandigarh, was designed by the French Architect Le Corbusier half a century ago as a model
city, is spread across 114 sq km and the urban infrastructure and green belt of the city provide
it a distinguished status among India's planned cities.

6. WAYS AND MEANS FOR IMPROVEMENT

To improve the quality of living conditions in existing authorized colonies and Govt. developed
sectors in urban areas following actions are proposed for infra structure development;

a) An effective system of regular and continual monitoring


b) Removal of encroachments without delay.
c) Where the rules are non-existing or are ambiguous, action shall be taken
d) Action should be taken to improve the condition and quality of roads,
buildings, bridges etc, rainwater drainage system, sewerage system
(SWACH BHARAT).
998
e) New technologies like concrete cloth, lacquered paver block, thin white
topping, use of construction and demolition including recycled asphalt
pavement (RAP) wastes in lower layers, precast prestressed roads,
bridges and building components, use of waste plastics, use of carbon
black, and waste rubber and milled material in hot mix asphalts, micro
surfacing as per IRC:SP:81, cold mix technologies, self-compacted
concrete like in Japan and China, ultra-high performance concrete etc.
f) Free and regular supply of clean drinking water and water in toilets and
gardens.
g) The number of toilets shall be sufficient in number
h) An effective system of collection of garbage
i) Proper banking facilities,
j) Free public transport system at least during hazardous weather

7. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

Efforts shall be made for filling gaps between infrastructure and expanding urban population
- Focus shall be on drinking water supply, sewerage management, storm water drainage,
roads, solid waste management, urban housing, urban greenery and smart LED street lighting,
smart bridges etc

Amaravati: The Andhra Pradesh government has been adopting a focused approach to fill the
widening gaps in infrastructure across the state and to meet the challenges posed by a fast-
expanding urban geography and demography. The government has drawn up a two-pronged
action plan to build up the requisite urban infrastructure and fulfil the citizens' needs, with the
first phase expected to be completed in the next two years. “The prime focus is to meet the
National Service-Level Benchmarks (SLBs) by improving the key service-level indicators for
delivering the desired outcome to the public.

Full protection with proper justice shall be provided to the Farmers’ whose land is being
acquired. His consent shall be paramount importance. Considering steep rise in population,
more jobs will have to be generated in the next quarter century, at the rate of ~ 8 million new
jobs every year. In recent years of the reform era, the net rate of job generation in the organised
sector, relying on the government’s own data, is under 0.5 million per year. Pertinent here is
the fact that this is the era of disruptive robotisation across all industries: governments boast of
jobs that get created, not of jobs lost to automation.
The reigning vision also implies that our cities will be able to provide the enormous
infrastructure — of clean air and water, sanitation and power, roads and communication,
housing and social security.
Typically, there is very little technology that goes into roads. They tend to be made out of
asphalt or concrete including white topping or cell fill pavement, which is compacted into a
smooth, solid surface and painted upon to indicate certain restrictions, routes and information.
The real development of urban infra structure means a smart city with a smart road/smart
bridges which can provide citizens with smart mobility”.

999
For now, the focus shall be on the reimagining and adapting existing roads and cities and
their immediate environment to ensure that the promise of smart mobility is delivered upon.
Cities have developed over the past 100-200 years. A few suggestions; i) Beautify these Roads:
Put similarly designed boards. ii) All establishments must not encroach upon the footpath with
their goods or vehicles. All Shops/offices etc on these roads should have a frontage made using
vernacular techniques and materials. iii) No customer should stand on the footpath to transect
the business.

8. CONCLUSION

Traffic congestion is acute problem in all cities. With time it is going to worsen further. Some
of the main roads shall be identified to improve them to ease the traffic with proper installation
of sensors indicating which rout is better and which rout is having less pollution.

Electric buses could be charged automatically by the sensors fitted in the roads. Efforts shall
be made to keep the smart roads and bridges free of all commercial activity.

Smart design standards must also adopt a barrier free design for citizens with disabilities and
who are physically challenged.

References:

1. https://static.mygov.in/rest/s3fs-public/mygov_14822351221494241.pdf
2. https://www.mygov.in/group-issue/draft-standards-smart-cities-india
3. http://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/france-will-partner-india-
to-build-three-smart-cities-116012500034_1.html
4. https://www.forbes.com/pictures/54fe2629fcd7da7ddff45018/2-new-york-
city/#94697161b0d6
5. https://www.inmotionventures.com/smart-roads-future-transport.
6. Aseem Shrivastava and Ashish Kothari ‘Churning the Earth: The Making of Global
India’ (Penguin Viking, 2012) and ‘Prithvi Manthan’ (Rajkamal, 2016)
7. http://buildipedia.com/aec-pros/public-infrastructure/innovative-infrastructure-smart-
bridges.
8. SME Times News Bureau | 11 Apr, 2018
9. www.smetimes.in/smetimes/news/top-stories/2018/Apr/11/urban-local-
body37875.html
10. HANS INDIA, Fri Apr 13, 2018 Hyderabad, India
11. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/facing-the-future-of-
development/article23507239.ece,

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CABLE STAYED AND SUSPENSION BRIDGES- GLOBAL SPECIFICATIONS

Satander Kumar, Consultant, D 24, Amar Colony, New Delhi 110024

Considering History, in 1818, the cable styed bridge was constructed over Saale River in Nienburg.
The cable Bridge constructed in 1830 in Scotland is still in service. The development of standards will
not only bring the latest scientific research to industrialization but may promote the application of new
technology. “Bridges play a major role and occupy an important position with today’s modern
transportation,” says ASTM International member Xiaohong Xu of Jiangyin Xingcheng Special Steel
Works Co. Ltd. The major role in these bridges is cable which shall be fatigue resistance, corrosion
protection, ease of inspection and ease of replacement
There is a proposed ASTM standard (WK58959,) on Specification for Hot-Rolled Wire Rod for Bridge
Cable), being developed on steel, stainless steel, and related alloys. Considering todays environmental
conditions, the quantities of material required is huge in nature. As per Russian (РУССКИЙ МОСТ
RUSSKY), Bridge Specification a total of app. 1.5 million cubic meters of rock and dirt were moved
for building the construction sites on the Russky Island and Nazimov Peninsula 120 drilled piles, each
two meters in diameter, have been put in place to build the footing of each pylon. Permanent steel cased
piles Pylon have been sunk 46 meters deep. The reinforced concrete piles on the Nazimov Peninsula
go 77 meters deep It took about 20,000 cubic meters of concrete mix and about 3,000 tons of steel
structures to erect the grillage for each pylon.
Considering specification or Guidelines on Cable bridges are no doubt very large in numbers as
compared to conventional Bridges, being a specialised subject, a few are summarised as:
i) Guangdong Highway Design Institute- Design Drawings Yamem Cable Stayed Bridges
1999.
ii) Design efforts for Pedestrian Cable Stayed bridges CE 491C, emphasizing structures and
foundations at Ohio University.
iii) British Standards and Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB).
iv) ASCE, USA covers Guidelines for the Design of Cable-Stayed Bridges on loadings and
materials.
v) Footbridge design, BS 5400:Part 3 2000, BS 5400:Part 2 2006,
vi) Highways Agency standard, BD 37/01 (DMRB Volume 1, Section 3, Part 14).
vii) Simplified bridge design of the Eurocodes on Cable Bridges.
viii) RDSO, Lucknow BS: 103, also covers NDT testing of Cable Bridges
Other than specification, there are few books available on cable bridges viz. by De Miranda F.,
Gregory, Frank Hutson; Freeman, Ralph Anthony, Podolny, Walter; Scalzi, John B. R, R., Houriet, B.,
Isler, W., Moia, P., Klein, J.F. , Niels J. Gimsing, and Walther, Rene.
Freyssinet invented the individually-protected multi-strand stay cable having completed over 400
structures as per, Freyssinet Menard India Pvt. Ltd. IRC is further working on the development of
Guidelines on Cable Bridges, In India there are now large numbers of cable bridges and many are under
construction as well. 53 countries globally using different types of cable bridges.
The paper covers the major specifications covering detailed quality control needs, materials requirement
and other construction technologies in making cable bridges.
-----
113. WAYS AND MEANS FOR CREATION OF SMART
ROADS IN SMART CITIES

ABSTRACT

Today, the attachment of ‘smart’ to any noun has become synonymous with thinking,
connected and mobile technologies, as well as the Internet of Things. Smart phones, smart
watches, smart cars, smart cities, smart roads … it’s an ever- increasing list of ingenuity.

Smart roads mean that roads that think, feel and predict the needs of the people and the vehicles
that travel on them. Roads that have an environmental conscience, charge our vehicles and help
to improve our safety. Roads that actually make a difference to the world.

Presently, roads are a fairly simple science. They help us get to and from places in the safest,
most efficient manner. They connect us to other people, cities and towns. Roads are the literal
bedrock of future transport.

On the other hand, creating smart cities is to improve the quality of living of all sections of the
society living in urban areas. Quality of Physical Infrastructure is first and foremost in creating
smart cities. In the absence of quality infrastructure any amount of effort will not yield desired
results. For creating smart cities, maximum focus should be on improving the quality of
existing & developing new physical infrastructure. This may include:

i) The most pressing problem of urban areas is the ever-growing undeveloped number
of private colonies and clusters and non-availability of quality housing for all needy
people.
ii) The problem is aggravated by increasing number of shifting population. There shall
be well planned private housing colonies and clusters as per standard municipal
drawings in the cities.
iii) There shall be appropriate very easy to use rules and regulations and building bye
laws for Private Colonies and clusters and the enforcement of the existing rules
whatsoever.
In the paper, efforts have been made to bring ways and means to create smart roads and cities.

1. INTRODUCTION

A total investment of Rs 1,91,155 crore has been proposed by the 90 cities under their smart
city plans, as per Minister of State (I/C) for Housing and Urban Affairs Sh Hardeep Puri
statement.

“The implementation of the Smart Cities Mission is done by a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV)
to be set up at city level in the form of a limited company under the Companies Act, 2013 and

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are promoted by the State/UT and the Urban Local Body (ULB) jointly both having 50:50
equity shareholding.

After selection, each selected Smart City has to set up SPVs and start implementation of their
Smart City Proposal, preparation of Detailed Project Reports (DPRs), tenders etc. The SPV
will convert the Smart City Proposal into projects through Project Management Consultants
(PMCs) and implementation thereafter.

So far 77 Smart Cities (including 11 of the Round 3 cities) have established their SPVs, he
further informed. Mr Puri informed that 2,855 projects worth Rs 1,35,459 crore are in various
stages of implementation while 147 projects worth Rs 1,872 crore have been completed and
396 projects with a cost of Rs 14,672 cores are currently under implementation. (Ref: Central
Chronical News 2 Jan 2018, E paper: Agencies, New Delhi)

In the first stage, total number of 100 smart cities has been distributed amongst the States and
UTs on the basis of equitable criteria. The progress with respect to implementation of projects
pertaining to Smart Solutions, Smart Roads, Smart Water, Solar Rooftops, and Visible and
Impactful is also underway.

2. GLOBAL VIEWS

Since the days of the industrial revolution, cities have been the engines of economic growth.
The revolution was effective in developing prosperity for many countries, but the development
was not always “smart,” sacrificing health conditions, for instance, for greater productivity.

Now with greater use of technology, a number of cities are accumulating data, delivering
innovation, and enhancing lives of citizens. Juniper Research recently compiled its list of top-
five “smart cities.” Steffen Sorrell, focuses on two over-arching benefits of smart cities:
sustainability and efficiency. To that end, he identified following five essential components of
a smart city:

i. Technologies
ii. Buildings
iii. Utilities
iv. Transportation & road infrastructure
v. The smart city itself

The people who live in cities are driven economic performers who are seeking to take
advantage of technologies to further their personal and collective opportunities. Cities provide
them these opportunities and in doing so draw many like-minded parties into their midst. With
this drive and an increase in active participants, there are downsides. Most notably, energy
consumption, waste and congestion. In this day and age people are increasingly concerned with
climate change and awareness of limited resources all while demanding more efficiencies and
technological development.

One of the first countries to implement roads that charge electric vehicles was South Korea.
In 2013, the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) installed the first
electronically charged bus route in the city of Gumi that was able to charge the electric buses
that drove on it. 1002
The aim of the project was to allow buses in the city to travel greater distances without the need
to stop to recharge, allowing for more frequent bus services and more convenience for
commuters using them.

In the UK, trials started in 2015 for similar technology after a feasibility study commissioned
by Highways England highlighted the need for more charging points for electric vehicles. Not
only will this improve journeys, it’ll also “create a more sustainable road network”.

At the more innovative end of the spectrum is the work of Studio Roosegaarde, which is
utilising the power of the ‘SUN’ to help cyclists and motorists navigate at night with colourful,
affecting lighting, as well as temperature-controlled paint that lights up to warn drivers of
dangers such as ice on the roads. Top five Smart cities are pictorially listed below:

Figure 1 : Barcelona Figure 2: New York City

Figure3: London

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Figure 4: Nice Figure 5 Singapore

France is going to help India to develop Chandigarh, Nagpur and Puducherry as French
Development Agency signed memoranda of understanding with the government of Union
Territory of Chandigarh, and Government of Union territory of Puducherry and the
Maharashtra Government here on Sunday in the presence of French President Francois
Hollande and Prime Minister Honourable Sh Narendra Modi Ji. Chandigarh, designed by the
French Architect Le Corbusier half a century ago as a model city, is spread across 114 sq km
and the urban infrastructure and green belt of the city provide it a distinguished status among
India's planned cities.

On January 26, 2018, Indian Prime Minister Honourable Shri Narendra Modi is set to announce
the official list of 20 smart cities to be developed in the first phase. A delegation of 26 CEOs
from France travelled to Chandigarh with Hollande and had discussions on CEO forums to
explore partnerships in renewable energy, defence, information technology and aerospace.
French companies can exploit India's trained and affordable manpower to expand their
manufacturing operations in the country.

The French president committed annual investment to the tune of €1 billion to strengthen
business relations with India. An agreement between Airbus and Mahindra was also inked
under Indo-French cooperation to manufacture helicopters within the Make in India initiative.
French companies will also collaborate with public sector firm Engineering Projects India to
provide integrated railways solutions. The railway stations of Ambala and Ludhiana will also
be redeveloped with French partnership. The French delegation evinced interest in the areas of
renewable energy, infrastructure, transport, defence, and water treatment. (Business First
Published: Mon, January 25 2016. 00:22 IST ).

A beautiful Smart City in USA is Reston Virginia. Google 'Reston, Virginia' to see the images
and enjoy. Rather than reinventing the wheel, we may follow examples of cities already
developed in the USA and other countries.

3. WAYS AND MEANS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SMART ROADS AND


CITIES

To improve the quality of living conditions in existing authorized colonies and Govt. developed
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sectors in urban areas following actions are being suggested both in case of cities and roads;

a) An effective system of regular and continual monitoring of compliance


of existing rules and regulations and removal of encroachments without
delay.
b) Similar system should also be put in place for markets, shops and
commercial establishments.
c) Where the rules are non-existing or are ambiguous, action shall be taken
to remove such ambiguity or introduce new rules keeping in mind the
public health and safety.
d) Action should be taken to improve the condition and quality of roads and
lanes, rainwater drainage system sewerage system in the colonies and
sectors.
e) New roads technologies like concrete cloth, lacquered paver block, thin
white topping, use of construction and demolition including recycled
asphalt pavement (RAP) wastes in lower layers, precast prestressed
roads, bridges and building components, use of waste plastics and waste
rubber and milled material in hot mix asphalts, micro surfacing as per
IRC:SP:81, cold mix technologies, self-compacted concrete like in
Japan, ultra-high performance concrete etc with excellent drainage
system particularly at super elevation and at bottom of approachres of the
roads.
f) Efforts shall be made to develop a system to make free and regular supply
of clean drinking water to the citizens of the city not only in the
houses/flats but also in the toilets.
g) The number of toilets shall be sufficient in number as per the need of the
occupants along the roads or with in cities. There shall be atleast one
toilet at every about 500 m on the road and one or two in each
market/commercial complex in each Floor being maintained in a smarter
and modern way.
h) It is seen that roads and lanes in colonies and sectors become canal and
rivulets during the rainy season because of non-existence of proper
rainwater drainage system. Since the basic principle of good drainage
for good roads is that highest water table (HWT) or highest flood level
(HFL) shall be 600 mm below the bottom of the subgrade (Soil formation
of the road) in case rail fall is more than 1000 mm per annum in the
region. (High rain falls area). The same shall be in case of building as
well. Further, Finished Road Level (FRL) of the road shall also be not
less than Original Ground Level (OGL).
i) An effective system of collection of garbage from households, shops and
establishments etc. and sweeping of roads/streets, parks/open spaces etc.
with simultaneous collection of garbage, dust etc. should be put in place
with adequate supervision of responsible officials.

1005
j) Effective system of cleaning of sewerage system and rainwater drainage
at regular intervals should also be designed and implemented.

k) Areas should be assigned to specific sanitary inspectors. They should also


be given the task of checking the peoples for throwing garbage on the
road side or open spaces other than designated places.
l) Proper roads with comparatively less number of accidents
m) Proper banking facilities, cashless economy, clean functioning of
government and private hospitals.
n) Free public transport system at least during hazardous weather or
accidents which was being implemented in PARIS also.
o) More greenery around the city for preserving nature in a smarter way
p) Factories and industries with proper discharge plant.
q) Low crime rate.
r) In case of road repairs - Strict Vigilance on Road quality , durable quality
asphalt or concrete roads.
s) Sustainable smart roads and cities overtime.
t) Tramcars, Metro rails, BRTS, Circular Bus systems etc.
u) System shall be developed of regular and continual monitoring of the
compliance of terms and conditions of allotment of housing or/and plots
in the sectors.

4. FUTURE OF SMART ROADS AND SMART CITIES:

The potential of connected, smart roads and smart cities is huge. Not only will they keep us safe
by regulating the speed of our vehicles, well planned, animated beautiful system and
implementing warning systems, but also transmit real time data and share information across
the network, making it simpler and quicker to get around, to find multilevel parking, multilevel
roads/separate grader on roads to commute effectively and communicate with each other with
proper warning and alerting system, as shown below:

Figure 6 : Smart Roads


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There is much to be optimistic about, but with intelligent roads and intelligent cities, there is
still a long way to go. The ground-breaking technologies conceptualised and tested by the likes
of Studio Roosegaarde are still in their infancy and yet to be incorporated into wider town
planning. For now, smart roads and smart cities are something to look forward to.

4. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

Typically, there is very little technology that goes into roads. They tend to be made out of
asphalt or concrete including white topping or cell fill pavement, which is compacted into a
smooth, solid surface and painted upon to indicate certain restrictions, routes and information.
Smart Transportation Alliance means a smart city with a smart road which can provide citizens
with smart mobility”.
For now, the focus shall be on the reimagining and adapting existing roads and cities and
their immediate environment to ensure that the promise of smart mobility is delivered upon.
There are above mentioned ways and means to make cities and roads smarter.

Typical smart road and cities shall be more ‘animated’ than its conventional ‘inanimate’
predecessor. It shall come with sensors, data capture capabilities, the ability to be responsive
to changes in the environment and, perhaps most importantly, be connected. Roads and
building shall ‘talk’ to cars, bicycles, traffic lights and even citizens. Roads and cities look
like to be ‘alive’.

There is a need to make people aware of the concept of a Smart City and Smart Roads. Most
people think that new cities are being developed or existing cities are drastically being modified
with smarter roads.

This awareness issue may be included along with Citizen participation. People living in cities
which have been selected for Smart City Mission, should be made aware by educating them on
the idea of a smart city. There can be slide shows/small films, which can be shown to school
children, teachers, bank officials, corporation staff etc., to involve and seek cooperation of
people. The other citizens in general should be addressed through programmes on TV and or
WhatsApp/twitter etc.

Cities have developed over the past 100-200 years. A few suggestions; i) Beautify these Roads:
Put similarly designed boards. ii) All establishments must not encroach upon the footpath with
their goods or vehicles. All Shops/offices etc on these roads should have a frontage made using
vernacular techniques and materials. iii) No customer should stand on the footpath to transect
the business. All customers must enter the shop, so that footpath is free for pedestrians. iv)
Government financial assistance may be given to these people to aesthetically paint their
exteriors as per cultural/historic importance of the city.

5. CONCLUSION

Traffic congestion is acute problem in all cities. With time it is going to worsen further. Some
of the main roads shall be identified to improve them to ease the traffic. Efforts shall be made
to keep the roads free of all commercial activity. Existing businesses should be relocated over
1007
a period of time. These roads should be used only for movement of traffic from one part of city
to another.

In case of smart city and smart roads, design standards must also adopt a barrier free design for
citizens with disabilities and who are physically challenged. We must implement codes similar
to the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) standards which are mandatory for any
development anywhere in USA or other equivalent specified standards as per Indian
conditions.

References:

1. https://static.mygov.in/rest/s3fs-public/mygov_14822351221494241.pdf
2. https://www.mygov.in/group-issue/draft-standards-smart-cities-india
3. http://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/france-will-partner-india-
to-build-three-smart-cities-116012500034_1.html
4. https://www.forbes.com/pictures/54fe2629fcd7da7ddff45018/2-new-york-
city/#94697161b0d6
5. https://www.inmotionventures.com/smart-roads-future-transport.

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AMAZING REVELATIONS IN CONCRETE ROADS

Satander Kumar, Former HOD Rigid Pavement, Central Road Research Institute and Consultant

In the 16th century, Sher Shah Suri, the Pashtun emperor of Northern India (Sher Shah Suri, founder of the
Sur Empire in Northern India with its capital at Delhi defeated the powerful Mughal Empire under
Humayun. He was an ethnic Afghan (now Pashtun) was born in India; was Governor of Bihar also, built a
major road running across the Gangetic plain. It was known as "Sadak-e-Azam" and it served as an
administrative link to the remote provinces of his vast empire. Over the centuries, various rulers added to
the expanse of this road, till it expanded to Kabul, to Multan and to Bangladesh.

The road was made of concrete, using natural clinkers (which is made by nature from earth) ground by
Camels with special carts. When incidentally in the earth lime stone and clay are in the ratio of 70:30, and
when Lava erupts, clinker formation takes place by nature. Today’s clinker of Portland cement is like that
of the natural clinker.

The first cement plant in India came up in Porbander in 1914 and first concrete road was constructed in
Chennai in the same year. Marine drive was built in 1939 and still giving reasonably good service on
some portion of stretches. In India about 1/3rd of the highways have been built with Cement concrete. And
the 1st mechanised road in India was the Bombay-Pune Road as shown in Figure 3 and 4 of Concrete
Road Manual, published in Calcutta (WB) by Cement Corporation of India /ACC in 1948. A
book/manual on Concrete Pavement Design for roads and streets carrying all classes of traffic was
published in 1951 based on the data discussed in Concrete Road Design, simplified and correlated with
Traffic (1933) by the late Frank T Sheets President of Portland Cement Association.

At present, the rate of constructing concrete roads is increasing as the costs are at par with the needs.
These roads need rare maintenance, particularly in heavy rainfall prone areas, and are also apt for places
where the environment keeps changing drastically due to global warming. Considering these views, it also
minimises global pollution in total and increases the design life.

Construction of CC road is complementary to a great cause – it helps the environment, since the quantity
of coarse aggregates required is about less than 60% as compared to coarse aggregate content, which is
about more than 90% in the case of flexible pavements, besides bitumen is an imported item. From the
environmental point of view, both the pavements are helping to reduce pollution as milled material/
recycled asphalt, waste plastic/ fibre/ slag/ recycled concrete aggregates, fly ash etc., has been

1009
recommended in different specification (IRC: 37, IRC:15, MORTH, IS: 383 MORD specification)
normally in lower layers. Both these pavements are complimentary and supplementary to each other just
like white toping, mastic on deck slab and on Agra-Delhi Expressway, bituminous shoulder in the
Highway built in 1994.

Bombay-Pune Expressway has also the same flexible pavement as shoulder, many composite pavements,
hot sealant in concrete roads, cement as an anti-stripping agent in Dense bitumen macadam (DBM) /
bituminous concrete. As per IRC: 58, DBM may also be used as an alternate to dry lean concrete (DLC)
of Grade M10 at 7 days. All lower layers are designed for 7 days like UCS of soil, soaked CBR etc.

Materials for Concrete Roads


Presently, the basic material for making concrete road is Portland cement. The other ingredients used are
fine aggregates/sand, coarse aggregates, water, chemical admixture. Some other ingredients are also being
added as per the need like fly ash, powdered granulated slag, silica fume, polymeric fibres, steel fibres
etc. The Portland cement is manufactured by taking about 70% lime stone and 30% clay and it is calcined
at 1400C, thereby clinker is manufactured. This clinker is inter-ground with gypsum to regulate the
setting time. There are four compounds in cement viz. Tri Calcium Silicate (C3S), Di- Calcium Silicate
(C2S), Tri Calcium Aluminate (C3A), Tetra Calcium Alumino Ferrite (C4AF). The 3-day strength of
cement is mainly due to Tri Calcium Silicate (C3S), 7-day strength of cement is mainly due to Di Calcium
Silicate (C2S), and Tri Calcium Aluminate (C3A)/ Tetra Calcium Alumino Ferrite (C4AF) helps in the
fusion or the calcination process.
Currently the following cements are being used:
i) Ordinary Portland Cement 43 and 53 Grade IS 269
ii) Portland-Pozzolana Cement IS 1489 (Part 1) (with fly ash content not more than 20% by
weight of PPC)
iii) Portland Slag Cement IS 455 (with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag content not more than 50%
by weight of PSC)
iv) Composite Cement (blended with granulated slag & fly ash), IS: 16415

The reasons of having 33, 43 and 53 grade comes from the acceptance criteria of concrete cubes in the
field as the minimum acceptable compressive strength of concrete is - characteristic strength of four
consecutive concrete cube samples + 3 MPa. So, Figure “3” appearing in the grade name has come from
concrete strength.

1010
All grades of Portland cement have same fineness and setting time, the difference is only in changing the
grade is tri calcium silicate content, Grade 53 cement has comparatively higher proportion of tri-calcium
silicate content as compared to the content in 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement.

Natural sand is considered as better than crushed sand/stone dust in concrete because of following
advantages it has inbuilt:
i) Natural sand has a smooth surface, so needs less water, and increases workability due to its shape.
ii) Has less silt (up to 3%) content as compared to silt in stone dust (up to 15%), so it’s economical.
iii) It is washed sand, thus loss in bond strength due to dust sticking around natural sand is less
compared to the dust sticking around the stone dust and sticking in the interstices.
iv) Stone dust reduces workability due to irregular shape.
v) IS 383-2016 recommends manufactured sand, it does not recommend zone IV sand.
vi) Zone of the sand is decided based on the material passing 600-micron sieve as there is no
overlapping in the test values in the row of 600-micron sieve.

Regarding coarse aggregates, in case it contains mica, reactive aggregates, flaky aggregates or other
materials i.e., silica content less than 50%, can have adverse effects like high water absorption. In that
case, the concrete cubes shall be cast during mix design or small trial length can be made taking aggregate
in wet condition or taking water absorption of only 2 hours not 24 hours and by adding fly ash, granulated
slag /silica fume and may be fibres and quality of concrete cubes or trials may be observed regularly at
least up to 90 days and if found satisfactory, the aggregates may be tried in the concrete roads as per
International specification.

The aggregate shall also be tested for wet impact value and 10% fine value test in which only 5-ton load
is applied during testing and 40-ton load as is applied in case of crushing value test on coarse aggregates
(on material passing 12.5 mm and retain on 10 mm). Water is suitable if drinkable and its pH value is 6-8.
Similarly, chemical admixture (Maximum 2%) is added in wet mix, not dry i.e., first some mixing water
is added and then chemical admixture, to check its quality if we take a drop of this in two fingers by
rubbing the figure shall feel stickiness.

Types of Rigid Pavements


Rigid pavements can be classified as follows:
1. Plain Jointed Rigid pavement (with and without dowel bars)
2. Reinforced Concrete pavement (RCC) (0.1% reinforcement)

1011
3. Continuously Reinforcement Concrete pavement (CRCP) (0.5% reinforcement) both with elastic
joints and without joints
4. Roller Compacted Concrete pavement
5. High Volume Flyash Concrete pavement (Flyash> 35%)
6. Porous Concrete pavement
7. Vacuum /Dewatered Concrete pavement
8. Pre-stressed Concrete pavement
9. Precast Concrete pavement
10. Coloured Concrete Pavement
11. Inter Connected Precast Concrete Block pavements
12. Creteways and Self Compacted Concrete pavements for rural roads IRC:SP:62
13. Cell Fill pavements IRC:SP:62
14. Short Panelled concrete pavement
15. White Topping and Composite Concrete pavements and Bonded Concrete pavements.

On national highways, mostly Plain Jointed Rigid pavement (of thickness varying 280 mm to 320mm)
with an average thickness of 300 mm is being adopted with dowel bars on NH projects and even in cities
(Haryana, MP, Maharashtra, Orissa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu). In rural roads or where thickness is less
than 200 mm of Pavement Quality Concrete (PQC) and traffic/fatigue is less, there dowel (a nail inserted
in the wall to carry load/hang a load) bars are not being used at each contraction joints (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Isometric View of Rigid Pavement

1012
Joints
Like a human body/living being needs joints, concrete road has also joints to relieve tensile stresses due to
temperature gradients/warping or friction between the layers causing shrinkage of up to 0.04 to 0.06%
i.e., decrease in length per 100 units.

The following types of Joints in rigid pavement construction are normally adopted:
1. Contraction joints when dowel bars are used, dummy contraction joints when dowel bars are not
being used.
2. Construction joints at start and at end.
3. Cold Joints when work in between and the joint is stopped.
4. Longitudinal joints/warping joints with and without tie bars when width is more than 4.5 or 5 m
as per the thickness. Since contraction joints are cut 15 times the thickness, the function of tie
bars is like as we wear tie to tie two collars together. Similarly, the function of tie bar in PQC at
longitudinal joint is to tie two slabs together and to avoid faulting.
5. Expansion Joints since concrete expands due to rise in temperature and it has coefficient of
thermal expansion, α = 10 x 10-6 increase in length /deg C rise in temperature/unit length.

It would be better if all joints are at 90 degrees or obtuse; acute angle in PQC technically is not used as it
needs more thickness.

The reason of not being provided joints in flexible pavement as - thickness is less; black in colour so
absorbs heat, so no temperature differential, each layer is bonded with each other. Similarly, in Bridge
deck only expansion joints are provided, contraction joints are not being provided, since there is no lower
layer, so no friction as was in case of CC roads, and temperature gradients is too less, and ends are free to
move so only expansion joints are provided in deck slab except in case of Integral bridge (Fully/Semi).
The span is generally of 30 m in length in bridge deck. Figure 2 shows different types of joints.

Figure 2: Types of Joints

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Precautions for Minimising Defects
If the joints in CC roads are not cut timely or the work is not stopped at a joint location and cold joint has
not been made properly, then there are chances of transverse cracks. The longest length of the panel shall
be in the direction of traffic. The work must stop at any joint; or extra joint can be made taking precaution
that length/breadth ratio of the Cement Concrete (CC) panel shall not exceed 1.28. If cracks come at a
corner of PQC, it will be at about three times the thickness. First symptom of failure of CC road is the
corner crack.

If there is high wind speed, very low Relative Humidity (RH) and high ambient temperature, then there
are chances of plastic shrinkage cracks in PQC. In such situation, curing compound can be spread two
times/layers - 50% (200 g/sqm) just one hour before texturing and remaining 50% (200 g/sqm) after
retexturing to avoid plastic shrinkage cracks, since these occurs when concrete is in plastic conditions,
i.e., after 3-5 hours of laying. These are parallel cracks and perpendicular to wind direction so there shall
not be loss due to evaporation of water more than 1 kg/sqm per hour from the PQC surface. Generally
100-200 g water shall be sprinkled per sqm to avoid plastic shrinkage cracks just after 2-3 hours or when
just hardening has been started. While finishing; there shall not be any low-lying area/valley or shallow
depth PQC surface, as water may accumulate there due to low gradient and if W/C ratio becomes high
there will be chances of shrinkage cracks. IRC:SP:83 describes details for the maintenance of CC roads
and also formulation for early opening to traffic pavement and for concrete cloth. Setting/hardening time
of these new materials is 3-4 hours.

It is necessary to check the alignment of tie bars/dowel bars location after 3 hours of laying PQC by
digging small portion of fresh concrete. The camber/gradient shall be as minimum as possible i.e 1 in 60,
as the strength of PQC will be less at extreme edges of PQC at lower edges like reduction of strength of
concrete in the cover portion of RCC due to more air and high W/C ratio in cover concrete. Wherever any
obstruction comes or there is change in foundation/ base/sub base/ sub grade like box culvers or bridges,
the joints shall be provided near box culverts/expansion joints etc. If joints are there in in-situ kerb stone,
joints in PQC shall match with joint in other adjoining structures to avoid reflection or sympathetic
cracking.

Mostly crack is seen at construction longitudinal joint, or transverse joints, before laying new concrete, in
such situation, the old concrete would have been properly finished at the time of laying or alternatively

1014
50 mm depth transverse cut shall be made, oiled and then new concrete shall be laid without any faulting
at joints.

If any defects in the concrete are noticed within 2-3 days, it shall be rectified with rich cement slurry
/mortar /concrete. If an old defect, the affected portion shall be wetted for 24 hours and next day repairs
may be carried out with cement slurry/mortar/concrete. And in case of big patch, steel rod may be drilled
and may be repaired like jacketing /stitch segment of structure with rich concrete or microcrete (Cement +
silica fume + 6.3 mm aggregates + PCE based admixtures) for repair.

Good quality admixture makes the concrete most economical with the least cracks. If not, ‘Y’ cracks may
be visible after final setting time i.e., after 12 hours or so in the top surface. Good quality and quantity
admixture and good quality sand with minimum fine can minimise shrinkage cracks. The above cracks in
the initial stage are not much harmful and there is need to rectify them either with cement slurry or low
viscosity epoxy.

Texturing is provided before spreading final curing compound on PQC surface at the initial setting time
of concrete (IS: 8142) after 3-5 hours of laying. During this time plasticity of concrete, it has just
gone/completes. If we put a nail on PQC, the mark of the nail should be visible.

For initial cutting of contraction or longitudinal joints a 3 mm wide cut up to 1/3rd depth, is made to the
final setting time of concrete i.e., after 6-10 hours. That is when plasticity has ceased, and hardening has
started. If we put our nail, on PQC, no marking of the nail shall be visible.

Dowel bars and tie bars works well only when these are in right alignment, otherwise it is suggested
better not to provide them if these cannot be properly aligned. The joints shall be sealed, preferably with
gun grade sealant silicon/polyurethane/polysulphide or equivalent after 16 days after widening 6-8 mm
and up to 10 mm depth leaving a gap of 2-3 mm from top as per IRC: 57 and IRC:15.

Amazing Tricks and Tips

Following tricks and tips may be referred and shall always be calibrated or standardised regularly with
standard samples of cement, steel, concrete etc., before applying during execution or after execution of
civil works:

1. A few tricks to check the strength of concrete (M3 - M40) in the field:

1015
i) Take 8 kg hammer and strike from 300 mm height on dry/wet concrete at
specified age, say 28 days, at distance of 300 mm and the sound produced shall
be 60-70 dB in dry specimen. This can be cross-checked through a mobile after
downloading the sound meter.
ii) Drop a glass of water from 300 mm height on concrete surface, if water
evaporates in 3-4 hours, the grade of concrete may be M30 to M40, the
temperature, humidity, wind speed shall be as per calibrated with standard
concrete cube sample of known strength for confirmation exactly. Please cross-
check this standard cube.
iii) Take rebound hammer (L-type for low strength, N-type for normal concrete or
M-type in case of Mass Concrete) and check strength as per IS: 13311. There are
chances of variation of about 25%.
iv) Take sharp knife and rub four times at same location for 50 mm length, the depth
of rubbing/cutting with sharp edge shall be 3-4 mm. Check with standard sample.
v) Take diluted Hydrochloric acid, 100 ml and add 10-20g concrete samples,
calculate cement concrete in one cubic meter of concrete i.e., in 2400 kg concrete
vi) If cement (43 Grade) content minimum is approximately 100 kg/cum of concrete,
the approximate grade may be M10 (100 kg/cm2)
vii) If cement content is minimum 200 kg/cum of concrete, the approximate grade
may be M20 (200 kg/cm2)
viii) If cement content minimum is 300 kg/cum of concrete, the approximate grade
may be M30 (300 kg/cm2)
ix) If cement content minimum is 400 kg/cum of concrete, the approximate grade
may be M40 (400 kg/cm2), but calibration is needed.
x) Take a broken piece of concrete, find approximate area of aggregates exposed;
the area shall be more than 80-85% of the total cube face area i.e., 225 sq. cm.
2. The mix design trick is that minimum cement shall be 1 kg/cum of concrete for achieving
compressive strength of 1kg/cm2. That is for M10 at 28 days, minimum cement shall be
100 kg/cum of concrete, and so on. It is true as per DLC also, as minimum cement recommended
in MORTH 2013 is 150 kg/cum of concrete for strength M10 at 7 days. It means it would be
about M15 at 28 days. So is the rule.
3. For checking tiles please check sound produced with lightly hammering and ensure bonding of
tiles with vertical or horizontal surfaces.

1016
4. For roughly checking the strength of precast blocks, bricks and concrete cubes, if struck with
each other, these shall not break, and sound shall also be about 50-70 dB at distance of 300 mm.
5. While finding density of sub grade or compaction factor of sub grade, while taking core of soil,
less time means less strength, minimum 10-12 blows are needed to get soil of density of
1.75 kg/cm2.
6. To check optimum binder/moisture in soil, stabilised soil, or concrete (fresh), make a ball in your
hand and jump up to 300 mm, the ball shall not break till it comes to our palm. There shall not be
free water, the mix shall be cohesive not adhesive.
7. While working with steel and bitumen, please check by heating, there strength almost becomes
too less. So, while dealing with hot steel/ welding steel or hot bitumen, proper propping/
confinement shall be made, or load shall be as minimum as possible to avoid accidents.
8. In case of hot bituminous mix temperature is marginally low, in general no need to worry, as it is
black in colour, by removing top 300 mm mix from the tippers, the rest bituminous mix may be
rechecked, and it may be at specified temperature.
9. While taking concrete core more time taking mean good strength. If the core is being broken into
pieces, it means quality is doubtful or mix may not be cohesive or more voids could be there.
Minimum M5 to M7 strength is needed or lost while extracting concrete cores.
10. Strength of concrete /concrete core taken at edges or at lower portion of the gradient or near the
cover side in case of RCC may be 10-15% less.
11. Wet concrete strength is also 10-15% less than dry concrete.
12. In case of paver precast concrete block, length of block shall not be more than 4 times the
thickness and not more than 3 times the width as per IRC:SP:63. The reasons of having very less
thickness as compared to the thickness of PQC slab; being any concrete member of such sizes
will behave as compression member when length is up to three times the thickness. The principle
is being followed in concrete cantilevers also. Widening of slab may be carried out by increasing
the length either by making higher grade or by RCC.
13. Generally, longitudinal cracks in concrete roads occurred if soil is black cotton in the sub grade or
embankment may be having free swelling index more than 50% or proper drainage or camber
might not have been provided. Care shall be taken particularly in case of approaches or at super
elevation at bottom of hills.
14. Any cement more than 3-month-old shall not be used. Please note week and year on the cement
bag.
15. Please check adulteration in cement either by using dilute hydrochloric acid or bromoform liquid.
Hydrochloric acid dissolves cement generally, and bromoform liquid has Specific Gravity 2.8, so

1017
cement settles at bottom and adulteration remain at the top. In case of bitumen, to check purity,
solubility of bitumen in trichloroethylene or benzene may be checked. Sometimes lime is being
mixed as adulteration during handling of bitumen.
16. There are different methods to increase the density or packing of material. In case of clayey soil,
CONSOLIDATION is being carried to increase the strength or density and water is removed with
static loading. In case of concrete, bituminous mixed soil, COMPACTION is being carried out by
removing air with mechanical vibration. In case of non-plastic soil or filter media,
DENSIFICATION is being carried out which means flooding with water is recommended to
increase the strength or density. If voids are interconnected, these are called HONYCOMBED
CONCRETE like Honey bee house. If voids are not interconnected or uniformly spread and very
small in size, then workability is increased, but up to 2 % maximum. In concrete as per IRC 15,
1% air void reduces 6% compressive strength, so in the dictionary a word “AVOID: means to
avoids voids make better concrete.
17. Regarding checking the quality of mixing and curing water, if it is drinkable, good for use or
check pH value shall be more than 6 and compressive strength with sample water shall be 90% as
compared to good mineral Water. Similarly, in case of chemical admixture or plasticizers, pH
shall not be less than 6 and if we take one drop of this between two fingers, we should have
feeling that our fingers shall be sticking each other after 1 or 2 minutes.
18. Please check diagonal of any rectangular specimen/ cube mould, beam mould or component and
use tape and find right angle using 3, 4 and 5 with tape that is, 3, 7 and 12 points at corner of a
triangle in all large construction.
19. Depressed median shall be avoided or shall be used where soil has CBR more than 15% or sand
gravelly soil. Drop-off/ settlement of shoulder shall be immediately rectified to avoid longitudinal
cracks in CC road.
20. If soil is clay as in MP, CBR or SPT no is about 2, if soil is silty as in UP; CBR is 5% SPT is 5.
21. If soil is sandy, CBR is about 10% and SPT is 10 as in Rajasthan. In case of RBM (Road
Building Material), gravelly soil, like in Uttarakhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, or some parts of
Orissa CBR is more than 20% and SPT is about 20 i.e 20 ton /sq m.
22. If one’s body weight is 50 kg and one walks on compacted soaked sub grade and soil has foot
impression if shows more than 2.5 mm, it means CBR is less than 4%, which the minimum limit
in PMGSY projects. This is based on the assumption that foot area is 50 mm diameter.

Following tricks may first be tried on a trial stretch/demonstrated well and actual cost analysis shall be
carried out the after checking riding quality.

1018
1. In case of Flexible pavement RAP (Recycled asphalt pavement) and C&D (Construction and
Demolition) waste may be used in GSB as per specification IRC: 120 and IRC: 121, milled
material may be used in DBM in specified proportion, waste plastic in bituminous concrete.
Further stabilization of sub grade will reduce thickness of each layer and using CTB (Cement
Treated Base) and CT sub base will further reduce the cost.
2. Composite pavements are found to be more economical as compared to alone rigid or flexible
pavement.
3. Design structures for taking 60 days or 90 days strength of concrete.
4. Higher bearing capacity of foundation as per limits will further reduce the cost.
5. Closer joint spacing in CC roads reduced 20-30% cost.
6. Bonded Overlays reduces cost as per the bond.
7. Low viscosity epoxy shall be immediately used before aggravating the distress further in any
concrete structure. Regularly maintaining/finishing the outer surface of any structure either steel
or concrete will minimize long term cost for maintenance.
8. Expansion joints or water seals in case of drains or building shall be for full width or depth or
height.
9. Lane design shall be as per traffic slow moving and heavy moving traffic lane shall be thicker as
compared to extreme lane of fast moving and low traffic. If lane is having loaded truck shall be
thicker that the lane carrying empty trucks in mining are.
10. Concrete penal shall have longer dimension in direction of traffic and L/B ratio shall be less than
1.3.
11. If L/B ratio is more than 1.5, slab must be RCC for pavements.
12. Efficient auger or plougher or both along with efficient needle vibrators in slip form paver
besides concrete of required slump will make most cost-effective concrete.
13. Efficient Bag filter house in hot mix plant will reduce the cost.
14. In case of concrete good quality sand, graded aggregates, admixture with silica fume up to 5% in
concrete will reduce the cost drastically. Extra and efficient curing may also reduce the cost.
15. No construction machinery or curing tanks shall move on not matured concrete road or structures.
16. In case of bitumen roads, extra flooding of roller with water and speed of roller more than
5 km/hr, and starting rolling from upper end to lower end, will reduce the quality of bituminous
layer and thereafter increase the cost.
17. Temperature during rolling mentioned in bituminous roads (MORTH) is after rolling not before
rolling.

1019
18. VG 40 shall be used when temperature is more than 45 deg C as per IS: 73 and with precaution.
Similarly, 53 Grade cement shall also be used with precaution in concrete
19. Vibration shall be as minimum as possible near the newly built concrete structure.
20. Generally, when foundation is good, raft foundation, silty clay soil i.e., weak foundation, pile or
deep foundation, pure sandy soil, well foundation is proposed.
21. Similarly, box culverts (1 – 6 m width i.e., i.e distance between first abutment to last abutment)
are provided where soil is weak, or clay and discharge is up to 1 km-sq. When discharge is more,
Minor bridges (6-60m width)/major bridges (> 60 m width) are provided. Box culvert mean to
culvert (transfer water) through box. Similarly pipe culvert means through pipe, water is
culverted but comparatively less in quantity as per IS: 458.
22. Slab culvert for good foundation, vented causeway for good soil more water.
23. Traffic sign 3D View and Guiding Charts are shown below:
RO WATER IN BRIDGE AND QUICK TESTING KITS

Artist Views - 3D Illusions Speed breaker and Sign


References
1. http://www.nagalandpost.com/ChannelNews/State/StateNews.aspx?news.
2. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTSARREGTOPTRANSPORT/1349788-1130967866881/
21755701/Rural-Roads-India.pdf.
3. https://www.forbes.com/pictures/54fe2629fcd7da7ddff45018/2-new-york-city/
#94697161b0d6
4. https://www.inmotionventures.com/smart-roads-future-transport

1020
AMAZING RISING VISIONS IN HIGHWAYS

1. ROAD WORK SINCE 1540 -1915

In the 16th century ( ~1540), Sher Shah Suri (Farid Khan), the Pashtun emperor of Northern India (Sher
Shah Suri, founder of the Sur Empire in northern India in the 16th century with its capital at Delhi. He
defeated the powerful Mughal Empire under Humayun He was an ethnic Afghan (now Pashtun) but
was born in India was Governor of Bihar also.), built a major road running across the Gangetic plain. It
was known as "Sadak-e-Azam" and it served as an administrative link to the remote provinces of his vast
empire. Over the centuries, various rulers added to the expanse of this road, till it expanded to Kabul, to
Multan and to Bangladesh. Later it was renamed by Britishers as "The Grand Trunk Road". Connecting
many cities with various National Highways under the part of Golden Quadrilateral project.

Figure 1 : Todays GT Karnal Road (Haryana)

Today, the Grand Trunk Road (Figure 1) remains a continuum that covers a distance of over
2,500 kilometers (1,600 mi). From its origin at Chittagong, it traverses to Sonargaon in the Narayanganj
District of central Bangladesh, it reaches India, passing through Howrah, Bardhaman, Panagarh , Durgapur,
Asansol, Dhanbad, Aurangabad, Dehri-on-sone, Sasaram, Mohania, Mughalsarai, Varanasi, Allahabad,
Kanpur, Kalianpur, Kannauj, Etah, Aligarh, Ghaziabad, Delhi, Panipat, Karnal, Ambala, Ludhiana, Jalandhar,
Amritsar. Within India, the major portion of the road – the stretch between Howrah to Kanpur is National
Highway-2 (NH-2) and Kanpur to Delhi, which is known as National Highway-91 (NH-91), and between Delhi
and Wagah, at the border with Pakistan, is known as National Highway-1 (NH-1). From the Pakistan border,
the Grand Trunk Road (part of the NH-5) continues north through Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Jhelum,
Rawalpindi, Attock District, Nowshera, Peshawar and Landi Kotal. Then it enters Afghanistan through the
Khyber pass and continues west through Jalalabad, Surobi and ends at Kabul, a large part of the Afghan's
Grand Trunk Road is today part of the Jalalabad-Kabul Road. Its name was KOSE Road also, as there is a
minar at every Kos (one Kos = 3075 m), there is Minnar which are still existing. Today it NH-2 and NH-1….

2. HISTORY OF EMULSION SINCE 1915 IN INDIA

As per Specification for bitumen emulsions for roads were prepared by Shalimar Tar Products Limited

1022
in 1935, ST/1/59/SSP (Figure 1). Bitumen emulsions have for the past twenty years (i.e since 1915),
fulfilling some very real, technical and commercial requirements in this country. Figure 2.

Figure 2: Cover Page of an Old Precious Book on Emulsion.

3. HISTORY OF CONCRETE ROAD SPECIFICATION 1925 ONWARDS

Original design of Rigid pavement was initiated by Westergaard, H.M. ‘ Computation of Stresses in
Concrete Roads” Proceedings Highway Research Board, Vol 5 Part 1, 1925 and Theoretical Analysis,
Public Roads April 1926. Figure 3 and 4

Ist Mechanised road in India was built on Bombay Pune Road as shown in Figure 3 and 4 of Concrete
Road Manual published in Calcatta (WB) by Cement Corporation of India /ACC in 1948.

A book/Manual on Concrete Pavement Design for roads and streets carrying all classes of traffic was
published in 1951 based on the data discussed in Concrete Road Design, simplified and correlated with
Traffic (1933) by the late Frank T Sheets President of Portland Cement Association.

Figure 3: First Cover Page of an Old Precious Manual of Concrete Roads Bombay Pune Road

1023
Figure 4: Cover Page of an Old Precious Book on Concrete Roads Manual

4. MAJOR EXPRESSWAYS MADE WITH CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT ie PQC

First top three Rigid Pavement NH/Expressway are shown in Figure 5,6 and 7.

Figure 5 GT Karnal Road 1994, Figure 5 Bombay Pune Expressway (2002) Figure 7 Yamuna Expressway (2011)
Bituminous hard shoulder Paved and Tied Shoulder Bituminous hard shoulder

One of the first six-lane access controlled toll expressway in India, the Mumbai-Pune Expressway is
around 100km long that connects Mumbai, the financial capital of India, to Pune which is considered
as the education hub of Maharashtra
28 expressways both flexible and rigid pavements are operational and about 28 are under
construction or in planning/proposed state. Aircraft are being tried to land on Expressways (Yamuna
Expressway/Agra Lucknow Expressway) to check for future use
Now major expressways made with CC roads fully or partly are being laid in India viz Jabalpur (400km) MP, Kerla, Nagpur,
Rajasthan, Punjab.

1024
5. HISTORY OF WHITE TOPPING IN INDIA
First white topping was design by Dr L.R Kadiyali and Associates from Chirag Delhi to Mool
Chand Hospital Lajpat Nagar in Delhi on Heavy traffic BRT road in around 1998 and later on
Thin white

Figure 8 BRT Road Fgure 4: First White topping in front of Figure 5 First White Topping on Expressway
Pune Municipal Corporation 2003 Bangalore Mysore Corridors

topping was laid in front of Pune Municipal Corporation in 2003. After that in it was adopted
in Bombay Municipal Corporation etc and finally it was used on heavy traffic Bangalore
Mysore Highways

6. AMAZING TRICKS AND TIPS IN HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT

Following tricks and tips may be refered and shall always be calibrated/standardised regularly with
standard samples of cement, steel, concrete etc. before applying during execution or after execution
of civil works:

1. There may be few tricks to check the strength of concrete (M 30-M40) in the field:
i) Take 8 kg hammer and strike from 300 mm height on dry/wet
concrete at specified age say 28 days, at distance of 300 mm and
sound produced shall be 60-70 dB in dry specimen . This can be
cross-checked through a mobile after downloading sound meter.
ii) Drop a glass of water from 300 mm height on concrete surface, if
water evaporates in 3-4 hours, the grade of concrete may be M 30
to M 40, the temperature, humidity, wind speed shall be as per
calibrated with standard concrete cube sample of known strength
for confirmation exactly. Pleasecross- check this standard cube.
iii) Take rebound hammer L type for low strength, N- Type for normal
concrete or M type in case of Mass Concrete) and check strength as
per IS: 13311. There are chances of variation of 25%.
iv) Take sharp knife, and rub four times at same location for 50 mm
length, the depth of rubbing/cutting with sharp edge shall be 3-4
mm. Check with standard sample
v) Take dil Hydro chloric acid, 100 ml and add 10-20 gm concrete
samples, calculate cement concrete in one cubic meter of concrete
i.e in 2400 kg concrete.

1025
vi) If cement ( 43 Grade) content minimum is approx.. 100 kg/cum of
concrete, the approximate grade may be M 10 (100 kg/cm2)
vii) If cement content is minimum 200 kg/cum of concrete, the
approximate grade may be M 20 (200 kg/cm2)
viii) If cement content minimum is 300 kg/cum of concrete, the
approximate grade may be M 30 (300 kg/cm2)
ix) If cement content minimum is 400 kg/cum of concrete, the
approximate grade may be M 40 (400 kg/cm2), but calibration is
needed.
x) Take a broken piece of concrete, appr find area of aggregates
exposed , the area shall not be more than 80-85% of the total cube
face area i.e 225 sq cm.
2. Since the mix design trick is that minimum cement shall be 1 kg/cum of concrete for achieving
compressive strength of 1kg/cm2. That is for M 10 at 28 days, minimum cement shall be 100
kg/cum of concrete. And so on… It is true as per DLC also, as minimum cement recommended
in MORTH 2013 is 150 kg/cu m of concrete for strength M 10 at 7 days. It means it would be
about M 15 at 28 days. So is the Rule also.
3. For checking tiles pl check sound produced with lightly hammering and ensure bonding of
tiles with vertical or horizontal tiles.
4. For roughly checking the strength of precast blocks, bricks and concrete cubes, if strikes with
each other , these shall not break and sound shall also be about 50-70 dB at distance of 300
mm.
5. While finding density of subgrade or compaction factor of subgrade, while taking core of soil,
less time means less strength, Minimum 10-12 blows are needed to get soil of density of 1.75
kg/cm2.
6. To check optimum binder/moisture in soil, stabilised soil, or concrete (fresh), make a ball in
your hand and jump upto 300 mm, the ball shall not break till it comes to your palm. There
shall not be free water, the mix shall be cohesive not adhesive.
7. While working with steel and bitumen, pl check by heating, there strength almost becomes
too less. So while dealing with hot steel/ welding steel or hot bitumen, proper
propping/confinement shall be made or load shall be as minimum as possible to avoid
accidents.
8. In case of hot bituminous mix temperature is marginally low, no need to worry, as it is black
in colour, by removing top 300 mm mix from the tippers, the rest bituminous mix may be
rechecked and it may be at specified temperature.
9. While taking concrete core more time taking mean good strength. If core is being broken into
pieces, it means quality is doubtful or mix may not be cohesive or more voids could be there.
Minimum M 5 to M 7 strength is needed or lost while extracting concrete cores.
10. Strength of concrete /concrete core taken at edges or at lower portion of the gradient or near
the cover side in case of RCC, may be 10-15% Less.
11. Wet concrete strength is also 10-15% less than dry concrete.
12. In case of paver precast concrete block, length of block shall not be more than 4 times the
thickness and not more than 3 times the width as per IRC:SP:63. The reasons being any

1026
concrete member of such sizes will behave as compression member when length is upto three
times the thickness. The principle is being followed in concrete cantilevers also. The length
may be increased either by making higher grade or by RCC or pre-stressing the cantilever
portion.

13. Generally, longitudinal cracks in concrete roads occurred if soil is black cotton in the subgrade
or embankment may be having free swelling index more than 50% or proper drainage or
camber might not have been provided. Care shall be taken particularly in case of approaches
or at super elevation at bottom of hills.
14. Any cement more than 3 month old shall not be used. PL read week no and year on the cement
bag.
15. Please check adulteration in cement either by using dilute hydro chloric acid or bromoform
liquid. Hydro chloric acid dissolves cement generally, and bromoform liquid has sp. Gr. 2.8, so
cement settles at bottom and adulteration remain at the top. In case of bitumen, to check
purity, solubility of bitumen in tri chloroethylene or benzene may be checked. Some time
lime is being mixed during handling of bitumen.
16. In case of clayey soil , consolidation is being carried to increase the strength or density and
water is removed with static loading. In case of concrete, bituminous mixed soil, compaction
is being carried out by removing air with mechanical vibration. In case of nonplastic soil or
filter media, densification is being carried out which means flooding with water is
recommended to increase the strength or density. If voids are interconnected, these care
called HONYCOMBED CONCRETE like Hony bee house. If voids are not interconnected or
uniformly spread and very small in size, then workability is increased, but upto 2 % maximum.
In concrete as per IRC 15 1% air void reduces 6% compressive strength, So in the dictory AVOID
meas remove voids make better concrete.
17. Regarding water, if it is drinkable, good for use or check pH value shall be more than 6 and
compressive strength with sample water shall ne 90% as compared to good mineral Water.
Similarly in case of chemical admixture or plasticizers, pH shall not be less than 6 and if we
take one drop of this between two fingers, we should have feeling that our fingers shall be
sticking each other after 1 or 2 minutes.
18. Please check diagonal of any rectangular specimen/ cube mould, beam mould or component
and use tape and find right angle using 3,4 and 5 with tape that, 3, 7 and 12 point sat corner
of a triangle in all big construction.
19. Depressed median shall be avoided or shall be used where soil has CBR more than 15% or
sand gravelly soil.
20. If soil is clay like in MP, CBR or SPT no is about 2, if soil is silty like in UP, CBR is 5% SPT is 5,
21. If soil is sandy, CBR is about 10% and SPT is 10 like in Rajasthan. In case of RBM Road Building
Material, gravelly soil, like in Uttra Khand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, or Some parts of Orissa
CBR is more than 20% and SPT is about 20.
22. If ones body weight is is 50 kg and one walks on compacted soaked subgrade and soil has foot
impression if shows more than 2.5 mm, it means CBR is less than 4% which the minimum limit
in PMGSY projects. This is based on the assumption that foot area is 50 mm diameter

1027
7. TRICKS TO ECONOMISE COST

Following trick may first be tried on a trial stretch/demonstrated well and actual cost analysis
shall be carried out the after checking riding quality.

1. In case of Flexible pavement RAP (Recycled asphalt pavement) and C&D (Construction and
Demolition ) waste may be used in GSB as per specification IRC: 120 and IRC: 121, milled
material may be used in DBM in specified proportion, waste plastic in bituminous concrete.
Further stabilization of subgrade will reduce thickness of each layer and using CTB (Cement
Treated Base) and CT sub base will further reduce the cost.
2. Composite pavements are found to be more economical as compared to alone rigid or
flexible pavement.
3. Design structures for taking 60 days or 90 days strength of concrete.
4. Higher bearing capacity of foundation as per limits will further reduce the cost.
5. Closer joint spacing in CC roads reduced 29% cost
6. Bonded Overlays reduces cost as per the bond.
7. Low viscosity epoxy shall be immediately used before aggravating the distress further in any
concrete structure. Regularly maintaining the outer surface of any structure either steel or
concrete will minimize long term cost for maintenance.
8. Expansion joints or water seals in case of drains or building shall be for full width or depth or
height.
9. Lane design shall be as per traffic slow moving and heavy moving traffic lane shall be thicker
as compared to extreme lane of fast moving and low traffic. If lane is having loaded truck
shall be thicker that the lane carrying empty trucks in mining are.
10. Concrete penal shall have longer dimension in direction of traffic and L/B ratio shall be less
than 1.3.
11. If L/B ratio is more than 1.5, slab must be RCC for pavements.
12. Efficient auger/plougher or both along with efficient needle vibrators besides concrete of
required slump will make most cost effective concrete.
13. Efficient Bag filter house in hot mix plat will reduce the cost.
14. In case of concrete good quality sand, graded aggregates, admixture with silica fume upto
5% in concrete will reduce the cost drastically. Extra and efficient curing may also reduce
the cost.
15. No construction machinery or curing tanks shall move on unmatured concrete road or
structures.
16. In case of bitumen roads, extra flooding of roller with water and speed of roller more than 5
km/hr, and starting rolling from upper end to lower end, will reduce the quality of
bituminous layer and there after increase the cost.
17. Temperature during rolling mentioned in bituminous roads (MORTH) are after rolling not
before rolling.
18. VG 40 shall be used when temperature is more than 45 deg C as per IS: 73 and with
precaution. Similarly, 53 Grade cement shall also be used with precaution in concrete
19. Vibration shall be as minimum as possible near the newly built concrete structure built.

1028
20. Generally, when foundation is good, raft foundation, silty clay soil i.e weak foundation, pile
or deep foundation, pure sandy soil, well foundation is proposed.
21. Similarly box culvert ( 1 – 6 m width i.e first abutment to last abutment)) are provided
where soil is weak or clay and discharge is upto 1 km sq. When discharge is more , Minor
bridges ( 6-60m width)/major bridges ( > 60 m width) are provided. Box culver mean to
culvert (transfer water) through box. Similarly pipe culvert means through pipe , water is
culverted but comparatively less in quantity as per IS: 458.
22. Slab culvert for good foundation, vented causeway for good soil more water.
23. Water purity (Figure given below)

RO WATER IN BRIDGE AND QUICK TESTING KITS


RO WATER IN BRIDGE AND QUICK TESTING KITS

24. Traffic sign 3D View and Guiding Charts are shown below:

Artist Views - 3D Illusions Speed breaker and Sign

Artist Views - 3D Illusions Speed breaker and Sign


1029
IRC:SP:44 covers following Road Safety points for Highways:

• Basic Road Rules


• Traffic Sign
• Lane use signal
• Cross road
• Railway crossing
• Prohibition
• Cycle lane
• Steering
• Breaking
• Accidents and first aid
• Dos and don’ts
• Rule no and section
Safety Norms

• Shoulder drop-off < 6-10 mm


• Vertical gradient 24.6 % Maximum at approach road.
• Vertical clearance 5.5 m minimum
• Shoulder width as per drawing.
• Height of W Beam as per drawing
• Refractive index and Service Road suitably provided
• Grinding of iron protruded from the top of expansion joint
1030
DEVELOPMENT OF STATE AND NATIONAL HIGHWAYS IN INDIA

Introduction

National highways (NH) are main highways running through the length and breadth of the
country connecting major ports, foreign highways, capitals of large state and large industrial,
tourists centres e.g. NH1 - Delhi, Ambala, Amritsar, NH4-Thane, Pune, Bengaluru. On the
other hand, State highway (SH) are arterial roads of state connecting national highways of
adjacent state district headquarters and important cities within. As per traffic, NH/SH had
generally more than 2 million standard axle (msa) more than 450 commercial Vehicles per
day (CVPD) traffic (IRC:37 and IRC:58). Development of highways means development of
nervous systems of the country for greatest economy and better GDP of the country. There
are mainly two types of pavements i.e rigid and flexible pavement.

National highway construction in the country is about 9,829 km in 2017-18, indicating


average road construction rose to 27 km/day from 11km/day in the last five years. The paper
covers the present scenario on the development of cement concrete roads (rigid pavement) for
major roads /National highways and expressways.

India has been working on several greenfield projects under Bharatmala with new alignments
that would shorten distances and reduce travel time. The projects include the Delhi-Mumbai
Expressway, Mumbai - Nagpur, Kerala - Tamil Nadu, Jabalpur and Bengaluru-Chennai
expressways, Bangalore - Mangalore Highway. Most of them are rigid pavements.

The Ministry of Road Transport & Highways (MORTH) awarded contracts for 17,055 km,
1,107 km more than in 2016-17. The Ministry spent Rs 1,16,324 crore to meet its targets. As
per the ministry’s statistics, 6,167 km was constructed by the ministry directly or through
state public works departments (PWDs), while 3,071 km was constructed by NHAI (National
Highways Authority of India) and 591 km by NHIDCL (National Highway and Infrastructure
Development Corporation. Ltd). Indian Highways are numbered as:

i. All North-South highways will carry EVEN number


ii. All East-West highways will have ODD numbers
iii. All major Highways will be single digit or double digit in number
iv. North-South highways will increase their numbers from East to West.
v. Three digit numbered highways are secondary routes or branches of a main
highway.
vi. Suffixes A, B, C, D etc are added to the three digits’ sub highways to indicate
very small spin-offs or stretches of sub-highways.

State highways in India are numbered highways that are laid and maintained by the state
governments. It only links a state capital with different district .These are not related to
National Highways and are not maintained by the National Highways Authority of India or
the central government. The state highways are usually roads that link important cities, towns
and district headquarters within the state and connect them with National Highways or
highways of neighbouring states. These highways provide connections to industries or places
from key areas in the state making them more accessible.
1031
Kerala is warranted to take up major developmental initiatives such as the proposed National
Highway widening works. A long length of highway of rigid pavement is under construction
in Kanyakumari. Similar to this, huge rigid pavement work is progress in Jabalpur (MP)
400 km in length, Nagpur, Amritsar, Bhopal, Kishangarh, Warangal, and Bangalore-
Mangalore more than 800 km in length. The six-lane NH 2 between Aurangabad and
Jharkhand borders is being planned to be constructed at a cost of Rs 882 crore. The various
Rigid Pavement projects are listed in Table 1. (1-6)

Table 1: List of Major Rigid Pavement in India

S. N. Details of Rigid Pavement Projects Length &Year


1 Sikandra to Bara, NH 2 , 60 km, 2001-2005
2 FathePur: NH-2 50 km, 2001-2005
3 Khaga: NH 2 40 km, 2001-2005
4 Allahabad Bypass NH-2 80 km, 2003-2006
5 Varanasi NH-2 50 km, 2001-2006
6 Aurangabad, NH-2 60 km, 2001-2006
7 Package VA & VC NH 2 100 km, 2002-2006
8 Chittorgarh- Udaipur NH 76 80 km, 2003-2005
9 Chittorgarh Kota, NH 76 200 km, 2006-2008
10 Mumbai –Pune 100 km, 1997-2000
11 Balasore- Khargpur, NH 60 55 km, 2002-2006
12 Delhi Agra Expressway 80 km, 1995, widening
Progress
13 Indore Bypass 23 km, 2008
14 Kolkata Chennai 100 km, 2002-2006
15 Jabalpur Expressway 400 km, 2018
16 Dhanbad Chas, NH-32 55 km, 2018
17 Ranchi Dante Ganj, NH 75 80 km, 2018
18 Mumbai Goa NH 4/5 pkg New
19 Gujarat Sea Coast Diu 6 pkg 40 km, 2018
20 Eastern Periphery 136 km, 2018
21 Bye pass Patiala to Bye Pass Sangrur 42 km 2 lane 10m wide
22 Hissar Dabwali road 14 km 4 lane
10 km 4 lane, 2018
23 Jaipur Ring Road 43.17 km , 2018
24 Lucknow bye pass NH 28 14 km 2018
25 Yamuna Nagar Saharanpur 53 km , 2018
26 Chhutmalpur to Gagalheri Saharanpur 52 km , 2018
27 Nagpur Mumbai Project 623.06 km, 2018
28 Haridwar Nagina to Kahsipur NH-74 100 km 2018
29 Yamuna Expressway, 15.72X2m wide, 165.53 km, November
median 4-6m, PQC 320 mm, M 40, DLC 2011
150 mm , GSB 300 mm, subgrade 500 mm
30 Maharashtra Border to Belgaum 200 km 2014-2016
31 Vizag- Rajamundri (TuniAnakapali) 20 km, 2002
32 Sholapur –Yedeshi – Aurangabad 80 km, 2016-2018
1032
Smart Highways

In smart highways, smart systems can use digital sensors to acquire data pertaining to
landslides, accidents, traffic jams and weather conditions, activating warning systems in time
and enabling active LED displays on roads and highways. The Eastern Peripheral
Expressway made of Rigid Pavement is India’s first smart highway with highway traffic
management systems (HTMS) and video detection systems (VIDS) to relay the information
collected to a central server in the control room resulting in real-time incident management.
The Incident Management Control Centre is integral in maintaining an overall safe roadway.
Running for 24 hours & 7days, it monitors traffic with an array of intelligent transport
systems and is also able to successfully deploy ground recovery crew to assist motorists in
distress. More such initiatives need to be implemented across all our highways. Smart
highways are a crucial link in improving road transportation in the country.

Potential of Smart Highways and Roads is not only to keep us safe by regulating the speed of
our vehicles, well planned, animated system and implementing warning systems, but also
transmit real time data and share information across the network, making it simpler and
quicker to get around, to find multilevel parking, multilevel roads/separate grader on roads
to commute effectively and communicate with each other with proper warning and alerting
system.

The recently constructed Eastern Peripheral Expressway is a rigid pavement of M40 grade
concrete. This is 6-lane, about 135km long connecting Kundli, Palwal and Ghaziabad across
the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. This is green, smart, safe and efficient expressway.
Figures 1,2 and 3 show rigid pavement at Eastern Peripheral Expressway a few days before
opening to traffic near Ghaziabad.

Figure 1: Minor repair work is in progress Figure 2: Road marking along joint

Figure 3: Overview of well cleaned expressway before opening to traffic.


1033
Current Indian Specifications

Cement concrete pavements are designed as per IRC: 58 and evaluated as per IRC: 117 using
software of falling weigh deflectometer. Recently codes are published on Geometric design
and Quality Control of Highways as per IRC: SP:111 -2017 and IRC: SP:112-2017
respectively. Width of the highway is decided as per PCU (Passenger Car Units) based on
IRC: SP:111-2017 and Quality control Q3 and Q4 details are also given in IRC: SP:112-
2017. Maintenance of Highways is carried out as per IRC: SP:83 for rigid pavements. Some
of the current relevant codes are as follows:

i. IRC:15-2017 Code of Practice for Construction of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements


ii. IRC:43-2015 Recommended Practice for Plants, Tools and Equipment Required for
Construction and Maintenance of Concrete Roads
iii. IRC:44-2017 Guidelines for Cement Concrete Mix Design for Pavements
iv. IRC:58-2015 Guidelines for the Design of Plain Jointed Rigid Pavements for
Highways (Fourth Revision)
v. IRC:75-2015 Guidelines for the Design of High Embankments
vi. IRC:85-2015 Recommended Practice for Accelerated Strength Testing & Evaluation
of Concrete
vii. IRC:117-2015 Guidelines for the Structural Evaluation of Rigid Pavement Falling
Weight Deflectometer
viii. IRC:118-2015 4 Guidelines for Design and Construction of Continuously Reinforced
Concrete Pavement (CRCP)
ix. IRC:114-2013 2 Guidelines for use of Silica Fume in Rigid Pavement
x. IRC:SP:112-2017 Quality Control of concrete roads and bridges

xi. IRC:SP:46-2013 Guidelines for Design and Construction of Fibre Reinforced


Concrete Pavements
xii. IRC:SP:49-2014 Guidelines for the Use of Dry Lean Concrete as Sub-base for Rigid
Pavement
xiii. IRC:SP:62-2014 Guidelines for Design and Construction of Cement Concrete
Pavements for Low Volume Roads
xiv. IRC:SP:76-2015 Guidelines for Conventional and Thin Whitetopping

Development of Rigid Pavements

At present, the Grand Trunk Road (Figure 4) remains a continuum that covers a distance of
over 2,500 kilometers. From its origin at Chittagong, it traverses to Sonargaon in the
Narayanganj District of central Bangladesh, it reaches India, passing through Howrah,
Bardhaman, Panagarh , Durgapur, Asansol, Dhanbad, Aurangabad, Dehri-on-sone, Sasaram,
Mohania, Mughalsarai, Varanasi, Allahabad, Kanpur, Kalianpur, Kannauj, Etah, Aligarh,
Ghaziabad, Delhi, Panipat, Karnal, Ambala, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Amritsar. Within India, the
major portion of the road – the stretch between Howrah to Kanpur is National Highway-2
(NH-2) and Kanpur to Delhi, which is known as National Highway-91 (NH-91), and between
Delhi and Wagah, at the border with Pakistan, is known as National Highway-1 (NH-1).
From the Pakistan border, Nowshera, Peshawar and Landi Kotal. Then it enters Afghanistan
through the Khyber pass and continues west through Jalalabad, Surobi and ends at Kabul, a

1034
large part of the Afghan's Grand Trunk Road is today part of the the Grand Trunk Road (part
of the NH-5) continues north through Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Jhelum, Rawalpindi,
Attock District. Later it was renamed by Britishers as "The Grand Trunk Road". Connecting
many cities with various National Highways under the part of Golden Quadrilateral project.

Figure 4 : Todays’ GT Karnal Road (Haryana) and Old Minar constructed in 1600

The techno-economical aspects of cement concrete roads in comparison to flexible


pavements are shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Techno - Economic Aspects of Rigid and Flexible Pavements.


S. N. Rigid Pavement Flexible Pavement
1 Stiffness is about 4 time more ( 400 kn/mm) Stiffness is about 4 times less
(100kN/mm)
2 If 100 kN wheel load is applied on 300 mm If 100 kN load is applied on 300
plate, the deflection is about less than 200 mm plate, the deflection is about
micron less than 800 micron
3 Load is distributed on about 750 mm dia Load is distributed on about
circle 200-300 mm dia
4 Stress or fatigue on subgrade is less Stresses or fatigue on subgrade
is more
5 Needs strengthening after about 30 years Needs strengthening after about
6-8 years
6 Cost of NH is at par Cost of NH is at par
7 Less wear and tear More wear and tear
8 Maintenance is difficult Maintenance is easy
9 Being same riding quality, not as cosy as More cosy as compared to rigid
flexible pavement, reason may be flattening pavement, but of same riding
of tyre. More sound (80-100 dB), more joint, quality, reason may be not much
cracks, not being healed naturally and do not flattening of tyre, sound (60-80
absorb heat of friction between tyre and road dB), least joint cracks, healed
surface due to white in colour naturally at high temperature
and absorb heat due to black
colour
10 More economical on weaker subgrade Less economical on weaker
subgrade
11 Night visibility better Night visibility depends on
marking of paints
12 Fuel consumption 14% less than that of -
flexible pavement.
1035
National highways are to be made of cement concrete, as the tyre technology has improved
over the years. To make environment clean, special focus on highways would be given to
hilly states like Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and the Northeast states, where frequent
landslides occur. A typical rigid pavement in Himachal Pradesh is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Rigid Pavement in Himachal Pradesh

Pavement Materials and Design

Currently following cements are being used to construct rigid pavements:

i. Ordinary Portland Cement 43 and 53 Grade, IS 269 with 5% performance


improver (mineral admixtures etc)
ii. Portland-Pozzolana Cement IS 1489 (Part 1) (with fly ash content not more than
20% by weight of PPC)
iii. Portland Slag Cement, IS 455 (with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag content not
more than 50% by weight of PSC)
iv. Composite Cement (blended with granulated slag & fly ash), IS: 16415

On national highways mostly plain jointed rigid pavement is being used with dowel bars on
NH projects and where thickness is less than 200 mm of Pavement Quality Concrete (PQC),
there dowel bars are not being used at each contraction joints. Following types of Joints in
rigid pavement construction is normally being adopted:

I. Contraction joints when dowel bars are use, dummy contraction joints when
dowel bars are not being used,
II. Construction joints at start and end
III. Cold Joints when work stops in between and the joint is made,
IV. Longitudinal joints with and without tie bars when width is more than 4.5 m or
5 m as per the thickness. Since contraction joints are cut 15 times the
thickness,

Original design of Rigid pavement was initiated by Westergaard (7). Width of the highway is
decided as per PCU (Passenger Car Units) based on IRC:SP:111-2017 and Quality control
Q3 and Q4 details are given in IRC:SP:112-2017.

1036
India’s first Concrete Road Manual published in Calcutta by Cement Corporation of India
/ACC in 1948 and the cover design as well. (Figure 6) An International book/Manual on
Concrete Pavement Design for Roads and Streets carrying all classes of traffic was published
in 1951 based on the data discussed in Concrete Road Design, simplified and correlated with
Traffic (1933) by the late Frank T Sheets, President of Portland Cement Association.

Figure 6: First Cover page and 2nd & 3rd Page of an Indian Manual of Concrete Roads

Expressways, Major Projects and White topping

To minimise pollution and to have least maintenance on highways, one of the first six-lane
expressways was built in India, the Mumbai-Pune Expressway, which is about 100 km long.
The second and third are NH 2 (GT Karnal Road ) and Yamuna Expressway respectively.
Now, aircrafts are being tried to land on rigid pavement expressway (Yamuna Expressway),
for future need for the military operation. (Figure 7,8 & 9).

Figure 7 GT Karnal Road 1994, Figure 8 Bombay Pune Expressway (2002) Figure 9 Yamuna Expressway (2011)
Bituminous hard shoulder Bituminous hard shoulder Paved and Tied Shoulder

The major projects dealing rigid pavement using modern slipform pavers are: Yadagiri
Warangal, Jodhpur 287 km of four lane dual carriage way, primarily construction of the
Kerala/TamilNadu –Villikuri -Kanyakumari sections of NH-47 and NH47B under the
National Highway Development Programme (NHDP Phase-3) in the state of Tamil Nadu on
EPC (Economical Project Construction) mode/Four laning of the National Highway-66
bypass stretch from Mukkola to Karode in the Kerala-Tamil Nadu border, Four-laning of the
Addahole (Gundya) to Bantwal cross of NH-75 (old NH no. 48) in Karnataka.

First white topping was designed by Dr L.R Kadiyali and Associates for the BRT road from
Chirag Delhi to Mool Chand Hospital- Lajpat Naga on heavy traffic in 1998 and later on, thin
white topping was laid in front of Pune Municipal Corporation in 2003.
1037
After that in it was adopted in Bombay and Pune Municipal Corporation roads. It was also
used on heavy traffic in Bangalore - Mysore Highway in 2010. The designer was M/S Dr.
L.R Kadyali and Associates New Delhi. (Figure 10, 11 and 12)

Figure 10 BRT Road, Delhi Figure 11: First White topping Figure 12: First White
in front of Pune Municipal Corporation Topping on Expressway
Bangalore Mysore.
Conclusions

The state and national highways are being constructed and developed at a faster rate. The
cement concrete roads (rigid pavements) are more stiff, have less wear and tear, similar riding
quality as compared to flexible pavements, almost maintenance free, with less fuel
consumption for vehicles and cause less pollution and have about three times more life than
those of flexible pavements.

The rigid pavements are being designed and constructed following the Indian Specifications
and Codes of practices. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway, the Yamuna Expressway and the
Eastern Peripheral Expressway in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are major rigid pavements
constructed and are being developed further. The Eastern Peripheral Expressway is the first
green, smart and efficient expressway, with intelligent transport and video detection systems
to relay the information collected to a central server, resulting in real-time incident
management and maintaining an overall safe roadway similar to smart cities and smart
highways.

References
1. Manesar-Kundli Stretch of KMP E-Way By May End, Says Chief Minister Haryana, |
Apr 13, 2018, 07:57 IST, The Times of India
2. https://www.moneycontrol.com/news/business/economy/pm lays foundation stones
for bihar development projects 2546281.html
3. http://www.dailypioneer.com/state-editions/raipur/4-laning-of-odisha--arang-section-
of-nh-53-soon.html
4. https://www.bing.com/news/search?q=Development+Of+State+And+National+High
ways&qpvt=developmeant+of+state+and+national+highways&FORM=NWRFSH,,
Wikipedia, Indian road network
5. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-andhrapradesh/share-and-care-
important-for- development- says- vice-president/article 23520198. ece, Andhra
Pradesh Share and care important for development, says Vice-President, Special
Correspondent, Visakhapatnam, April 13, 2018.
6. https://static.mygov.in/rest/s3fs- public /mygov_ 14822351221494241.pdf, Vijay
Dhingra, Draft Standards for Smart Cities, Observations and Suggestions and General
Public Feedback on Smart City Proposal – Puducherry.
7. WESTERGAARD, H. M. Computation of stresses in concrete roads, Proceedings,
Highway Research Board, Vol.5, part1,1925.

1038
References:

1. K. L. Sethi and Satander Kumar, Determination of Pozzolana Content in Portland


Pozzolana Cement , Indian Concrete Journal, Dec 1985
2. Satander Kumar (Unpublished), Estimation of Pozzolana Content/Adulteration in
Portland Pozzolana Cement in Hindi
3. V.P. Arora and Satander Kumar, Use of Recycled Aggregate in Concrete Pavements
IRC, Highway Research BulletinNo32,1987
4. Dr. S. S. Seehra, and Satander Kumar, Make Waste into Wealth in Rural Road
Construction NCB International Seminar on Cement and Building Material 1989
5. Dr. S. S. Seehra, Dr. Mrs Saroj Gupta, Satander Kumar and UK. Guru Vittal, Lime
Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Concrete for use in Road Construction, IRC High
way Research Bulletin No 41, 1990
6. Dr.S. S. Seehra, Satander Kumar and U.K. Guru Vittal, Comparative Techno-
economic Aspects of Flexible and Rigid Pavements for Highways Jr. Civil
Engineering & Cons. Review June 1990.
7. Dr.S. S. Seehra, U. K. Guru Vittal and Satander Kumar, Systematic Approach for
Structural Evaluation of Rigid Airfield Pavements, IRC Indian HighwaysSep,1992
8. Dr. S. S. Seehra, Dr. Saroj Gupta and Satander Kumar, Magnesium Phosphate
Cement- An Alternate for Emergency Repair of Concrete Pavements, NCB,
International Seminar on Cement and Building Materials, Jan,1991
9. Dr.S. S. Seehra and Satander Kumar, Causes of Distress in Rigid Overlays, IRC
Journal 52-1,1991
10. Dr.S. S. Seehra and Satander Kumar, Profitable Exploitation of waste materials for
Construction of High Speed Corridors. International Seminar on Expressways,
IRC,1991.
11. Dr. S. S. Seehra, R.C. Bhatnager and Satander Kumar, Quality of Cement and
Some Suggestive Measure for its Improvements Indian Cement Industry Desk
Book,1991
12. Dr.S. S. Seehra, Dr. Saroj Gupta and Satander Kumar, Use of Industrial waste
Materials in Road Construction (in Hindi), Institution of Engineers, Aug,1992
13. Dr S S Seehra, GK Tike, JB Sengupta and Satander Kumar, Role of Industrial by
Products as Resource Materials- Eco friendly Road Construction, Seminar on
Energy Conservation in Building, Institution of Engineers, Roorkee, Nov,1992
14. Dr. S. S. Seehra, Satander Kumar and K.S. Bhalla, Role of Pozzolana in Energy
Saving for Construction Activities, Seminar on Energy Conservation in Building,
Institution of Engineers, Roorkee, Nov,1992
15. Dr.S. S. Seehra and Satander Kumar, Material Characterization of Marginal
Concrete Aggregates and Their Harmful Constituents, The Third International
Seminar on Concrete Technology, Tripoli, Libya, Dece 1992
16. Dr. S. S. seehra, Dr S. Gupta and Satander Kumar,Discovery of a New Binder for
Emergency Repair of Concrete Pavements (In Hindi) Seminar on “Vigyan Jan Jan
Ke Leya, Sep 1993, Orrisa
17. Dr. S. S. Seehra, Satander Kumar, A Simple Process for Construction of Roller
Comp-acted Concrete Pavements (In Hindi), Seminar on “Vigyan Jan Jan Ke Leya,
Sep 1993, Orrisa
18. Dr.S. S. Seehra and Satander Kumar, Some Aspects of Aggregate Characterization
for Airfield Paving Concrete, Indian Highways, August 1993
19. Dr S S Seehar, Satander Kumar GK Tike, Some Aspects of Durability Assurance in
Concrete Practice Conference Durability of Building Material and Components
1993, Japan
20. Dr.S. S. Seehra, Satander Kumar, Suresh Chand, Application of Steel Fibre
Reinforced Concrete in Overlays, Seminar on Fibre Reinforced Cementitious
Products at, Sultan pur,, KNIT Jan 28-29 , 1994
21. Dr.S. S. Seehra, Dr. Saroj Gupta and Satander Kumar,Rapid Setting Magnesium
Phosphate Cement for Repair of Concrete Pavements- Characterization and
Durability Aspects., Jr, Cement & Concrete Research, USA, 1994
22. Dr.S. S. Seehra and Satander Kumar, Design & Construction Problems for
Foundation of Roads in India, Jul. 1994, 4th International Seminar on Bearing
Capacity of Roads and Airfields, USA
23. RC Bhatnagar, Satander Kumar, Unpublished, Sulphate Attack on Rigid Pavement
and the Role of Tri Calcium Aluminate
24. Dr. S. S. Seehra, Satander Kumar and U.K. Guru Vittal, A Systematic Approach for
Design of Rigid Overlays on Pavements, Indian Highway, March, 1995
25. Suresh Chand, Dr. S.S. Seehra and Satander Kumar, Recent Advances in
Construction of Concrete Pavements, Civil Engineering and Construction Review,
April, 1995.
26. Dr.S. S. Seehra and Satander Kumar, Indian Experience with Rollcrete pavements
for Medium Traffic, PIARC XX , World Road Congress, Montreal, Sep, 1995
27. Dr. S. Seehra, Satander Kumar and J.B. Sengupta, Roller Compacted Concrete
Pavements in India for Heavy Duty Container Yard, ICORT -95, International
Conference on Roads and Road Transportation, UOR, New Delhi, Dec1995
28. Sh R.K. Jain and Satander Kumar, Present R&D Profile, Future R&D Needs and
Strategies to fulfil them in Relation to Construction of Rigid Pavements, National
Get-together at CRRI, Jan 1996.
29. Dr. S. S. Seehra and Satander Kumar, Techno-Economic Aspects of Rigid
Pavements International Seminar on Civil Engineering Practices in Twenty first
Century, Feb 1996., UOR, Roorkee
30. Dr. S. S. Seehra, G.K. Tike, Satander, Kumar and Suresh Chand, Some Thoughts on
Privatization of Highways in India IRC Seminar on Privatization, 1996.
31. Satander Kumar and Dr S.S. Seehra, Effect of Reactive and Unsound Aggregate in
the Paving Concrete- diagnosis and prevention, Fourth International Conference
on Concrete Technology for Developing Countries, Nov, 1996, Cyprus.
32. Satander Kumar ,Dr S. S. Seehra, Production, Transportation and Placement of
Ready mixed Concrete for pavements, International Seminar on cement and
Building Materials, Nov., 1998
33. Dr. S. S. Seehra, Satander Kumar, Rollcrete Developments in Pavements, Seminar
on Civil Engineering Practices Vol III,UOR,1996
34. Dr.S. S. Seehra , G.K. Tike and Satander Kumar, Materials for Quick Repair of
Surface Distress on Cement Concrete Pavements, Seminar on Civil Engineering
Practices Vol III,UOR,1996
35. Satander Kumar ,Good Quality Concrete Roads and Their Maintenance , Seminar in
Mumbai in on Good Quality Roads
36. Satander Kumar (Unpublished), High Performance Concrete for Pavements , 1996-
98
37. Satander Kumar and Dr. S. S. Seehra, Characterization of flyash, Silica fume and
Granulated Blast Furnace Slag for making High Performance Concrete,
International Seminar on Enhancement of Durability by flyash, Silica fume,
Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, NCB, New Delhi Nov 1998.
38. Dr. S. S. Seehra & Satander Kumar, Usage of High Performance Concrete for
Construction of Cement Concrete Roads International Seminar on Enhancement of
Durability by flyash, Silica fume Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, NCB, New Delhi
Nov 1998
39. Dr.S. S. Seehra and Satander Kumar, Past, Present and Future of Composite
Pavements Seminar, COMPO 98 April 24, 1998, CRRI.
40. Alok Ranjan,, U. K. Guru Vittal ,Satander Kumar and A.V.S.R Murthy, Some
Aspects of flyash Characterization and Utilization, International Conference on
Flyash Disposal and Utilization, New Delhi Vol II,1998
41. Dr. S. Seehra, Krishnamurthy Satander Kumar & Dr. S. M. Sarin, Techno-
Economic Benefits of Flyash Mixed Simply Reinforced Cement Concrete
Pavements Over Conventional Flexible Pavements, National Conference on
Construction, March 1999CIDC & MOST.
42. Satander Kumar, Quality Requirement of Water and Admixture IS: 9103 and IS:
456
43. G.K. Tike, Satander Kumar Dr. S. S. Seehra and Prof. P. K. Sikdar,Utilization of Fly
ash in Construction of Base Courses for Pavements, National Seminar on Fly ash
Characterization and its Geotechnical Applications, IIS, Bangalore, Aug,1999
44. Satander Kumar, G.K. Tike, Dr.S.S. Seehra and Prof. P. K. Sikdar, Design
Considerations for Semi-Rigid Bases in Road and Airfield Pavements National
Seminar on Fly ash Characterization and its Geotechnical Applications, IIS,
Bangalore, Aug,1999
45. Dr.S. S. Seehra, M.A. Joseph Satander Kumar & Dr.S.M.Sarin, Developments in
Restoring Skid Resistance of Cement Concrete Surfaces for Prevention of Skidding
Accidents, NBM Journal, Sep,1999
46. A Ranjan, U.K. Guru Vittal, Satander Kumar, A.V.S.R. Murthy, Udan Rakh Ke
Abhilakshnic gun aur upyogita (in Hindi) , Sadak Darpan, CRRI, New Delhi
September 1999.
47. Girish Kumar Dr Renu Mathur, Satander Kumar, Quality Control Evaluation of
Rigid Pavement in Hindi Sadak Darpan CRRI 2002 (in Hindi)
48. Dr.S. S. Seehra, Satander Kumar and J. B. Sengupta, Roller Compacted Concrete-
An Innovative Technique for Road Construction, Fifth International Conference on
Concrete Technology, For Developing Countries, Nov 1999 NCB, New Delhi
49. U.K. Guru Vittal, Satander Kumar, Deep Chandra, Dr. P.K. Sikdar, Utilization of
Flyash for Road construction, Civil Engineering and Construction Review, April
1999.
50. Dr S. S. Seehra, Binod Kumar & Satander Kumar, Potential Gains Through Welded
Wire Wire Fabric , for Rigid Pavements, Indian Concrete, Journal, Nov, 1999
51. Dr. S. S. Seehra ,Satander Kumar, G.K. Tike, Rehabilitation and Maintenance of
Cement Concrete Roads International seminar on Highway Rehabilitation and
Maintenance, New Delhi 12-13 November, 1999
52. Prof. P. K. Sikdar, Satander Kumar, Cement Concrete Roads: Future of Road
Infrastructure in India National Seminar at Ranchi, Institution of Engineers, Ranchi
Nov. 1999.
53. Prof P. K. Sikdar, U. K. Guru Vittal and Satander Kumar, Use of Flyash in Roads
and Embankments, IInd International Conference- Flyash, Disposal & Utilization,
CBIP, New Delhi, Dec. 1999.
54. Prof P. K. Sikdar, U. K. Guru Vittal and Satander Kumar, Construction of Rural
Roads using Fly ash, IInd International Conference- Flyash, Disposal & Utilization,
CBIP, New Delhi, Dec. 1999.
55. Murleedharan, T. & Satander Kumar, Interlocking Concrete Block Pavement- An,
Innovative, Friendly Paving System. Indian Highways Vol. 28, N5, May, 2000.
56. Prof P. K. Sikdar, U.K. Guruvittal and Satander Kumar, Current Concepts on the
use of flyash for road construction Workshop on: Flyash as Civil Engineering
Material, Organised by:Engineering College Kota, Jaipur, 28 April 2000
57. Satander Kumar, Use of flyash in cement concrete roads Seminar on Flyash,
Organised by:National Thermal Power Corporation, Samadhri, and District
Industries Centre, A.P. Pollution Board, Vishaka Patanam. 19-12-2000 and 20-12-
2000
58. P K Sikdar, Satander Kumar, Technical Education System , Where Do we Stand
Seminar on Reforms in Technical Education, UOR 2001
59. Prof. P. K. Sikdar, Satander Kumar and U. K. Guruvittal, Use of Flyash in Plain and
Reinforced Concrete. Seminar on: Utilisation of Flyash in Water Resources Sector,
Organised by Central Soil and Material Research Station (CSRMS), Ministry of
Water Resources, Olof Palme Marg, Hauz Khas, New Delhi., 11 April 2000.
60. U VVLK Rao, Satander Kumar and MVB Rao, Use of Mineral Admixture to Control
the Reinforcement Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete Structures 21-24 Nov 2000, 7th
NCB Seminar Volume IX.
61. Prof P.K. Sikdar, & Satander Kumar, Techno-economic Analysis for Choice of
Cement Concrete Pavement, Proc. on Conference, Structural Engineering
Convention, SEC 2001, Civil Engineering Department, University of Roorkee,
Roorkee, 29-31 October.
62. Prof. P. K. Sikdar & Satander Kumar, Cement Concrete Roads- Suitability and
Economics, Seminar on Development of Road Infra-Structure in Zharkhand 29-06-
02 to 30-06-02, Institution of Engineers/ CMRI, Dhanbad
63. Satander Kumar Unpublished, Functional Evaluation of Roads
64. U. K. Guruvittal, Satander Kumar, Sudhir Mathur and Prof. P. K. Sikdar, Road
Construction using Wastes, Seminar on Development of Road Infra-Structure in
Zharkhand 29-06-02 to 30-06-02, Institution of Engineers/ CMRI, Dhanbad.
65. Satander Kumar, The Use of Fly ash in Cement Concrete Road Construction,
Workshop on Cement and Fly ash Handling, Storage and Processing with A Special
Focus on Road Projects, Technicom Management Services, Mumbai, 12-08-02
66. Satander Kumar, State-of the Art Techniques on Concrete/Rigid Pavement being
Used for National Highways, Workshop on Concrete Roads., NTPC, NOIDA,16-04-
02
67. Satander Kumar, Use of Mineral Admixtures (Particularly Fly ash for High
Performance Concrete. WIRTGEN India Pvt Ltd, Mysore Road, Bangalore,
Workshop on Concrete Paving Technology, 25th Jan 2002.
68. Satander Kumar, Use of Different Types of Cements in Concrete Roads and Their
Construction, Workshop on Concrete Roads and Increased Use of Flyash/ Blended
Cements in Construction, National Council for Cement and Building, Materials, 8th
March, 2002, Khanij Bhavan, Bangalore.
69. Prof P. K. Sikdar & Satander Kumar, Advantages Against Corrosion of Flyash
Admixed Reinforced Concrete, CORON 2002, National Conventional on Corrosion,
East Asia Pacific Conference, NACE, Nov 28-30 Goa, Accepted as Key Note
Paper.
70. Prof P. K. Sikdar, Satander Kumar,Techno-economic Choice for Flexible and Rigid
Pavements Key Note Paper- National Conference on Modern Cement Concrete and
Bituminous Roads,
December 18-20, 2003
Prof P. K. Sikdar, and Satander Kumar, Durability of Corrosion Resistant Concrete
for Bridges and other Concrete Structures by, Key Note Paper, International
71. Conference on Corrosion, CORCON 2003, Mumbai, December,1st -04th , 2003,
organised by NACE, The Corrosion Society of India, at Renaissance Hotel and
Convention Centre, Mumbai
Satander Kumar PK Sikdar and VK Sood , Choice of Blended Cements and Fly ash
72. for Cost Effective and Durable Concrete Roads CBIP IIIrd International Conference
Fly ash Utilization Feb 2003 New Delhi
Satander Kumar, VK Sood and Prof P. K. Sikdar, Cement Concrete Roads in India-
Review of Construction Practices, National Seminar on Concrete Pavement
73.
Problems and Promises School of Building Science and Technology Ahmedabad
2005
Dr P.K. Nanda, Satander Kumar, Recent Development in Materials and techniques
74. for the Construction of Rigid Pavements Journal NBM&CW (New Building
Materials and Construction World, New Delhi, March 2005.
Satander Kumar, Innovations in concrete pavements and structures, National
75. Council for Cement and Building Materials, 14th NCB International Seminar on,
Cement and Building Materials, 01-04 December 2015, New Delhi.
GK Tike, Satander Kumar, Dr. V. K. Sood, Use of Chemical Admixtures for
76.
Pavements Quality Concrete, Indian Concrete Journal, Sep 2004
Satander Kumar, Ultra Thin White Topping in India- Development, Research &
77. Application, Seminar on Design, Construction and, Maintenance of Cement
Concrete Pavements, 8-10 October 2004
Satander Kumar, Causes of Distress and Maintenance of Concrete Roads, Seminar
78. on Design, Construction and, Maintenance of Cement Concrete Pavements, 8-10
October 2004
79. S.S. Gaharwar, Satander Kumar, Ram, Kumar and MVB Rao, A Visionary
Approach for the Health Monitoring of Ultra High Performance Bridges in Indian
Conditions, International Symposium on Ultra High Performance Concrete 2004,
University of Kassel, Germany 13th to 15th September 2004
80. PKSikdar, Dr SGupta, Satander Kumar, Application of Fibres as Secondary
Reinforcement, Journal NBM&CW (New Building Materials and Construction
World, New Delhi, Dec, 2004.
81. Satander Kumar, Fly ash Based Specifications for Making Concrete Roads,
National Seminar on Building Materials and Technology for Sustainable
Development, Jan 22-23, 2005, SEPT Ahmedabad
82. SS Nahar and Satander Kumar, Construction of Precast Box Culverts- a Cutting
Edge Technology published in IRC Journal) during IRC Session at Indore during
19-21st December 2015
83. Dr. P. K. Nanda, Satander Kumar, Durability of Reinforced Concrete Pavements
and Other Structures, International Conference on Corrosion CORCON 2005, 28th-
30 November, Accepted as Invited Lecture
84. Dr VVLK Rao, MVB Rao, Satander Kumar SP Pokhriyal, Structural Evaluation of
Cement Concrete Roads in Mumbai City Journal of Performance Construction
ASCE May 2006
85. VK Sinha, RK Jain and Satander Kumar, Whitetopping- A Cost Effective
Rehabilitation Alternative for Preserving Bituminous Pavements on Long Terms
Basis IRC Journal Oct- Dec 2007
86. VK Sinha, RK Jain and Satander Kumar, Causes of Cracking of Concrete
Pavements Types and Repair
87. J B Sengupta, Satander Kumar, Effect of Flakiness Indices on the Properties of
Aggregates and Cement Concrete IRC Indian Highways, Vol36,No4 April 2008
88. Satander Kumar and Anukul Saxena., “Soil and Aggregate Stabilization for
Sustainable Pavement” NBM&CW, Journal, December 2010
89. N Satander Kumar and Anukul Saxena., Unpublished, New Pavement Technology:
soil and Aggregates Stabilization for Sustainable Pavements
90. Satander Kumar and S.S Nahar Sect Gen IRC, Cable Stayed and Suspension
Bridge- A way Forward Journal of Indian Roads Congress July Sep 2014, IRC, New
Delhi
91. 9 Mithra Dewars, Satander Kumar & Mohit Verma, New Solutions for Indian
1 Challenges, IRC, Construction Technology Emerging Trends and Challenges in 21st
Century Feb 2009, Pune
92. Mithra Dewars, Satander Kumar & Mohit Verma, A Case Study on Rapid Pavement
Construction by In-situ Stabilization, Punjab Engineering College Seminar 2010
93. Satander Kumar, Dimension in Construction and Maintenance of Concrete Roads,
Cement Review Journal February 2013
94. Satander Kumar, Self-Compacting Concrete for Structural Components, Cement
Review Journal March 2013
95. Satander Kumar, New Dimension in Construction of Rigid Pavement including Toll
Plaza Technical Seminar in Pune on Soil and Slope Stabilization 2014
96. Satander Kumar VV Arora, Cable Stayed And Suspension Bridges–Problems And
Their Solution, Proceedings International Conference on Ecstasy in Concrete
ACECON 2015 Organised by ICI and Asian Concrete Association at Kolkatta 8th
and 9th October 2015.
97. Satander Kumar Unpublished, Alternate Material for Civil Engineering
98. Satander Kumar, Use of Construction and Demolition Waste- A Way Forward
Indian Roads Congress, Indian Highways Monthly Journal February 2015
99. SS Porwal and Satander Kumar, Design and Construction of Sustainable Composite
Pavements March 2016, Indian Highways
100. Satander Kumar, Un-published, Forensic Engineering in Cable Stayed Bridges,
2017
101. Satander Kumar Unpublished, Current Concept on Durability of Concrete Structures
2018
102. Satander Kumar Unpublished, History of Asphalt and Methodology for
Construction of Asphalt Pavement Including CTB.
103. Satander Kumar, Ultra High Performance Concrete for Pavements IJRET 2016
104. Satander Kumar Unpublished, Innovation in Bridges
105. Satander Kumar Unpublished, Innovation Corrosion Control Practices to Provide
Long Term Durability of Concrete Structure.
106. Satander Kumar Unpublished, Selection of Bitumen for Highway Pavements- A
Need of The Hour.
107. Satander Kumar Unpublished, Innovations in Repair to Maintain Pavements and
Structures.
108. Satander Kumar, Tyre Bursting on Expressway of Rigid Pavements December
2017 IRC Indian Highways
109. Satander Kumar Ultra High Performance Concrete for Pavements
110. Satander Kumar, New Materials And Techniques For Infra Structure Development
In Inaccessible Border Area published in the Proceeding Seminar on “New
Construction Materials, Techniques and design, in Bridge, Tunnel & Road
construction suitable for infrastructure development in inaccessible Border Area”
during 11-12 Sep 2015 at Zorawar Auditorium, Manekshaw Centre, New Delhi
organized by IIBE, New Delhi.
111.
Satander Kumar Fully Pre cast Bridges Unpublished
112. Satander Kumar Pragmatic Approach For Development of Urban Infra Structure, May
Cement Concrete and Construction Review India 2018

113. Satander Kumar Ways And Means For Creation Of Smart Roads In Smart Cities,
Seminar on Smart City, ABES Engineering College 2018

114. Satander Kumar Amazing Revelations In Concrete Roads Undr Publication in


Cement Concrete and Construction Review August 2018.
115. Satander Kumar , Amazing Rising Visions In Highways Unpublished

116. Dr S C, Maiti, Satander Kumar Development Of State And National Highways


In India, Institution of Engineers Under Publication

Satander Kumar
Compilation by Satander Kumar

Contents:

i) Development in Highway Engineering – Compilation of R&D papers 116 Nos


ii) PPT in pdf Quality control of Bridges, Concrete roads and Flexible pavements
iii) A Social Book, how to remain healthy and make your life peaceful.
DEDICATED TO MY PARENTS, WIFE, SON, SON IN LAW, DAUGHTERS AND GRAND DAUGHTER- SAANVI MURAB

PROFILE OF SATANDER KUMAR.

DATE OF BIRTH : 5th March 1950

SPECIALISATION
High Performance Material, Design & QC of Rigid/Flexible pavement/Bridges, overlay design
etc., Use of Waste materials, composite Pavements, Rural Roads- Design, Construction,
Quality control & Maintenance of roads and box culverts and minor bridges, Third Party Quality
Audit, testing &repair of roads (Rigid/flexible pavements), bridges and other structures.
Preparation of draft specification on civil engineering and mechanical engineering for IRC/ BIS.

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS: Post graduation in Chemistry and Graduation in civil


Engineering. Chartered Engineer (civil) from Institution of Engineer Calcutta WB.

Experience and Profession: Former HOD Rigid Pavement in CRRI, Consultant in JP


Associates involved in Yamuna Expressway, NICE Bangalore in Bangalore Mysore
Expressway, NCB Ballabgarh, L&T, MSRDC, Alchemist, PWDs, & SP Singla Chandigarh.

Research papers and Members: Published research papers in Journals and Conferences
about 1116 in No. Is a members of Technical Committees of IRC, IAHE and IS.

Satander Kumar
10th July 2018 Tuesday

1
CATALOGUE OF IRC PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FOR SALE
HEAD OFFICE
INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS
IRC BHAWAN, KAMA KOTI MARG, SECTOR-6, R.K. PURAM, NEW DELHI-110022
(TELEPHONE NO.26185303)

SATELLITE OFFICE
IDA BUILDING, JAMNAGAR HOUSE, SHAHJAHAN ROAD, NEW DELHI-110011
(TELEPHONE NO.23387759) E-mail : ircsale1934@gmail.com

S.No. Code/ Title the Publication Price Packing


Document No. (Titles given in bold types have been Just (Rs.) &
Published) Postage
(Rs.)

I. IRC SPECIFICATIONS, STANDARDS, DESIGN CODES

1. IRC:2-1968 Route Marker Signs for National Highways 80.00 20.00


(First Revision)
2. IRC:3-1983 Dimensions & Weights of Road Design 80.00 20.00
Vehicles (First Revision)
3. IRC:5-2015 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 470.00 40.00
for Road Bridges, Section I – General Features
of Design (Eighth Revision)
4. IRC:6-2017 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 1000.00 40.00
for Road Bridges, Section-II Loads and Load
Combinations (Seventh Revision)
5. IRC:7-2017 Recommended Practice for Numbering 100.00 20.00
Culverts, Bridges and Tunnels (Second
Revision)
6. IRC:8-1980 Type Designs for Highway Kilometre Stones 80.00 20.00
(Second Revision)
7. IRC:9-1972 Traffic Census on Non-Urban Roads (First 80.00 20.00
Revision)

8. IRC:10-1961 Recommended Practice for Borrowpits for (Amalgamated with


Road Embankments Constructed by Manual IRC:36-2010
Operation
9. IRC:11-2015 Recommended Practice for the Design and 400.00 40.00
Layout of Cycle Tracks (First Revision)

1
10. IRC:12-2016 Unified Guidelines for Access Permission to 300.00 20.00
New Fuel Stations, Private Properties, Rest Area
Complexes and Such Other Facilities Along
National Highways (Fourth Revision)
11. IRC:14-2004 Recommended Practice for Open Graded 100.00 20.00
Premix Carpets (Third Revision)
12. IRC:15-2017 Code of Practice for Construction of Jointed 1000.00 40.00
Plain Concrete Pavements (Fifth Revision)
13. IRC:16-2008 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 80.00 20.00
for Prime and Tack Coat (Second Revision)

14. IRC:17-1965 Tentative Specification for Single Coat (Amalgamated with


Bituminous Surface Dressing IRC:110-2005)
15. IRC:18-2000 Design Criteria for Prestressed Concrete Road (Amalgamated with
Bridges (Post-Tensioned Concrete) (Third IRC:112-2011
Revision)
16. IRC:19-2005 Standard Specification and Code of Practice 100.00 20.00
for Water Bound Macadam (Third Revision)
17. IRC:20-1966 Recommended Practice for Bituminous 100.00 20.00
Penetration Macadam (Full Grout)
18. IRC:21-2000 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice (Amalgamated with
for Road Bridges, Section III – Cement IRC:112-2011
Concrete (Plain and Reinforced) (Third
Revision)
19. IRC:22-2015 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 800.00 40.00
for Road Bridges, Section VI – Composite
Construction (Limit States Design) (Third
Revision)
20. IRC:23-1966 Tentative Specification for Two Coat (Amalgamated with
Bituminous Surface Dressing IRC:110-2005)
21. IRC:24-2010 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 800.00 40.00
for Road Bridges, Steel Road Bridges (Limit
State Method)Third Revision)
22. IRC:25-1967 Type Designs for Boundary Stones 80.00 20.00
23. IRC:26-1967 Type Design for 200-Metre Stones 80.00 20.00

24. IRC:27-2009 Specifications for Bituminous Macadam (First 200.00 20.00


Revision)
25. IRC:28-1967 Tentative Specifications for the Construction 80.00 20.00
of Stabilised Soil Roads with Soft Aggregate in
Areas of Moderate and High Rainfall

2
26. IRC:29-1988 Specification for Bituminous Concrete (Amalgamated with
(Asphaltic Concrete) for Road Pavement (First IRC:111-2009)
Revision)
27. IRC:30-1968 Standard Letters and Numerals of Different 80.00 20.00
Heights for Use on Highway Signs

28. IRC:31-1969 Route Marker Signs for State Routes 80.00 20.00
Out of stock

29. IRC:32-1969 Standard for Vertical and Horizontal 80.00 20.00


Clearances of Overhead Electric Power and
Telecommunication Lines as Related to Roads
30. IRC:33-1969 Standard Procedure for Evaluation and 80.00 20.00
Condition Surveys of Stabilised Soil Roads

31. IRC:34-2011 Recommendations for Road Construction in 400.00 40.00


Areas Affected by Water Logging, Flooding
and/or Salts Infestation (First Revision)
32. IRC:35-2015 Code of Practice for Road Markings (Second 1000.00 40.00
Revision)

33. IRC:36-2010 Recommended Practice for Construction of 300.00 40.00


Earth Embankments and Sub-Grade for Road
Works (First Revision)
34. IRC:37-2001 Guidelines for the Design of Flexible 200.00 20.00
(Out of Stock) Pavements (Second Revision)

35. IRC:37-2012 Tentative Guidelines for the Design of Flexible 600.00 40.00
Pavements (with CD)

36. IRC:38-1988 Guidelines for Design of Horizontal Curves for 600.00 40.00
Highways and Design Tables (First Revision)

37. IRC:39-1986 Standards for Road-Rail Level Crossings (First 125.00 20.00
Revision)

38. IRC:40-2002 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 160.00 20.00


for Road Bridges, Section IV – Brick, Stone and
Block Masonry (Second Revision)
39. IRC:41-1997 Guideline for Type Designs for Check Barriers 80.00 20.00
(First Revision)
40. IRC:42-1972 Proforma for Record of Test Values of Locally 80.00 20.00
Available Pavement Construction Materials

41. IRC:43-2015 Recommended Practice for Plants, Tools and 535.00 40.00
Equipment Required for Construction and
Maintenance of Concrete Roads (First
Revision)

3
42. IRC:44-2017 Guidelines for Cement Concrete Mix Design for 500.00 20.00
Pavements (Third Revision)
43. IRC:45-1972 Recommendations for Estimating the 80.00 20.00
Resistance of Soil Below the Maximum Scour
Level in the Design of Well Foundations of
Bridges
44. IRC:46-1972 A Policy on Roadside Advertisements (First 80.00 20.00
Revision)
45. IRC:47-1972 Tentative Specification for Built-up Spray 80.00 20.00
Grout
46. IRC:48-1972 Tentative Specification for Bituminous Surface (Amalgamated with
Dressing Using Precoated Aggregates IRC:110-2005)
47. IRC:49-1973 Recommended Practice for the Pulverization of (Amalgamated with
Black Cotton Soils for Lime Stabilisation IRC:SP:89-2010)
48. IRC:50-1973 Recommended Design Criteria for the Use of 60.00 20.00
Cement Modified Soil in Road Construction
49. IRC:51-1992 Guidelines for the Use of Soil Lime Mixes in (Amalgamated with
Road Construction (First Revision) IRC:SP:89-2010)
50. IRC:52-2001 Recommendations About the Alignment 120.00 20.00
Survey and Geometric Design of Hill Roads
(Second Revision)
51. IRC:53-2012 Road Accident Forms A-1 and 4 (Second 200.00 20.00
Revision)
52. IRC:54-1974 Lateral and Vertical Clearances at 80.00 20.00
Underpasses for Vehicular Traffic
53. IRC:55-1974 Recommended Practice for Sand-Bitumen 60.00 20.00
Base Courses
54. IRC:56-2011 Recommended Practices for Treatment of 600.00 40.00
Embankment and Roadside Slopes for Erosion
Control (First Revision)
55. IRC:57-2006 Recommended Practice for Sealing of Joints in 100.00 20.00
Concrete Pavements (First Revision)

56. IRC:58-2015 Guidelines for the Design of Plain Jointed 868.00 40.00
Rigid Pavements for Highways (Fourth
Revision) (with CD)
57. IRC:59-1976 Tentative Guidelines for the Design of Gap (Amalgamated with
Graded Cement Concrete Mixes for Road IRC:44-2008)
Pavements
58. IRC:60-1976 Tentative Guidelines for the Use of Lime- Fly 60.00 20.00
Ash Concrete as Pavement Base or Sub-Base
59. IRC:61-1976 Tentative Guidelines for the Construction of (Amalgamated with
Cement Concrete Pavements in Hot Weather IRC:15-2011)
4
60. IRC:62-1976 Guidelines for Control of Access of Highways 80.00 20.00
61. IRC:63-1976 Tentative Guidelines for the Use of Low Grade 60.00 20.00
Aggregates and Soil Aggregates Mixtures in
Road Pavement Construction
62. IRC:64-1990 Guidelines for Capacity of Roads in Rural 80.00 20.00
Areas (First Revision)
63. IRC:65-2017 Guidelines for Planning and Design of 400.00 20.00
Roundabouts (First Revision)

64. IRC:66-1976 Recommended Practice for Sight Distance on 80.00 20.00


Rural Highways

65. IRC:67-2012 Code of Practice for Road Signs (Third 1350.00 40.00
Revision)

66. IRC:68-1976 Tentative Guidelines on Cement-Fly Ash (Amalgamated with


Concrete for Rigid Pavement Construction IRC:44-2008)

67. IRC:69-1977 Space Standards for Roads in Urban Areas 60.00 20.00

68. IRC:70-2017 Regulation and Control of Mixed Traffic in 400.00 20.00


Urban Areas (First Revision)

69. IRC:71-1977 Recommended Practice for Preparation of 60.00 20.00


Notations
70. IRC:72-1978 Recommended Practice for Use and Upkeep of 60.00 20.00
Equipment, Tools and Appliances for
Bituminous Pavement Construction
71. IRC:73-1980 Geometric Design Standards for Rural (Non- 120.00 20.00
Urban) Highways
72. IRC:74-1979 Tentative Guidelines for Lean-Cement 60.00 20.00
Concrete and Lean-Cement Fly Ash Concrete
as a Pavement Base or Sub-Base
73. IRC:75-2015 Guidelines for the Design of High 935.00 40.00
Embankments (First Revision)

74. IRC:76-1979 Tentative Guidelines for Structural Strength 80.00 20.00


Evaluation of Rigid Airfield Pavements
75. IRC:77-1979 Tentative Guidelines for Repair of Concrete (Amalgamated with
Pavements Using Synthetic Resins IRC:SP-83)
76. IRC:78-2014 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 700.00 40.00
for Road Bridges, Section VII- Foundations and
Substructures (Revised Edition)
77. IRC:79-1981 Recommended Practice for Road Delineators 80.00 20.00

5
78. IRC:80-1981 Type Designs for Pick-up Bus Stops on Rural 60.00 20.00
(i.e., Non-Urban) Highways

79. IRC:81-1997 Guidelines for Strengthening of Flexible Road 160.00 20.00


Pavements Using Benkelman Beam Deflection
Technique (First Revision)
80. IRC:82-2015 Code of Practice for Maintenance of 666.00 40.00
Bituminous Surface of Roads” (First Revision)
(with CD)
81. IRC:83-2015 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 400.00 40.00
(Part-I) for Road Bridges, Section IX Bearings, Part I :
Roller & Rocker Bearings (Second Revision)
82. IRC:83-2015 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 600.00 20.00
(Part II) for Road Bridges, Section IX – Bearings
(Elastomeric Bearings), Part II (First Revision)
83. IRC:83-2002 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 200.00 20.00
(Part III) for Road Bridges, Section IX – Bearings, Part
III: POT, POT-CUM-PTFE, PIN and Metallic
Guide Bearings
84. IRC:83-2014 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 600.00 40.00
(Part IV) for Road Bridges, Section IX – Bearings
(Spherical and Cylindrical)
85. IRC:84-1983 Code of Practice for Curing of Cement (Amalgamated with
Concrete Pavements IRC:15-2011)
86. IRC:85-2015 Recommended Practice for Accelerated 300.00 40.00
Strength Testing & Evaluation of Concrete
(First Revision)
87. IRC:86-1983 Geometric Design Standards for Urban Roads 100.00 20.00
in Plains
88. IRC:87-2011 Guidelines for Formwork, Falsework and 600.00 40.00
Temporary Structures (First Revision)
89. IRC:88-1984 Recommended Practice for Lime Flyash 60.00 20.00
Stabilised Soil Base/Sub-Base in Pavement
Construction
90. IRC:89-1997 Guidelines for Design and Construction of 120.00 20.00
River Training & Control Works for Road
Bridges (First Revision)
91. IRC:90-2010 Guidelines of Selection, Operation and 300.00 40.00
Maintenance of Bituminous Hot Mix Plant (First
Revision)
92. IRC:91-1985 Tentative Guidelines for Construction of (Amalgamated with
Cement Concrete Pavements in Cold Weather IRC:15-2011)
93. IRC:92-2017 Guidelines for Design of Interchanges in Urban 400.00 20.00
Areas (First Revision)
6
94. IRC:93-1985 Guidelines on Design and Installation of Road 200.00 20.00
Traffic Signals
95. IRC:94-1986 Specification for Dense Bituminous Macadam (Amalgamated with
IRC:111-2009)
96. IRC:95-1987 Specification for Semi-Dense Bituminous (Amalgamated with
Concrete IRC : 111-2009)
97. IRC:96-1987 Tentative Specification for Two-Coat Surface (Amalgamated with
Dressing Using Cationic Bitumen Emulsion IRC:110-2005)
98. IRC:97-1987 Tentative Specification for Two-Coat Surface (Amalgamated with
Dressing Using Cationic Bitumen Emulsion IRC:14-2004)
99. IRC:98-2011 Guidelines on Accommodation of Utility 600.00 40.00
Services on Roads in Urban Areas (Second
Revision)
100. IRC:99-1988 Tentative Guidelines on the Provision of Speed 80.00 20.00
Breakers for Control of Vehicular Speeds on
Minor Roads
101. IRC:100-1988 Tentative Specification for Single Coat Surface ( Amalgamated
Dressing Using Cationic Bitumen Emulsion with IRC:110-
2005)
102. IRC:101-1988 Guidelines for Design of Continuously 80.00 20.00
Reinforced Concrete Pavement with Elastic
Joints
103. IRC:102-1988 Traffic Studies for Planning Bypasses Around 80.00 20.00
Towns
104. IRC:103-2012 Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities (First 600.00 40.00
Revision)
105. IRC:104-1988 Guidelines for Environmental Impact 100.00 20.00
Assessment of Highway Projects

106. IRC:105-1988 Tentative Specification for Bituminous 80.00 20.00


Concrete (Asphaltic Concrete) for Airfield
Pavements
107. IRC:106-1990 Guidelines for Capacity of Urban Roads in 80.00 20.00
Plain Areas
108. IRC:107-2013 Specifications for Bitumen Mastic Wearing 200.00 30.00
Courses (First Revision)
109. IRC:108-2015 Guidelines for Traffic Forecast on Highways 400.00 40.00
(First Revision)
110. IRC:109-2015 Guidelines for Wet Mix Macadam (First 300.00 40.00
Revision)
111. IRC:110-2005 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice 100.00 20.00
for and Construction of Surface Dressing

7
112 IRC:111-2009 Specifications for Dense Graded Bituminous 300.00 20.00
Mixes
113. IRC:112-2011 Code of Practice for Concrete Road Bridges 1000.00 40.00
114. 1
IRC:113-2013 Guidelines for the Design and Construction of 700.00 30.00
Geosynthetic Reinforced Embankments on
Soft Subsoils
115 2
IRC:114-2013 Guidelines for use of Silica Fume in Rigid 200.00 30.00
Pavements
116 IRC:115-2014 Guidelines for Structural Evaluation and 30.00
Strengthening of Flexible Road Pavements 300.00
Using Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD)
Technique” (with CD)
117 3
IRC:116-2014 Specifications for Readymade Bituminous 400.00 30.00
Pothole Paching Mix using Cut-Back Bitumen
118. IRC:117-2015 Guidelines for the Structural Evaluation of 300.00 40.00
Rigid Pavement Falling Weight Deflectometer
(with CD)
119 4
IRC:118-2015 Guidelines for Design and Construction of 300.00 40.00
Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement
(CRCP)
120. 5
IRC:119-2015 Guidelines for Traffic Safety Barriers 300.00 40.00
121. 6
IRC:120-2015 Recommended Practice for Recycling of 535.00 40.00
Bituminous Pavements
122. IRC:121-2017 Guidelines for Use of Construction and 300.00 40.00
Demolition Waste in Road Sector
123 IRC:122-2017 Guidelines for Construction of Precast 300.00 40.00
Concrete Segmental Box Culverts
124 IRC:123-2017 Guidelines on Geophysical Investigation for 600.00 40.00
Bridges
125 IRC:124-2017 Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Design Guidelines for 600.00 40.00
Indian Cities
126 IRC:125-2017 Guidelines on Dozers for Highway Works 400.00 40.00

127 IRC:126-2017 Guidelines on Wet Mix Plant 400.00 40.00

II. IRC SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS

128. IRC:SP:4-1966 Bridge Loading Round the World 60.00 20.00

129. IRC:SP:11-1984 Handbook of Quality Control for Construction (Amalgamated with


of Roads and Runways (Second Revision) IRC:SP:112-2017)
130. IRC:SP:12-2015 Guidelines for Parking Facilities in Urban 535.00 40.00
Roads” (First Revision)

131. IRC:SP:13-2004 Guidelines for the Design of Small Bridges 400.00 30.00
and Culverts (First Revision)

8
132 IRC:SP:14-1973 A Manual for the Applications of the Critical 160.00 20.00
Path Method to Highway Projects in India

133. IRC:SP:15-1996 Ribbon Development Along Highways and Its 100.00 20.00
Prevention

134. IRC:SP:16-2004 Guidelines for Surface Evenness of Highway 100.00 30.00


Pavements (First Revision)

135. IRC:SP:17-1977 Recommendations About Overlays on Cement 100.00 20.00


Concrete Pavements

136. IRC:SP:18-1978 Manual for Highway Bridge Maintenance 120.00 20.00


Inspection
137 IRC:SP:19-2001 Manual for Survey, Investigation and 400.00 30.00
Preparation of Road Projects (Second
Revision)
138 IRC:SP:20-2002 Rural Roads Manual 1000.00 40.00
139. IRC:SP:21-2009 Guidelines on Landscaping and Tree 600.00 40.00
Plantation
140. IRC:SP:22-1986 Recommendation for the Sizes for each Type 80.00 20.00
of Road Making Machinery to Cater to the
General Demand of Road Works
141. IRC:SP:23-1983 Vertical Curves for Highways 140.00 20.00
142 IRC:SP:24-1984 Guidelines on the Choice and Planning of 100.00 20.00
Appropriate Technology in Road Construction
143. IRC:SP:25-1984 Gopi and his Road Roller-Guidelines on 80.00 20.00
Maintenance of Road Rollers
144. IRC:SP:26-1984 Report Containing Recommendations of IRC 80.00 20.00
Regional Workshops on Rural Road
Development (with Supplementary Notes)
145. IRC:SP:27-1984 Report Containing Recommendations of IRC 80.00 20.00
Regional Workshops on Highway Safety
146. IRC:SP:28-1995 Road Transport and Energy (First Revision) 100.00 20.00
147 IRC:SP:29-1994 Directory of Indgenous Manufacturers of 120.00 20.00
Road/ Bridge Construction Machinery &
Important Bridge Components (First Revision)
148 IRC:SP:30-2009 Manual on Economic Evaluation of Highway 1000.00 40.00
Projects in India (Second Revision)
149 IRC:SP:31-1992 New Traffic Signs Under Revision
150. IRC:SP:32-1988 Road Safety for Children (5-12 Years old) Under Revision
151. IRC:SP:33-1989 Guidelines on Supplemental Measures for Under Revision
Design, Detailing & Durability of Important
Bridge Structures
9
152. IRC:SP:34-1989 General Guidelines About the Equipment for 100.00 20.00
Bituminous Surface Dressing

153. IRC:SP:35-1990 Guidelines for Inspection and Maintenance of 100.00 20.00


Bridges

154. IRC:SP:36-1991 Guidelines on Format for IRC Standards 40.00 20.00


155. IRC:SP:37-2010 Guidelines for Evaluation of Load Carrying 300.00 40.00
Capacity of Bridges (First Revision)
156. IRC:SP:38-1992 Manual for Road Investment Decision Model 500.00 30.00
(with CD)
157 IRC:SP:39-1992 Guidelines on Bulk Bitumen Transportation & 120.00 20.00
Storage Equipment
158. IRC:SP:40-1993 Guidelines on Techniques for Strengthening 350.00 20.00
and Rehabilitation of Bridges
159 IRC:SP:41-1994 Guidelines on Design of At-Grade 200.00 20.00
Intersections in Rural & Urban Areas
160. IRC:SP:42-2014 Guidelines on Road Drainage (First Revision) 800.00 40.00
161. IRC:SP:43-1994 Guidelines on Low-Cost Traffic Management 200.00 20.00
Technique for Urban Areas
162. IRC:SP:44-1996 Highway Safety Code 200.00 20.00
163. IRC:SP:45-1996 Time Series Data on Road Transport 100.00 20.00
Passenger and Freight Movement (1951-1991)

164. IRC:SP:46-2013 Guidelines for Design and Construction of 300.00 30.00


Fibre Reinforced Concrete Pavements
165 IRC:SP:47-1998 Guidelines on Quality Systems for Road (Amalgamated with
Bridges (Plain, Reinforced, Prestressed and IRC:SP:112-2017)
Composite Concrete)
166. IRC:SP:48-1998 Hill Road Manual 600.00 40.00
167. IRC:SP:49-2014 Guidelines for the Use of Dry Lean Concrete 400.00 30.00
as Sub-base for Rigid Pavement (First
Revision)
168 IRC:SP:50-2013 Guidelines on Urban Drainage 1000.00 40.00
169 IRC:SP:51-2015 Guidelines for Load Testing of Bridges (First 300.00 40.00
Revision)
170. IRC:SP:52-1999 Bridge Inspector’s Reference Manual 140.00 30.00
171. IRC:SP:53-2010 Guidelines on Use of Modified Bitumen in 300.00 30.00
Road Construction (Second Revision)

172. IRC:SP:54-2000 Project Preparation Manual for Bridges 200.00 20.00


173. IRC:SP:55-2014 Guidelines on Traffic Management in Work 900.00 40.00
Zones” (First Revision)
10
174 IRC:SP:56-2011 Guidelines for Steel Pedestrian Bridges (First 600.00 40.00
Revision)
175 IRC:SP:57-2000 Guidelines for Quality Systems for Road (Amalgamated with
Construction IRC:SP:112-2017)
176 IRC:SP:58-2001 Guidelines for Use of Flyash in Road 120.00 20.00
Embankments

177. IRC:SP:59-2002 Guidelines for Use of Geotextiles in Road 200.00 20.00


Pavements and Associated Works

178. IRC:SP:60-2002 An Approach Document for Assessment of 200.00 20.00


Remaining Life of Concrete Bridges
179. IRC:SP:61-2004 An Approach Document on Whole Life 200.00 30.00
Costing for Bridges in India
180. IRC:SP:62-2014 Guidelines for Design and Construction of 600.00 40.00
Cement Concrete Pavements for Low Volume
Roads” (First Revision)
181. IRC:SP:63-2004 Guidelines for the Use of Interlocking 200.00 30.00
Concrete Block Pavement

182. IRC:SP:64-2016 Guidelines for the Analysis and Design of 320.00 20.00
Cast-in-Place Voided Slab Superstructure
(First Revision)
183. IRC:SP:65-2005 Guidelines for Design and Construction of 200.00 20.00
Segmental Bridges
184. IRC:SP:66-2016 Guidelines for Design of Continuous Bridges 320.00 20.00
(First Revision)

185. IRC:SP:67-2005 Guidelines for Use of External and Unbonded 160.00 20.00
Prestressing Tendons in Bridge Structures
186. IRC:SP:68-2005 Guidelines for Construction of Roller 160.00 20.00
Compacted Concrete Pavements

187. IRC:SP:69-2011 Guidelines & Specifications for Expansion 600.00 40.00


Joints (First Revision)
188 IRC:SP:70-2016 Guidelines for the Use of High Performance 320.00 20.00
Concrete (Including Self Compacting
Concrete in Bridges) (First Revision)
189. IRC:SP:71-2006 Guidelines for Design and Construction of 160.00 20.00
Pretensioned Girder of Bridges
190. IRC:SP:72-2015 Guidelines for the Design of Flexible 460.00 40.00
Pavements for Low Volume Rural Roads”
(First Revision)
191. IRC:SP:73-2015 Manual of Specifications & Standards for Two 1000.00 40.00
Lanning of Highways with Paved Shoulders”
(First Revision)

11
192. IRC:SP:74-2007 Guidelines for Repair and Rehabilitation of 100.00 20.00
Steel Bridges
193. IRC:SP:75-2008 Guidelines for Retrofitting of Steel Bridges by 300.00 20.00
Prestressing
194 IRC:SP:76-2015 Guidelines for Conventional and Thin 600.00 40.00
Whitetopping” (First Revision)

195. IRC:SP:77-2008 Manual for Design Construction & 400.00 30.00


Maintenance of Gravel Roads
196. IRC:SP:78-2008 Specifications for Mix Seal Surfacing (MSS) 80.00 20.00
Close-Graded Premix Surfacing (CGPS)
197. IRC:SP:79-2008 Tentative Specifications for Stone Matrix 100.00 20.00
Asphalt
198. IRC:SP:80-2008 Guidelines for Corrosion Prevention, 400.00 30.00
Monitoring and Remedial Measures for
Concrete Bridge Structures
199. IRC:SP:81-2008 Tentative Specification for Slurry Seal and 100.00 20.00
Microsurfacing

200. IRC:SP:82-2008 Guidelines for Design of Causeways and 600.00 30.00


Submersible bridge

201. IRC:SP:83-2008 Guidelines for Maintenance, Repairs & 600.00 30.00


Rehabilitation of Cement Concrete Pavements

202. IRC:SP-84-2014 Manual for Specifications & Standards for 1000.00 50.00
Four Laning of Highways Through Public
Private Partnership (First Revision)
203. IRC:SP-85-2010 Guidelines for Variable Message Signs 600.00 40.00
204 IRC:SP-86-2010 Guidelines for Selection, Operation and 800.00 40.00
Maintenance of Paver Finishers
205. IRC:SP-87-2013 Manual of Specification & Standards for Six 1000.00 40.00
Laning of Highways through Public Private
Partnership (First Revision)
206. IRC:SP-88-2010 Road Safety Audit Manual 1200.00 40.00

207. IRC:SP-89-2010 Guidelines for Soil and Granular Material 300.00 30.00
Stabilization Using Cement Lime and Fly Ash
208. IRC:SP-90-2010 Manual for Grade Separators and Elevated 400.00 30.00
Structures
209. IRC:SP-91-2010 Guidelines for Road Tunnels 400.00 30.00
210. IRC:SP-92-2010 Road Map for Human Resource Development 500.00 30.00
in Highway Sector

12
211. IRC:SP-93-2017 Guidelines on Requirements for 1200.00 40.00
Environmental Clearance for Road Projects
212. IRC:SP-94-2011 Material Testing Facilities for Highway Sector WITHDRAWN
in National Capital Region
213. IRC:SP-95-2011 Model Contract Document for Maintenance of 1200.00 40.00
Highways

214. IRC:SP-96-2012 Guidelines for Selection, Operation and 600.00 30.00


Maintenance of Concrete Batching and Mixing
Plants
215. IRC:SP-97-2013 Guidelines on Compaction Equipment for 700.00 30.00
Roads Works
216. IRC:SP-98-2013 Guidelines for the use of Waste Plastic in Hot 300.00 30.00
Bituminous Mixes (Dry Process) in Wearing
Courses

217. IRC:SP-99-2013 Manual of Specifications and Standards for 1200.00 40.00


Expressways`
218. IRC:SP-100-2014 Use of Cold Mix Technology in Construction 900.00 40.00
and Maintenance of Roads Using Bitumen
Emulsion
219. IRC:SP-101-2014 Interim Guidelines for Warm Mix Asphalt 600.00 30.00
220. IRC:SP-102-2014 Guidelines for Design and Construction of 800.00 40.00
Reinforced Soil Walls
221. IRC:SP-103-2014 Guidelines on Tree Plantation along Rural 600.00 30.00
Roads
222 IRC:SP-104-2015 Guidelines for Fabrication and Erection of 600.00 40.00
Steel Bridges
223. IRC:SP-105-2015 Explanatory Handbook to IRC:112-2011: Code 1000.00 50.00
Practice for Concrete Roads Bridges
224. IRC:SP-106-2015 Engineering Guidelines on Landslide 600.00 40.00
Mitigation Measures for Indian Roads
225 IRC:SP-107-2015 Guidelines for Gap Graded Wearing Course 340.00 40.00
with Rubberised Bitumen-Rubber
226. IRC:SP-108-2015 Guidelines on Preparation and 600.00 40.00
Implementation of Environment Management
Plan
227 IRC:SP-109-2015 Guidelines for Design and Construction of 340.00 40.00
Small Diameter Piles for Road Bridges
228. IRC:SP-110-2017 Application of Intelligent Transport System 800.00 40.00
(ITS) for Urban Roads

13
229 IRC:SP:111-2017 Capacity Building of Road Agencies In Charge 300.00 40.00
of Implementation of Road Projects in Urban
Areas
230 IRC:SP:112-2017 Manual for Quality Control in Road and 1500.00 40.00
Bridge works

III. MINISTRY OF SURFACE TRANSPORT PUBLICATIONS


(Now Ministry of Road Transport & Highways)

231 MORT&H Manual for Maintenance of Roads, 1983 120.00 20.00


232 MORT&H Pocketbook for Bridge Engineers, 2000 (First 200.00 20.00
Revision)
233 MORT&H Pocketbook for Highway Engineers, 2002 320.00 20.00
(Second Revision)
234 MORT&H Handbook on Road Construction Machinery, Under Revision
1985
235 MORT&H Specifications for Road and Bridge Works, 2013 3000.00 70.00
(Fifth Revision)
236 MORT&H Standard Plans for 3.0 m to 10.0 m Span 400.00 40.00
Reinforced Cement Concrete Solid Slab Structure
with and without Footpaths for Highways, 1991
237 MORT&H Standard Plans for Highway Bridges R.C.C. T- 600.00 40.00
Beam & Slab Superstructure – Span from 10 m to
24 m with 12 m width, 1991
238 MORT&H Standard Plans for Highway Bridges PSC Girder 500.00 40.00
and RC Slab Composite Superstructure for 30 m
Span with and without Footpaths, 35 m Span with
Footpaths and 40 m Span without Footpaths,
1991
239 MORT&H Standard Drawings for Road Bridges – R.C.C. 240.00 40.00
Solid Slab Superstructure (15° & 30° SKEW) Span
4.0 m to 10.0 m (with and without Footpaths),
1992
240 MORT&H Standard Drawings for Road Bridges R.C.C. Solid 200.00 40.00
Slab Superstructure (22.5º Skew) R.E. Span 4m to
10m (with and without Footpath), 1996
241 MORT&H Standard Plan for Highway Bridges – Prestressed 280.00 40.00
Concrete Beam & RCC Slab Type Superstructure
Volume-II
242 MORT&H Standard Plans for Single, Double and Triple Cell 500.00 40.00
Box Culverts with and without Earth Cushion

243 MORT&H Type Designs for Intersections on National 600.00 40.00


Highways, 1992

14
244 MORT&H Standard Bidding Document Procurement of Civil 2000.00 70.00
Works, Part I : Complete Bidding Document, Part (No
II: Forms discount)

245 MORT&H Computer Aided Design System for High 500.00 40.00
Embankment Problems,1993 (with CD)
(Out of Stock)

246 MORT&H Standard Data Book for Analysis of Rates, 2003 Under Revision
(First Revision)

247 MORT&H Technical Circulars and Directives on National Out of Stock


Highways and Centrally Sponsored Road and
Bridge Projects (Vol. II), 1986
248 MORT&H Addendum to Ministry’s Technical Circulars and Out of Stock
Directives on National Highways and Centrally
Sponsored Road & Bridge Projects (August 85 to
July, 1988), 1989
249 MORT&H Addendum to Ministry’s Technical Circulars and 300.00 40.00
Directives on National Highways and Centrally
Sponsored Road & Bridge Projects (August 88 to
December 92), 1993
250 MORT&H Addendum to Ministry’s Technical Circulars and Out of Stock
Directives on National Highways and Centrally
Sponsored Road & Bridge Projects (January 93
to December 94), 1996
251 MORT&H Addendum-4 to Technical Circulars & Directives Out of Stock
on National Highways and Centrally Sponsored
Road & Bridge Works Projects (Jan. 1995 to Dec.
1997)
252 MORT&H Addendum-5 to Technical Circulars & Directives 400.00 40.00
on National Highways and Centrally Sponsored
Road & Bridge Works Projects (Jan. 1998 to Dec.
2001)
253 MORT&H Addendum-6 to Technical Circulars & Directives 400.00 40.00
on National Highways and Centrally Sponsored
Road & Bridge Works Projects (January 2002 to
December 2004)
254 MORT&H Addendum No.7 Technical Circulars and (Out of Stock)
Directives on National Highways and Centrally
Sponsored Road and Bridge Projects

15
255 MORT&H Model Concession Agreement for Small Road 500.00 50.00
Projects (with
CD)
256 MORT&H Manual for Safety in Road Design (Under (Out of Stock)
Revision)

257 MORT&H Report of the Committee on Norms for 500.00 40.00


Maintenance of Roads in India, 2001
258 MORT&H Road Development Plan : Vision – 2021 400.00 30.00
259 MORT&H Manual for Construction and Supervision of 800.00 40.00
Bituminous Works, 2001

260 MORT&H Guidelines for Maintenance Management of 300.00 30.00


Primary, Secondary and Urban Roads
261 MORT&H Manual of Specifications and Standards for 4- (Amalgamated with
Laning of National Highways through Public IRC:SP:84-2009)
Private Partnership
262 MORT&H Manual of Specifications and standards for Six (Out of Stock)
Laning of National Highways through Public
Private Partnership
263 MORT&H Guidelines for Expressways Part-I and Part-II 2000.00 150.00

National Highways Authority of India

264 NHAI Quality Assurance Manual - 2006 (Out of Stock)


265 NHAI Works Manual - 2006 900.00(No 50.00
Discount)

MINISTRY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT


(National Rural Roads Development Agency)

266 MORD Specifications for Rural Roads-2014 (First 2100.00 70.00


Revision)

267 MORD Standard Data Book for Analysis of Rates for Under Revision
(Out of Stock) Rural Roads

VI. IRC SEMINAR PUBLICATIONS

268 Seminar, 1986 International Seminar on “Road Safety”, 100.00 40.00


(Preliminary Srinagar, September 17-18, 1986
Publication)
16
269 Seminar, 1999 International Seminar on “Highway 100.00 20.00
(Proceedings) Rehabilitation and Maintenance”, New Delhi,
12-13 November, 1999
270 Seminar, 2000 Seminar on “Financing, Implementation and 100.00 20.00
(Proceedings) Operation on Highways in 21st Century”, New
Delhi, 24-25 September, 2000
271 Seminar, 2001 International Seminar on “Sustainable 1200.00 50.00
(Technical Development in Road Transport”, New Delhi, 8-
Papers) (Vol. I) 10 November, 2001, Vol. I*
272 Seminar, 2001 International Seminar on “Sustainable 1200.00 50.00
(Technical Development ion Road Transport”, New Delhi,
Papers) (Vol. II) 8-10 November, 2001, Vol. II*
*Note : For both Volumes Price is Rs.2000.00
273 Seminar, 2002 Seminar on “Financial Management and 800.00 50.00
(Technical Institutional Reforms in Highway Sector”, New
Papers) Delhi, 18-19 Nov., 2002

274 Seminar, 2002 Seminar on “Financial Management and 100.00 20.00


(Proceedings) International Reforms in Highway Sector”, 18-
19 Nov., 2002
275 Seminar, 2003 Seminar on Integrated Development of Rural 100.00 20.00
(Proceedings) and Arterial Road Network for Socio-Economic
Growth, New Delhi, 5-6 December, 2003
276 Seminar, 2004 Seminar on “Design Construction and 100.00 20.00
(Proceedings) Maintenance of Cement Concrete Pavements”,
New Delhi 8-10 October, 2004
277 Seminar, 2005 Seminar on “High Speed Road Corridors”, 1200.00 70.00
(Technical New Delhi 23-24 November, 2005
Papers)
278 Seminar, 2006 International Seminar on “Innovations in 1000.00 70.00
(Technical Construction and Maintenance of Flexible
Papers) Pavement”, Agra, 2-4 September, 2006 Vol.-I &
Vol.-II
Note : For both Volumes Price in Rs. 800.00
279 Seminar, 2009 Seminar on Public Private Paratnership in 500.00 70.00
(Technical Highway Sector 28-29 August, 2009
Papers)

280 Seminar, 2009 Seminar on Public Private Paratnership in 200 40.00


(Proceedings) Highway Sector 28-29 August, 2009

281 Seminar, 2010 Seminar on Roads in High Precipitation Areas 500 70.00
(Technical
Papers)

17
282 Seminar, 2011 International Seminar on Reducing Carbon 500 70
(Technical Footprint in Road Construction 17-19 February,
Papers) 2011

283 Seminar, 2011 International Seminar on Reducing Carbon 200 20


(Proceedings) Footprint in Road Construction 17-19 February,
2011
284 Seminar, 2012 Seminar on Recent Trends in Highways 600 40
(Souvenir/Techn Development 10-11 October, 2012
ical Paper)
285 Seminar, 2013 International Seminar on Experience Gained in 500 40
(Souvenir/Techn PPP Projects in Road Sector-The Way Forward
ical Paper) 11-12 November, 2013

VII. HIGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD PUBLICATIONS


286 HRB SR.No.1, State-of-the-Art-Report:Lime-Soil Stabilization 100.00 20.00
2000
287 HRB SR No.3, State-of-the-Art-Report: Compaction of 260.00 20.00
1999 Earthwork and Subgrades
288 HRB SR No.10, State-of-the-Art-Report: Behaviour of 100.00 20.00
1989 Concrete Under Sea-Water and in Marine
Environment
289 HRB SR.No.11, State-of-the-Art-Report: Granular and Bound 140.00 20.00
1992 Bases and Sub-Bases
290 HRB SR.No.12, State-of-the-Art-Report: Application of 140.00 20.00
1994 Geotextiles in Highway Engineering
291 HRB SR No.13, State-of-the-Art-Report: High Embankments 140.00 20.00
1994 on Soft Ground, Part A – Stage Construction
292 HRB SR No.14, State-of-the-Art-Report: High Embankments 140.00 20.00
1994 on Soft Ground, Part B – Ground
Improvement
293 HRB SR No.15, State-of-the-Art-Report: Landslide Correction 240.00 20.00
1995 Techniques
294 HRB SR.No.16, State-of-the-Art-Report: Reinforced Soil 180.00 20.00
1996 Structures Applicable to Road Design &
Construction
295 HRB SR No.17, State-of-the-Art-Report: Non Destructive 180.00 20.00
1996 Testing Techniques of Concrete Bridges
296 HRB SR No.18, State-of-the-Art-Report: Corrosion and 240.00 20.00
1996 Corrosion Protection of Prestressed Concrete
Bridges in Marine Environment
297 HRB SR No.19, State-of-the-Art-Report: Underwater Scanning 260.00 20.00
2001 and Repairing of Bridge Components

18
298 HRB SR No.20, State-of-the-Art-Report t : Development of 260.00 30.00
2004 Bridge Bearings
299 HRB SR No.21 State-of-the-Art-Report: Use of Jute 600.00 30.00
2012 Geotextiles in Road Construction and
Prevention of Soil Erosion/Landslides
300 HRB SR No.22 State-of-the-Art-Report: Areas of Application 600.00 30.00
2012 and Techniques of Instrumentation in Traffic
Engineering
301 HRB SR No.23 State-of-the-Art Report: Design and 900.00 40.00
2014 Construction of Rockfall Mitigation Systems

302 HRB SR NO.24 HRB SR No.24, 2015 State of the Art Report: 995.00 20.00
Instrumentation for Highways

VIII. OTHER PUBLICATIONS

303 Paper Nos.109 Standard Specifications & Code of Practice 80.00 20.00
& 112, 1946 for Road Bridges, Sections I & II (with
Explanatory Notes & Discussions)
304 Paper No.238, Considerations in the Design and Sinking of 80.00 20.00
1996 Well Foundations for Bridge Piers (B. Balwant
Rao & C. Muthuswamy)
305 Paper No.257, Construction of a Ghat Road from 24.00 20.00
1967 Bodinayakanur to Bodimettu by E.C.
Chandrasekharan
306 Paper No.278, The Use of Restrained-Neoprene bearings in 24.00 20.00
1969 Civil Engineering by J.W. Slottje & P.S.
Gokhale
307 Paper No.317, Experience in the Improvement and 40.00 20.00
1997 Modernization of Roads in Tamil Nadu by E.C.
Chandrasekharan
308 Papers on Some Important Papers on Design, 200.00 40.00
Construction and Maintenance of Hill Roads,
1985
309 Paper for Panel Discussion on Consultancy in the 100.00 20.00
Highway Sector, 1993
310 Panel Paper for Panel Discussion on Urban 100.00 20.00
Discussion, Transportation with Emphasis on Urban Road
1994 Network, 1994
311 Compendium Compendium of Papers on Problems, 600.00 30.00
(Vol. I & II) Distress and Rehabilitation of Bridges Vol. I &
II

IX. PERIODICALS

19
Annual Subscription Period January to December.
312 Monthly Indian Highways
313 Quarterly Journal of the Indian Roads Congress Rs.2100
(consolidated)
314 Bi-Annually Highway Research Journal
315 Annually Highway Research Record

X. CDs OF TECHNICAL PAPERS


316 IRC Technical Paper for the Year 2004 100.00 30.00
317 IRC Technical Paper for the Year 2005 100.00 30.00
318 IRC Technical Paper for the Year 2006 500.00 30.00
319 IRC Technical Paper for the Year 2007 500.00 30.00
320 IRC Technical Paper for the Year 2008 500.00 30.00

-------------------------

20