OKDNAXCE DEPARTMENT Document No. 2033 Office of the Chief of Ordnance .

PERSHING. C. Chief of P. entitled Handbook of Artillery. 1921. Antiaircraft. BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. /Staff. JOHN OFFICIAL : J. General. WASHINGTON. War Department. July. HARRIS. ." is published for the information and guidance of all students of the Ordnance training schools. The Adjutant General. and Trench Materiel. C. Wash" ington. authority of the Chief of Ordnance. Including Mobile. Motor Carriage. and other similar educational The contents should not be republished without organizations.Library ar WAR DEPARTMENT. D. The following publication.

The intention is to revise this book periodically. The data in this book are compiled for use in the Ordnance training and other educational organizations where a short.PREFACE. and the results of this trial should be productive of many constructive criticisms so that the next edition will more fully meet the varied needs of the schools and training units. survey of the existing calibers and types of guns and carriages now in use by the United States Army is desired. and technicalities have been reduced to a minimum so that schools the distinctive features of the various types of artillery materiel be readily understood. Office of the Chief of Ordnance. Com- munications should be addressed to the Chief of Artillery Division. yet comprehensive. C. Murray H. Washington. the descriptions and illustrations have been made as simple as possible. tion of the Artillery Division by general discussion on the design specialists schools. With this in view. D. therefore suggestions and criticisms are cordially invited. (4) . The and characteristics of mobile artillery is intended for the instruction of student officers and enlisted The second edition of this book is to be distributed to various edu- cational institutions for a trial use in their classes. Resni Coff. may This publication has been prepared in the mobile gun carriage secMr.

model of 1916 2. models of 1902. List of illustrations 7 Table of equivalents History and development of artillery materiel Artillery. and 1905. model of 1902 Store limber. model of 1902 Forge limber. model of 1916 Battery wagon. their functions and construction. for caissons Automatic pole support (5) 523505 . and carriage. model of 1918 Gun caisson limber. Page.95-inch Vickers-Maxim mountain gun materiel (with pack outfit) 75-millimeter gun materiel Model of 1916 materiel Model of 1916 MI materiel Model of 1897 MI (French) materiel Model of 1917 (British) materiel Gun carriage limber. including breech mechanismsMounts for mobile artillery Recoil brakes and methods of counterrecoil 15 26 26 29 35 38 40 53 57 63 69 83 87 103 115 119 123 125 127 130 139 141 143 145 147 148 149 150 152 155 154 155 156 159 161 164 167 167 168 169 Aiming devices and sighting methods Accompanying vehicles 37-millimeter gun materiel. model of 1917 Reel. model of 1918 Wheels : : ___ 56-inch (steel tired) 57-inch by 3. model of 1902 MI Store limber. model of 1918 3-inch gun materiel Guns. 1904. model of 1902 Gun caisson. classes of 14 Mobile artillery.5 inch (rubber tired) Reel. model 1902 Gun limber. model of 1902 Gun caisson. model of 1917. model of 1902 MI Store wagon. model of 1902 Battery wagon. model of 1918 Gun caisson. model of 1902 MI Forge limber.LIST OF CONTENTS. model of 1917 (British) Gun carriage limber. model of 1916 Gun limber. model of 1902 Store wagon. types of Cannons. model of 1902 MI Battery and store wagon. model of 1917 Battery reel. model of 1909 MI__ Cart.

model of 1917 (Vickers) Firing platform and wagon. model of 1908 Gun limber. model of 1918 Howitzer caisson. model of 1920 Trench warfare materiel 3-inch Stokes' trench mortar. Mark II 171 173 178 178 181 186 195 198 200 202 206 209 213 216 219 223 155 howitzer materiel. model of 1917 5-inch. Mark I 6-inch Stokes' trench mortar. model of 1917 Gun and howitzer motor Self-propelled carriages 318 319 321 323 329 334 339 344 348 363 377 387 390 wheeled mount for 3-inch antiaircraft gun. Marks VI and VII__ _ Howitzer carriage limber. model of 1917 (British) . model of 1918 155 gun materiel (Filloux) Gun and carriage. model of 1918 Gun carriage limber. and carriages. model of 1917 Self-propelled caterpillar. model of 1918 3-inch antiaircraft gun mount. Mark II Ammunition wagon. model of 1917 75-millimeter antiaircraft truck mount.'age limber. model 1893 4. . Mark I Prospectus . Mark II Gun carriage limber. model of 1918 6-inch gun materiel. Marks VI and Vllli. Mark V 8-inch howitzer materiel (Vickers) Howitzers.2-inch howitzer materiel transport (Vickers) I Howitzer Howitzer Howitzer Howitzer and carriages. 105-millimeter howitzer materiel (German) 105-millimeter howitzer and carriage.. model of 1918 Accessories Transport wagons and limbers Antiaircraft artillery 3-inch antiaircraft gun materiel. model of 1898-1909 (German)- 105-millimeter howitzer caisson model 1898 (German) 105-millimeter howitzer carriage and caisson limber. Mark II Ammunition wagon limber. model of 1908 Gun caisson. Marks and II 227 231 236 243 245 249 254 263 265 269 279 288 299 301 305 310 wagon carriage transport wagon platform transport wagon (Schneider) 240-millimeter howitzer materiel Howitzer and carriage. 392 397 405 409 414 155 millimeter motor gun carriage (Christie). Mark I. model of 1917 (Schneider) 155 howitzer materiel. . model of 1917 (Vickers) 9. model of 1905 Gun caisson. model of 1918 Mark II. for 155 millimeter gun (Filloux).__ 7-inch naval tractor mount.7-inch gun materiel Gun and carriage. gun materiel (British) and carriage. 60-pounder Gun. model of 1918 (Schneider) Howitzer and carriage.Page. model of 1906 Gun carriage limber. model of 1916 Gun caisson. model of 1918 Howitzer carr.

English archer using a long bow Balista and catapulta of the Greeks Sixteenth-century artillery Italian Cerebotian of the fourteenth century 17 The " Mons Meg " of Edinburgh Castle German breech-loading cannon of the sixteenth century French artillery. 18 19 1800-1850 1842-1874 Soldier firing a mortar and bombshell requiring double ignition 19 20 21 22 23 German artillery. mounted on trailer 37-millimeter gun materiel.95-inch left in the rear) left in the rear) 62 64 65 Vickers-Maxim mountain-gun materiel (with pack outfit) : : Carriage in firing position Pack outfit on mule back Rear view of carriage in battery Detailed view of gun Side view of carriage in battery 75-millimeter gun materiel. Counterrecoil mechanism (hydro-pneumatic. central buffing) Aiming devices : Elevating systems Panoramic sight Gunner's quadrant Accompanying vehicles 48 49 52 : Tractors hauling artillery 75 mm. telescopic) 39 39 40 41 41 41 Hydro-spring recoil system Hydro-pneumatic recoil system with floating piston Hydro-pneumatic recoil system with fluid indirect compact with the air 42 42 43 47 '. model of 1916: Rear view of carriage in battery position 54 56 57 59 60 61 Carriage and ammunition cart. Besieging a fortified castle. Frontispiece. model of 1916 Front view of carriage Right side elevation of carriage (7) : 66 67 67 70 . limbered Left side view of tripod mount in battery position Tripod mount in firing position Gun disassembled on the march (wheels and axles Gun and personnel on the march (ammunition cart 2.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. sixteenth century Recoil brakes and methods of counterrecoil Hydraulic brake (throttling bar) Hydraulic brake (valve) : Hydraulic brake (central throttling) Counterrecoil mechanism (spring. concentric columns) Counterrecoil mechanism (spring. gun carriage.

model of 1918 Assembled views of gun caisson Front view of caisson Gun caisson and gun caisson limber.8 T5-millimeter gun materiel. model of 1897 MI (French) Left rear view of carriage Front view of carriage Longitudinal section of gun and carriage Breech mechanism Left side view of carriage Right side elevation of carriage Traversing and brake operating mechan : sm Abatage positions of carriage Plan view of carriage Sight. model of 1901 75-millimeter gun materiel. model of 1916 Rear view of carriage Continued. model of 1918 Front view of caisson limber Assembled views of gun caisson limber : : 120 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 . model of 1916 MI : . model of 1917 (British) Front view of limber Right side elevation of limber : 107 108 111 112 Rear and front elevations Rear view of limber 75-millimeter gun carriage limber." Rear view of carriage Breech mechanism Recoil-controlling system Elevating and range gear Traversing gear 75-millimeter gun carriage limber. Page.i Longitudinal section of recoil and counterrecoil mechanism Elevating mechanism Traversing mechanism Carriage and limber in traveling position 75-millimeter gun materiel. . 71 72 7.__ 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Left and right elevations Cradle assembly and longitudinal section Left side view in firing position Right side view in firing position ___ Arrangement of elevating mechanisms 75-millimeter materiel. model of 1917 (British) Left side elevation of carriage Front view of carriage Rear and front elevations of carriage 90 92 93 94 95 96 98 99 100 : 102 103 104 Hi.. limbered 75-millimeter gun caisson limber. Plan view of carriage Left side view of carriage Breech mechanism Gun at maximum elevation 76 77 78 T'. model of 1918 Rear view of limber 115 116 117 118 : Front view of limber Assembled views of limber 75-millimeter gun caisson.

model of 1902 MI Top view showing interior of store limber Battery and store wagon. showing door swung upward exposing ammunition Front and side elevations of caisson 3-inch gun caisson limber. model of 1902 Side view of store wagon Side view showing store wagon and limber. for caissons View showing reel mounted on caisson Front and side elevations of reel Automatic pole support Sectional diagram of pole support 105-millimeter howitzer materiel. 1'uibered Rear view of cart Assembled views of cart 56-inch wheel Side view of wheel Reel. model of 1902 Rear view of limber 3-inch gun caisson. hauled by tractor Carriage and limber in traveling position Range quadrant 3-inch Rear sight gun limber. limbered Forge limber.9 3-inch gun materiel. model of 1917 Rear right side view of battery and store wagon Assembled views of battery and store wagon Battery reel. models of 1902. model of 1902 : : Front view of caisson gun caisson. and 1905 Breech mechanism Recoil-controlling . model of 1902 MI Rear view of battery wagon Store wagon. 1904. model of 1902 MI Top view showing interior of forge limber Assembled views of forge limber Store limber. model of 1918 3-inch : : : 141 143 144 146 147 : 149 151 152 153 155 156 : : : 157 159 161 : : 162 163 164 164 165 : View showing reel and cart. 128 128 129 131 132 134 135 135 136 137 139 Rear view of carriage Left side elevation of carriage Gun. model of 1916 Side and rear elevations of caisson limber Battery wagon. model of 1909 MI Rear view of reel Assembled views of reel Front view of reel Cart. mechanism Carriage and limber. model of 1898-09 (German) Left side view of carriage in battery position View showing carriage limber and caisson coupled Front view showing brakes and traveling lock : : 167 168 169 : 169 : 170 172 173 . model of 1917 Left side view of battery reel Reel. model of 1902 Front view of carriage : Page. model of 1917. model of 1916 Front view.

limbered 4.7-inch caisson.- 196 198 4. Equilibrator mechanism Rear view of carriage 174 176 177 iT'. Mark II (British) Front view of carriage limber Rear view of carriage limber 5-inch (60-pounder) ammunition wagon.7-inch gun materiel.7-inch : 200 202 203 204 207 : 209 210 211 214 : 216 217 219 222 : ' : : Right side view of carriage in traveling position Carriage in battery position (rear view) 228 .i Front and rear view of carriage limber Front and rear view of caisson 4. model of 1917: Assembled views of gun caisson 5-inch (60-pounder) gun materiel (British) Rear left view of carriage in battery Carriage and limber in traveling position View showing trail connected to limber Rear right view of carriage 5-inch (60-pounder) gun carriage limber. model of 1916 View showing carriage and limber in traveling position Left side view of carriage in battery Assembled views of carriage equipped with tire brakes Left front view of carriage equipped with band brakes Assembled views of carriage equipped with band brakes Front view of carriage equipped with tire brakes Breech mechanism : 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 186 187 Firing mechanism Longitudinal section of gun and carriage Front view of carriage equipped with band brakes Rear right view of carriage Elevating and traversing mechanisms 188 189 190 190 191 Range quadrant Rear view of carriage equipped with Rear sight tire brakes 192 Front view of carriage equipped with tire brakes 4.10 105-millimeter howitzer materiel. model of 1908: View showing gun caisson and limber. model of 1916 Right front view showing chest doors open exposing diaphragms Assembled views of gun caisson Front view of gun caisson 4. Page.7-inch gun carriage limber. Mark II (British) Front view of ammunition wagon limber Rear view of ammunition wagon limber 155-millimeter howitzer materiel. Mark II (British) Front view of ammunition wagon Rear view of ammunition wagon Ammunition wagon and ammunition wagon limber.7-inch gun caisson.7-inch gun caisson. model of 1917 (Schneider) 4. model of 1905 Front view of limber Assembled views of limber : 193 194 l. model of 1898-09 (German) Longitudinal section of recoil mechanism Contd. model of 1908 Right side view of caisson gun : gun limber. limbered 5-inch (60-pounder) ammunition wagon limber.

showing 8-inch howitzer materiel (Vickers) : maximum elevation of gvm Carriage in battery position (Mark VI) Carriage and limber in traveling position (rear view) Carriage in battery position (Mark VII) Rear view of carriage. model of 1918 (Filloux) : Traveling position (right side) Left-side view of carriage and limber in traveling position Preparing carriage for battery position Carriage in traveling position (rear view) Longitudinal section of gun and carriage 249 250 251 251 252 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 Maximum elevation of gun Breech mechanism Breech mechanism and counterbalance cylinder Carriage in firing position Rear view of carriage in traveling position Accessories and caterpillar wheel shoes Elevating and traversing mechanism Caterpillar adapters 155-millimeter gun carriage limber. model of 1918 (Filloux) Front view of limber. model of 1917 (British) Plan view of carriage . model of 1918 (Schneider) Traveling position of carriage and limber 229 : 230 Assembled views of traveling position Detail view of howitzer Breech mechanism Firing mechanism Recoil and counterrecoil mechanism Longitudinal section of howitzer and carriage 234 235 237 238 ' Quadrant sight 155-millimeter howitzer carriage limber. showing caterpillar wheel shoes. model of 1917 (Schneider) Front view of carriage in battery position Continued. Side view of carriage en route 155-millimeter howitzer materiel. showing maximum elevation of howitzer 279 280 282 284 . model of 1918 (Schneider) Rear view of caisson : General assembled views Front view of caisson 155-millimeter gun materiel. model of 1918 (Schneider) Plan and right side elevations : 240 241 244 245 246 248 155-millimeter caisson. : mounted on 7 wheels Front view of limber Detailed view of limber 6-inch gun materiel. 262 263 264 266 : Left-side elevation of carriage 7-inch naval tractor mount.rage. . Mark V 267 : Carriage and limber in traveling position (front view) 269 270 271 273 274 275 276 277 278 Rear view of carriage Left-side view of carriage in battery Carriage and limber in traveling position (rear view) Top carriage and axle details Assembled view of hydraulic brake View of axle mounted in track layer Side elevation of track layer Carriage in battery position.11 155-millimeter howitzer materiel.

model of 1917 295 296 298 (Vickers) : in traveling position (front view) Materiel 6n train and in battery Limber 300 302 304 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 314 315 316 9. firing platform and.12 Continued. . Sight assembled Erecting frame in position Left side view of carriage 240-millimeter howitzer transport limbers and wagons Howitzer transport wagon ^ 328 330 331 332 333 334 335 330 338 339 339 340 341 341 : Cradle transport wagon Mounting the howitzer Top carriage transport wagon Platform transport wagon . showing loading gear mechanism in action Right-side view of carriage in battery Traversing gear Sight assembled 9. 8-inch howitzer materiel (Vickers) Right-side view of carriage in battery Left-side elevation of Page. wagon.2-inch howitzer transport wagon (Vickers) Method of mounting howitzer Materiel 6n train 240-millimeter materiel. model of 1918 (Schneider) Materiel n train __.2-inch howitzer materiel (Vickers) : Carriage in battery position Left side elevation of carriages assembled Front view. showing howitzer at miximum elevation Breech mechanism (Mark I) Breech mechanism (Mark II) Gear regulating recoil Method of loading. Mark VI carriage Rear right-side of carriage in firing position Detailed view of howitzer (Mark VI) Breech mechanism of Mark VI howitzer Breech block Firing mechanism 285 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 Front view of howitzer carriage Elevating and traversing mechanism Howitzer carriage mounted on firing platform Sight assembled Caterpillar adapters 8-inch howitzer carriage limber. showing maximum elevation of howitzer Loading position. showing shell on tray Longitudinal section of carriage Rear view of carriage. showing maximum elevation of howitzer : : 318 320 322 323 324 326 327 Carriage in loading position Method of loading the howitzer with rammer car Left elevation of carriage with howitzer at maximum elevation Breech mechanism Mounting the cradle Recoil and recuperator mechanism Elevating and quick-loading gear mechanism Mouting the top carriage Method of lowering platform . Front view of carriage.

model of 1920 3-inch antiaircraft wheeled mount showing gun at maximum : ' eleva- tion . front view Traveling position. model of 1920: Side elevation of mount in traveling position Rear view of mount in battery position Trench warfare materiel Trench warfare Arrangement of trenches : 392 394 395 397 399 402 403 405 406 407 3-inch Stokes's trench mortar. model of 1917 Plan view of truck mount : : float removed- 350 351 352 354 355 357 358 359 360 362 363 364 365 367 368 371 372 376 377 378 379 382 383 385 386 387 Truck in traveling position (right side view) Sectional elevation of gun mount View showing truck mount in action Gun mount showing gun at maximum elevation Truck in traveling position (left side view) _ Firing and stability jacks Truck mount in battery position. Left side view of mount in traveling position Self-propelled caterpillar Mark II. rear view 155-millimeter motor gun carriage (Christie). model of 1918 : Page. Gun and howitzer motor carriages 105-millimeter howitzer motor carriage. 345 : Carriage in traveling position Carriage in battery position (front view) 347 349 View showing outriggers folded Longitudinal section of carriage Breech mechanism View showing right rear outrigger with jack spade and Side view of carriage in battery position Assembled view showing carriage in firing position Front view of trailer Sight on left side of carriage Sight on right side of carriage 3-inch antiaircraft gun mount. model of 1918 Plan view Traveling position.13 Antiaircraft artillery Antiaircraft artillery in action 3-inch antiaircraft gun materiel. 388 Self-propelled wheeled mount for 3-inch antiaircraft gun. Mark I Methods of installation of trench mortar Left side view of mortar : Method of loading trench mortar Rear view of mortar__ 410 411 412 413 . for 155-millimeter : model of 1917 : 390 gun (Filloux). Mortar in action Mark I : Front view of trench mortar Rear view of trench mortar__ 6-inch trench mortar. model of 1917 Longitudinal section of gun mount View showing mount in action Right side elevation of gun mount View showing right side of mount Breech mechanism Vertical section showing breech open Elevating and traversing mechanisms Left side elevation of gun mount 75-millimeter antiaircraft truck mount.

3527 ounce. 1.452 square centimeters. 0.3937 inch.432 grains. S.54 centimeters.2046 pounds.9144 meter.).05671 quarts (U. 1 mil 1 degree 1 meter (m) 1 centimeter 1 millimeter 3. S. 28. (cm) 0.223 pounds per square inch.37 minutes. (mm) 0. yard ounce pound (14) . yard 1 square inch 1 kilogram (kg) per square centimeter 1 cubic inch 1 cubic foot 1 cubic 1 1 14.37 inches. 39.9463 liter. 0. 2. 777 mils. 16. 1 kilogram (kg) 1 dekagram (dk) 1 gram 1 liter 1 quart (U.03937 inch.TABLE OF EQUIVALENTS. 2. 0. 17.39 cubic centimeters. 15. 0.4536 kilogram.02832 cubic meter. 0. 0.) 1 inch 1 foot 1 0. 6.3048 meter.35 grams.7645 cubic meter.

The long bow has always been the more universal weapons. and the reasons for the various changes in ordnance materiel which have taken place from time to time. and many accounts are to be found relative to the extraordinary force and precision with which an arrow might be projected. who were extremely expert in its manipulation. and its last appearance was in the Huguenot War of 1572. invention is attributed to the Phoenicians or the inhabitants of the Balearic Isles. In taking up the study of artillery. but in every case striving for greater power. the arm of David was strengthened by a leather sling of a very simple construction. During the Biblical battle between David and Goliath. either with or without a heavier projectile. and for many centuries was considered the most effective offensive weapon in warfare. the development of guns and gun carriages.HISTORY AND DEVELOPiMENT OF ARTILLERY MATERIEL. The sling was used for many centuries as a military weapon. In ancient times the man who could throw the heaviest stone the longest distance was the most powerfully armed. and manufacturers to produce a stronger weapon. The sole use of a gun is to throw a projectile. The effect of a stone or spear thrown by hand so often proved insufficient that at once a desire arose to assist the muscles by the aid of some mechanical force. Every military power has striven with the aid of its best engineers. The crossbow was extensively used for sporting as well as military purposes. The Its sling was probably the first weapon used for hurling missiles. the crossbow being a comparatively modern invention. The bow was probably invented about the same time as the sling. History shows that artillery development has gone steadily forward. The earliest projectile was a stone thrown by the hand and arm of man either in an attack upon an enemy or upon a beast that was being hunted for food. Great skill was attained by the ancients in its use. From the earliest times man has felt the want of arms that would kill at a distance. and it must have been 2 5516021 (15) . designers. the student should know something of its history. Much practice had given the youthful shepherd muscular strength and direction. and his stronger arm and straighter aim gave him power to overcome his more heavily armed adversary. and the ingenuity of the talented has successively been taxed to produce such weapons. and its use confined almost entirely to Europe.

Some specimens possessed back sight having three or more peepholes. one over the other. Usia placed types of artillery on the walls of Jerusalem. and the crosswould throw a heavy stone quite by mechanical means to strengthen the stroke of the arm and increase the weight of the projectile.arrangement when released a distance. The first use of guns or cannon as a medium for hurling projectiles by means of gunpowder is buried in obscurity . tower at Rhodes successfully resisted stone projectiles weighing 176 pounds. The crossbow of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries sometimes made sights a were with affixed to them. The Bible states that King (809-757 B.) ENGLISH ARCHER USING A LONG BOW. we have knowledge . Projectile-throwing machines were developed after the fashion of a crossbow mounted upon a small carriage which was a hollowed usually trough open on top and upon which a stone was laid. techsci- in the The Alexandrian nicians established entific rules for the con- struction of early weapons. The Genoese and Gascons were the most famous crossbow men in the armies of Europe. it The Romans used Punic Wars. The thong of the crossbow was drawn by a powerful screw operated by wooden bow.16 a crossbow that William Tell employed in his notable feat. This was an attempt man power. which were evidently intended as guides for elevation. Athenacus reports Catapults having a range of 656 meters and that the gigantic siege BALISTA AND CATAPULTA OF THE GREEKS. C.

have used it in The earliest mention of guns we have is that Seville was deiVided in 1247 by cannon throwing stones. at a period long before the Caucasians. are said to A. and in the records of the Florentine Republic mention is made in the year 1325 of two known . D. with machines throwing balls of fire with a noise resembling thunder. D. 668. some believe it was brought by the Moors into Spain and others that it came through the Greeks at ConstantinoBoth may be correct. when lie." "ball containing terrestrial fire. where it is mentioned as applied to firearms. "heaven's thunder. but for pyrotechnics. including gunpowder.17 of Chinese using a form of gunpowder.-eiged in 1259. employed guns (or Marquinas de Truenas) and in 1311 Ismail attacked Bazas. Mibela in Spain. from whence it spread over Europe. or Saracens. This particular code is believed to have been coeval with the time of Moses. There are many ancient Indian and Chinese words signifying weapons of fire. a town of Granada. at the sit -<re of Gibraltar. was also defended by a machine resembling cannon. was closely used at the siege of Constantinople in A. to the Arabs or Moors and introduced by them into Spain. not. These seem to confirm the opinion that the use of cannon and powder was ." and such expressions. but the descriptions given are so vague that it is difficult to make the various accounts coincide. The Arabs. Gunpowder has been known in India and China far beyond all periods of investigation. in pyrotechnical displays. for military parposes. however." "devouring fire. in 1273 Abou Yousof made use of cannon throwing stone balls at the siege of Sidgilmessa in 1308 Ferdinand IV of Castile. der or a substance akin to it. Most writers upon this subject seem agreed that it was known to the Chinese and Indians. In the chronicle of the town of Ghent for 1313 it is stated that the town was possessed of a small cannon. The earliest mention we have of gunpowder is in the Gentoo Laws. ple. but it The introduction of powder is certain that powARTILLERY OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. into Europe took place early in the Christian era. The ancient Indians made great use of explosives. . It is possible to trace back the invention of gunpowder to many centuries prior to the Christian era. 690 at the siege of Mecca.

<\ in the same year a* the siege of Cambray by Edward II! n 1 '3*0 by Lequesnoy before Mirepoix. and in 1365 Duke Albert of Branden. or cannons. its The material was. . much dismay of the enemy. even bundles of arrows. The first German cannon belonged to the town of Amberg and j bears the date of 1301. They shot anything that would go into the barrels of the guns. In 1331 cannon were used by the King ->f Granada against Alicante. accounts of the town of Nuremberg as having been spent in purchasing cannon and guns. the defense of the castles and villages belonging to the Republic. in 1345 before Monsegur. we have) many instances of cannon being used in the second half of the fourteenth century. These guns were not mobile guns in any sense they were transported with the utmost difficulty. in 1339 at the siege of Puy-Giull ort J. In the year 1356 appear large amounts in the ITALIAN CERBOTIAN OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. and depended largely upon the smoke and noise produced. wrapped with wire or iron bands. About 1350 the North German knights had iron guns. of course." defended Einbeck very effectually The first records show that the Huns used artillery at the seige of v/ividale. very crude. The British were the first to actually bring guns out into field effectiveness at that time . and a little later the Free Hanse Towns armed themselves in the same way. The barrels. in those days were constructed of wood. The ordnance warfare. The English appear to have imported them from Flanders. Italy. MOUNTED ON SEMIPORTABLE CARRIAGE. -erg " with fire boxes.18 officers being ordered to manufacture cannon and iron bullets for . i. and in 1346 at Crecy. in 1331. for King Edward III in 1327 employed some Hainaulters who used them in his war with the Scotch. and the projectiles were of stone. and were subject to capture by sudden raids of the enemy. to the They appeared at the Battle of Crecy in 1346.

but it was not until the beginning of the fifteenth century that cannon were classified and named according size. when a founder named Aran. to their Cannon were not adopted or manufactured in France until 1338. In 1413 Mahomed II.19 department of Edward III consisted of 340 men. . et ardore " on account of the great noise which the firing of them occasioned. The French called them " quenon " or " cannon. is said to have been 48 inches in diameter and the stone bullet to have weighed 600 pounds." The gunner was the gun captain and had general charge In action stores. bullet (Weighing near tons. with but 12 artillerymen." Besides these terms there were many others applied to the various models. and even for many looked years after- wards the upon as French those nations who them The GERMAN BREECH LOADING CANNON OF THE TEENTH CENTURY. and shooting a stone 350 pounds. in Germany. not Cast metal. SIX- used barbarians. In 1415 the num" master gunners " and 50 " servitour gunbers had increased to 25 ners. at Augsberg. he laid the piece and did the actual firing." the Germans " buchsen " or " boxes. at the The bore siege of Constantinople." and the Netherlander " vogheleer " or " veugliares. early cannon W 6 T 6 made of WTOUght. the first account we haye of cast cannon being in 1378. cast 30 of a metal composed of copper and tin. showing that at that time not much attention was paid to what is now an indispensable arm of the service. In Italy they were known as THE " MONS MEG 4 " OF EDINBURGH CASTLE. had an enormous cast cannon.) weighing " a bombo probably derived from bombardes. The early can- non of Europe were known by various names in the different countries.

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1410 to 1424. In the Italian wars waged by Charles VIII of France artillery However they lacked the necessary played a conspicuous part. Although field artillery was introduced in the Hussite Wars. supported by wheels. the gunner sitting directly behind the piece. some weighing TOO pounds. it was not until the Thirty Years' War that they really dis- played a mobile nature. and remained so until 1631. and the connection between and the gun was made with a trail rope. One example from the shows a breech-loading gun mounted in a cradle supported by trunnions on the forward extension of the trail over the fifteenth century axle. The axle. The forepart of the oblong was mounted on two and the rear end was supported by the horse which was wheels SOLDIER FIRING A MORTAR AND BOMBSHELL REQUIRING DOUBLE IGNITION.21 The greatest example of artillery in the fifteenth century was at the siege of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453. for as yet no way portation of the heavier guns. . supported on the trail. The majority of artillery at that date was for siege work. artillery had done some times in a single engagement. devised for 'the proper transinside pounders. Field guns fell into disuse about 1525 with the introduction of The musketry. and consequently were captured and recaptured several mobility At that. Some of these guns survived to engage the British in 1807. The majority of the guns were 4had been. They used a type of mortar that hurled huge stones. of the oblong frame. passes through the trail to the rear of and below the cradle trunnion support and in front of the point of attachment of the elevating arc. The French had invented the it limber. cradle was elevated by a pin-and-arc arrangement. The first gun that was moved by horsepower was mounted on an oblong frame. The ancient carriages were remarkable because of the fact that in general design they embodied the same principles which are included in the field carriages of to-day. when Gustavus Adolphus gave artillery its true position on the battle field. excellent work before small arms had attained any prominence.

22 .

was not of any great use in the field until along in the eighteenth century. or 3 pounders. at which time guns were lightened. About the middle of the eighteenth century. but mathematical formulae were evolved for the artilleryman. with a driver on each near horse. being introduced by the French Army. The ammunition carried was 100 rounds of solid shot. credited to an English colonel by the name of Shrapnel. particularly so in France powder was gradually compounded on better recipes. paper and linen cartridges were introduced.23 Swedish artillery reigned supreme in the early part of the seventeenth century. It later . guns were either 24. Each field gun was drawn by four horses with a cannoneer on each of the lead horses. its invention being Artillery . and 6 guns. and many new styles of guns and mortars. 6. and began to be separated into heavy and light units. the units were divided into brigades of 4. 5. and for which ammunition was invented. 12. respectively. Horse artillery appeared in the French Army in 1791. and the value of ricochet firing was discovered. gun carriages were provided with an aiming wedge. gun metal was improved. In 1808. at Vimera. BESIEGING A FORTIFIED CASTLE. In 1800 the horses were paired off. Science lent its aid to practical men and not only exhausted chemical ingenuity in preparing powder and metal. as is done to-day. the first case shot came into use. Gustavus introduced marked changes by making the guns and the carriages lighter and handier his motto was mobility and rapidity of fire. SIXTEENTH CENTURY. The howitzer necessary for high angle fire put in its appearance in 1785.

and a stepped wedge resting on the trail superseded the pin and arc. although guns had made their appearance toward the close of the conflict. a condition which was impossible with . until the era of the modern field The cradle disappeared. Napoleon also introduced the idea of massing artillery along a long front. as a rifled gun shoots very accurately. the Walnendorff gun (1846). in rapid succession. most carriage. and remained so until when metal guns had and the into general use. Between 1860 and 1870 rifling appeared. smoke produced by the black powder when the piece was fired retarded the rapidity of fire. parts of these carriages were 1870. This called for a recoil mechanism system to break the force of recoil of the gun and restore it to its firing position without seriously disturbing the lay of the piece. Muzzle loading breech-loaders because of the poor obturation supplanted many accidents resulting from use of the latter type. Cavalli (1845). when the experiments of Maj. Indirect fire gave to the to the use of commanders of firing units a greater control over their fire. Direct laying was the only method of fire employed at this time. Field artillery next began to appear in the form in which it was to retain. The possibilities of rapid and more accurate fire were perfected. With the exception of the gun. breech-loading guns did not come into vogue again until 1850. The type of case shot used by Napoleon had a fuze that could be used for two different ranges. the modern breech block. the cannoneers were permitted serve the piece continuously. and with it the rapid-firing gun. rifled During our Civil War the smoothbore was generally used. and the Armstrong gun (1845) produced satisfactory types. also The advent of smokeless powder made possible the selection of concealed positions. This caused sighting to -be given greater consideration. came ling motor carriages. carriages came Although numerous experiments were made.24 became known as shrapnel. because it enveloped the materiel in a cloud of smoke which obscured the target and made it impossible to fire again until the smoke had blown away. of wood. In 1886 came the invention and use of Previous to this time the great amount of smokeless powder. With modern recoil mechanisms. muzzle-loading guns cast with trunnions taking its place. This in turn made indirect fire feasible and necessitated the development of better sights. The period from 1880 to in gun construction which the present has brought about changes possibly have been equaled in impor- tance to artillery only by the present change which is taking place due to the development of motor transportation and self-propel- In this period. with but a few changes.

several types of experimental self-propelled motor carriages have been manufactured. As a result of this test. maneuver over almost any kind of terrain on to the question of the possibility of mounting guns directly on a self-propelled vehicle equipped with caterpillar treads. sweeping changes have been made in almost every arm of the service. but probably the greatest and most radical change has been the motorization of the artillery. This experimental caterto 45 was tested. The recent great struggle in Europe has brought about conditions and problems which. with armaments varying from 7-V i> millimeter guns to 240-millimeter howitzers.25 Shields were next introduced on guns to the recoiling carriage. the caterpillar tractor for hauling field artil- which is able to led the battle field. Heretofore. successful advances by the troops were limited to'comparatively short distances. the personnel and make it more difficult to put the piece out of protect commission. and supplies over ground which is often muddy. The problem of transporting army equipment in the field led to the introduction of tractors and motor trucks. full of shell holes. Early in 1918 an 8-inch howitzer was mounted on a selfpropelled carriage and was fired at angles of elevation varying from with very satisfactory results. The development of lery. heretofore. pillar and able to withstand the firing strain of the howitzer. due to the impossibility of advancing artillery. . and it was found to be practical. ammunition. To meet these. and otherwise difficult to travel over with enough rapidity to keep up with the advancing infantry troops. have never existed in warfare. easy to maneuver.

But it is important number to a minimum.ARTILLERY. light field. the artillery designed to accompany an arm in the field. Artillery of position is that which is permanently mounted in Artillery has : fortifications. based upon the shape of the trajectory. : guns or pack howitzers. The first type only is discussed in this book. MOBILE ARTILLERY. which requires tracks for its transportation. the heavy field gun. and infantry accompanying guns and howitzers. mountain It is necessary to balance the two. where such fire is useless. flat trajectory fire is preferred on account of its power and accuracy. Artillery is divided into two general classiexcepting fications Artillery of position and mobile artillery. railway artillery. both from considerations of also to avoid complication in (26) economy and ammunition supplies. Granting that a general type of gun has been decided upon. To provide for both cases. . The general classification is Heavy field. to the very mobile and comparatively weak. keeping in mind the specific purpose of the gun under consideration. come to mean all firearms not carried or used by hand. trench mortars. ranging from the very powerful and almost immobile. however. We thus find it necessary to have several distinct classes of guns. based upon power. the light field howitzer. there is another. Cases frequently arise. Mobile artillery consists of two classes: First. for example. and sometimes the still shorter mortar for high-angle thus subdivide our original classes and distinguish. Evidently the number of separate calibers that might be adopted to We make up to reduce this a complete series of types is very large. it is evident that any increase in either of these two factors is at the expense of the other. etc. fire. Besides the classification. there are two important requirements power and mobility. For the attack of targets that can be reached by it. either the gun or its target being so concealed and sheltered by intrenchments or the nature of the terrain that higher angles of departure and fall become necessary. the shorter howitzer for curved trajectory. second. In designing any gun intended for use in the field. there are two or three types of weapon the long gun for flat trajectory. machine guns.

fire at elevations is necessary. In furtherance of this idea and to reduce to a minimum the number of calibers of mobile artillery. The recent developments in American artillery. There are a number of other features. Field guns are now designed which permit fire at elevations as high as or higher than is permitted by the howitzers. as well as the introduction of artillery of foreign design into the this principle.900 pounds behind a six-horse team. curved that is. and thus simplify as far as possible the supply of ammunition. a gun of ap- Under ordinary proximately this caliber has been adopted by most nations as the principal field gun. This designation is too firmly established to be changed.27 Guns were ordinarily intended for attacking targets that could be reached by direct fire. while both guns and howitzers fulfilled the requirements as to weight and power for each degree of mobility. The artillery of all military powers now comprises what are known " " " as rapid-fire or " quick-firing guns. is therefore provided. or their equivalent. For the attack of targets that are protected against direct direct fire fire and for use in positions that are so sheltered that fire can not be utilized. That is. the howitzer corresponding in mobility to one of the guns is of the same caliber as the next heaviest gun. as the latter use projectiles of much greater weight than those of gun materiel of the same caliber. have sustained conditions the 3-inch field gun with its weight of about 3. that is. but these are of secondary significance and either old ideas which could not be worked out practically before the development of the gun-recoil carriage or else improvements developed since in the effort to get the best results out . This is particularly true of antiaircraft guns and those designed for use against entrenched positions. American service. For this reason. The real distinguishing mark of a rapid-fire gun is carriage does not move materially in firing instead. a howitzer of equal degree of mobility. The howitzer. but it will not eliminate the use of howitzers of equal mobility. This development is an improvement in the effectiveness of the field gun. the calibers of the guns and howitzers were so selected that. a short gun designed exceeding 15 to fire at comparatively large angles of elevation. by fire at angles of elevation not exceeding about 15. some of which are found in all rapid-fire models. the gun recoils on the carriage and is returned to the firing position by springs . the caliber of each was the same as that of the gun of the next lower degree of mobility. although it can not be considered as accurately descriptive since rapidity of fire is characteristic of nearly all modern that its types. The original American plan of field artillery design provided for each caliber of gun. is about as powerful a gun as can follow an army in motion.

none of which forms too heavy a load for a pack mule. they can not take advantage of them. the 3-inch and 75-millimeter for. but becomes necessary as soon as we adopt a carriage that remains more or less firmly anchored to the ground.) (?>) (The 155-millimeter howit/i-r guns and 155-millimeter Corps artillery. (e) Infantry accompanying guns. since the . guns and 105-millimeter howitzers. Mountain or pack materiel transported on the backs of mules.28 of it. Certain parts are jgiven certain shapes and forms. the 155-millimeter guns. Mechanism for traversing the piece on its carriage is unnecessary with the rigid system. such as. to be used as a substitute. and are machined to fine adjustments. Treat these guns as you would a friend whom you know you can depend on. if required. They will not fail you.\herefore in taking down and assem- bling artillery materiel brains *id dexterity are the tools to use rather than force and sledge hammers. (/) Trench mortars. to artillery. remedied. the 4. Fixed ammunition and instruments for indirect laying are not essentially a part of either a rigid or a gun-recoil system: they are sometimes used with the former and occasionally. For mountain service the system composed of gun and carriage must be capable of rapid dismantling into parts. such as. such as. Our mobile artillery is divided into the following classes: (a) Divisional artillery. The weight of the load including the saddle and equipment should not exceed 350 pounds. They follow absolutely and certainly fixed mechanIf they fail rtere is always a reason which can be ical laws. Carriages are designed to function in a certain way and are not temperamental.95-inch. The mountain gun in our service is the 2. it is useless to attach shields to a rigid carriage. the 37-millimeter. . omitted from the latter but they have their full value only in rapid-fire material. such as. (c) Army 240-millimeter howitzers. 8-inch and Any caliber may. cannoneers have to stand clear to avoid the recoil.7-inch howitzers. For example. but rarely. be assigned army (d) artillery.

(d) Energy of translation of the unburnt charge and gases. and of sufficient strength to resist the pressure of the gases of explosion. This resistance arises from the friction of the projectile against the walls of the bore. In the cannon. the powder. "A cannon is a machine by which the force of expanding gas is used for the purpose of propelling a projectile in a definite direction. If the effects of these two opposing factors could be maintained equal in value from the time the projectile starts to move until it leaves the muzzle of the cannon. the capacity of the container begins to increase. The balance of the energy is expended by being lost as heat to the gun and that which remains in the gas as sensible or latent heat.'* A cannon consists of a metal tube. and of the rotating band against the driving edges of the lands. the space in which the powder is burning has a fixed capacity until sufficient force has been developed to start the When the projectile begins to move. In the first stages. and the energy developed is utilized in forcing the projectile from the tube. in recoil. by increasing the amount of gas in the container. consequently. (c) Energy of translation. it also arises from the cutting of grooves in the rotating band by the lands. the explosion or rapid combustion of the powder gives rise to a large amount of gas. This would be the ideal progressive explosion. for since the maximum (29) . and would then remain constant until the projectile leaves the muzzle.CANNONS. (ft) Energy of rotation of the projectile. (e) Energy consumed in overcoming the passive resistance of the : projectile. closed at one end. of the gun. When the charge ignited. is increasing the expansive force. it exerts a pressure in all directions. while at the same time the increase in the size of the container decreasing the expansive force. which tends to expand and to occupy a space greater than that in which the powder was originally contained. Thus the progressive explosion of projectile. and this increase tends to decrease gas the expansive force of the gas. The force of the expanding gases acting on the base of a projectile is placed in the cannon causes it to start on its flight. it would then be possible so to regulate the is powder charge that the force developed would rise to the maximum pressure safe for the cannon when the projectile starts to move. The major portion of the energy is distributed as follows (a) Energy of translation of the projectile. THEIR FUNCTIONS AND CONSTRUCTION.

and then make it strong enough to insure perfect safety. a circumferential or tangential coupled with a radial stress. Shortly after the shot begins to move the pressure inside the gun decreases. This problem was finally met through the construction of built-up and wire. On wire. for this reason the piece is made stronger at the powder chamber than toward the muzzle end. but its it shall be must not be too heavy. second. with consequent increase in powder charges. may be readily understood that during the travel of the projectile through the bore of the gun. . Not only must the gun be sufficiently strong. took the place of the castings or forgings of iron or simple As explosives increased in power the plain tube.wrapped guns. the wire-wound steel. a longitudinal stress tending to gun stress or tension. and guns so constructed may be composed of different kinds of metal or of the same kind of metal throughout.30 allowable pressure would be exerted upon the projectile during its entire path while in the bore. A cannon may be considered as a tube destined to withstand a given pressure from within. tremendous stresses are set up In the earlier days of ordnance construction these stresses were met by sheer weight of metal. A built-up gun is one in which the principal parts are separately constructed and then united in a peculiar manner. the maximum possible initial velocity for the projectile and cannon considered would be developed. Consequently forgings of refined and alloyed charge until it in the tube. Looking simply to the construction of a gun cylinder. this weight of metal became so great as to impede the desired mobility of the material. throwing a projectile which shall produce certain effects at given distances. first. tending to split the open longitudinally. In constructing such a tube we must first consider what pressures it will have to withstand at the various points of its length. so arranged that every part shall perform its share in withstanding the pressure from within. inner tube of gun the wire is wound in layers around an Each layer is wound with a tension on the is and each exerts a compression on the layer which beneath it. and continues to decrease as the projectile approaches the muzzle. we find that the two principal stresses to which such a cylinder is subjected upon the explosion of a charge are. so it is important that the material arranged in such a manner that there may be no waste of own strength in fact. but as the weight of projectiles increased. steels steels. even though of excessive weight. became incapable of containing the chamber pressures. pull the It gun apart in the direction of its length. from the instant of ignition of the has left the muzzle. even though built of alloyed steels.

when the latter is " seated " in 5516021 3 . Rotation of the projectile around its longer axis is necessary for By twist of rifling is meant the inclination of one stability in flight. to the point where rifling begins is called the powder chamber. or that in which the twist increases from the breech toward the muzzle end of the bore. when closed. The grooves of rifling are spirals. A rifled cannon is so called on account of the spiral grooves which are cut into the surface of the bore. within the elastic limit. That part of the bore from The caliber of a gun lands. With increasing twist there appears the disadvantage that on account of the constantly changing angle it is hard to preserve gas tightness between the rotating band and the grooves. With uniform must take its rotation the instant it starts. helical grooves cut in the sur- RIFLING number of soft metal of the rotating band of the projectile is forced into these grooves and causes the projectile to take up face of the bore. consists of a the outer layers are in extension. or the inclination of grooves to axis of bore.31 The all result is that when completed gradually diminishing to the inner layers. This band is forced into the grooves as soon as the shell starts from the origin of rifling. or that in which the twist is constant through- out the bore. with great power to resist deflecting influences. Its capacity is the total cubical contents from plug face to base of projectile. The rotating band follows the grooves. Rifling is of two kinds (a) : Uniform twist. which are in compression. Rotation is obtained by rifling in the bore of the gun and a soft metal (copper) rotating band on the body of the shell. The pitch of the rifling. thus imparting to the projectile a motion of rotation. The spaces between grooves are called lands. The bore is the breech plug. object of rifling is to impart to the shell a rapid rotation axis and thus give it the powers of a gyroscope. whereas with increasing twist the rotation may be impaired gradually. (>) Increasing twist. the shell is rotated as it travels the bore. The passes through the bore. and as these are spiral. If it The about its were not thus given gyroscopic properties. is called twist. These powers resist any deflection of the shell's longitudinal axis. and into which the soft metal of the rotating band on the projectile is forced. is the diameter across the tops of the opposite the cylindrical hole in the gun extending from breech face to muzzle face of the tube. it the motion of rotation as of the grooves to the element of the bore at any point. It is usually designated twist the projectile by one turn in so many calibers. inaccuracies would result.

thus eliminating variations in the rate of emission of gas and consequent differences in force developed at any elapsed time a"ter the first particle of a charge has been ignited. but a of a cannon. The force developed by the explosion of powder in a container depends both upon the amount of powder and upon the size of the container. Initial velocity. that is. bearing upon the initial velocity. it depends upon the amount of powder per unit volume of the container. therefore. inflammation and combustion. The density of loading is the ratio of the weight of the powder charge to the weight of a volume . which in turn merges into the " compowder chamber. so that in any particular piece. Density of loading. and so long as this force is greater than the retarding . at the temperature of maximum density. not strictly at the muzzle. force of the air. according to the form of the grain. It is desirable to produce as nearly as possible a simultaneous ignition of all the powder grains of the charge. its rotating band takes the seat of rifling. in the larger charges an igniting charge of black powder is attached to each end of each section of a powder charge. or both. however. the base will always be the same distance from the face of the breech. By initial or muzzle velocity is meant the rate of travel in feet per second at which a projectile leaves the muzzle its application to practical problems. It is con- sequently essential that projectiles always be well seated. In short distance beyond it for so long as the projectile is in the powder blast the force of the expanding gases continues to a limited extent to act upon it. the velocity of the projectile is increased. that is. has a direct and important ing. for some distance. in order that inflammation and combustion be as nearly uniform as possible. When a shell is in position for firing. By ignition is meant setting fire to the charge . The rear part of the chamber is cylindrical This cylinder merges into "the slope of the an easy slope. Ignition." pression slope. and in order that it may be determinable and constant in practice under any given set of conditions. the burning of the inflammed grain from the surface of ignition inward. it is important to keep constant the size of the container." which ends in the "seat of rifling". the rear end of the rifled cylinder. and by combustion. by inflammation. or outward. This ratio expresses the weight of powder per unit volume of the powder chamber. or in other words upon the density of loadThe density of loading. This is acquired.32 position for firing. that will fill the powder chamber. in terms of the weight of a unit volume of water. For this reason. the spread of flame over the surface of each grain and from grain to grain of the charge. we usually take as the initial velocity the maximum velocity attained by the projectile.of distilled water. and a core of black .

In the smaller charges. comchange in the bined with the increase in size of container after the projectile starts to move. Size and shape of the powder grain.the burning surface from decreasing. Interchangeability. thus allowing the initial velocity to fall below that which would be attained could the pressure be maintained at its maximum. There are two general methods of closing the breech. Ease of repair. Not easily put out of order. and the necessary operating gear. and the slower will be the rate of emission of gas for the same rate of burning for any given charge. In the first method the block is inserted from the rear. and the total the maintained nearly constant. all mechanism contained in or with it. The block . and the mechanism for the insertion and withdrawal of the block. in turn depends not only upon the size but also upon the shape of the grain. the firing mechanism. outer layers are consumed. perforated grains are employed. the surfaces of the perforations are increasing. Thus while the exterior burning surfaces are decreasing as combustion progresses. which. is attached to one end only of the propelling is omitted. as the rate. The force or pressure developed at any instant of an explosion depends upon the amount of gas that has been evolved. A BREECH MECHANISM. thus tending to decrease the rate of gas production. The term includes the breechblock or plug. Hence. Therefore the size and shape of the grain have an important bearing upon the initial velocity. will cause the pressure to start decreasing after having reached a maximum. This depends upon the rate of combustion. or fermeture. the larger the grain the less will be the area of burning surface per pound of powder. to keep .33 powder is the igniting charge charge. and the area of the burning surface. Any change in this area as combustion progresses produces a corresponding In a nonperf orated grain of any shape. which are consumed by combustion progressing outward from the inner surfaces of the perforations. The breech mechanism comprises the breechblock. the area of burning surface decreases. The following may be said to be the principal requirements for a successful burning surface is maximum explosive effect breech mechanism Safety. is a mechanical device for closing the rear end of the chamber or bore of a breech-loading gun. This decrease. : Ease and rapidity of working. In this way is more nearly approached. as well as inward from the exterior surfaces of the grain. As a rule. and the core extended from end to end as well. The rate of production of gas at any instant depends upon the area of the burning surface at that instant.

a rotating block construction found on the French 37-millimeter and 75-millimeter guns. velocity of the projectile along the bore It includes the study of the mode . say one-eighth or one-twelfth of a circle. descriptions The most notable variation from the above two types is the NorVariations of these denfeld type of breech mechanism. the threads on the block and in the breech are fully engaged and the block is locked. The breechblock is usually supported in the jacket of the gun or in a breech ring screwed into the jacket. The block may then be rapidly inserted nearly to its and when turned through a comparatively small arc. depending upon the number of sectors into which the block is divided. and in the American 75-millimeter gun. the threads in the breech are cut away from those sectors opposite the threaded sectors on divided into an even the block. The seat in the jacket the being of greater diameter than could be provided in the tube. In the second method a wedge-shaped block is seated in a slot cut in the breech of the gun at right angles to the bore. and the threads of the alternate sectors are cut away. and slides in the slot to close or open the breech. the pressure developed. In order to facilitate insertion and withdrawal of the block the threads on the block and breech are interrupted.34 is provided with screw threads on its outer surface which engage in corresponding threads in the breech of the gun. In the permitted in the construction model of 1917. The slotted screw breechblock is used to a great extent in our service. of combustion of the powder. described more fully and illustrated in the description of these guns. threads on the block is increased and bearing surface of the screw be diminished. INTERIOR BALLISTICS tile treats of the motion of the projec- while still in the bore of the gun. 3-inch antiaircraft gun. and the of the gun. Similarly. The surface of the block is number of sectors. seat in the gun. Its advantages are uniform distribution in the gun of the and lightness longitudinal stress produced by the powder pressure of the breech end of the gun. however. the sliding block operating vertically has been for adopted for the reason that it permits of simpler mechanism the length of the block may semiautomatic operations. two methods will be noted in the detailed of the guns which follow.

The only motion of the carriage which takes place is that due to the elastic bending and rebound of its parts under the strain set up in discharge. In a well-designed carriage the amount of this pull should not greatly exceed that required to lift the wheels off the ground by rotating the carriage about the spade and must be less if complete stability is required. but would prevent the cannoneers from maintaining their position. so that in the first place it requires no running up. If the force of the recoiling gun were communicated directly to the anchored rection in elevation carriage is carriage the effect would be to make it jump violently. The gun slides in recoil on the upper surface of the recuperator which contains the recoil controlling parts. Ingun alone is allowed to recoil several feet on the carriage and although the recoil energy is in this case greater than it would be if gun and carriage recoiled together. The hydraulic recoil brake is therefore interposed between gun and carriage. and the whole of the energy would have to be absorbed in that short motion. the latter would be forced back a short distance at each round. A modern gun carriage is expected to stand steady on firing. the only effect of which is to slightly compress the earth behind the spade. If the gun were rigidly attached to the carriage. but in preventing (85) . the wheels and axle. and in the second place it maintains the direction of the gun so that only a slight corand direction is required after each round. which would not only disturb the lay. The maintained in position by the spade. the trail. the top carriage. which sinks into the ground. This movement of the axis is known as " " jump and must be determined by experiment for the individual piece in its particular construction. uniform pull. yet it is so gradrecoil stead of this.MOUNTS FOR MOBILE ARTILLERY. mounting as it is affected by many features of The principal parts of the typical gun carriage are the recuperator . and by the friction of the wheels upon the ground. so In the design of the carriage the constructional difficulty lies not much in preventing the carriage from recoiling. These strains are inevitable since the direction of recoil can not be always exactly in the line of the resistance of the earth behind the spade. the ually communicated to the carriage that instead of a violent jerk we have a steady.

force of the recoil of the gun tends to turn the carriage over backwards about the point of the trail or center of the spade. is its the piece in a vertical changed. This (<?) reduces the leverage of the overturning force. Keeping the gun as low as possible. traversing the horizontal projection of the axis of its bore remaining plane. (&) Increasing the length of recoil allowed. the motion is communicated to rockers attached to the bottom of the cradle. The leverage with which the overturning force acts varies with the distance of its line of action above the center of pressure on the spade. at the same time keeping within the limits of weight imposed by the necessity of mobility. Two is called Gun types of elevating mechanisms are" in common use. This force is resisted by the weight of the gun and carriage. This reduces the overturning pull. the leverage with acts varies with the horizontal distance of the center of gravity of the gun and carriage from the center of The which the restraining force pressure on the float. which tends to keep the wheels on the ground. The first is the This gives a considerable length of screw for a telescopic screw." carriages are provided with mechanisms for giving the pieces accurately controlled motion in both azimuth and elevation. Gun carriages are so constructed as to permit movement of the piece in either a vertical or horizontal plane. . either by reducing the height of the wheels or by cranking the axle downwards. so as to give the greatest possible stability to the carriage.36 the wheels from rising off the ground at the shock of discharge. short assembled length and permits rapidity of action (since the movement of the inner screw is equal to the sum of the pitches of the outer and inner screw for each turn of the pinion). (d) Increasing the length of the trail. combined with the nicety of adjustment of a single screw of fine pitch. called . elevating. and by a proper combination of the two motions. inclination with " " " the horizontal remaining un- movement of unchanged. through the engagement of worms or pinions. The well-designed gun carriage is one that combines these factors in a practical way. This increases the leverage of the steadying force. the axis of a gun may be aligned in any desired direction within the limits of motion of its mount. These motions may be simultaneous if so desired. In the second type. It follows that the steadiness of the carriage for a given muzzle energy may be promoted by four factors : (a) Increasing the weight of the gun and recoiling parts. This reduces the energy of recoil. The two kinds of motion are designated as follows: Rotation of the piece about a vertical axis. with teeth cut on the circumference of the rockers.

pivoting on the spade. Still another is to traverse the whole . and pivot this top carriage over the axle. modified considerably in the case of semipermanent mounts which fire from platforms and for antiaircraft guns which have special mountings suited to their special use. allows for the rapid placing of the piece in loading position after firing.37 This method is in use on all howitzers and a great many fitted guns. Movement of the gun in azimuth is accomplished in several ways one is to pivot the cradle of the gun in a saddle which itself pivots on a horizontal transom of the trail. and when with a quick-loading gear. piece along the axle. The above principles of design are. This is a method used by the French in some of their designs. It has the disadvantage of allowing only for a small angle of traverse. . Another is to mount the gun and elevating gear on some form of top carriage. It allows for a very high angle of elevation. of course.

Thus far we have neglected all resistances and have considered the movement of the gun in recoil as unopposed. of whatever character. its value will be less than the maximum value of a variable total resistance which will stop the gun in the same length of recoil. It is evident that the higher the resistance offered by the recoil brakes the shorter will be the total length of recoil. Assume the gun to be so and to absorb the the parts of the carriage recoil in the it may recoil horizontally of the charge. The center of gravity of the system is therefore fixed and the sum of the quantities of motion in the different parts is zero. RECOIL BRAKES AND METHODS OF COUNTERRECOIL. While the projectile is in the bore. except where stability can be increased by using a variable pull. the latter including at any mounted that and without resistance. mum stress on the carriage is readily deduced from the maximum pressure in the gun. Gun carriages are constructed either to hold the piece without recoil or to limit the In the first case the maxirecoil to a certain convenient length.recoil begins. The movement of the powder gases will be principally in the direction of the The weight of the gun. However. none of the energy of the powder gases is expended outside the system. and consequently the velocity of recoil is less at each instant of travel than when unopposed. the complete of free recoil relations between the velocity. projectile. if we neglect the resistance of the air. the constant resistance will therefore produce less strain in the carriage. the projectile. and charge being projectile. In the second case it becomes necessary to determine all the circumstances of recoil in order that the force acting at each instant may be known and designed to withstand this force desired length. and the powder charge itself. and length may be established by formula. the parts of explosion the system acted upon by the powder gases are: the gun. A little consideration will show that if the total resistance to recoil is made constant throughout. (38) . and for this reason is usually adopted. time. On instant both the unburned and the gaseous portion. The stresses to which a gun carriage is subjected are due to the action of the expanding powder gases on the piece. when the gun is mounted on a carriage the recoil brakes.RECOIL MECHANISMS. begin to act as soon as . known. For a given length of recoil.

however. the apertures are constructed in such a manner that the area of aperture increases when the velocity of the piston increases. or vary in any manner desired. Therefore. A hydraulic recoil brake consists of a cylinder. Either the piston rod is secured to the carriage. Each slot has the dimensions of the maximum section of the throttling bar with just enough clear- ance to permit operation. and a piston. Through the piston head are cut slots or apertures through which the liquid is forced from one side of the piston to the other as the A cylinder or piston moves in recoil. and diminishes when that -P velocity di- ~7 FF FIG. called throttling bars (T). the pressure in the cylinder. it is evident that the resistance to in the pressure offered flow will be greater as the velocity of the piston or the velocity of recoil is greater. and piston rod. Relative movement is given to the cylinder and piston by the recoil. piston (p). A. a counterrecoil mechanism for returning the gun to the firing position and keeping it there.39 system of a gun carriage consists of a recoil brake for controlling the recoil and limiting its length. produced in the cylinder by the resistance the liquid to motion through the apertures. lies P' FIG. and a counterrecoil brake or buffer to soften the shock as The recoil the gun runs into the firing position. the piston moving to the rear with the gun. Recoil brakes of the friction type were formerly used. If the area by of the apertures is constant. or the cylinder is secured to the carriage. may be made In figure is shown one type of hydraulic brake. Pneumatic brakes were also used to some extent. filled with liquid. the variation in the area of aperture may be so regulated that the pressure in the cylinder will be constant. It consists of a cylinder on the inner surface of which are formed bars of varying cross sections. minishes. Both of these types have now been entirely superseded by the hydraulic recoil brake. the cylinder moving to the rear with the gun. If. to the other. or will vary in such a manner it to as to keep the total resistance to recoil constant. will vary with the different values of the velocity of recoil. which measures the hydraulic resistance offered. B. and provision is made for the passage of the liquid from one side of the head of the piston by apertures cut into the piston or in the walls of the The power of the brake cylinder. The area of orifice open for the flow of liquid at any position of the piston is therefore equal to the area of .

This method is used in some French designs. the piston being stationary. Figure C illustrates a method of central throttling. These include pedestal mounts. and is so determined that the resistance to the flow of the liquid. shows a spring counterrecoil mechanism (spring recuFigure perator) consisting of two concentric columns of springs. which is lengthened for that purpose. In such constructions the springs are usually placed around the hydraulic brake and are compressed between a flange on that cylinder in front and some fixed part of the carriage in the rear. turret mounts. two to four of these spring cylinders being cylinder. but the varying apertures are obtained by cutting grooves of varying width or depth on the interior of the cylinder. in connection with the recoil brake. represents another method of varying the throttling piston (P) is held rigidly from turning and the valve grooves. In the smaller carriages of these types the springs. is rotated by means of a spiral groove cut in the cylinder walls. C. In some carriages of this type the hydraulic brake cylinder moves with the gun in recoil. or the pressure in the cylinder. required.40 the slots minus the area of cross section of the throttling bar. This method is used to a considerable extent in British design. In larger carriages the springs are arranged in separate cylinders with pistons of their own. thus rotating the valve and varying the size of the openings through the valve and piston. is made constant or variable. Counterrecoil. forming the hydro- pneumatic recoil system. and all wheeled carriages illustrated by figures F and G. which flows between it and the hole in the piston (P). on which the gun recoils carriages in the direction of its axis. F and G. the latter. may be effected by springs or by compressed air cylinders. see figures D . (V) Figure B The in which lugs on the valve slide during recoil. may be placed between the piston and the rear end of the hydraulic brake cylinder. In another type of hydraulic brake the throttling bars are not used. The spring method counterrecoil of effecting may be used in all gun FIG. to vary in the manner necessary for correct throttling. barbette carriages. this causes the amount of liquid. The throttling rod (R) has a varying diameter. as desired. initially compressed to the desired amount. or the return of the gun to battery after completion of the recoil. when a single column would not permit sufficient recoil. It is sometimes necessary to use telescopic springs as shown in figure E.

. Figures H.41 These and other arrangements of counterrecoil springs will be further discussed in the description of the carriages to which tney pertain. Compressed gas (either air or nitrogen) is now very generally used to effect counterrecoil. K. and L are diagrams of two designs of hydropneumatic recuperators. J.

42 The type of recuperator shown in figures and is similar in operation to that of figures and J. may . K L H FIG. H IN-BA-rTETRV OR F"IRIINQ f=>OSmorS FLOATING PISTON FIG. but in the latter design the oil is separated from the gas by the floating piston (FP). HVDRO.SVST'EIN'I WITH IM PiREicrr corsTAOT WITH THE: >AIR The hydropneumatic recuperator (or counterrecoil FT_UIP mechanism) be combined may be separated from the recoil brake or the two in one unit. U E/NP OF" RETCOIL- MVPRO-PrSETUMAT-IC REICOIL- WITH F-t-O/VTlMCS F^lS-rOTH SVSTEM RG.PNEUMATIC RECOIL. K IN-BATTETRV OR posmofN AIR ruuio FIG.

the resistance either plus or minus due to the inclination of the top of the chassis or the recoil slides. use of the counterrecoil buffer increases the stability of mobile artillery carriages by preventing their forward motion as the gun The runs into battery. or both. which of the total energy of recoil. In figure is shown a type of buffer which is used to some extent. It is evident that the energy. It may consist of a dashpot formed at the M A end of the recoil cylinder. If springs are used the columns are long and heavy. springs or air cylinders is at a maximum just as it reaches that posiIf an arrangement is made to automatically fire the gun when it has this maximum forward velocity. which automatically reduces the size of the orifices in the hydraulic brake as the gun is elevated. forms a part total resistance to recoil is composed of the resistance offered by the brake. It consists of a rod (B) which acts inside the hollow piston rod of the recoil cylinder. if there are such included in the recoil system. provided for reducing the shock to the carriage as the gun is returned to the firing position by / OIL . Systems based velocity. in and the resistance due to the counterrecoil springs or air cyl- inders.43 principal advantages of air cylinders over spring cylinders for counterrecoil are the reduction in weight and longer life. If no counterrecoil buffer is provided.. method similar to this is to provide a separate cylinder in which a projection of the recoil piston acts during the last few inches of recoil. FIG M. This is known as variable recoil. the counterrecoil mechanism. can be materially reduced. the velocity of the gun when going into the firing position under the action of the counterrecoil Modern recoil tion. The counterrecoil buffer is . field guns and howitzers are mounted so as to have a long on their carriages when fired horizontally. the additional pressure needed when the guns are fired at high angles of elevation can be obtained by pumping . it is evident that the maximum velocity of free recoil will be reduced by the amount of the forward and hence either the total resistance or the corresponding length of recoil. These The advantages are especially important in long-recoil field guns or howitzers designed to be fired at high angles of elevation. being liable to breakage while if air cylinders are used. When certain types of these guns are fired at high angles of elevation it is necessary to reduce the length of recoil to prevent the breech of the gun from This reduction is effected by a mechanism striking the ground. air into the cylinders. the resistance due to friction. The effects counterrecoil. more whatever way obtained. .

44. and knowing the pressure . the gun runs forward and is automatically fired as it reaches the firing position. the gun carriage is rigidly bolted to a fixed Its mechanism is such as to allow the gun and the attached parts to recoil on firing. The resistance to recoil developed by the recoil system pulls forward on the gun and backward on the carriage. in such a way as to cause the piston to be drawn through the cylinder as the gun recoils. is comparatively The construction of all modern wheeled carriages is such as to allow the gun to recoil in the direction of its axis. When constant total resistance is to be exerted by the recoil system. because the distance from the breech of the gun to the supporting platform will not permit it. respectively. The gun is caught by a pawl in the extreme recoil position and is loaded in that position. and the latest type barbette carriages. Under ordinary conditions the ground will resist a pressure of 40 pounds per square inch of spade surface. which is always the case in artillery of position. the use of a long recoil would necessitate the use of long and heavy columns of counterrecoil springs. either the total resistance or the length of recoil be assumed. upon this principle have been used abroad for small guns. the necessary increase in the length of the recoil slides might overbalance may the saving in weight. a very long recoil can not be used. such as mountain guns. to the moving and fixed parts of the carriage. and the other determined. are the unsteadiness of the gun at the moment of firing and the possibility of the gun being turned over in a forward direction by the shock of counterrecoil if a misfire should occur. In disappearing carriages. When it is desired to fire. the length of recoil is determined more by the necessity of giving the gun the proper movement in recoil than by limitation of the strains brought upon the carriage. artillery of position. While the assumption of a very long recoil would reduce the resistance and consequently the strain on the carriage and permit its parts to be made lighter. or vice versa. the recoil for artillery of position short. The principal objections to this system. all of which permit the firing of the gun at high angles of elevation. such as mortar. antiaircraft gun. tending to move the latter to the rear. In platform. Furthermore. which is known as the differential recoil system. Actual motion of the carriage to the rear is prevented by a spade sunk in the ground at the end of the trail of the carriage and so constructed as to present a broad surface to the ground in the rear. In carriages. With the exception of the disappearing and the older type of barbette carriages. the pawl is tripped. Lack of space also prevents the use of a long recoil on turret mounts. The hydraulic brake cylinder and its piston are attached.

as the lever arm of the total resistance of recoil decreases as the gun is elevated. It is evident that safety against jump can be maintained and the necessary length of recoil shortened if. as well as to overcome the friction on the recoil sides as the gun runs forward to jthe firing position. The value of the total resistance to recoil. Such a movement is very undesirable. including its recoiling parts and the horiweight zontal distance of the vertical through their center of gravity from the point of support of the trail. For this reason reduction of the length of recoil with increase of elevation in howitzer carriages does not impair their stability. bility when the gun is fired at horizontal. should at any instant be greater than the product of the force opposing recoil and the perpendicular distance from its line of action to the point of support of the trail. the size of spade can be determined. position at the highest angle of elevation at which it is to be fired. we assume it as decreasing to such an extent as to remain parallel to a line showing the maximum permissible values of the total resistance to recoil and plotted as a function of the length of If the length of recoil is such as to provide a factor of starecoil. In interferes with the rapid aiming and firing of order to prevent the wheels from jumping off the ground when the gun is fired. as the moment of the weight of the recoiling parts becomes less. .45 developed by the pull of the piston rod. as the piece. instead of assuming a constant total resistance. The initial strength of the counterrecoil spring columns or air cylinders is the force which they exert against the gun in the firing This force must be great enough to hold the gun in that position. which is the only force acting on the carriage. is obtained by equating moments which will show that a value of this resistance small enough to prevent jump of the wheels in the early part of the recoil might still cause jump toward the end of the recoil. that will be just insufficient to cause the wheels to rise from the ground when the gun is in the firing position. Another effect produced by the resistance to recoil is a tendency to rotate the carriage around the point of support of the trail. or to cause the wheels to jump from it the ground. it is necessary that the product of of the carriage. the carriage will be stable at all higher elevations.

and to the right or left as the sight is moved to the right or left. thereby throwing the sight plane out of the vertical. The tions of the range. capable of adjustment in a vertical or horizontal direction. It must be given such a direction to the right or left of the target as to offset the deviation of cate their application to field. the method is known as direct laying. by. It is always well to bear in mind that the flight of the projectile follows the movement . the gun must be fired at a certain angle of elevation depending on the range. Sights will be discussed briefly in this handbook merely to indiand trench materiel. In order that a projectile from any gun may hit the target. or notch. both in elevation and direction by sighting directly on the target. although the of operation is the same. the ballistic characteristics of the gun. the sight arm must be revolved about an axis parallel to the axis Most wheeled mounts ^of the gun until the sight arm is vertical. going higher as the sight is raised. The sights of the gun provide means of determining when the axis of the gun has the predetermined direction. the rear one of which has a peep. In some cases the rear sight is designed to automatically correct for drift if not. scale of the rear sight. It frequently happens that a cross hairs mobile piece must be fired under conditions in which the axis about which it turns in elevation (trunnion axis) is not level. or degrees of elevation. The second method for direct laying is to use a telescope with which takes the place of the open sights. relieve the gun pointer from the necessity of setthe elevation on the sight standard and elevating the piece. the projectile due to drift and wind. If this is the case. This is precisely the same operation as sighting a shoulder rifle or pistol. first to use plain or open sights. This rear sight is equipped with an arc reading in fracis The method line of sight may be fixed in one of two ways. which the necessary elevation can be set off. antiaircraft. and upon the relative difference in level of the gun and target. Independent Line of Sight. have such a provision made on their sights. When the piece is sighted. principle The angle of elevation of a gun must be measured in the vertical plane through the axis of the piece. ting some guns are provided with what is known as the independent line In order to (46) .AIMING DEVICES AND SIGHTING METHODS. the drift must be set off on a provided for this purpose on the rear sight.

This panoramic sight is a telescope so fitted with a rotating head. B. (Z>) The level of the correction to this elevation required gun and target (angle of site). matically corrected. 5516021 4 .47 of sight. Various modifications of this general method of securing the independent line of sight are in use and will be discussed with the guns to which they pertain. is said to be laid indirectly when it is laid by means other than aiming directly through the sights at the targets. that a magnified image of an object anywhere in view may be brought to the eye without change in the position of the observer's eye. The change in range does not affect the setting of the lower elevating mechanism. A and B. which moves the rocker In this way the angle of site is autoas well as the gun in elevation. by the difference in With elevation are applied to the the independent line of sight the two parts of the quadrant gun independently. reflectors and prisms. and the gun pointer is thus free to devote his whole time to keeping his line of sight upon the target and is not compelled to take his eye from the telescope. The additional mechanism necessary for this system is more than offset by the ease of manipulation secured. Indirect sighting it is is The from modern then the usual method of sighting such guns. An intermediate rocker and two elevating systems. The other elevating mechanism. The panoramic sight affords the means of aiming the gun in indi- rect laying by directing the line of sight on any object in view from the gun. The gun fire fieldpieces is so accurate and destructive that to establish field batteries in position out of always necessary the view of the enemy for the sake of protection. is between the rocker and the gun and until is manipulated by another cannoneer. and for gun pointer manipulates the lower elevation system A. in Figure N. when the line of sight is brought upon the target. at the same time it affords the advantage of a telescopic sight in direct or indirect aiming. who elevates the gun the proper range appears on a range scale. It will be noted that the actual quadrant elevation of the piece consists of two parts : (a) The elevation necessary to reach the target if it were on the same level as the gun. are provided as shown direct fire the The sight is fixed to the rocker.

4. The sight and range quadrant being attached to the cradle. to devote ing the fire of antiaircraft materiel. It is used in setting off the angle of site. which is a special form of clinometer. Secondary lateral and vertical Superelevation. In the direct fire of antiaircraft artillery the following angles resulting in the laying of the gun to the predicted future position of the target are involved 1. 49) can be used in obtaining or checking the elevation. 2. Principal lateral and vertical deflections. 3. but as the development is so new. and they are so closely involved with artillery Many during operations. but in some cases in order to divide the duties of laying for direction and elevation. MODEL OF 1917. it is quite necessary to the fire-control equipment. thereby correcting for difference in level of the gun or target. both move in elevation with the gun. Leveling plates or similar surfaces are provided on all guns and howitzers on which a gunner's quadrant (see p. The independent line of sight permits of the gun being moved and set in dSiffi&lM ^J^ K j elevation without any change in position j of the sight used for direction aiming. In the case of howitzers the different zones of fire are sometimes shown. Present azimuth and elevation. It is not the intention to in this go into detail handbook regarding the firecontrol equipment employed for directPANORAMIC SIGHT. The range quadrant is graduated in units of angular elevation or in fractions of the range. While the use of the range quadrant separates the duties of the cannoneers in aiming. deflections. materiel. These are obtained by direct aircraft artillery are similar to those : sighting upon the target. of the terms and instruments used in connection with anti- some space employed with field artillery but the methods of application in most cases differ.48 The panoramic sight is often mounted in connection with the rangesighting mechanism. left side of the cradle and used in laying for direcwhile the range quadrant for laying in elevation is placed on the right side of the cradle and used by another cannoneer. it does not comply with the conditions for the independent line of sight. . In connection with the range quadrant a range level is provided. the panoramic sight is mounted on a shank on the tion.

rectilinear travel of the target i. (c) Altitude of the target. the horizontal proof the angle made between the vertical plane of sight and jection the axis of the fuselage of the airplane. In the first method the quantities required in the resolution of the formulae are : i. setting of the fuse. ical and electrical design. and for the projectile to reach its point of burst. : tions. Each method assumes mination of the fuse range. (5) Engine speed of the target.49 In the determination of the principal lateral and vertical deflectwo methods of fire control have been established 1. . that the pilot of the aircraft will fly a straight course at unchanging speed and constant altitude during the time required for the deter- Angular speed. MODEL OF 1918. . loading and firing the gun. in order to resolve the data required in the laying of the gun.. 2. (d) Time of flight of the projectile to the future position of the target. (a) Presentation (angle of approach) e. Each method is based upon sound mathematical reasoning and involves automatic apparatus of rather complex but easily operated mechan- GUNNER'S QUADRANT.. e. Linear speed.

Secondary deflections are required in making allowances for wind- ment fire. Fuse range. Quadrant elevation. 2. In the angular speed method the lateral and vertical angular velocity of the target is measured." At night the alliance of listening apparatus and searchlights assist in accomplishing the resolution of the gun-laying elements at the fire-control station. ballistics. gives results appreciably better than the linear speed method and is consequently used more generally.. ." The readings ultiobtained from this instrument are given in mils. gun and setting of the fuse : Azimuth. the angle between the line of sight to the predicted future position of the target and the axis of the bore of the gun when ready to fire. age. corrections for parallax when firing indirect. which essentially is indirect three elements pertaining to the predicted future position of the target are transmitted from this apparatus at the fire-control station in order to accomplish the laying of the 1. These are telephoned to the gun layers who function the sighting system mechanisms. The element fuse range is required for two main purposes in antiaircraft gunnery: (a) For the setting of the fuse. When firing. in addition to those common to " direct firing.50 The deflection resolution of the formulae deriving the lateral and vertical corrections is accomplished upon a device known as "Antiaircraft artillery deflection computer. e. Secondary deflections involve. etc. The altitude of the airplane is determined from altimetry stations. " indirect " or at night. The instruments resolve the lateral and vertical deflection corrections in mils and also the fuse. They are mately transmitted telephonically or by direct announcement to the gun layers who immediately lay the gun to its future position. as applied in our instrument design. and (5) as a function in automatically giving superelevation to the gun i. The great advantage of this method lies in the fact that the presentation and engine speed can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. and the time of flight is known when fuse range has been determined from a telemeter. These are set by giving secondary moveto mechanisms of the sighting system. These are multiplied by the total element of time mentioned in the aforesaid and gives the respective displacements. drift. range. while the telescope pointers remain sighted upon the present position of the target. 3. The fact that the angular velocity of an airplane in ordinary flight is never uniform makes this method more difficult of apprehension but.

firing can be conducted in the same manner as in daytime. 2037. When it is able to find it and keep it in its field. the one for azimuth. focuses the sound waves placed in their direction . searchlights are used to is The height or illuminate the objective. Many sound-detecting instruments have been made. is obtained in one of two ways : (a) Monostatic. the foregoing describes the fundamentals of anti-aircraft artillery fire-control methods. which is a basic factor in the computation of the principal and secondary deflection corrections. movable in azimuth and site." surface in the shape of a A paraboloid. is a system in which two stations are set up and oriented along a base line of known length. " (See Ordnance Document No. anti-aircraft artillery involves material capable of the highest degree of facility and accuracy in the automatic measurement of deflections and the maneuvering of its gun-laying mechanisms in order that effective fire may be conducted against a target whose movements are subject to such large displacements. When firing against airplanes at night.51 Altimetry. one of " the recent types is the Paraboloid. The monastatic This yards. When altitude has been determined. Briefly. its axis is when The sound is and joined in pairs received by trumpets placed on either side of the focus to the ears of two observers who adjust the instrument. line (b) Bistatic. the other for site. frequently as great as 4.000 vertical distance of the target above the base then determined geometrically by projecting its altitude horizontally into the vertical plane passing through this base line. or one-station instrument is an optical device that determines the altitude by automatic triangulation through the coincidence of light rays along a self-contained base. the observed position is resolved into the future position by automatic devices. they swing from one side of the focus to the other when the axis of the instrument is turned. Being the most precise form of gunnery. The Manufacture of Optical Glass and of Precision Optics"} (See War Department Document No 1065. "Handbook on Elementary Optics and Applications to Fire-Control Instruments") .

52 .

Other special vehicles such as reels. are described in a general way in this chapter.. A the carriage. In the case of heavy pieces. the principal artillery. With batteries of heavier field artillery. to which additional vehicles may be attached. The forge and store limbers are designed to carry supplies and equipment. The caisson is essentially a conveyance for the transportation of ammunition in the field. attached to the trail of the piece when a chest for ammunition is pro- vided on the carriage limber. In front it is fitted with a short pole having a lunette for attachment to other vehicles and in the rear with a pintle. sectors. ones being the carriage and caisson limbers. The type of vehicles vary with the different guns and the various organizations. etc. supplies. especially the caissons. and store limbers. caissons. Various tools are usually carried on the caisson. pole is provided at the front for horse or motor and the rear is equipped with a pintle for attachment of traction. battery wagons. a number of vehicles are necessary and regimental organizations of field artillery for maneuvering and serving the piece. the ammunition being carried in motor trucks. and seats are provided for the accommodation of the personnel. store and battery wagons. in which most of the spare parts and supplies are also carried.ACCOMPANYING VEHICLES. For light field pieces. It generally consists of a chest for ammunition mounted on two wheels and an axle. the chest is dispensed with and the trail of the piece rests on the top section of the limber. In addition to the piece itself. Some of the more common vehicles such as limbers. while their special features are described in detail with the materiel with which they are issued. The limber is a two-wheeled vehicle designed primarily to increase the mobility and facilitate the maneuvering and deployment of field There are several types of limbers in use. (53) . The caisson limber is used for hauling the caisson and is provided with a chest for carrying ammunition. the forge limber carrying the tools and supplies for the The battery wagon and the store wagon are twofarriers' shop. The carriage limber is traveling. forge. etc.. some of the vehicles are dispensed with. are also described with the materiel to which they pertain. in batteries. wheeled vehicles equipped with chests for tools. and spare parts.

tions the complete gun. was limited to guns emplaced in and guns of large caliber which were only permanent moved with great difficulty. most radical change being the motorization of artillery. the greatest and . This type of ranges. i. hauled by either caterpillar motor trucks. large caliber longof this heavy artillery in . factor. Mechanical transport is at this time in such a state of development that there is no need of dwelling upon its numerous advantages over animal draft. e..54 Light field artillery is these batteries are tractors or usually drawn by horses although some of now motorized. Light horse-drawn guns and howitzers original heavy artillery fortifications The comprised the mobile artillery for use in artillery was ideal for quick action at short As the artillery became a more important range jruns were required. changes have been made in every arm of the service. provisions are made for a limited number of trailers for use in carrying light guns at high speed behind motor These trailers are rubber tired and for high-speed condivehicles. The movements the field. may be placed on this trailer instead of being transported on its own wheels. The recent struggle in Europe brought about problems which heretofore have never existed in warfare. and to meet these. 75-MILLIMETER GUN CARRIAGE MOUNTED ON A 3-INCH FiELD GUN TKAlLt-R. with carriage. In addition to this.

trucks. ing a position on the motor cycle is ideal for liaison and Westfield military bicycles. and motor cycles with side cars. all tending to produce apparatus of unfailing depend- and maximum mobility and flexibility. . types of motor In most vehicles of widely varying capacity and duty are required. In applying motor transportation to artillery. and fifth. the field is the caterpillar tractor. but in a few instances special types have been developed.. The result is the development of the extremely mobile heavy artillery. ability : tractors of the caterpillar type. tools. motor cycles with and without side cars. Motor apparatus of the following types have been selected as the most suitable for accomplishing this motorization First. Electric power is supplied by a small generator driven by an individual gasoline motor mounted on the truck. In bringing the guns into position it is often necessary to cross ground plowed by exploded shells. trucks are required to insure unfailing supplies when artillery Because of the uncertain conditions of the roads back of the lines sturdy trucks that can. pull through under the most unfavorable conditions are employed. to go through mud and deep sand. hammer. mental headquarters are also supplied with light touring cars and lines. is really a motorized store wagon carryfor the particular kind of unit to which The air on wheels. and to ford streams which can not be negotiated by a wheeled type of motor vehicle. forge. cases commercial cars and trucks are used. including a lathe. drill press. work of similar nature requiring rapid transportation for one or A two individuals. four-wheeled trailers. assigned. passenger cars. The problem of the care The it is artillery supply truck etc. both to artillery materiel and motor vehicles. The motor cycle is particularly useful when traveling in convoy and for keeping the various units of an organization in close touch with each other. The equipment is designed to make all repairs in the field. ing spare parts.55 the field could only be accomplished in one way by motorizing it. second. Motor trucks are necessary for carrying supplies and ammunition from the depots and distributing them to the various units. artillery repair truck consists of a small machine shop mounted Its equipment is complete. both light and heavy. staff cars. fourth. the march and when occupy- Batteries are supplied with light touring Battalion and regicars. A great many is in action. Passenger cars are furnished when on. etc. Motor equipment is still undergoing changes. third. thus the type of apparatus adapted for this purpose is and maintenance of motor equipment in met by issuing the repair and artillery supply trucks to each battery supply and headquarters company of motorized artillery.

permitting it to be moved with rapidity.56 The motor equipment makes transportation a comparatively easy matter. Detailed descriptions of the above motor vehicles are given in separate handbooks pertaining to motor equipment materiel. (See War Department Document No. either on the offensive or defensive.) . The value of this equipment becomes more apparent as the nature of warfare changes from that of position to that of movement. 101$.

and grenadiers) attacking the flanks will not prove very successful. The heavy artillery is not sufficiently mobile. this gun is adaptable for tanks.500 meters. and aircraft. particularly if machine-gun nests are echeloned to considerable depth and executing cross fire. MODEL OF 1916. due to its extreme portability. is the smallest weapon of the field-gun type in use by the American Army. thereby calling for vast amount of ammunition. Its dispersion is too great for small. It is used by advancing infantry outfits. Such condition calls for some form of artillery. by a unit (consisting of rifle an automatic Hence the taking of a machine-gun nest rifle squad. chiefly for destroying concrete and other points of resistance. machine-gun emplacements. Experience has shown that the infantry can not carry out its misits rifles and machine guns except at prohibitive loss of perThe individual rifle does not offer the necessary volume of while the rifle grenade. and even more so the hand grenade. sion by sonnel. LIMBERED. outposts. The 37-millimeter gun. of immediate action. hand bombers. Recent developments and modifications of this weapon have found wide application for its use and. is fire. extremely difficult to transport. and capable 37-MILLIMETER GUN CARRIAGE AND AMMUNITION CART. effective at from 400 to 1. against both personnel and materiel.37-MILLIMETER GUN MATERIEL. tractors. (57) . definite targets. a close-combat weapon. The necessity of providing an accompanying gun for certain units of infantry has led to the adoption of a 37-millimeter gun (devel- oped by the French Army). also known as the 1-pounder or infantry accompanying gun. The field artillery is not available because of difficulty of communication and length of time necessary to get into action.

and accessories. In action the gun is operated by two men. With the combination tripod mount. consists of the gun and cradle and the other of the trails. 75 57 . The gun and limber when joined are normally hauled by one horse or mule. one keeping it on the aiming point and the other loading and firing. the gun is transported on a wheeled carriage which is limbered to a two.. of gun 5 20 (H. do pounds inches do do 33 360 75 37. which ejects the case. Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight Length Range Muzzle Weight of gun and recoil mechanism (with and recoil of group of barrel flash hider and sight) -pounds do __do__ do do calibers group of breech group of flash hider 104 34 38 18 2. 25 68 84 37. and it is only necessary to open the breech mechanism. but thereafter the counterrecoil of the barrel cocks the piece.58 intended to follow infantry over any kind of ground is designed to give great mobility.204 1. One group. Shell velocity Mark II) meters feet per second of projectile recoil pounds inches Length of 3. Wcigths. is As this gun its construction : A spare parts. complete Over-all length of vehicle Over-all height of vehicle Over-all width of vehicle. and fire. drawn by one mule or horse. and ballistics. capable of being set on wheels. complete Weight of wheels. insert a new cartridge.234 7-10 21 14 22 16 36. weighing 84 pounds. The gun must be cocked by hand in order to load for the first round. The personnel is organized for rapid fire. the possible of fire is 35 shots rapidity per minute.650 1. but near the enemy they are separated and moved by man. weighing 104 pounds.75 angle of elevation angle of depression '__ Amount of traverse to right Amount of traverse to left Weight of axle. (2) light wagon serving as a limber and carrying ammunition. dimensions. it is separated into portable groups for transportation and each unit is carried by two men.. each Weight of trails (including pintle and float) Diameter of wheels Maximum Maximum degrees do do do pounds do do inches Width of track Weight of gun and carriage. close the breech. E.wheeled ammunition cart. Each gun unit is composed essentially of two elements (1) The gun on a tripod mount. When used as a tripod mount.

59 .

60 The gun is composed mainly of a steel alloy barrel.. The breechblock is of the Nordenfeld type and with the exception of size is practically the same as that used on the French 75 millifield gun. buffer. The valve is held against the front face of the piston by a spring. which is hollow and open at the piston end. The breech housing is screwed to the rear end of the barrel and forms a receptacle for the breechblock. rotates in a threaded seat and is operated by a handle which when moved to the left causes the eccentric hole in the block to register with the bore and also operates the extractor A meter thus ejecting the empty cartridge case. and is pierced with holes for the passage of counterrecoil. through the holes in the piston head. TRIPOD MOUNT IN* FIRING POSITION. is The purpose and of the recoil mechanism to control and limit the recoil to return the barrel to the firing position. closing the oil holes in the head during the counterrecoil stroke. and counterrecoil The piston rod. ment is limited in each direction by a stop. It screws into the breech housing and is opened and closed by being rotated 156 degrees about its axis. The oil passages in the piston head are closed by the piston valve. The recoil cylinder consists of a cylinder containing a piston. through the hollow portion of the piston rod. The counterrecoil buffer is screwed into the front cylinder cap and eases the movement of the gun into cylinder battery. piston valve. front clip of bronze and an aluminum jacket serve as supports and guides for the whole barrel. thus preventing excessive shock. at the same time preventing a sudden return which might disturb the aim of the gun. thus slowing up the forward motion of the gun. The action of the powder gases on the breechblock at the moment of discharge produces the recoil of the united barrel and breechblock. which move-. The breechblock is cylindrical in form. The piston is fitted .75 pints and the extreme travel of the piston is 11 inches. This oil is allowed to pass through two parts of the piston first. second. counterrecoil spring in three sections. Pulling the lever to the right rotates the block so that the port in the block is drawn away from the bore and a solid surface containing the firing pin backs up to the base of the cartridge. oil both during recoil and with four holes for the passage of oil during recoil. The capacity of recoil is 2. .

conical sheet metal flash hider is secured to the muzzle of the A gun. the upper end Each trail head is being with lugs which pivot on bearing surfaces in the lower end equipped of the pintle. The pintle. Some shield.61 The mount may be used either in the form of a tripod or with the and wheels attached. The elevating mechanism is located on the frame in front of the traversing mechanism. and both trails axle form of a yoke. when spread. GUN DISASSEMBLED ON THE MARCH (WHEELS AND AXLES LEFT IN THE REAR). and the spread trails in rear equipped with spades form the other points of support. The shield consists of three plates hinged together. and is mainly employed to protect the gunners from shrapnel and flying fragments. . A screw fitting into a nut pivoted in the frame is raised and lowered by a handwheel attached to its upper end. the front leg is swung up and secured. pivoted and secured to the pintle at its upper and lower ends. suitably reinforced of these carriages are equipped with an armor plate by stiffeners. nut and housing to move along the screw. When the trails are to be closed. The nut is turned in its housing by a small handwheel attached thereto. thus the rear end of gun is secured to the trail and the elevation accomplished when the cradle is mounted in the trunnion bearings. are kept in position by a removable transom. Above the elevating handwheel is a hook engaging a pin fitted to the underside of the cradle. gun. extends to the rear in the form of a fork and engages the nut housing on the traversing screw. A Y-shaped frame. which also serves as a seat for the gunner. the gun is traversed to the extreme right. In the former case a front leg having a float adjustable to two heights at its lower end is used to support the front end of the mount. The trails. is in the to receive the cradle trunnions. or gun mount. which causes the fitted are spread out to support the rear. thereby traversing the The screw is pivoted in the left trail and moves in and out through a bushing pivoted in the right trail when the trails are being spread or closed. In the case of the wheels being used.

primer. and powder charge. and detonated by a base percussion fuse. AMMUNITION CART FOR THE 37-MILLIMETER GUN. carries 14 in a fiber The limber tridges packed wooden boxes for carrying spare parts. either of which is mounted on the left side of the gun and in a bracket which is part of the striker rod housing. The ammunition is of the ing 1. ammunition boxes. brass case. A complete round of ammunition weighs 1. The wheels are 37. each containing 16 carpacking strip.097 fixed type having a steel projectile weigh- pounds containing high explosive. There are also provided 2 . accessories. etc.75 inche% in diameter and have steel tires 1.47 pounds and is composed of projectile. GUN AND PERSONNEL ON THE MARCH (AMMUNITION CART LEFT IN THE REAR).62 The gun is provided with a telescopic sight for use in direct fire and a quadrant sight for indirect or masked fire. tools. The 37-millimeter gun limber (of the machine gun ammunition wagon type) is essentially a frame resting on two shafts having a movable bolt and rear fittings by means of which it can be joined to the gun mount.875 inches in width.

and the gun as the fourth. the ammunition for the Weights. cylindrical in form. blacksmith's tools. Rifling uniform. The cradle is carried as one load. including breech mechanism '.95-inch The loads for packing. for this reason it is a light. Length of gun Weight of gun.953 do 35. This surface is supplemented at the forward end of the gun by two collars of equal diameter. dimensions. Forthese lugs is a finished surface of uniform diameter which constitutes a bearing for the gun. the trail another. compact weapon. the wheels and axes as another. two lugs are provided to which the ward of piston rods are secured when the gun is mounted in the cradle. WITH PACK OUTFIT. Vickers-Maxim mountain gun materiel is of Vickers and American and British manufacture. battery. and signal Additional pack animals are employed to carry tools. mches__ 2. separating very quickly and easily into four 2.95-INCH VICKERS-MAXIM MOUNTAIN GUN MATfiRIEL. and Caliber ballistics. 85 2"-6 pounds do ounces feet per second yards . right-hand twist. supply chest. thereby 5516021 5 (63) . 1 turn in 25 calibers. Four other pack animals carry the pioneer tools. respectively. This materiel is design intended for transportation by pack animals. Weight of projectile Weight of power charge Muzzle velocity Maximum range Length of recoil of gun Height of axis of gun above ground I: 12J 8 4.2. inches do degrees Maximum Maximum angle of elevation angle of depression Amount of traverse of gun on carriage Diameter of wheels do do inches 920 825 14 26 27 10 Width of track Weight of carriage only Weight of gun and carriage do pounds do 36 32 595 830 The gun barrel is On either side of the breech end a one-piece steel forging. Suitable pack frames with all the necessary attachments are provided for holding the load compactly and in proper place on the animal.

The firing pin is operated by means of a trigger which is pulled by the firing lanyard. either in recoil or in battery. The breech mechanism is of the interrupted-screw type. The breech is equipped prevent firing A with an extractor which ejects the empty cartridge case after firing.64 insuring a firm bearing for the gun in the cradle. At the bottom of the barrel is a guide which slides in a corresponding groove in the cradle. A handle which operates from left to right turns and swings the block clear with one motion. safety device is incorporated to when the breech is not closed. . thus keeping the gun in proper position and preventing it from turning when in action.

The cylinders are connected at the rear by a by-pass which keeps the oil pressure equal in the two cylinders. To u 3 Z 3 LJ J y I J U U I movement of the carriage on the ground the wheels are locked by means of " brake ropes. sufficient to diminish the movement of the carriage on the ground but not sufficient to render the carriage stable. It is known as the short-recoil type in which the gun is permitted a length of recoil upon the carriage. one on each side of the gun.65 The recoil mecJianism is of the hydrospring type. Throttling . They contain both the recoil and counterrecoil retard the mechanism." which lock the wheels to the traiL Two buffer cylinders. are bored in the cradle casting.

as before stated. cylinder supports the gun from the breech to within a few inches of the muzzle. In place of trunnions there are two lugs underneath the cradle through which passes the cradle axis bolt. is a bronze casting comprising three parallel cylinders. The other two. by means of which the cradle is secured to the trail.66 1 The is obtained by grooves of varying width in the cylinder liners. This bolt is provided with a handle and suitable catch for quick removal when . The counterrecoil mechanism consists merely of springs wound around the piston rods. REAR VIEW OF CARRIAGE. piston rods are attached to the gun by means of interrupted screws. which permit quick removal for transportation. accommodate The cradle The central the recoil mechanism. which are compressed on firing and which return the gun into battery.

on which the gunner's quadrant may be used. on the left side of the trail. cradle axis bolt. Elevations from 10 degrees may be obtained. is No traversing mechanism provided. The cradle also carries the sight bracket and has a plane surface on top. The elevating gear consists of a quadrant with a worm wheel segment thereon operated through suitable gearing by a handwheel DETAILED VIEW OF GUN. The trail consists of two steel side plates connected by crosspieces and transoms. A bolt for quick release of the elevating is mechanism from the cradle depression to 27 degrees elevation provided.67 disassembling for packing. and traverse must there- fore be obtained by swinging the trail. The front crosspiece contains bearings for the axle. and elevating gear. SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE IN BATTERY. A shoe at the rear end of the .

The COMPARATIVE TABLE OF LIGHT FIELD GUNS USED IN THE WORLD WAR. It axle is a solid cylindrical bar with flats cut on two sides for securing it in the front crosspiece of the trail. is also provided with a socket for the handspike. By having the sight is quadrant level and sight thus combined one man can lay for both elevation and direction. are 36 inches in diameter and are steel tired.68 trail is fitted with a "scraper. Sighting is accomplished by means of the sight. materiel of that type. Each animal carries two chests containing five rounds each. It is quickly removable The The wheels for packing and is carried on the same pack animal as the wheels. each weighing 12J pounds. maximum range sight is a graduated level which serves the same purpose as the range quadrant used on the 3-inch equipment and other Combined with the By this means the piece is laid for elevation. The ammunition used is of the fixed type." which in reality is a short spade. model of 1912. combined with either an open sight or the panoramic sight The sight shank is a steel arc which can be moved up and down in elevation by means of a scroll gear. A range strip on the rear face of the arc is graduated in 50-yard divisions up to the of the piece. consisting of steel high-explosive and shrapnel shells. . mounted on the left side of the cradle.

95 inches. ease of transportation. equipped split trail type. is of the permitting greater traverse and greater elevation than either the French or British models of this caliber. The caliber of the piece is about as large as ready horsedrawn mobility will permit. with the single trail. MODEL OF The United 1916. The German caliber was 77 millimeters. and was adopted by the French and by the Italians.03 inches. rapidity of fire. and reliable functioning. FRONT VIEW OF CARRIAGE. The points of excellence obtained from these field pieces are good range.3 inches which is the caliber of their 18-pounder. model 1916. and Great Britain a caliber of 3. The caliber is equivalent to 2. States 75 -millimeter field gun. equivalent to 3. States : (69) .75-MILLIMETER GUN MATERIEL. the The 75-millimeter field gun constitutes the light field artillery of Army. while the United had adopted the 3-inch caliber.

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Compared with the (See page 89. Likewise. tion. but also on the elevation provided for. depression 10. and traverse of 142 mils. as well as to the functioning of the the above types. and traverse 106 mils. attention is invited to the mechanical features covering the vertical and hori- zontal limits of the gun laying. without resetting of the trail and consequent resetting of the sighting devices. while the British model permitted 16 elevation. REAR VIEW OF CARRIA( As the range depends not only on the power of the gun and the design of the ammunition. and as the horizontal arc which can be covered by a gun with a single setting of its trail is governed by the permissible traverse. and likewise a wide traverse without changing the position of the trail. recoil. the French model has been credited piece. The French model 1897 carriage permits a maximum angle of elevation of 19. and equipped with a variable different elevation. The American model . is a great convenience and saver of time. the American 3-inch model 1902 carriage permits of a maximum angle of elevation of 15. depression of 5. Due to its greater elevation.71 The American model 1916 split-trail carriage permits great elevawithin the mechanism of the carriage. the American piece outranges the French. and 142 mils traverse. a wide horizontal arc of fire. although the French gun has a greater muzzle velocity.) British model 1917. The recoil mechanism was adapted to the higher permissible elevation of the gun. 5 depression. with functioning most perfectly. automatically adjustable for The ability to outrange the enemy is constantly being sought. and high elevation and improvements of the projectile are the means through which it is hoped to obtain the increased range desired. but it lacks provision for high eleva- Of tion and wide traverse of the gun.

72 sU : Ld t O < cr cr CD CD i -J Ld o n > in .

is not entirely a matter of the speed of the tractor. The American model 1902 carriages are arranged with a hydro-spring recoil mechanism. Rapidity in moving a fieldpiece from point to point. remains the question of facility in handling the piece LEFT SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE. where railroad transportation is not available. or to change position of the trail of a 155-millimeter gun requires the use of jacks and a considerable expenditure of time. The dimensions and weight of the 75-millimeter piece permit of its being placed on a rubber-tired trailer and transported at high speed behind a motor vehicle. including the carriage and limber. The French model 1897 carriage is equipped with a hydropneumatic recoil mechanism. The trail can be readily unlimbered and spaded into position or its position changed by man power within a few moments. and the American model 1916.73 1916 carriage allows a total vertical movement of from 53 elevation depression and a traverse of 800 mils (an artillery mil equals the angle subtended by T*T of the circumference of a circle). This weapon . The weight of the The introduction of motor but there still tractors may alter the draft problem. by man power after battery position has been reached. and the 75millimeter field gun has therefore become a gun of first rank. which is slightly above the horse-drawn draft limitation over rough ground. is about 4. as it constitutes the light artillery of the military powers. for likelihood of damage to the materiel when transported at high speed on its own wheels must also be considered. to 7 piece. and so is the British model 1917. The mobility of artillery is of utmost importance. while to unlimber and spade into position. As one phase of this. it may be mentioned that the weight at the end of a 75millimeter gun-carriage trail is only approximately 100 pounds.500 pounds.

Number of grooves : 24 I Muzzle velocity Shrapnel Mark . is suitable for the projection of high explosive.280 3. center line of wheel to center of lunette do do do pounds inches do degrees inches. complete (without gun) Weight of gun and carriage.9 ~~> Length of bore Length. calibers .780 do__ 6. carriage limbered Height of center line of peep sight above ground Height of center line of panoramic sight above ground Amount of elevation with elevating handwheel Over-all width of trails.74 accurate. fully equipped yards. right-hand twist increases from one turn in 119 calibers at the beginning of rifling to one turn in 25. destruction of personnel.4 calibers at a point 9. inches. 28 Maximum angle of elevation Maximum angle of depression Maximum transverse. spread Over-all length.. and to some is extent the destruction or protection of lines of communication.* 9. 385 ' pounds do inches Diameter of wheels Width of track Length of recoil of gun on carriage (variable) Height of axis of gun above ground Weight at lunette. Weights. 185 do 11. each side of center Maximum angle of elevation with angle of site handwheel Maximum angle of depression with angle of site handwheel 53 7 400 11 7 do .693 1. Uniform from this point to end of muzzle._<!<>_ 1.360 do__ 8. of wire entanglements. 9.. 2. muzzle of gun to end of lunette Length. Weight of gun and breech mechanism Length of gun Caliber pounds inches__ millimeters.875 52 42 do do degrees do mils degrees 130 173 118.170 do. dimenaions. has a range up to 7 miles.045 56 60 18-46 41. 74'J Maximum range Shrapnel (Mark I shell) Shell (Mark IV) _ _-_ Shell (Mark I) Range at 10 elevation Range at 20 elevation Range at 30 elevation Weight of carriage.625 140 56.653 do 12.72 inches from muzzle..900 1. 84 fS& 1 Rifling. _ 749 90. (21-second combination fuze) feet per second __ Shell Shell Mark IV (armed with Mark V fuze) Mark I (armed with Mark V fuze) : __<lo__ . and gas projectiles. shrapnel. and ballistics. and of fair-sized obstacles.

which not only slides the breech block out of place but operates the extractor. when changes in deflection A seat is provided on each half of the trail. and clip. short hoop or clip A is shrunk on the tube near the muzzle and has underside two lugs which form guides for the gun on the cradle. but the variations deal only with the manner of attachment of the jacket and locking hoop and do not The gun is guided in recoil by two affect the general dimensions. The breech block is of the drop-block type and operates semi- automatically. There are six slightly jacket. flanges q|i the lower side of the jacket.75-MILLIMETER GUN AND CARRIAGE. The ring carries at the top a lug to which the hydraulic recoil cylinder is secured. the gunner (75) who . The firing pin is cocked and fired by one continuous backward motion of the firing handle. its close fired rim strikes against the lips of the extractor causing the mechanism to under the action of the closing spring. MODEL OF 1916. varying types of this gun. When a round is inserted smartly into the breech. lug on top near the forward en$ of the jacket containing a T-slot holds the forward end of A the recoil cylinder. the traversing and angle of site handwheels. ring. The carriage is of the split-trail type which means that the trail is made up of two halves. It is opened by pulling back a handle on the right side of the breech. locking hoop. The gun is of the built-up construction and consists of a tube. the one on the left for operates the sights. and fires the piece. in that the breech closes automatically when a round of ammunition is inserted. The cartridge primer is from the left side of the carriage by a continuous-pull firing mechanism. and at the bottom another to a The breech which the two spring piston rods are attached. which screws to the rear end of the jacket. forms for the breech block which slides up and down with the housing action of a wedge. This feature permits greater elevation and traverse than the ordinary type of trail and reduces the necessity of shifting the trail of 50 mils or more are desired. breech hoop. thus ejecting the empty cartridge case. and the one on the right for a cannoneer who sets off the range and angle of site and operates the breech mechanism. Provision has been made to prevent dust from entering between the surfaces of the guides and their bearing surfaces on the on its cradle. each being hinged to the axle near the wheels and capable of being spread out at a wide angle or brought together at the spade ends and locked for traveling.


The handwheel on the left or gunner's side is used when laying for direct fire. On account of the high angles of elevation at which this gun can be fired.77 The recoil mechanism is of the hydro-spring variable recoil type consisting of one hydraulic and two spring cylinders which comprise the recoil and counterrecoil mechanisms. ing in proportional to the elevation. when site is set independent of range. is elevated. it was necessary to design a variable recoil system by means of which the length of recoil of the gun would be automatically lessened the higher the muzzle accomplished by means of a valve turnoff or opening a number of holes. Movement of the mechanism causes the gun. the gun and cradle only being moved upon operation of the handwheel. The range scale is graduated in meters. elevating mechanism. All settings on the are set off above or below the 300-mil graduation. thus making the resistance to the passage of the oil greater or less. . The angle of site mechanism consists principally of a rocker which is moved by two handwheels. they being connected to the rocker. of site scale is graduated in mils. one on each side of the gun. cradle. Band brakes are used on this carriage and are operated by a hand lever in rear of the shield when in b-^tterv position and by a lever from the axle seat when in traveling posiHon. The angle angle of or in other words. site scale this being the normal setting when the axis of the bore target are in the same horizontal plane. and sights to move also. and the The elevating mechanism used in setting the range is mounted on the rocker.. This is the cylinder and shutting GUN AT MAXIMUM ELEVATION. and therefore independent of the angle of site mechanism.

78 .

79 9 i In 5 *sl li ! M isl-fllf mi 5516021 6 .


is issued in lieu of the battery reel. 1918. Battery and store wagon. and fuze in shrapnel. model of 1917. 75-millimeter 75-millimeter 1918. model of 1917. 1 Cart. battery of 75-millimeter gun carriages. model of 1916. and adapter and booster in the shell.3-inch British. powder charge. are used. thereby permitting interchangeability of ammunition with the French guns. 75-millimeter gun caisson limber. fuzed. with the cart. as was the 3. Fixed ammunition is used in the 75-millimeter field guns and is made up of either common shrapnel or common steel shell. model of 1909 MI. model of 1917. model of 1918. CARRIAGE AND LIMBER IN TRAVELING POSITION.81 The gunner and cannoneers are protected by the customary shields and apron. The projectiles average in weight: Shrapnel. the tires being 3 inches in width. These wheels are interchangeable with those of the caissons and limbers. Shrapnel rounds are issued with the projectiles filled and fuzed. For horse batteries the battery reel. model of gun caisson. with steel hubs and tires. Weight of powder charge is approximately 1. fuzed. shell. ^Wooden wheels. is issued. model of 1918. 56 inches in diameter. projectile. 1 the . model of 1918. panied by the following vehicles: A is accom- gun carriage limber. Battery Feel. model of 1917. The above gun carriage was originally the 3-inch gun carriage T model of 1913. Store limber. model of Forge limber. the shell rounds are issued filled but not fuzed and contain an adapter with booster charge.5 pounds. For motorized batteries reel. 12. reel. The components of one round are the cartridge case with primer. The sight used is of the model of 1916 type. which provides a support for the panoramic sight and the peep sight. model of 1902 MI. model of 1916.3 pounds. 16 pounds. which was later called the 3-inch gun carriage. The gun was afterwards modified to caliber 75 millimeters. model of 1902 MI. 1 model of 1909 MI.

82 .

carrying with it the recoil piston (middle cylinder). Essentially the mechanism consists of three cylinders. modified and fitted with counter weights. and at its rear end a regulator for controlling the length of recoil. forward end and an is In recoil the gun moves to the rear. is diamond mechanism as adopted for the 75-millimeter of the hydropneumatic type and was developed in 1917 carriages Col. The right cylinder has an air reservoir at its oil reservoir at the rear end. MODEL OF 1916 MI. Rimailho. are available for carriages. special suitable packings had to be used. model of 1916 Mill. having at its forward end an air space. The recoiling parts are held in battery by the reaction of the air on the floating piston. and standard 75-millimeter guns. The left cylinder the recuperator cylinder. recoil A number of 75-millimeter gun use St. diamond hydropneumatic issue to the service. The new materiel will be known as 75-milli- meter gun materiel. model 1916. (83) . The St.75-MILLIMETER GUN MATERIEL. model of 1916 MI. redesigned to mechanisms in place of th& hydrospring type. which is transmitted through the liquid against the leak-tight recoil piston. The floating piston in this cylinder separates the air from the oil. The middle one is the recoil cylinder. The energy of recoil is absorbed by the throttling of the oil through a spring-controlled orifice in the regulator valve. In order to hold these pressures. of the French Army. LEFT SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE IN FIRING POSITION. The use of small forgby ings was made possible by introducing high pressures in the recuperator and recoil cylinders.

84 .

Near the end of counterrecoil the taper- .85 opening is provided between the recoil and the recuperator cylinders to house the regulator valve. Throttling during recoil is controlled by the regulator valve conThe lower valve stem is sisting of an upper and lower valve stem. During counterrecoil there is also a second path for the flow of oil through a small channel beginning at the inside end of the buffer chamber in the recuperator cylinder and finally emptying in the recoil cylinder through a by-pass around the regulator valve. In long recoil the movement of controlled valve stem. thereby storing up energy to return the gun from the recoiled position to its position in battery. To move the upper valve stem. ville The by a spiral spring which reacts on the lower upper stem rests in a valve housing and has Belle- springs reacting on the stem only. At short recoil the upper stem of this regulator is brought down by the cam until its lower surface is in contact with the top surface of the lower valve stem. During recoil the pressure in the recoil cylinder opens the regulator valve. As the valve lifts. the whole housing is lowered automatically by a cam operated when the cradle is elevated. thus controlling the throttling of the valve. area between the valve and the valve is its seat. seated in a circular seat at the entrance channel to the valve. the throttle area becomes the vertical circumferential RIGHT SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE IN BATTERY POSITION. The regulator valve is closed during the counterrecoil movement except for a very small constant opening. the movement of which is controlled by a helical spring and a number of Belleville springs. The valve in the counterrecoil orifice remains closed during oil An The recoil. passing through the orifice controlled by this valve moves the floating piston forward against the air pressure.

86 ing buffer rod on the floating piston in the recuperator controls the the second path by causing additional throttling flow through through the small annular arc between the buffer chamber and buffer rod. thus bringing the recoiling parts to rest without any great amount of shock. .

opening of the breech. is perhaps not definitely deAs to whether or not such length of time would be limited by the heating of the gun or by the heating of the recoil fire. and of being reliable.75-MILLIMETER GUN MATERIEL. the length of time which a gun could maintain this rate of or any other rapid rate of fire. The French 75-millimeter field gun adopted for the service of the United States dates back to 1897. termined. on test. MODEL OF (FRENCH). or to a position within the variation which the design permits. The recoil mechanism not only takes up the recoil but it forces the gun all the way back into battery. 1897 MI. for the moment. mechanism depends upon the construction. and continuously. surely. time of recoil and return of the gun to battery position. firing. of vital importance in connection with light for field service. The recoil mechanism not only absorbs the greater part of the recoil energy of the gun but it returns the gun to the battery or firing position. however. as high as 30 shots in a minute. artillery of position a great part of the enormous energy required to start the projectile on its way may be absorbed by a heavy foundation furnished as a mounting for the piece. Rapidity of firing action is dependent upon the arrangements involved for the sighting. efficient recoil For An mechanism is. This rate is probably as high as can be reached by any nonautomatic 75 gun. The French model 1897 field gun has fired. when it was perfected by the French Army. The wr ord "surely" is used in the sense of firmly and without shock. loading. for it is self-evident that under certain conditions a gun which can fire twice as many shots per minute as some other gun is. Rapidity of fire is of vital importance. under all conditions of elevation and heating. and to be efficient it must be able to perform these two functions quickly. maintaining of the gun on its range. to permit of its ready mobility. (87) . Apart from the personnel service to the piece. owing to the essentially light weight of the artillery carriage on which the gun is mounted. smoothly. and ejection of the empty cartridge case. equivalent to two guns of the second class.

88 .

where but few persons were admitted to this room. in this respect: In a duel between two large fighting ships of equal speed to insure their remaining in contact. of heavy caliber. the fortifications may be reduced by the long-range gun. and assembly. expensive to fire.125 Muzzle velocity Shell : (short fuze) feet per second Shell (long fuze) Maximum Shell Shell Shrapnel range: (short fuze) do do 1. 1 turn in 25.6 calibers. relation to light artillery its most notable exemplification in battle has appeared in the Puteaux Arsenal type used with the piece. slow and difficult to transport. There is a difference between land and naval warfare. . 755 (Mark IV shell) (long fuze) yards do 8.930 1. In a land battle.440 Shrapnel do . This gun was most effective in the open-country fighting. as it can destroy both its opponent's base and at the same time its opponent's personnel by sinking the opponent ship. ballistics. uniform. but it is the destruction or capture of personnel which brings a war to an issue and the personnel may move to open country and open order. longrange guns has the other at its mercy. and withal short of life. and Caliber Total weight of gun and breech mechanism Total length of gun Rifling.350 7. millimeters pounds inches 1. 75 015 107. right hand. in the forcing of an issue.89 The general theory of hydropneumatic In its recoil mechanism is not new. it was stipulated that the greatest secrecy should be maintained with reference to its design. the one with the heavy. which is expensive to construct. long-range gun.955 1. under which conditions the heavy. and in working havoc among enemy troops and bringing in prisoners by creeping barrage laid behind an enemy is To-millimeter formation. In the agreement to manufacture the complete recuperator in the United States. no longer has a great target on which its tremendous energy may be concentrated.640 9. manufacture. Land warfare has clearly demonstrated that it is the killing and disabling of personnel or the capture of enemy troops in large numbers which far outweighs the capture of cities or of terrain which nonproductive of raw material. French 75 effort Its virtues have been widely heralded and every its has been made to keep construction secret. dimensions. Weights. in the protection of troops. Its several parts were manufactured at different points in France and these were assembled in a central establishment.

90 .

Total traverse of carriage on axle Weight of the carriage. The recoil mechanism is of the hydropneumatic. opening or closing the breech and firing the piece the man on the left sighting the gun and operating the angle of site and traversing mechanisms. 4 19 12. Seats are provided for two men. A gage . 5 59. so that it is impossible to close the breech and fire the gun when it is not securely locked recoil lug The connects the to the recoil mechanism of the carriage. the one sitting on the right side operating the range scale mechanism. MODEL OF (FRENCH). which in turn ejects the empty cartridge case. The total length from face of breech to muzzle is slightly less than nine feet. and a box section trail ending with the customary spade and lunette. A safety pin operates between the breechblock and the coupling key. 68 44.642 2. : pounds do inches Diameter of steel tired wheels Width of track Length of recoil of gun on carriage Height of axis of gun from ground do do do degrees Maximum Maximum angle of elevation angle of depression 16 3 52. at the by taking the The breechblock is of the Xordenfeld type. . under the breech carries the coupling key. 1897 MI The gun is of the built-up construction type. consisting mainly of a steel tube reinforced at the breech end with a breech hoop and covered in the central portion with a bronze jacket. Rollers are also attached to the gun. Opening the breech automatically actuates the extractor. consisting of a housing around the axle.657 75-MILLIMETER GUN AND CARRIAGE. cylindrical in shape and threaded on the outside. The round of ammunition is fired by a striker which is driven for- ward by a spring-actuated hammer pulled by the lanyard. complete (without gun) Weight of gun and carriage. 9 40. pair of rollers On A muzzle permit a long recoil with short guides overhanging weight when the gun is at full recoil. and during recoil the gun first slides on the inclined guides and then the rollers lift the weight off the slides. The carriage is very compact and simple. long recoil type and contains both recoil and counterrecoil mechanisms.91 Weight of complete round of ammunition Shrapnel Shell . the remainder of the travel being on the rollers. fully equipped do do pounds__ 10 6 1. It is opened or closed by the operating handle from the right side of the gun by the same man who sets the gun for range and fires the piece. which gun to the recoil mechanism. the underside of the gun are inclined bronze slides which are in contact with similar slides on the recoil mechanism. above which is the support for the cradle.

92 .

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however. being secured to the gun. filled with Oleonapthe. also openings liquid. The air in the front part of the upper cylinder (in front of the piston) is free to communicate with the outside air through a plug. are incorporated in the lower cylinder. the piston rod. the liquid opens the valves (which are opened piston fitted recoil the piston of the . at the end of which is a circular ring.94 plunger is indicates that located in the rear end of the cradle which. or by means of a portable battery pump clamped to the side of the trail and connected through the trunnions to the interior of the cradle. through which are bored an upper and lower cylinder. when flush.5 pounds per square inch). forcing formed between the pipe and the hollow rod of the diaphragm. but the forward end of the lower cylinder is closed and conrecoil The LEFT SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE. this pipe being screwed in the rear part of the cylinder where the valves are housed. diaphragm equipped with a hollow rod. The passing of the liquid through these different openings constitutes the braking. tains compressed air at approximately 150 kilograms per square centimeter (1. In so moving. During upper cylinder compresses the it to pass through various valves. In the upper cylinder a piston is permitted to move. The lower cylinder is with a pipe. Oil may l?e added by forcing it through a valve in the side of the cradle by a hand screw filler. also a floating fitted A with a small rod.833. mechanism is housed inside of the cradle. and connected together by means of a passageway provided for that purpose. more oil should be added until the plunger projects about f inch.

95 551 GO 21 7 .


the diaphragm. limits the total possible elevation obtainable by combination of the elevation due to the angle of site strip is America an extra graduated in mils. carriages made in A On placed alongside the range rack and is scales are graduated up to 5. At the same time. The angle of site mechanism is also called the independent line of sight. To return to battery at the end of the recoil. The recoil mechanism will function properly without the operating personnel understanding the interior mech- The interior of the recoil by the French anism. causing it to return to its initial position. Interference of the breech against the trail. depots for repairs. the air in the lower cylinder is compressed by the action of the liquid on. The range and that due to range to 19 degrees. To the rocker is secured an elevating screw and nut which connects with the cradle. however. and provides for elevating or depressing a rocker 13 degrees with reference to the trail.500 but greater ranges can be obtained by burying the trail. the compressed air forces the diaphragm back. The liquid thus compressed acts directly on the upper cylinder piston. agreement was made to continue the secrecy of these parts. meters. held inside of the axle housing. range rack is connected to the rocker arm which is also graduated in meters. the rocker is set in motion. and when its manufacture was taken over by the Ordnance Department. this carriage axle traverse is used.97 wide at the beginning of the recoil and gradually close in propor- tion to the decrease of the speed of the recoil). because the range setting is independent of the setting of the angle of site which is done by the angle of site handwheel. Movement of this nut forces the . and thus giving higher angles of elevation. mechanism was maintained confidential Government before and during the war. The rocker fits around the trunnions and has a segment of a gear which meshes with the elevating pinion. and consequently no repairs or adjustments are permitted to be made in the The complete recoil mechanism must be sent to special repair field. rotates around the axle which is threaded with On A a coarse rectangular thread. The circular scale graduated in meters indicating the range is mounted on the side of the cradle and through gearing is connected to the elevating screw. In setting the angle of site. Very fine adjustments are made when the parts are assembled. The range scale mechanism which operates the elevating screw provides an elevation of 12 degrees to give the correct range and is obtained by movement of the cradle in reference to the rocker. thereby moving the cradle and gun. geared nut. The angle of site mechanism consists of a handwheel and gears.

These wheels are interchange- able with the French limber wheels. its range is limited. POSITION 3 ABATAGE Wooden and have steel tires 3. fuzed. one wheel advancing and the other backing up. An auxiliary angle of site level is furnished to replace the regular level and gives an additional 200 mils for use in hilly or mountainous country. The components of one round are the shell. therefore. fuzed. but not with the American limber or caissons for the 75-millimeter gun carriages. in shrapnel: powder charge. of site level.3 pounds. It is mounted on the angle It has no telescopic features left side of the rocker. the fuze. 16 pounds. pivoting around the spade. Fixed ammunition is used in this 75-millimeter field gun and is made up with either common shrapnel or common steel shell. The customary fire. for firing. 1. are used. the three steps being indicated in the : following figures POSITION I POSITION 2. at the trunnions. model of 1901 (French). combination road brake and firing support is hung around the axle. 12. shield and apron protects the gunners when under sight. The and. and the lowering of the framework to last A <he ground and the mounting of the wheels thereon. and angle of site scale. Shrap- nel rounds are issued with the projectiles filled and fuzed: the shell rounds are issued filled but not fuzed. and contain an adapter with booster charge.5 inches wide. includes the collimating sight. projectiles average in weight: Shrapnel. projectile. Traverse is about three degrees right and three degrees left. permitting the application of brake shoes against the tires of the wheels when traveling. and and adapter and booster in the shell. POSITION wheels.98 carriage to the right or left. The cartridge case. This operation is called abatage.334 millimeters (52. with primer. .5 inches) diameter.

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100 .

1 1 Keel. Forge limber. model of 1909 MI. is issued. model of 1918. For motorized batteries. model of 1918. model of 1909 MI. is issued in lieu of the battery reel. model of 1917. Battery reel. model of 1918. 75-millimeter gun caisson. 75-millimeter gun carriage limber. model of 1917. reel. model of 1917. model of (French). model of 1902 MI. is accompanied by the following vehicles: A MI gun and carriage. The gun and carriage are of French design. model of 1897 MI. 75-millimeter * Battery and store wagon. 75-millimeter gun caisson limber. MODEL OF 1897 MI (FRENCH). model of 1918. with the cart. 1 Che . For horse batteries the battery reel. 1 Cart. model of 1917. model of 1918. The accompanying vehicles are all of American design and manufacture.101 75-MILLIMETER GUN MATERIEL. Store limber. and of both French and American manufacture. 1897 battery of 75-millimeter gun carriages. model of 1902 MI.

102 .

With the split trail. model of 1917 (British). The American model 1916 split-trail carriage permits great elevamechanism of the carriage and likewise a wide traverse without changing the position of the trail. for the purpose of pointing the gun at an elevation higher than the mechanical arrangement of the carriage permits. This is. Increased range is sometimes obtained with field guns whose normal elevation is limited by setting the axles or wheels on raised surfaces. limited in its practical application. MODEL OF (BRITISH). but was modified by adapting it to the 75- millimeter caliber materiel. 1917 The known 75-millimeter gun. and is actually some few degrees less FRONT VIEW OF CARRIAGE. This weapon is equipped with customary the interference of the trail with the breech limits the gun elevation. The recoil tion within the (103) . The theoretical elevation for obtaining maximum range under ideal ballistic condifrom the horizontal. unit trail . than this. the breech can pass down into the V formed by tions is 45 separating the two sections of the trail. or by sinking the trail below the level of the wheels.75-MILLIMETER GUN MATERIEL. a subterfuge. was originally as the 18-pounder. however.

104 .

depression of 5. Likewise. 15. a wide horizontal arc of fire. The ability to outrange the enemy is an attainment constantly being sought. and a traverse of 800 mils (an artillery mil equals the angle subtended by -g-jVff ^ the circumference of a The American model 1902 carriages are arranged with a circle). and traverse of 142 mils. 5 depression. automatically adjusted to different elevations. is a great convenience and saver of time. without resetting of the trail and consequent resetting of the sight- through ing devices. while the British model permits 16 elevation. hydro-spring recoil mechanism. The French model 1897 carriage is equipped with a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism. and was supplied with a variable recoil. The French model 1897 carriage permits a maximum angle of elevation of 19. The American model 1916 carriage allows a total vertical movement of from 53 elevation to 7 depression. and therefore high elevation and reduction of resistance of the projectile passing air are the means through which it was hoped to obtain the increased range desired. the British model 1917.105 mechanism on the 1916 model was adapted to the higher permissible elevation of the gun. depression 10. and so is the British model 1917 and the American model 1916. as compared with the British model and the . The basic difference in the recuperator or recoil mechanism of the French model 1897 gun. and traverse 106 mils. and 142 mils traverse. the American 3-inch model of 1902 carriage permits of a maximum angle of elevation of As compared with REAR VIEW OP CARRIAGE.

lies in the fact that the French model involves the principle of oil and compressed air for absorbing the recoil of the gun and returning it to battery or firing position. also loaded with shrapnel and fuse boxes pounds 49 80 16 5 72 4. with a combination of pistons and steel also be tubing.3 1.693 1. 75 995 88. Maximum Maximum Maximum angle of elevation degrees do angle of depression mils traverse.876 6. and is practically selfcontained in one large heat-treated steel forging.915 Rifling. : Number of grooves feet per second-_ 24 1. with the result that the split trail can be than the unit trail on uneven ground. but as a new objective makes necessary a resetting of the trail. reference A may made relative to the desirablity of single or unit trails as compared with the split trail. set up less quickly Weight. oil and steel springs. 890 56 60 45 38. carriage.450 16 Maximum range: Shrapnel (Mark IV shell) Shell (short fuse) Shell (long fuse) Weight of one round of ammunition Shrapnel Shell : pounds do do do inches Weight of Weight of Diameter Width of Length of carriage complete (without gun) gun and carriage in battery position of wheel* track recoil of gun on carriage (normal) Length of recoil of gun on carriage (maximum) Height of axis from ground do do do do ]2.100 7. with a system of finely fitted surfaces and adjustment valves. each side of center Weight of gun. right-hand twist.464 8.591 4. Millimeters Weight of gun and breech mechanism Total length of gun Length of bore 9.72 inches pounds inches do thence.106 American model. zero turns at origin to 1 turn in 75 inches at from muzzle. also loaded with shrapnel and fuse boxes pounds Weight of gun. dimensions and Caliber ballistics. and limber (American) fully equipped. carriage. establishes a relative movement between the two trail sections. 950 2. necessary to the proper distribution of recoil shock to both trail sections.900 Muzzle velocity Shrapnel Shell (short fuse) Shell (long fuse) do do yards__ do do 1. iiniform. and limber (British) fully equipped. while in the British and American model recoil mechanism. the change in setting requires much more time than with the unit trail.458 . The latter allows of greater traverse. instead of compressed air. are employed. The split trail is heavier and the equalizing mecha- nism.21 83.

i! ill .107 V\\l I!'//' /////. \\\l' 1 I/ ///////.// i.

108 .

the firing pin. MODEL OF 1917 (BRITISH). The jacket is fitted over the exterior of the tube and wire. trail eye. Over the rear por- The gun 15 layers of steel wire. provided with bevel teeth which engage with correteeth on the rear face of the breech block. The breech is opened by the cannoneer on the right seat pulling the hand lever toward him. Bearings are provided at the top to receive the cradle trunnions on which the cradle pivots. and one on the right for a cannoneer sets the range and operates the breech. and traversing lever. lifting handles. the rear end of the trail being fitted with a spade. and a breech ring. fires and . The breech ring is prepared for the reception of the breech mechanism. and on continuing the motion the block and carrier are swung into the loading position. home and Longitudinal recesses are cut in the inner surface of the lower portion of the cradle for the reception of the guides on the jacket of the gun. is automatically actuated in opening the breech. thus ejecting the empty cartridge case. Vertical and horizontal axis lines are cut on the face jacket A of the muzzle for use in verifying the adjustments of the sight. is Hinged to the rear face of the carrier lever. or carrier. is built up of alloy steel. The extractor. a jacket. which is hinged to the right side of the breech. so arranged that sponding hand when the lever is pulled to the right. by means of which it is pivoted on the axle for traversing. and is known as a continuous-pull mechanism.109 75-MILLIMETER GUN AND CARRIAGE. A seat is provided on the left side of the trail for the gunner who sets the sights who the gun. plane for a clinometer is prepared on the upper surface of the breech ring. The top carriage is provided with bearings. Longitudinal projections on each side of the form guides for the gun when in the cradle of the carriage. a series of of steel wire. which is screwed over the jacket at the rear and secured by a set screw. By means of the firing lever on the left side of the gun. is cocked and fired by one continuous backward motion of the lever. which seats in an axially bored hole in the breechblock. The carriage has a tubular steel trail and axle. consisting of a tube. The breech recess of the gun is slotted and threaded is the latter a to correspond with the threads on the block and screwed to a cylindrical section. the first movement of the lever unlocks the breech block. and is provided on the upper side with a lug for the attachment of the hydraulic buffer. The -firing mechanism before the breechblock is is so arranged that the gun can not be fired the hand lever locked. hinged to the right side of the breech. and is secured longitution of the tube are wound dinally by corresponding shoulders and the breech ring. operated by the gunner. The tube extends layers from the rear end of the chamber to the muzzle. The breech block is of the interrupted screw type having two threaded and two slotted sectors.

cause it to return to battery. is secured to the forward end of the spring case. . the front end of the recoil cylinder and an internal flange at the rear end of the outer spring case. after the gun has reached its maximum recoil. carrying with it the recoil cylinder. A which insures the cylinder being constantly filled. thus resulting in the gun returning to battery without shock.110 The customary top and main shields and the apron are provided for the protection of the personnel against gun fire. of counterrecoil (running-out) springs. and is protected from gun fire by a shield. 56 inches in diameter. having steel tires 3 inches in width. The angle of sight level is carried on a bracket riveted to the underside of the rocking bar at the rear end and is adjusted by a leveling screw to which is attached a micrometer disc for setting off the angle of sight. The oil is forced to pass from in front of the stationary piston to the rear through grooves of graduated depth which set up an hydraulic resistance. The cylinder is attached and secured to the rear end of the gun by two nuts. The piston rod is bored out for the reception of the counterrecoil buffer which is secured in the rear end of the cylinder. inner and outer. The traversing gear is pivoted to a bracket fastened to the trail at the rear end of the top carriage. and so arranged that the gun may be elevated or depressed without altering the line of sight. thus checking the energy and bringing the gun to rest. are used. The recoil cylinder is contained in the spring case in the upper portion of the cradle and is surrounded by two sets. Upon being fired the gun recoils. Wooden wheels. while the piston rod with piston. The mechanism allows an elevation of 16 and depression of 5. which fits inside of the cylinder. gravity tank is bolted to the front end of the recoil mechanism. The counterrecoil buffer displaces the liquid in the rear end of the piston rod. and is operated by a handwheel extending out to the left side by means of which the gun may be traversed 72 mils right or left from center. the gun further compresses the two sets of springs which. In recoiling. Drag washers free to rotate about the hubs are A secured by the dust caps. these being held under initial compression between an external flange on. of four sections each. The range indicator is fitted to the right side close to the handwheel and consists of a meter scale ring graduated on its face in hundreds of meters. upper and lower. The elevating gear is divided into two portions. the liquid being forced to escape over the tapered flats. the periphery of the ring being graduated in mils. scale strip and pointer indicate the angle of traverse.

Ill 5516021- .

112 .

round are the cartridge case with primer. the shell rounds are issued filled but not fuzed. 75-millimeter gun caisson. powder charge. projectile. and fuze in shrapnel. MODEL OF 1917 (BRITISH). Store limber. model of 1917 (British). model of 1902 MI. Forge limber. 1 Either one of the above limbers may be used. The sights used are the rocking-bar sight and panoramic sight. 75-millimeter gun caisson limber. model of 1918. 1 75-millimeter gun carriage limber. pounds fuzed.3 pounds fuzed. The braking action is adjustable and brakes are operated by a lever having an eccentric link at its end. model of 1917. model of 1917. and is always used when Brake arms are pivoted at one end to a bracket on the trail and have at their other end a cast-iron brake shoe which acts upon the tire of the wheel. model of 1918. is of British design. The gun carriage limber. This gun was formerly 3. model of 1902 MI. model of 1918. . giving interchangeability with French ammunition. 75-millimeter Battery and store wagon. shrapnel. shrapnel or common steel shell. is The battery of British 75-millimeter gun carriages accompanied by the following vehicles: 1 gun carriage limber.3 inches in caliber but was modified to 75 millimeters. All of this materiel used by the American Army was manufactured in the United States. 16 shell 12. and contain an adapter with made up of either common nel rounds are issued booster charge. model of 1917. and adapter and booster in shell. Battery reel. The components of one 75-MILLIMETER GUN MATERIEL.113 brake is for use in traveling. The projectiles average in weight. which are located tm the left side of the carriage. Shrapwith the projectiles filled and fuzed. Fixed ammunition is used in this 75-millimeter field gun and is The tire firing. model of 1917.

^^^ 1*11 i. c M t&llftjl >-. u " z & KfilS!*! > A S_ .1'r - o O ^ ^ i^ ?: M [ ^ ri ^ o x c O .114 ^5 1 '"*1 * O3C*C|^l-rjXOO Xt-Ogi^OJCO^gagCS s !! if II if 4 OCSQ^OeOOOOCOOOOC 'f <M tN XMO iO *T X u7 t CJ -< C-4 ^- -- 2 2S SO.<s-Cc:0^ S a a "a a> -O :>-2feS J= 3 S-S t'3 C s . ft ^o ^--' -j.

Width of track do Turning angle with carriage degrees-- 1.75-MILLIMETER GUN CARRIAGE LIMBER. they have single draft hooks. instead of double trees for equalizing the pull on the braces the pin. FRONT VIEW OF LIMBER. carriage and limber. and they are not adapted to the American harness. as the distance from the neck yoke to the tle latch is draft hook is 6 inches shorter than in the American design and our harness can not be so readily connected to the neck yoke. 591 56 60 70 British design of gun carriage limber is constructed of a frame consisting of two middle and two outer rails connected at the front The and center by a bar and braces and surmounted by an ammunition chest of steel. nor the ammunition chest doors so well suited to their purpose. etc. The limbers are fitted with wooden poles. Weight. dimensions. The American product of the British limber is superior to the standard British vehicle in that diaphragms are included in the ammunition chests. (116) . 646 4. complete. completely equipped with 21 rounds of ammunition pounds Diameter of wheels inches. but not arranged with compartments or diaphragms.016 114 516 1. Weights. 1917 The standard is British limber carries cartridges horizontally. MODEL OF (BRITISH). which are more liable to breakage than steel poles. empty Weight of tools and equipment carried pounds do do Weight of ammunition carried do Weight. not so effective as the American. completely equipped and loaded Weight of gun.

116 1 I K 1 i E I .

I I .117 I 1 Sv.

carriage. protected at the front end by steel wrapping plates and fitted with a neck yoke for use with breast collar harness.118 The chest opens at the rear and is fitted with perforated diaphragms for carrying 24 rounds of fixed ammunition and a compartment in the center holding two wooden trays for small stores. can be used as an is This limber alternate for this vehicle. . The pole is of wood. and the wheels are the same as those used on the gun carriage. The axle is a seamless steel tube fixed to the rails by flanges. model of 1918 (American) a description of which may be found on page 119. REAR VIEW OF LIMBER. The 75-millimeter gun carriage limber. used only in connection with the 75-millimeter gun model of 1917 (British).

Three perforated diaphragms within the chest support 18 rounds of fixed ammunition and 3 tubular oil cans.) This limber is used in connection with American. (See page 167. completely equipped and loaded Rounds of ammunition carried in limber chest Diameter of wheels pounds do do do do inches 1.75-MILLIMETER GUN CARRIAGE LIMBER. one half passing below and the other half above the axle. etc. described on page 169. empty of tools and equipment carried. Weights. Weight Weight Weight Weight complete. An automatic pole support. The frame consists of a middle rail and two side rails. The ammunition chest is a rectangular steel box. excepting the spokes and felloes of the wheels. made in one piece. dimensions. The axle is of forged steel. and French 75-millimeter materiel. uniting in front to form a seat for the pole and in the rear to form a seat for the pintle-bearing guide. MODEL OF 1918. The middle rail is in the form of The limber is a split cylinder. loaded filled Weight. and swinging downward to an approximately horizontal position. having a door at the rear hinged at the bottom. 963 134 365 62 524 18 56 Width of track Free height under limber Turning angle with carriage (119) do do degrees 60 24 78 . The standard 56-inch wheels are used. is provided. of American design. oil cans of ammunition carried (shrapnel) of fuze boxes. British. and is of metal throughout.


121 .

i yiPiii ill! Ill i njr iifii&JiSliiliiif' i FT/A i-/---- 1 > ! W- iililiili .122 > i .

The caisson consists of a means of a spring support. rear plate. front left side of the chest is fastened the fuze setter. On the rear the standard pintle is provided. steel chest carried FRONT VIEW OF CAISSON. and apron.75-MILLIMETER GUN CAISSON. MODEL OF 1918. The Belleville springs absorb the shock of rebound. held by suitable axle and on wheels and axle by This support consists of helical springs chest brackets at each end of the chest. The chest carries 70 rounds of ammunition arranged fire is in 5 horizontal rows of 14 each. (123) A . and is equipped with rack is profastenings for carrying a full complement of tools. The chest provides seats for three cannoneers. The caisson is equipped with a short pole and lunette combined with a pole prop. Protection from small-arms provided by the front door. which are made of armor plate. On the vided at the back of the chest for carrying fuze boxes.

Weight. (See page 167. loaded Weight.124 Standard 56. Weights.961 70 56 60 81 81 .) GUN CAISSON AND GUN-CAISSON LIMBER. empty Weight of tools and equipment carried Weight of ammunition carried (shrapnel) Weight of fuze boxes. LIMBERED. complete.inch wheels are used and band brakes are provided.421 124 3. 032 ammunipounds inches Rounds of ammunition carried Diameter of wheels Width of track Free height under caisson Turning angle with limber do do degrees 4. dimensions.425 62 1. completely equipped and loaded Weight with limber completely equipped and with 106 rounds tion pounds do do do do of 1. etc.

loaded Weight. MODEL OF 1918.75-MILLIMETER GUN CAISSON LIMBER. Weights. Each diaphragm is perforated with 39 flanged holes. completely equipped and loaded Rounds of ammunition carried in limber chest Diameter of wheels Width of track filled) pounds do do do do inches 1.929 36 56 60 24 81 : Free height under limber Turning angle with caisson (125) do do degrees . complete. except that the chest is larger and carries limber. Weight. which accommodate 36 rounds of ammunition. and three The gun tubular oil cans.003* 134 730 62 1. etc. empty Weight of tools and equipment carried (oil cans Weight of ammunition carried (shrapnel) Weight of fuze boxes. caisson limber is practically the same as the gun carriage model of 1918. FRONT VIEW OF CAISSON LIMBER. This limber is used in connection with the American. dimensions. and French 75-millimeter materiel. British. more ammunition.

126 .

The breech mechanism consists of a handle pivoted vertically to provide horizontal movement of the handle to the right to open the breechblock. and located underneath the cannon. 8 84 72. but a large number of troops in the training areas and camps required materiel for use in their preliminary instructions. with the housing attached to the carriage. In opening. and the necesguns. is operated either by a lanyard attached to the trigger. battery wagons.3-INCH GUN MATERIEL. the mechanism performs two functions: Revolves the breechblock. The 3-inch field gun. MODEL OF World War 1902. When the United States entered the field hand approximately 544 3-inch sary equipment therefor. store wagons. combination battery. battery reel. store wagons and limbers. model 1902. 72 5516021 9 . and the threads withstand the backward thrust of the powder gases. materiel were distributed for training purposes in the United States which were considered substitutes for the 75-millimeter materiel. dimensions. Weight of gun Models of 1902 and 1904 Model of 1905 : pounds do inches__ Caliber Length of gun Length of bore Length of rifled portion of bore do do do (127) 835 788 3 87. materiel includes gun. also reel and carts. The firing mechanism. forge limbers. The needs of the fighting army received first attention. and ballistics. in the latest design. limber. caissons. model 1902. and the of the continuous-pull type. The there were on model 1902. as issued to the 75-millimeter materiel. is equipped with a breechblock of the interrupted-screw type. or by means of a firing handle on the cradle. gun can not be fired. and then swings the block open. caisson limbers. store limbers. the threaded movement firmly seats the cartridge in the powder chamber. At the same time the cartridge case is ejected from the gun. In closing. is When the breechblock is unlocked Weights. carriage. thus 154 batteries of 3-inch. releasing it from the threads. American model 1902-1904-1905. The recoil mechanism is of the hydro-spring type. 3-inch.


(129) .

500 Weight of carriage.520 do 115 Weight at end of trail. 1905. of fix^d ammunition (1 round) do do cubic inches is. 2. 75 Length of peep-sight radius Maximum angle of elevation !"> degrees Maximum angle of depression do 5 1 mils Amount of traverse of gun and carriage 140 4 Rounds of ammunition carried on carriage Capacity of cartridge case Muzzle velocity 66. 1904. Model of 1902 turn at origin to 1 turn in 25 calibers at 9. Width of grooves Depth of grooves Width of lands : do do . 5 Maximum 3-INCH GUNS. MODELS OF 1902. AND CARRIAGE. are of three models.685 Weight of gun and carriage. has four .130 Rifling : Number of grooves inch__ 0.000 Range at 15 elevation yards__ 6.~i W eight T Weight of cartridge case_. 01 Twist. the block carrier which is hinged to the rear end of the tube on the right side. fully equipped pound* 2. AND MODEL OF 1902. 875 Height of axis of gun 44. thence uniform. 700 pressure per square inch pounds__ 33. right-hand Models of 1902 and 1904 1 turn in 50 calibers at origin to 1 turn in 25 calibers at 12. thence uniform. 9 do Height of line of peep sight do 36. which have identical breech mechanisms.72 inches from muzzle. the rear portion of which is enveloped by a jacket which also projects beyond the rear end forming a recess for the breechblock. The front clip is a short hoop shrunk on the tube near the forward end which guides the gun in recoil. A The breechblock on all three models is of the interrupted-screw type. ir. feet per sec__ 1. \Veight of projectile (filled and fuzed) pounds : 15 2. 1902. 1904. and are practhe same except that the latter two models differ from the tically 3902 model in breech mechanism and the 1905 model is 50 pounds lighter in weight.52 inches from muzzle. The gim is built The guns up of nickel steel and consists of a tube. carriage limbered Diameter of wheels inches 56 Width of track do 60 do 45 Length of recoil of gun on carriage do 40. locking hoop is shrunk on the tube and the forward end of the jacket to secure the latter to the tube. 03 0. The block of the 1902 model has two threaded and two slotted sectors and the block of the 1904 and 1905 models. pounds 1.000 Maximum range (approximately) do 8. and rotates in. 24 2927 0. with 4 rounds of ammunition weighing 75 pounds. and 1905.

(131) .

m^iffffilJtKI^MH ^S^^^gj's^^^^^l^^fe^S v> *. ' 5 vi IP *4& ^ ti^ S^'s^t'S . iltw<!<M<liw-i< felkSiM^^^I ^^! ^^x 1 slk S^ 1 . i ** -^ xi: (132) . "^"^fc ^"^ llf3f?44S*3JrtWllI Sac^^lcat^^Nsss^fc'S^ - b*** ^l-| ^ t^**^t??tt ^ ^t ^ iS^^'^'Gt^'i^l'^ s>^ 5.

which form a support for the elevating mechanism. The elevating mechanism is of the double-screw type. gradually close the piston. As the breech is closed the pin. displacing the oil therein and preventing shock when the gun returns to battery. by means of which the cradle and gun is rotated. when the breech is open. A further movement of 90 swings the block and carrier on its hinge until free of the bore. being secured to the cradle head. The carriage trail is is known as model of 1902. The recoil cylinder is fastened to the gun lug and therefore recoils with the gun. On pulling the handle to the right. one and one for the rear sight. oil in the forced past the piston through the As due to their increasing size. Throttling during recoil is obtained by the use of three throttling bars. rod. Two compartments are provided in the trail. recoil the piston is stationary is and the hydroline slots. on the interior of the recoil cylinder. meshing with a corresponding segment on the rear face of the block. The recoil mechanism is of the hydrospring type. a segment of a bevel gear. This is a safety feature which prevents the accidental discharge of a round before the breech has been fully closed. is automatically moved to one side until it is in alignment with the axis of the bore and primer of the cartridge case.133 threaded and four slotted sectors. one on the left for the gunner. remains stationary spade and for tools during recoil. The top and main shield and an apron are provided for the protection of the personnel from gun fire. . The breechblock is operated by a lever pivoted to a lug on the block carrier which has at its outer end a handle and at its pivot end. The firing pin is eccentrically located in a recess in the block. the first 117 rotates the block until the threaded sectors are disengaged. The piston. During cylinder bars. which is moved up or down by the rotation of a bevel gear threaded on its interior surface. A seat is riveted to each side of the trail. the gun is gradually brought to a stop. This bevel gear is rotated by a bevel pinion operated by a crank handle on either side of the trail. the throttling slots in the The counterrecoil mechanism consists of three nests of inner and outer springs which function to return the gun to battery and serve The counterrecoil buffer consists of a to partially check the recoil. tapering box-shaped secured to brackets around the axle and has at its rear end a A float. and one on the right for In front of the compartments are two cross transoms a cannoneer. The cradle has riveted to its underside a pintle which seats in a pintle socket secured to the axle. tapered rod secured in the end of the cylinder which enters the hollow end of the piston rod. consisting of a screw pivoted to the rear end of the rocker. the piston having three slots cut in it to correspond to the throttling bars.


common . when is A lock the traversing mechanism is operated. and may be operated from either when traveling. a front sight.135 Traversing is accomplished by means of a traversing shaft operated by a handwheel on the left side of the carriage. a panoramic sight. swings the cradle in traverse. a rear sight. Seats are supported on the axle on each side of carriage in front of the shield for the cannoneers. CARRIAGE AND LIMBER HAULED BY TRACTOR. namely. there being four of the latter which make it possible to open fire quickly if necessary. 1904. when traveling. The brakes are of the shoe type in front or rear of the shield. and a range Standard 56-inch wheels are used. CARRIAGE AND LIMBER IN TRAVELING POSITION. provided for locking the cradle to the trail in order to relieve the elevating and traversing mechanisms of any unnecessary strains during traveling. The nut being secured to prevent its turning. in the former case in the latter case when in firing position. This shaft is threaded and passes through a nut which is pivoted to the cradle. and (See page 167. Three kinds of fixed ammunition are used in the 3-inch gun. common steel shell. models of 1902. The instruments provided quadrant. and 1905. Foot rests are provided which also support the brake levers and ammunition carriers.) for sighting and laying the piece include line sights.

136 .

137 .

model of 1917. Battery reel. 1902 Ml and 1917. Battery wagon.138 shrapnel. model of 1902. 1902. or 1905. materiel is entirely of American design and manu- . and high explosive shrapnel. Store limber. Forge limber. The above facture. model of 1902.75 pounds. 3-inch gun limber. pounds and the total weight of one round is 18. model of 1902 and 1902 Ml. model of 1902. model of 1902 and 1902 Ml. 3-INCH GUN MATERIEL. model of 1902 and 1916. mounted on carriage. MODEL OF This materiel includes the following: 3-inch field gun. model of 1902 and 1916. 3-inch gun caisson. model of 1902. 1904. Store wagon. 1902 Ml and 1917. Each round is issued with The weight of the projectile is 15 projectiles filled and fuzed.

REAR VIEW OF LIMBER. frame. The middle rail is in the form of a split cylinder. and wheel fastenings are the same as. The pintle bearing is of bronze. and neck yoke. The rear ends of the side rails project slightly beyond the chest to form steps for the use of the cannoneers in mounting. The side rails are of channel shape. The axle is hollow. which are joined in front to form a seat for the pole and in rear to form a seat for the pintle bearing. the axle body being provided with lugs. ammunition chest. while the other branch is utilized as a foot-rest support. doubletree.3-INCH The GUN LIMBER. excepting the spokes and felloes of the wheels. The pintle has a swiveling motion of 360 upon its shank. those used on the carriage. is of metal throughout. limber. one branch being led forward and secured to the middle rail near the pole seat. and interchangeThe wheels able with. one-half passing below and the other half above the axle. to which the middle and side rails of the frame are riveted. (139) A pole prop is hinged . singletrees. The frame consists of a middle and two side rails riveted to the axle lugs. The principal parts are the wheels. made in halves and bored out to take the pintle shank. The foot rest is a perforated steel plate formed to shape and riveted to the middle and side rails in front of the ammunition chest. of a single piece of forged steel. divided at the front. axle. MODEL OF 1902. but is kept in its normal position by the spring in the bearing. pole. Two doubletree rods each from the ends of the doubletree to the tie-rod clamps on the axle to which they are pinned. The doubletrees and singletrees are formed of flange steel.

At the front a lantern and two picket ropes are carried. The chest door closes against the head of the case so that the cartridge is firmly held in position. The rear end of the connecting piece is turned over the rear face of the flange of the perforation in the rear diaphragm. lubricating. These connecting pieces support the front end of the cartridge case and enable empty cases to be carried. and are to be carried inside the chest in the central vertical row of cartridge holes. All of the implements are secured in their brackets by leather straps. which are cut away on top to reduce weight. and forms a stop for the rim of the cartridge case. Suitable finger clearances are cut in the flange of each cartridge hole in the rear diaphragm to enable the fingers to get a good hold on the rim of the case in with- drawing it from the chest. where it is held by two door chains. completely equipped and loaded Rounds of ammunition carried in limber chest Diameter of wheels Width of track Free height under limber Turning angle with carriage Turning angle with caisson Weight of tools pounds__ do do do inches 1. and pole prop are provided under the limber. The ammunition chest is a rectangular steel box built up of sheet and riveted together. Corresponding holes in the middle and rear diaphragms are connected by conical brass tubes. They are intended for hydroline. dimensions. Weight. At each end of provided for that purpose. and is held in its closed position by a shot bolt at each of the upper corners and by a lock in steel the middle. do do* degreos__ do 964 101 675 740 36 56 60 22 80 75 . and held by strap fasteners in suitable chest. Weights. and coal oil. Inside of the chest the cartridges are supported by three vertical diaphragms. etc. flanged all around and riveted to the body of the chest. Brackets for carrying an ax.140 to the rear end of the pole and when not in use it is secured by fastenings under the limber frame and the prop-chain button on the foot rest. The chest door is hinged at the bottom and swings downward and to the rear to an approximately horizontal position. a shovel. With each limber are issued three oil cans. each of the general form of a cartridge and of a capacity of approximately two-thirds of a gallon. Each of the diaphragms is perforated with 39 flanged holes. complete. empty and equipment carried WT eight of ammunition carried Weight. Watering buckets are carried compartments provided for them between the seats and the the seat is a handrail which projects above the top of the chest. Seats for three cannoneers are provided and the paulin issued with each limber serves as a seat cushion.

chest is a rectangular steel box of flange steel three vertical diaphragms which support 70 rounds of containing The ammunition ammunition. the door opening upward and held at each end by a prop. and rear FRONT VIEW OF CAISSON. wheels. Caissons having serial numbers 1141 to 1284. The frame is diamond-shaped and composed of two channel section side rails riveted to lugs on the axle and meeting in front at the lunette and pintle. This caisson. fuze-setter bracket is pivoted to the apron hinges on the right side of the carriage at the rear. An apron of armor plate is hinged under the axle and may be secured in a horizontal position for traveling. It is raised and secured for traveling.3-INCH GUN CAISSON. with the exception of the spokes and felloes of the is of metal throughout. (141) designed similar to that of the gun carriage. The door of the chest is in the rear and hinged at the top. A The road brake all is parts as far as possible being interchangeable. with The standard . 56-inch wheels are used. MODEL OF 1902. have provisions for but 56 rounds. inclusive. respectively.

.5 do 2. Weight. 424 do 84 do 1. dimensions.820 70 inches do do degrees 56 60 22.312. completely loaded and equipped Rounds of ammunition carried Diameter of wheels Width of track Free height under caisson__ Turning angle pounds. Weight of tools and equipment carried Weight of ammunition carried Weight. empty etc. 1. 5 75 .142 Weight.

dimensions.312. Overall length (traction pole removed) Overall width Overall height etc. several parts of which are interchangeable. and is held by a door prop on the left side. Weights. Brakes are applied by a hand lever on the right side. MODEL OF 1916.3-INCH The frame GUN CAISSON. empty Weight of tools and equipment carried Weight of ammunition carried Weight. 750 70 inches 56 60 do do 21 81 degrees-- do do pounds do do do do 74 57 1. Band brakes inches__ * * 64 Weight.5 * 5516021 10 ( 1 43 ) . The door is hinged to the front of the chest. tie-rods. FRONT VIEW. are used similar to those on the 75-mm. riage. consists of two side rails and a middle rail braced by and by the ammunition chest to which they are rivited. SHOWING DOOR SWUNG UPWARD EXPOSING AMMUNITION. completely equipped and loaded Rounds of ammunition carried Diameter of wheels Width of track Free height under caisson Turning angle Approximately. gun carmodel of 1916. operated by one of the cannoneers seated on the chest. The chest is a rectangular flange steel box containing three vertical diaphragms supporting TO rounds of ammunition. 1. swings upward on its hinges. 384 53. An apron of armor plate is hinged below the chest for the protec- tion of the personnel.5 2.

144 to S3 b _j .

complete. etc. which are larger to With accommodate 3-inch ammunition. model of 1918. Weights. completely equipped and loaded Rounds of ammunition carried in limber chest Diameter of wheels Width of track Free height under limber Turning angles with carriage Turning angle with caisson Approximately. pounds do do do do inches 120 74 * 63 987 113 675 * do do degrees do 1. dimensions. the exception of the chest.145 3-INCH GUN LIMBER.775 36 56 60 24 80 81 . MODEL OF 1916. Overall length Overall width inches * Overall height do do (oil Weight. the limber is the same as the 75-millimeter gun caisson limber. empty Weight of tools and equipment carried cans filled) Weight of ammunition carried Weight. The main difference in the chest is in the size of the holes in the diaphragms.

146 CO CD Q O CC 51 .

and the middle one for the cleaning materials and small stores chest. REAR VIEW OF BATTERY WAGON. (147) . the right one is for the saddler's chest. The interior divided into four compartments. the left one for the carpenter's chest. the jackscrew. The other three comis The by a door partments are in the lower rear portion of the chest. which may be carried either in the battery or store wagon.BATTERY WAGON. seat for the lunette bracket two side rails joined at the front to form a and projecting directly to the rear beyond is A forge vise securely fastened to the left side of the frame in place of the handle. and the packing chest chest for spare sights is containing spare breech mechanism. the largest being accessible through a hinged lid at either end of the top. chest is of wood and is bolted to the side rails. MODEL OF The frame the axle. Of the three compartments. A furnished. In the larger compartment is carried the grindstone and frame. consists of 1902. and are entered at the rear end which opens downward.

model of 1902. (See page 167. empty Weight of battery wagon.1 BATTERY WAGON. empty Weight of battery wagon. differs from the model of 1902 in the following respects: The chest with attachments is stronger. completely equipped and loaded Diameter of wheels pounds do inches 1. dimensions. Weight of battery wagon. . and attached in a better manner to the frame. 444 947 56 60 L'4. model of is used only in connection with the 3-inch gun 1902. This battery wagon is used only in connection with the 3-inch gun materiel. The parts of the chest are bolted and screwed together so that they may be readily disassembled if necessary.) This battery wagon materiel.148 In rear of the axle and under the chest are carried three oil cans of 5 gallons capacity each. Weights. The weight of the spare wheels is carried directly by the axle instead of at the top of the chest. 244 Width of track Free height under wagon Turning angle do do degrees-- 2. 2. etc. model of 1902 MI. etc. dimensions.747 56 60 26 7. Fastenings are provided on either side of the chest for carrying the two spare wheels. better braced. The battery wagon. Weights. The wheels used and carried are standard 56-inch. The corners are not dovetailed but reinforced with corner irons inside and out." do degrees. completely equipped and loaded Diameter of wheels Width of track Free height under wagon Turning angle with limber Weight (approximate) at lunette. MODEL OF 1902 MI. loaded pounds do inches do__ 1. Weight of battery wagon.- pounds 75 112 .

(See store The wagon is and materials as can be carried page 167. see Battery Wagon. with two doors on top. (149) etc. intended primarily for carrying such stores. spare parts. in the battery wagon and. the store wagon carries two spare wheels and three oil cans. SIDE VIEW OF STORE WAGON.) For detailed description and table of weights. wagon is the same as the battery wagon. Tire brakes are used.STORE WAGON. model of 1902. . with the exception that the vise is omitted and a frame handle attached in its place. As on the battery wagon. in addition. The wheels used and carried are the standard 56-inch wheels. and the body has but a single compartment. operated by a hand lever on the right side of the body.. page 147. MODEL OF The store 1902. dimensions. such stores as may be designated by proper authority.

noted in the description of the battery store wagon. model of 1902. wagon. For detailed description and table of weights. dimensions. . MODEL OF The store 1902 MI. with the exception of the differences as wagon. etc. is the same as the battery model of 1902 MI. model of 1902 MI.150 STORE WAGON. see page 148..

151 .

one half passing below and the other half above the axle. the anvil. which is the largest. and several small tools. its parts with that of the 3-inch It consists of a middle and two side rails. The middle compartment. MODEL OF The frame of the forge limber is gun limber. the next compartment on either side carries horseshoes and horseshoe nails. the middle rail being in the form of a split cylinder. A tubular . identical in all 1902. is fitted to take the field forge. Shot The interior of the chest is divided into five compartments by four vertical steel partitions. uniting in front to form a seat for the pole and in the rear to form a seat for the pintle bearing guide. The chest is a rectangular flange-steel box having a lid hinged along the front edge of the chest body. and the end compartments are (152) fitted with oil fastenings for carrying smiths' and machinists' tools. on the rear face of the chest secure the lid when closed. TOP VIEW SHOWING INTERIOR OF FORGE LIMBER. model of 1902.FORGE LIMBER. The lid is flanged all around. fitting bolts over the body of the chest to make it water-tight.

153 JM .

A . empty. page 152. Weight of forge limber. dimensions. empty. MODEL OF The forge 1902 MI. British. pole support. which is described on page 169. model of 1902. complete equipped and loaded Weight of store limber. and the 3-inch materiel. The forge limber is used in connection with the American. 5 FORGE LIMBER. without equipment Weight of store limber. without equipment Weight of forge limber. model of 1902. and various implements are secured to the chest by straps provided for that purpose. limber. equipped and loaded Diameter of wheels Width of track Free height under limber Turning angle with battery wagon pounds do do do inches 1. do do degrees 958 577 955 106 56 60 75 ^6. is identical with the 1902 with the exception that the 1902 MI model has an automatic model.154 can is carried under each end of the chest. and French 75-millimeter materiel. Weights. 1. complete. model of 1902 MI. etc. detailed description and table of weights and dimensions is given in a preceding article on Forge Limber.

and the 3-inch gun materiel. model of 1902 MI. see preceding article on Forge Limber. (355) . of 1902. and French 75-millimeter materiel. MODEL OF The store limber. some of the compartments being padded to protect the contents from injury. same as the forge limber. The limber is used in connection with the American. except that the chest is fitted TOP VIEW SHOWING INTERIOR OF STORE LIMBER. STORE LIMBER. model with compartments for carrying fire-control equipment. For description and table of weights and dimensions.STORE LIMBER. British. see preceding on forge limber. model of 1902. 1902 MI. is identically the same as the model of 1902. store limber. with the exception that it is fitted with an automatic pole support. MODEL OF The store limber is practically the 1902. 169. model For description and article of 1902. description of which will be found on page table of weights and dimensions. model of 1902.

and coal oil cans. The frame is built up of two channel section side rails connected at the rear and intermediate points by similar channels. The top compartments have (156) horizontally . lubricating. lunette bracket is riveted. The chest is divided into compartments for carrying various articles of battery equipment. MODEL OF 1917. The battery and store wagon is made of metal throughout. The side channels are bent inward near the front. with the exception of the spokes and felloes of the wheels.BATTERY AND STORE WAGON. At the rear of the frame is a compartment for carrying recuperator. meeting and forming a seat in which the REAR RIGHT SIDE VIEW OF BATTERY AND STORE WAGON.

157 !! liiSIXHIJXqffl-.-.-!-: Hlllllli8kfe .:.-.djMW l 'iy ^""i iifiligfii MiSiliisii i.-.-.i.-r.-. :--^-'.-.yg5jB r w.-.-i:--.'r.-.-.

model of 1902. . The battery and store wagons contain packing strips and accessories for carrying a grindstone in the rear compartment. empty Weight of store wagon. Wights. The battery and store wagons are identical. Weight of battery wagon. completely equipped and loaded Diameter of wheels Width of track Free height under wagons Turning angle with limbers Weight (approximate) at lunette of both wagons. except for the tools and accessories that are carried in the compartments of each vehicle.) The battery and store wagon is used in connection with the American. do do degrees__ 705 325 705 590 56 60 24. dimensions. completely equipped and loaded Weight of store wagon.158 and the lower compartments in front and rear have swing doors. 1. and French 75-millimeter materiel. etc. and provision is made for carrying a hinged lids vertical spare limber pole. 3. Standard 56-inch wheels are used. (See page 167. 3. 5 pounds__ inches do do 75 112 *132 *74 *88 Approximately. British. and with the 3-inch gun materiel. empty Weight of battery wagon. A vise is carried on the front end of the frame and a crowbar bracket on the right side. loadedOverall length Overall height Overall height * pounds__ do do do inches 1. Fastenings are provided on each side of the chest for carrying spare wheels.

Across the frame in rear of the drum a large steel chest is supported on springs. is a single two-wheeled vehicle drawn by 4 horses. in which are mounted the axle arms for the wheels and the drum shaft on which the cable On each side of the a seat for drum rotates.BATTERY REEL. The frame is composed of two side rails connected by cross members and diagonal braces. LEFT SIDE VIEW OF BATTERY REEL. Axle brackets are riveted to the side rails. model of 1917. partments. drum are supports which are joined across the Across the frame in front of the drum is top by secured an instrument chest divided into two compartments with separate hinged lids. is battery reel. 5516021 11 (159) . It has a lid hinged at the front and provided with guide rollers for the cable at its rear. the side rails converge and are riveted to the pole socket. The larger fire-control instruments are carried in this chest in specially designed comthe seat. the lids forming foot rests for the personnel on two men. and in addition carries 2 steel chests containing fire-control instruments. and recover 5 miles of insulated cable. MODEL OF The which 1917. Near the front. lay. It is designed to carry.

model of 1917. When either cone is engaged. model of 1918. for motorized batteries.005 inches 56 __do__ 60 do__ 19 miles 5 . together with the reel. 7. completely equipped and loaded Diameter of wheels Width of track Free height under reel Length of wire carried (approximately) __pounds__ 1. passing between the guide rollers attached to the rear chest. The is cart. when being laid out.385 do 2. ^eights.160 On the right side of the drum is secured a steel case in which a plotting board is carried. and when engaged causes the drum to revolve.faced cone which is controlled by a hand lever at the left end of the operator's seat. dimensions. The cone on connected directly to a gear train driven by a gear attached to the wheel hub. As the brake cone on the right is engaged the clutch cone is thrown the left is out of engagement.~i do__ 65 Weight of reel (without equipment) Weight of reel. leaves from the top of the drum. __inches do__ 74 _ 73. At either end of the drum is a sliding leather. the other is disengaged. model of 1909 MI. Overall length (traction pole removed) Overall width Overall height etc. The wire. issued in lieu of the battery reel.

. Two drums which carry the cable are mounted end to end on an axle which rests in the upper ends of the axle brackets. and the assemreel. MODEL OF 1909 MI. In order to lay the wire. model of 1909 MI. lay. by means of the chain driving gear attached to the right wheel. and the drum made to revolve. The frame is composed of special shaped pressed steel members connected by gusset plates and reinforce pieces. It has interchangecarry.REEL. permitting them to revolve free upon their axes. The left is clutch which drum is driven by the right drum through a pin operated by a handle in the left outer end of the left (161) drum. but controlled by the braking action of the drum latch and drum brake or the friction clutch when applied for that purpose. To recover the cable or wind it on the drums. automatic pole support. The bled axle. REAR VIEW OF REEL. a pintle at the rear. the clutch in the right drum is applied. the drums are disengaged from the clutch. able pole connections which enable it to be adapted to either horse or motor traction. is a two-wheeled vehicle designed to and recover 8 miles of insulated cable. the pole socket at the front.

1(12 .

and. model of 1919 MI.163 An operator's seat is secured to the right rear corner of the frame. dimensions. Wooden rollers are placed under the frame so that the wire will be laid out or recovered without injury to it. left A brake shoe controlled by a foot lever near the operator's seat may be brought to bear against the flanged rim of the drum end plate. through the pin clutch. the left drum leather faced brake shoe attached to the when they are at rest. for motorized batteries. tool box with lid opening on top is secured to the right of the bracket in the space between the side rail and front cross rail. together with the cart. is issued in lieu of the battery reel. The clutch connecting the drum driving gear and the right drum is located in a recess in the right drum head and operated by a handwheel at the upper end of a shaft mounted on the right axle bracket. drum latch lever may be brought against the flanged rim of the right A drum end plate to act as a brake. A Weight Weight Diameter of wheels Width of track Free height under reel Turning angle with cart Length of wire carried of reel (without load) of reel completely equipped -__pounds__ 1. Wcif/hts.426 56 60 19 75 degrees __yards__ 22. A lever on the right side near the seat operates the drum latch for locking the right drum. model of 1918. 880 . FRONT VIEW OF REEL. pole The reel. and the controls placed within easy reach. etc. model of 1917.459 and loaded do inches __do r do 2.

The cart is a two-wheeled vehicle made of metal throughout. within the chest. LIMBERED. MODEL OF 1918. with the exception of the spokes and felloes of the wheels and the packing - ' : " "" VIEW SHOWING REEL AND CART. equipment for the organization to which It is designed to carry part of the fire-control it is issued. two brackets. The frame consists of a middle rail. and two axle The forward end of the side rails.CART. '. all of which support the chest. (164) . REAR VIEW OF CART.

165 .

without body equipment Weight. is issued in model of 1917.166 middle rail is fitted with a lunette and the rear end with a pintle. . for motorized batteries. empty. dimensions. lock bars. The chest is also furnished with fixtures on the exterior for attaching an observation tower. inches-- * do__ do__ * 126 74 * 62 Weight. model of 1909 MI. the interior being divided into 17 compartments of different sizes.676 2. Belleville springs are used to take up rebound. 004 56 60 26 431 pounds Approximately. on the right side. Overall length Overall width Overall height etc. brackets. and packing devices. The road brakes are of the contracting band type and are operated from the front of the cart or from the operator's seat on top of the chest by means of cart. Spiral springs are interposed between the side rails and axle brackets In connection with the axle to absorb the shocks when traveling. lieu Weights. complete fully equipped and loaded pounds do inches* Diameter of wheels? Width of track Free height under cart (approximate) Turning angle with reel (approximate) Weight of instruments * do do degrees 1. reel. The chest is made up of flange steel plates riveted together and fitted with doors. a brake lever This together with the of the battery reel.

with 3-inch tires. of American design. are equipped with standard 56-inch wheels. so that the wheel can be oiled without removing it. The tires are of steel. 56 inches oil valve in diameter.5-INCH WHEEL. is provided An SIDE VIEW OF WHEEL. The wheel fastening consists of a bronze yoke fitting in the outer end of the axle arm and is accessible when the hub cap is removed. but rubber tires.5-inch wheel be used. may In place of the above 56-inch wheel a 57 by 3. The wheel is a modified form of the Archibald pattern. THE 57 BY 3. Like the 56-inch wheel it is interchangeable on is fitted with solid of the all vehicles 3-inch and 75-millimeter materiel. (167) .THE 56-INCH WHEEL. It is similar in design to the 56-inch wheel. which are interchangeable for all vehicles of these materiels. All carriages and accompanying vehicles of the 3-inch and 75millimeter materiel.

The reel is built up of two. reel for tele1 in every battery is provided with a hand It is riveted to the top of the caisson phone mile of field wire so arranged that the current goes and contains through all the wire. MODEL OF 1917. a spool riveted to the right flange and a basswood spool hub mounted between the spool flanges. The frame is built up of two flanged steel ends and two sides. Chains are provided on either end of the frame for locking the cranks when not in use. (168) . Terminals are provided for the connection of the instruments. One caisson wire. spool flanges mounted on a shaft. riveted together with four angle-iron corner reinforces.REEL. The reel for caisson. and riveted to the top of the chest. The crank on the right side is mounted on the shaft. The crank shaft is fitted with a driving gear which meshes with a pinion on the shaft of the spool. MODEL OF 1917. The crank on the left side is connected with the spool through an 18 to 40 gear reduction. steel. The spool may be operated from either side. FOR CAISSONS. model of 1917. MOUNTED ON A CAISSON. and when not in use it can be removed and placed in its provided receptacle. is a hand-operated reel for the transportation and handling of telephone wires. FOR CAISSONS. REEL.

attached to the upper end of the lever. and operated by a thong attached to the lower REEL FOR CAISSON. which projects backward and bears against the lower side of the lunette on the drawn vehicle. which is compressed is the pintle drawn back. The pintle bearing is pivoted by trunnion bolts permitting rotation in the vertical plane. keeps the brake open when not in use. This spring is held between a collar on the rod and the pintle bearing guide so that when it pintle On when the weight of the pole on the coupled vehicle is put on the tends to compress the spring until the load is supported by it. end of the to lever. Late designs of limbers for 75-millimeter and 3-inch gun materiel are fitted with an automatic pole support. the pintle bearing bolt is another spring. The brake lever is pivoted on the brake-lever pin. The pintle hook has a lug formed on its lower side. and a lug on the left shaft bearing. THE AUTOMATIC POLE SUPPORT.169 The reel is also fitted with a brake for controlling the speed of rotation when allowing wire to run out. spring rod is pinned to a lug on the top A of this bearing and carries the pole supporting springs. thus relieving the shock of starting. made By pulling the thong the upper end of the lever is on the inside of the rim of the left spool flange. thus preventing the vertical rotation of the pintle. SECTIONAL DIAGRAM OF POLE SUPPORT. A drag brake-release spring. MODEL OF 1917. .

170 .

of elevation without the necessity of raising or lowering the piece in order to insert ammunition.105-MILLIMETER HOWITZER MATERIEL. three different types of cradles. a spring return. some of which are provided with an elevation There carriage. once adopted. and a continuous-act(171) . model of 1898-09 (German). there are two distinct types of shields. MODEL OF The 105-millimeter howitzer materiel. and an ice prong is added to the rear of the trail. The carriage has several unique features and differs in a number of respects from any other carriage described in this book. and three types of top carriages. the piece is permitted to recoil high angles of fire. The recoil mechanism used is the hydrospring type. The Germans do not appear to adhere to the type. This location of the trunnions.402 feet per second and a maximum range of 10. riage has a double lunette. Separate loading ammunition is used. mounting three different types of guns on this same type of carriage a long and a short model of 105-millimeter field howitzer and a at 77-millimeter field gun. To illustrate. This carriage seems to have been very satisfactory. 1898-09 (GERMAN). however. the projectile weighing approximately 35 pounds. necessitates the use of an equilibrator spring This is interposed to balance the overhang of the elevating parts. Because of the opening in the trail. and on account of the howitzer being hinged at the breech a constant recoil can be maintained and the trunnions are kept at a minimum height above the ground. between the trail and the cradle. The howitzer now in the United States for this carriage is known as the 105-millimeter howitzer.930 yards. The cradle and howitzer are so mounted that the breech of the howitzer is practiis This permits loading at any angle cally at the axis of elevation. model of 1916 (German). do not affect the use of the carriage for either of the three types of guns mentioned. It consists of a hydraulic-brake cylinder. as the German Army made very extensive use of it during the World War. These changes. as firmly as did the French to their Model 1897. It has a muzzle velocity of 1. and The later type of carstop. the top of which is hinged. entirely a German product in design and manufacture. of course. it was are certain changes made in the manufacture of this no system seems to have been followed in applying them.

25 Minus 10 to plus 40 Elevation. model of 1916 (German). 25 190 61 34 Road clearance 16 Over-all length. model of 1898 (German). COUPLED. " 105carriage. A The length of recoil is approximately 51 inches and is The maximum elevation possible is 40. ballistics.950 82. sion. inches__ 90. 105" howitzer carriage and caisson limber.) degrees Traverse. Number of rifling grooves Diameter of wheels Width of tire Weight of wheel inches__ do pounds inches 87 32 48 3. model of 1898-09 (German). Weight Weight Weight Weight of howitzer with breech mechanism of breech mechanism of carriage only of howitzer and carriage in firing position Total length of howitzer Length of tube pounds do do do do calibers 985 70 2. etc. total degrees 4 (71. total Track gauge Height of axis of gun above ground Height of trunnions above ground do do do do 41 .9375 125 Length of tube 19. slight traverse is permitted : The battery equipment of each howitzer carriage consists of the following 105-millimeter howitzer. constant. Weights. dimensions. with a 10 depresa total of 4. VIEW SHOWING CARRIAGE LIMBER AND CAISSON.10 mils. 105howitzer caisson.270 2. model of 1898 (German). muzzle to center line of lunette 189.172 ing buffer.

on the bottom of which at each end clips are formed integral with it. This nut (173) is locked in position by a . and a clip hoop. The recoil cylinder recoils with the howitzer. The clip hoop is forced on the tube near the center of its length and provides the forward clip. MODEL OF (GERMAN). The breech end of the tube is reinforced by the jacket. SHOWING BRAKES AND TRAVELING LOCK. The howitzer consists of three pieces. The breech block is the sliding wedge-block type and is operated by a lever placed on the upper right side of the breech and operated in a horizontal plane. a jacket. The tube is the foundation of the howitzer and in it is formed the powder chamber.105-MILLIMETER HOWITZER 1898-09 AND CARRIAGE. the mechanism being both cocked and fired by one pull of the lanyard. The firing mechanism is the continuous-pull type. a tube. It is held thereto by the howitzer retaining nut. FRONT VIEW.

(oc8t(j .174 Illllllll QU.

Two ball check valve small throttling grooves are cut lengthwise in the buffer. is located in the rear end of it. 5516021 T2 . The front end of the piston rod screws into the cradle cap. Twelve throtlocking plug. the recoil cylinder moving to the rear while the recoil piston remains stationary. When the piece is fired. The head contains the filling plug cylinder and is locked to the cylinder by a headless set screw.175 The rear end of the cylinder is sealed by the rear head and a copper gasket. This head forms a stuffing box for the piston rod and contains a bronze packing ring. The front cylinder head is screwed in position against a copper gasket and is locked by a leaf spring. forces the liquid to move past the piston to the rear. is screwed When into the rear cylinder head and is locked by a set screw. which is locked to the cylinder head by a leaf spring. A On the front end of the recoil cylinder there is a turned shoulder that holds the front inner-spring retainer in position when the springs are assembled. of the grooves is varied so that the orifice area is such that depth the movement to the rear is opposed by a practically constant force throughout its entire length. also hollow. one outer and one inner. so that at the As end of recoil this space is is reached. assembled in the cylinder the buffer fits inside the hollow piston rod. permitting the escape of the liquid in the hollow piston rod only through the When completely the end of the backward movement filled. to flow into the hollow piston rod. of three springs each placed end to end. The outer-spring column impinges on the rear end of the cradle. permitting some of the liquid. creating a vacuum therein and causing the ball valve to open. in addition to the slight clearance between the piston and the cylinder The wall. The piston rod is hollow to within a few inches of the front end. is through the throttling grooves cut in the cylinder wall. The only orifice for its passage. tling grooves of varying depth are cut lengthwise in the interior surface of the cylinder wall. and babbit metal packing. closing the valve in the buffer rod. The buffer. This retainer gives the load to a spring stirrup which in turn gives the load to an outer-spring retainer. which has passed the piston. The outer-spring retainer has extensions on each side that move in guides in the cradle. In releather coiling the cylinder compresses the inner spring against a rear spring retainer. thereby compressing the outer-spring column. compressed the ball rolls to the rear. and the counterrecoil springs act to return the piece to battery. so that during recoil the piston and rod remain stationary while the cylinder moves to the rear with the gun. and the stuffing box nut. The counter recoil mechanism consists of two spring columns. the recoil cylinder moves to the rear the buffer moves out of the piston rod.

One end of the column bears against a seat on the trail and the other end bears against a seat on the under side of the cradle. of course. With the movement back to battery. length of the cradle. which it upon which the howitzer is supported and upon moves during recoil. The cradle is constructed in the shape of a tube of " U " section made from sheet steel rolled or forged steel of such a shape as to and having the top covered by a piece of form guides the full EQUILIBRATOR MECHANISM. but the force of counterrecoil stored in the springs is absorbed mainly by the throttling of liquid in the hollow piston rod. The spring column consists of an inner and outer spring so connected by a stirrup as to work in series. are bolted to it. the liquid in the rear of the piston head. spring equilibrator designed to counterbalance the overhanging weight of the tipping parts is interposed between the trail and cradle. returns past the piston to the front of the cylinder. The recoil mechanism is contained within the tube thus formed. one on each side. both seats being of the ball and socket A .176 clearance space around the buffer and through the two small axial grooves. causing the piece to return to battery without shock. The trunnions are riveted to the cradle at the rear end and two elevating segments.

The latter folds under the trail when not in use. overhanging howitzer and cradle whan at zero elevation. The top carriage is built up of two side flasks of pressed steel connected at the front and rear by steel transoms. The traverse is 2 each side of the center. The trunnion bearings easy. The of moment force of the spring very nearly balances the turning the. Elevation is accomplished by the double gear segments on the cradle. These top carriage clips fit into two on small ball races making traversing trail clips and are supported are attached to the upper flanges top carriage also carries the elevating mechanism. Traverse is accomplished by causing the top carriage to rotate about the pintle. 10. On the bottom of the front transom is a pintle which sets into a pintle bearing on the trail. This is done by means of a screw fixed to the top carriage and a threaded handwheel revolving in a bracket attached to the left side of the trail. so that very little effort is required to elevate the piece. imum depression. operated through a train of gears by a handwheel side of the top carriage. of the flasks near the rear. Riveted to the lower rear end of each flask is a clip. To prevent strain on the elevating and traversing mechanisms when traveling the cradle is locked to the trail by a locking device pivoting on the trail and engaging clips on the under side of the cradle. Shields of armor plate are provided for the protection of the personnel. The REAR VIEW OF CARRIAGE. The trail is provided with a rock spade and a soft earth spade. . The maximum elevation is 40 on the left the max.177 type.

The latter is used on the create a dense illuminating shells. thus masking the flame. Flash reducers are used for night firing. do do _. 75 . and the other is a 22-second time fuze.sight. empty pounds do do 2. dimensions. Weights. center of pintle to center of wheel inches__ do do 53 61. It is attached to the left trunnion of the cradle on an extension provided for that purpose. They smoke cloud. man ammunition plosive Separate-loading ammunition is used in this howitzer. Rounds of ammunition carried in caisson chest Diameter of wheels inches Width of track __do 435 28 53 61.178 tires. There are three types of fuzes. which furnishes the optiral element for the unit. MODEL OF (GERMAN).-i>ouml$__ 1. The shells are of the high ex- and illuminating-star-shell types. etc.25 105-MILLIMETER CARRIAGE 1918 AND CAISSON LIMBER. The wheels are of wood. The sight is of the dependent-line-of-sight type. empty Weight of tools and equipment carried Weight. complete. The complete unit consists of a sight mount and a panoramic telescope. Only Gerhas been issued. 105-MILLIMETER HOWITZER CAISSON. completely equipped and loaded MODEL OF 1898 (GERMAN). Sighting accomplished by means of a quadrant sight is This Ger- man quadrant similar in basij principle and method of operation to the quadrant sight. 48 inches in diameter and fitted with steel The carriage is equipped with a pair of tire brakes acting on the is directly tires of the wheels. 826 035 26 Weight of tools and equipment carried Weight completely equipped and loaded Rounds of ammunition carried in limber chest Weight at end of pole fully equipped and loadedDiameter of wheels Width of track Length. . the type of combination sight and quadrant that is standard equipment of the heavy artillery.079 2. Weight. Propelling charges conof flaked powder (Wuerfelpulver) are made up in bags and sisting enclosed in brass or steel cartridge cases with detachable pasteboard or cork covers. Weight. model of 1918 (Schneider). two of which are percussion fuzes.25 31.



700 footobtained. The ably higher muzzle velocity and longer range than the 60-pound proThe life of the gun before relining is approximately 5. The area of these ports are calculated to make the resistance which the liquid offers. With the 45-pound shell. such that the wheels will not jump from when the gun recoils.500 pounds in each cylinder. the springs are assembled with an initial compression of approximately 1. in recoil.903 meters) at an elevation of 15. In forced from one side of the back through these small ports with the result that the return of the gun into battery is so eased and regulated that shock and consequent derangement of the aim is almost eliminated.7-inch. which recoil. is seconds (7. model of 1906. is a mobile field gun. under normal VIEW SHOWING CARRIAGE AND LIMBER IN TRAVELING POSITION. is obtained at an elevation of 15. is controlled by two spring cylinders. in which the gun carriage stresses.700 yards Using the 60-pound shrapnel. designed to fire or shell at greater ranges than the 75-millimeter guns. the oil in the is filled hydraulic cylinder is piston to the other through small portholes.7-INCH GUN MATERIEL. To properly return the gun to battery at high angles of elevation. gun is mounted on is and a hydraulic cylinder. and a maximum range of 8. The former projectile gives consider4.4.550 yards (6. plus the the ground resistance of the springs. In shrapnel order to increase the range.7-inch field type.050 foot-seconds. MODEL OF 1906.900 meters) conditions. The 4. a carriage of the long-recoil a sufficient length of recoil on the permitted to render the latter practically stationary under firing The gun. In counterrecoil the oil is forced with 25^ pints of oil.000 jectile. rounds. with a maximum range of 7. a muzzle velocity of 1. (181) . a 45-pound shell is provided to replace the old type 60-pound shell. a muzzle velocity of 2.

182 .

183 .

Weights.320 8.050 8. or about 8. and ballistics. 927 inches Total length Rifling Right hand. 1 turn in 50 calibers at origin to 1 turn in 25 calibers at 14. 140(7. per sec 700 do yards do 2. model of 1916 or 1917.8) 92 . The allowable transverse movement is 140 mils. When traveling. 700 7. Muzzle velocity (60 pound shell and shrapnel) Muzzle velocity (45 pound shell) Maximum range at 15 elevation of 45-pound shell Maximum range at 15 elevation of 60-pound shrapnel Weight of carriage.688 134. which supports the trail when traveling. model of 1906. The above materiel is entirely of American design and manufacture. fully equipped Diameter of wheels Width of wheels Height of axis of gun Maximum angle of elevation (gun or carriage) ft. model of 1905. The motorized equipment of each gun carriage. composed of two pressed and is anchored in the ground by a spade when in action.7-inch gun LEFT FRONT VIEW OF CARRIAGE EQUIPPED WITH BAND BRAKES. 4. consists of a carriage limber. complete (without gun) Weight of gun and carriage. 59 15 5 pounds do inches do do degrees-- Maximum angle of depression (gun or carriage) Amount of traverse Height of line of sight do mils inches 53. as indicated below. thence uniform.7-inch gun carriage limber. and carriage. 069 61 6 51. Weight of projectile.184 steel flasks. caissons. On account of the single trail the maximum elevation of the gun. the trail is supported by the carriage limber. 4.7-inch gun caisson. is only 15.9 inches from muzzle. Weight of gun pounds 2. base fuzed shell and shrapnel pounds do__ Weight of point fuzed shell ounces Weight of powder charge pounds Weight of cartridge case 60 45 95 1. 4. and three which carry ammunition. dimensions. without digging in the trail. 550 5. which may be drawn by either a truck or tractor. The carriage is equipped with a single trail.

185 .

. It is operated by a handle which swings from left to right. is of the built-up type. An extractor is fitted for throwing out the shell case when the breech is opened after firing. turning and withdrawing the breech with one motion. The clip is a short hoop near the muzzle and is fitted with guides to guide the gun in the cradle on recoil. projects beyond the tube at the rear to form the breech recess. and consists of a tube. The jacket covers the rear half of the tube. lockand clip. The gun FRONT VIEW OF CARRIAGE EQUIPPED WITH TIRE BRAKES. jacket.186 4.7-INCH TJie GUN AND CARRIAGE. jacket is equipped with a recoil lug on the underside for connecting the recoil cylinder. The breechblock is of the interrupted screw type. MODEL OF 1906. BREECH MECHANISM. and ing hoop. having four threaded and four plain sectors.

and consists of two parallel steel tubes (the spring cylinders) fitted into a frame and surrounded by rails which form the gun slides and the cradle. and the springs function to return the is : The carriage axle. and attached to the cradle. and is somewhat greater at higher angles. The recoil cylinder is fitted between these two. Throttling is obtained by three throttling bars running lengthwise of the cylinder. The recoil is of the constant type. in which the gun is permitted to recoil on the carriage to render the latter stationary under firing stresses. FIRING MECHANISM. due to the action of gravity on the recoiling parts. the mechanism is cocked and fired by the pull on the lanyard or by downward pressure on the firing handle located at . while the spring cylinders and recoil cylinder remain stationary. The recoil mechanism consists of an hydraulic cylinder filled with oil. The recoil cylinder controls the backward movement of the gun upon discharge. . trail. The piston and spring rods are secured to the gun lug and recoil with the gun. the cradle (for piece to battery position. The gun carriage is of the long-recoil type. The recoil cylinder uses hydroline oil as the buffer medium. being 70 inches when the gun is fired at zero elevation. placed parallel to the gun. The recoil and counterrecoil mechanism is of the hydrospring type. A counterrecoil buffer is fitted in the springs return the the piston rod to take up the shock when gun to battery. traversing and elevating mechanisms. housing and supporting the recoil mechanism of the gun). composed of the following principal parts Wheels. which are of varying height to give a throttling effect with corresponding slots in the recoil piston. the left side of the breech.187 The firing mechanism is of the type known as a continuous-pull mechanism that is.

188 .

The piece is elevated by a double screw type of mechanism. The screw is operated through gearing by two handwheels. A trail prop is fits the limber pintle. From 5 degrees depression to 15 degrees obtained. and a carriage. one on Traverse is the left side of the trail. The trunnions on obtained by means of a handwheel and screw mounted which swings the yoke. carries the pintle bearing in which the top or yoke.189 the cradle are mounted in bearings formed by a which swivels in a pintle bearing provided at the front of the yoke trail. swings. A FRONT VIEW OF CARRIAGE EQUIPPED WITH BAND BRAKES. The It houses the axle and A lunette transom about 27 inches from the rear of the trail. seat is provided on each side of the trail for the cannoneers. The trail is of the solid type. is fitted and carries a bearing that . it carrying the on 70 mils on each side of center is possible. traverse of gun with it. The spade can provided be released and folded up on the trail when traveling. made up of flasks of channel section. The upper end is attached to the cradle and so raises and lowers it. tool box is fitted in the trail. each side of the elevation is trail. for supporting the trail when limbering.

Some of the older type of vehicles have steel tires and ELEVATING AND TRAVERSING MECHANISMS. The wheels are 61 by 6-inch. The instruments for sighting and laying the piece include line sights. a rear sight. A traveling lock . panoramic sight. before the gun can be drawn back far enough to lock. An armor plate shield is fitted to the carriage for the protection of the personnel. rubber tired. and a range quad- . model of 1902.190 is provided on the trail for locking the gun when The piston rod and spring rods must be disconnected traveling. a rant. a front sight. The sighting is similar to the 3-inch gun. are fitted with tire brakes. REAR RIGHT SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE. and are equipped with band brakes.

191 o 5516021 13 .

gunner on the right of the piece lays for range with and the one on the left lays for direction only. These are located on the jacket of the gun. For indirect fire the this instrument. On which has the right side of the cradle is mounted the range quadrant. in combination with it the angle of sight mechanism. and are useful for giving general direction to the gun. The rear sight is a peep sight mounted on range scale shanks on left side REAR VIEW OF CARRIAGE EQUIPPED WITH TIRE BRAKES. and a V-notch as a rear-sight. .192 The line sight consists of a conical point as a front sight. The rear and front sights are used for direct aiming. of the cradle. The front sight consists of a pair of cross wires mounted in a ring about three feet ahead of the rear sight. The sight shank has a socket in which the standard United States panoramic sight may be mounted.

193 X .

.194 Fixed ammunition plosive shell is being used. used with this gun. 45-pound steel Gas shell. weigh 60 pounds. The point fuzed and are shell shells are also issued identical with the weighs 45 pounds. shrapnel and high exThe base fuzed steel shell and the shrapnel FRONT VIEW OF CARRIAGE EQUIPPED WITH TIRE BRAKES.

front end of the top carriage is provided with three rollers which and run on. a four-wheeled car- gun when traveling. The wheels are The hubs 51 inches in diameter. the trail resting on it when en route. FRONT VIEW OF LIMBER. The limber is made of metal throughout. a two-wheeled vehicle to which the trail of the carfastened. top carriage which enters the line. bucket holder with straps is located on each side brace for carrying four canvas watering buckets. wood being used only in The the spokes and felloes of the wheels. and connecting pole. trail spur located on the holds the trail and top carriage in A tired. top carriage.7-INCH GUN CARRIAGE LIMBER. The top carriage is a steel casting. frame. MODEL OF 1905. carriage limber is designed to be used with the connecting pole for attachment to a tractor and to support the trail in traveling. with clips to prevent accidental dismounting. formed to accommodate the trail of the 4.7-inch gun carriage.4. A (195) . axle. and are rubber are similar and interchangeable with those on the wheels of the carriage. The rest. 4 inches wide. forms with the gun carriage. pole socket. The axle is hollow and is made from a single piece of forged steel. The riage riage for the is limber. The principal parts are the wheels. the top carriage rail the rail edge being equipped .

19(5 .

750 818 do do 51 60 16. Weight. singletrees. 8 . 9.197 The doubletree. The standard short pole with lunette is fitted for motor traction. traveling position Diameter of wheels (rubber tired) Width of track Free height under limber and carriage pounds do inches 1. including spare connecting pole Weight of limber with gun and carriage. and for horse-drawn equipment the longer pole may be substituted. Weights and dimensions. and pole complete are omitted for motorized batteries and a connecting pole is used in their place. complete.

replaced by armor plates.7-INCH GUN CAISSON. bearings. lock bars. and most of the wheels.7-inch caisson limber. and is provided with a seat for the rectangular key which secures the connecting pole to the socket. axles. axle bearings. on the caisson. An apron of armor plate is hinged to the bottom of the caisson chest and extends to within a short distance of the ground for the same purpose. ammunition servers from small arms and shrapnel fire. pintle. axle. and brake. connecting-pole socket. The principal parts of the caisson are the wheels. apron. for the protection of RIGHT SIDE VIEW OF CAISSON.4.7-inch gun caisson is constructed upon the same general plan as the 4. is made longer than on the caisson with rollers which serve as wheel guards. and is held in that position latches attached to the sides of the chest. ammunition chest. The 4. A prop of The pole socket of the caisson and is fitted (198) . connecting pole. pintles and implement fastenings and chest The parts of the two vehicles are exactly similar and interchangeable. its rear end is finished to fit the pole socket. The connecting body is made of steel tubing. prop. This apron swings forward against the bottom of the ammunition chest to clear obstructions in traveling. MODEL OF 1908. by limber. The flange-steel front plate and chest door (upper) of the limber are.

The beams of the road brake are hinged in brackets riveted to the chest front. The ax. 55 80 . empty (without implements or ammunition) pounds do Weight of implements carried do Weight of ammunition carried do Weight of limber. and watering bucket fastenings are similar. 260 28 28 60. 821 85 2. hydroline oil. three carry fourth. The brakes are built up of flange and forged steel parts and carry cast-iron shoes to bear against the wheel tires.199 tubing with a bronze foot is attached to the connecting pole for a support when the caisson is unlimbered when not in use the prop is swung up under the connecting pole and is held by chains. 1. and on either side of the chest handrails provide handholds for the cannoneers. 961 2. are provided on the chest. etc.058 147 4. Hangers for a spare connecting pole and a bracket for a spare key steel . empty (without implements or ammunition) do Weight of implements carried (including spare connecting pole) do Weight of caisson fully equipped and loaded Rounds of ammunition carried in caisson limber Rounds of ammunition carried in caisson Diameter of wheels inches Width of track do Free height under caisson do Turning angle degrees : . 055 3. dimension. Weight of caisson limber. and the the contents of each being indicated by a name plate. The opening between the upper and lower intermediate plates on the left side is utilized to carry a two-gallon oil can. oil cans containing lubricating oil. hatchet. Weights. when mounting or dismounting. fully equipped and loaded do Weight of caisson. Of every four caissons. lantern. The paulin on the caisson chest serves as a seat cushion. 60. and located like those on the caisson limber. 19.

but is normally held in a vertical position by a spring bolted to the pintle bearing support.wheeled vehicle provided with an ammunition chest for the transportation of ammunition for the 4. These connecting pieces support the front end of the cartridge case and serve to guide the projectiles. The ammunition into chest is built up of flange steel and is divided an upper and lower compartment by intermediate plates. Suitable clearances are cut in the flange of each cartridge pocket to enable the cartridge hook to get back of the rim of the case in withdrawing it from the chest. The axle is hollow and of a single piece of forged steel. The doubletree is mounted upon a doubletree pin projecting up through a boss on the forward end of the pole socket. and are inter- changeable with. MODEL OF 1908.7-INCH GUN LIMBER. singletrees. The limber is a two. The wheels and the wheel fastenings are the same as. doubletree. A limber prop When traveling. LIMBERED. and neck yoke. which are cut away on top to save weight. Cor- VIEW SHOWING GUN CAISSON AND LIMBER. The principal parts are the wheels. axle. the rear and held by a chain. ammunition chest. the prop is drawn up to is hinged to the pole socket. It is secured to the chest by axle bearings riveted to the sides of the chest and to the flanges of the intermediate plates. (200) . The chest doors close against the heads of the cases so that the cartridges are firmly held in position. The pintle swivels 360 in the bearing. pintle.4. responding holes in the middle and rear diaphragms are connected by conical brass tubes called connecting pieces.7-inch gun. those on the carriage. pole socket. pole.

7 inch gun materiel. both being of American design and manufacture. tree chains attached to the chest The paulin on the top of body prevent excessive movement of either end of the doubletree. right side of this vehicle is equipped with fixtures for holding a left side hatchet. and neck yoke are standard and interchangeable with those on any limber of the battery. These vehicles are used with motorized as 4. gun limber.7-inch The well as horse-drawn batteries of 4. . is only used in connection with the 4. The pole. doubletree and singletrees.201 The pick. The cartridge hook for use in withdrawing the cases and projectiles from the chest is fastened on the left side of the caisson. and pickax. the chest is held in place by straps suitably Other fastenings on top of the chest are for a picket rope. A spanner for tightening the hub bands of the wheels is carried between the intermediate plates. On the front are attachments for a wrench and a pole prop. while on the provision is made for a shovel. model of 1908. Doublefastened. and a limber blanket.7-inch gun caisson. an ax. model of 1908.

but the upper door. of the shells. The chest is built entirely of steel. Suitable fastenings are provided on this chest for carrying the usual complement of tools and accessories. is a two-wheeled vehicle with an armored ammunition chest for the transportation of ammunition for the 4. EXPOSING DIAPHRAGMS. also brackets (202) . The caisson. model of 1916. rear plate. MODEL OF 1916. The body is suspended in such a manner that 7 rounds are carried below and 21 above the axle. RIGHT FRONT VIEW SHOWING CHEST DOORS OPEN. and when closed bear on the heads fire. and an apron hung under the body are of armor plate for protection of the ammunition servers in the rear from shrapnel and small-arms The doors open to the front.7-inch gun.7-INCH GUN CAISSON. This vehicle is designed to carry 28 rounds of the fixed type of ammunition.4.

203 .

shovels. By removing the connecting pole. The chest prosufficient This caisson is provided with an ammunition chest of size to carry either shrapnel or high-explosive steel shells. pintle. vides seats for two cannoneers. and adding double and singletrees. forming the top. and other tools on the outside of the ammunition chest. It is also equipped with fixtures for holding picks. connecting pole socket.204 for carrying fuze boxes on the outside of the chest. axle. ammunition chest. fastenings are the same as. brake. FRONT VIEW OF GUN CAISSON. Suitable clearances are cut in the flange of each cartridge chest is The body of the . and sides of the chest. The chest doors close against the heads of the cases so that the cartridges are held firmly in position. The axle is fastened to the chest by axle bearings riveted to the chest sides. The principal parts of the vehicle are the wheels. those on the carriage. and connecting pole. this vehicle may be transformed into a caisson limber suitable for horse traction. bottom. The wheels and wheel of flange steel riveted together. and are interchangeable with.

8 Diameter of wheels Free height under caisson do do__ . where it is The vehicle to be connected en train. the upper to the top of the chest. brackets are riveted to the end of the To these brackets are pinned the brake beams by the same kind of leverage system as on the carriage. The paulin serves as a seat cushion. dimensions. the lower door being hinged to the bottom of the chest.067 4812 28 61 60 20. is equipped with a short connecting pole in front provided with a suitable prop for holding the pole up when the caisson At the rear is the standard pintle enabling other vehicles is at rest. Pulling up on the brake lever causes the brake bands to grip the drums bolted to the wheels. lantern bracket. On the back are riveted a bucket holder.) Weight. held by latches on the chest sides. the right. a long-handled shovel. mattock. (See page 168. the brake lever and segment being on the left side of the vehicle. including spare constructing pole of ammunition Round Width of caisson fully equipped and loaded of ammunition carried of track pounds do do do inches 2. an ax. The top of the chest has provision made for carrying a picket rope and spare connecting pole. 565 180 2. The brake shoes are brought to bear on the tire by pressure on the brake lever. The chest doors open to the front. The left side carries the pick. On chest. and also a spanner wrench. locked. a fuze box on the left. and pole socket key. and by means of a lock bar the doors are The armor-plate apron is hinged to the bottom of the caisson. Between the intermediate plates in front an oil can is carried on the right side. the tire brake models. In every battery one caisson is provided with a hand reel containing 1 mile of wire as for caisson model of 1917. like the tire brake. Weight Weight Weight Weight of caisson. and hatchet. The brake band model. has the brake lever on the left side of the chest and is of the contracting-band-brake type. and a foot rest. cartridge hook. so that when traveling it may be swung backward against the bottom. etc. empty with implements pr ammunition of implements carried. and straps for holding a paulin.205 pocket to enable the cartridge hook to get back of the rim of the case in withdrawing it from the chest.

The A carrying spiral springs to take up road shocks. The caisson. The upper door when raised is held at about a 60 angle. The body of the chest is made of two sheets of flanged steel formed to shape and joined at the sides. also carstrap fastenings for the paulin and the caisson blankets. The connecting pole is attached to the caisson by a socket. The two most important changes from previous models are: The substitution of a band brake for a tire brake. and fastenings for holding a pick. and spanner wrench are riveted to the rear plate. drums of the wheels. steel tired with standard hubs and fastenaxle is a hollow single piece of forged steel. which are of armor plate. A tridge hook and hatchet fastenings are riveted chest. the inside being tapered to accommodate the rear end of the connecting pole. MODEL OF 1917. and connecting pole. spring support. is a two-wheeled vehicle equipped with an armored ammunition chest for the transportation of ammunition for the 4. door. with the upper door and rear plate. axles. and arms on the axle for ers. an armor-plate protection. except the rear apron and chest doors. also the horse pole. Three vertical diaphragms with connecting pieces provide an even distribution of the load of ammunition. so that when it is dropped. these also serve as handles in opening and raising the lantern bracket.7-inch gun. pintle. to the left side of the oil. ammunition chest. connecting pole. distinfeature of this caisson is the spring-supported chest. and a spring support for the ammunition chest. The road brake is of the contracting-band-brake type and is operated from the right side of the chest by pulling up on the brake lever. it forms. The wheels are 60-inch. The foot rests of commercial flange steel are riveted to the upper chest door. this through a linkage causes the brake bands to grip the plate. shovel. The ammunition chest is built up of flanged steel. Of every four caissons three carry lubricating oil and one hydroline One caisson in every battery is provided with a reel for caisson. The principal parts of the caisson are : The wheels. At the top are riveted fastenings for holding an ax. Suitguishing able brackets are provided on the chest.4. model of 1917. brake.7-INCH GUN CAISSON. The lower door is made with an armor plate apron hinged to its top edge. (206) . A lunette.

207 5516021- -14 .

pintle 1 mile of field wire for telephoning purposes. without implements or ammunition Weight of implements carried. 2. empty.208 model of 1917. which is riveted to the top of the caisson and contains (See page 168. 4. By changing A Weights and dimensions. including spare pole Weight of ammunition Weight of caisson fully equipped and loaded Rounds of ammunition carried Diameter of wheels Width of track__ pounds do do do inches 2.) the connecting pole and adding the doubletree and standard singletrees this caisson is converted into a caisson limber. with a semiautomatic latch is provided at the rear. __do__ 053 180 067 300 28 60 60 . Weight of caisson.

the recoil mechanism being of the hydrospring type. 60 pounder guns with the necessary accompanying vehicles from Great Britain. mounted on a carriage. located above the gun. is materiel was originally designed for horse transportation and provided with poles and the necessary attachments for horse REAR LEFT VIEW OF CARRIAGE IN BATTERY. the materiel is converted into motorized batteries and may be drawn by cles . and the units ceded to the United States include the gun. carriage and limber is about as heavy as is for horse transportation. although the British originally practicable designed their 8-inch howitzer materiel. Mark II. for horse transportation. tractors.5-INCH. . it is customary each having two vehitrains. The recoil mechanism consists of two spring cylinders and one hydraulic cylinder The load of the gun with glycerine and water. adapted for motor draft. 60-POUNDER GUN MATERIEL (BRITISH). which is of greater weight. The materiel is of British design and manufacture throughout. By substituting the engine-draft connector in place of the horse.draft poles. piston rod of the recoil cylinder and the rods of the two spring cylinders are connected to the lug on the breech ring of the gun and therefore recoil with the gun. The carriage is of the constant recoil type. draft. Mark The thus II. Mark II the gun carriage limber. The United States procured a number of batteries of 5-inch. . the four horse drawn. when the battery drawn as one train. When two is to divide the four vehicles into vehicles are however. filled The (209) . the ammunition wagon. Mark I. Mark II and the ammunition wagon limber.

210 5 x I I H .

thereby preventing the violent return of the gun to firing position. At higher elevations the traverse is but 3 right and 3 left. resistance offered by the action of the liquid in the cylinder. permitting the carriage to remain practically stationary upon the ground when the piece is fired.280 yards (11. The trail is of the single unit type. due to the interference of the trail with the gun at these elevations. the carriage is connected to the limber by an eleva- adjustable connecter. When The tion. when it elevated at 16^ or less. controls and absorbs the shock of recoil. the liquid is forced past the piston head slot cut in the wall of the cylinder. A range of 12. when firing a 60-pound projectile with a muzzle velocity of 2. The energy stored up in the spring cylinders due to the compression of the springs during recoil turn to the firing position. together with the resistance offered by the compression of the springs in the cylinders. is traveling. .230 meters) is possible.211 Upon The through a throttling groove or recoil of the gun. being broadened at the spade end and equipped with a fixed spade for anchoring the trail to the ground. The carriage permits elevation from 5 carriage permits traverse of 4 left depression to 21 and 4 right. is sufficient to cause the gun to re- hydraulic counterrecoil buffer is provided at the front of the hydraulic cylinder and acts as a cushion. A VIEW SHOWING TRAIL CONNECTED TO LIMBER.080 feet per second at the maximum carriage is elevation of 21. The equipped with tractor wheels provided with inde- pendent wheel brakes.

5 21. of carriage and limber. 4. degrees depression Traverse (at elevation of 16 J do : 5 4 4 or less) Degrees right Degrees left Traverse (at elevation above 16^) Degrees right Degrees left Range. dimensions. 05 Length. 12. Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight of carriage and gun of gun and breech mechanism of carriage of projectile of powder charge Pressure of trail on ground pounds do do do do do inches 12. over all. 096 858 7. traveling position. 5 54 . 238 GO 9. 44 920 Length of gun 168. over all. 5 Maximum Maximum elevation _. with gun but without limber pole feet 28. uniform 1 turn in 30 calibers. of carriage and limber. center line to center line of wheels Diameter of turning circle : 3 3 yards ft. per sec inches 280 080 60 do feet 63. traveling position do inches Height of axis of gun from ground 75 51. of carriage and limber. 625 Length. 2. with gun and pole feet 37^6 13. normal Rifling. Diameter of carriage wheels Track. and ballistics. Length between axles. traveling position.212 Weights. maximum Muzzle velocity.

is hinged to the lugs provided supported by the carrier. and several layers of The inner tube extends the length of the barrel. the gun sliding during and counterrecoil in slides provided in the cradle. The firing mechanism is of the " T " type and is fitted with a safety device which prohibits the firing of the gun until the breech is closed. The length of recoil is approximately 57 inches. which engage and slide in corresponding slots in the cradle. . of the wire wound type and consists of two tubes. carriage is constructed on the long recoil principle. being the direct connection between the gun and recoil mechanism. The breech screw carriage consists of the following major parts Cradle. and is provided with lugs at the right side which accommodate the breech carrier. breech bush. layers the jacket being shrunk over the wire. : The . . .5-INCH. extending over the rear of the inner tube to form a threaded bearing for the breech bush which receives the breech block. to whicji the recoil piston rod and the rods of the spring cylinders are secured. steel wire. the outer tube being shrunk upon it. including recoil mechanism top carriage elevating and traversing mechanisms trail brake gear wheels and axle. The breech mechanism is so arranged that by one pull of the breech lever from left to right the breech screw is unlocked and the screw and carrier swung into loading position. The breech ring is provided at the top with a lug. having practically a constant length of recoil at all elevations. Discharge is by means of a lanyard operated from the right side of the carriage. having threaded and slotted sectors. The breech bushing is threaded and recessed to correspond with the sectors on the breech block. MARK The gun is II (BRITISH). having a threaded section on which the breech ring is received. AND CARRIAGE. After loading. The recoil mechanism is placed recoil The parallel with. The jacket is fitted over the tubes and extends to the rear. (213) . jackets. On either side of the jacket longitudinal projections are provided. Several of steel wire are interposed between the jacket and tubes. and located above the gun. 60-POUNDER GUN. which pivots and is on the right side of the breech ring. The breech block is of the interrupted screw type. one thrust of the same lever inserts the breech screw into position in the breech bush and turns it into the locked position. MARK I. breech ring. .

The trunnions of the cradle are received in bearings in the top carriage. The elevating handwheel actuates a pinion meshing with a rack bolted to the cradle. and at high elevations. REAR RIGHT VIEW OF CARRIAGE. which are screwed into these holes. and held in relative position by the cradle. The trail has a bearing at the . and is cylindrical provided with threaded holes at the front and rear for the reception of the spring and hydraulic cylinders. being cut out at the front to give clearance to the breech of the gun during recoil. The three cylinders extend to the rear and engage suitable holes in the breech ring to which they are fastened by connecting pieces.214 mechanism being of the hydro-spring type. the other end engaging a nut which pivots on the trail. utilizes two spring cylinders and one hydraulic cylinder. independent of each The cradle is other. which in turn is pivoted on the front end of the trail to permit traverse. one end of which is hinged on the top carriage. Traversing stops are provided on either side of the top carriage to limit the traverse to 4 right and 4 left. the two spring cylinder rods being retained by nuts. when the gun is elevated at 16 or less. in form and inclosed the breech end of the gun. The trail is of the solid type. recoil The the three rods recoiling to the rear with the gun. The amount of traverse is indicated by a pointer fixed to the trail. Traverse and elevation is accomplished through the medium of handwheels located on the left side of the carriage. and the hydraulic cylinder rod by an externally threaded collar which passes through the breech ring and engages the thread on the piston rod. The traversing handwheel operates a screw. which reads to a graduated scale on the rear transom of the carriage. The front end of the trail is equipped with bronze brackets through which the axle passes.

when the gun is equipped with a connector for limberthe carriage to the carriage limber. of the is gun at degree elevation. provided on each wheel against which an internal which is operated by a handwheel at the front of the carriage. when traveling. The oscillating sight on which the dial sight is mounted is used for indirect laying. and is provided with holes for adjustment. the oscillating sight being used for laying in elevation and the dial sight for direction. The tangent and foresight together form an open sight for the direct laying of the gun. The propelling charge consists of 9 pounds 7 ounces of cordite. Traversing stops are provided more than 3 left and 3 right. although special charges are sometimes made up for this purpose. . The wheels are of the tractor type. the separate loading type is used. retaining the top carriage in proper position.215 forward section on which the top carriage rests and pivots. to the inside of the trail members and swings down engages the breech The lock is hinged when the gun in firing position. Ammunition of plosive shell and shrapnel. The rear end of the trail A A spade of the fixed type is riveted to the rear end. preventing vertical movement of the top carriage is when the to prohibit traversing of elevated above 16. gun is fired. The wheels are 60 inches in diameter and have tires 12 inches in width. Normally these charges are not separate for zone fire. and holds the is trail in a practically stationary position when the traveling lock is provided on the trail which gun in action. and by an oscillating sight and dial sight (panoramic sight) on the left side of the carriage. and through which the pivot pin passes. Clips are provided on the trail which engage protrusions on the top carriage. Sighting is accomplished by means of a tangent sight and foresight on the right side of the carriage. A "brake ring is brake shoe is fitted. being both exThe weight of each is 60 pounds. The connection is held in ing position by pins. being provided with diagonal cleats riveted to the rims.

as the draft may require. are strapped across the center of the frame forward of the steel chests. being held in the latter position by straps. which is retained in place by a pin passing vertically through the rail and pole.5-INCH. the stays disconnected. 60-POUNDER. two steel chests. all the singletrees are removed and strapped to the frame. with the necessary draft connections. and are steadied by stays extending back to the axle arms. the front end of the frame is equipped with a wooden horse pole. MARK (BRITISH). (216) . and the outriggers folded back and over the main frame. and is also equipped with two or four singletrees. II The limber consists mainly of axle. the horse pole being removed and replaced by the motor draft connector which is pinned to the frame. The vehicle is designed for 2-horse. the two outside singletrees are removed. FRONT VIEW OF CARRIAGE LIMBER. thereby adapting the vehicle for additional horse draft. The singletrees. For tractor draft. The necessary neck yoke bars are provided on the draft pole. and extend from two points on the frame to the forward section of the pole. GUN CARRIAGE LIMBER. Chains. the two outside singletrees are suspended from outriggers which are hinged to the main frame. When horse drawn. 4-horse. a steel frame. For 2-horse draft. or tractor draft. when removed. For 4-horse draft. and draft connections. wheels. are also provided.

which accommodates the adjustable connector on the trail of the carriage The pintle is provided with a thumb latch in traveling position. to allow clearance to the swing of the connector on the carriage. and provided at the top with a tray which carries small stores. and chains at the rear. each is interior of each chest is fitted for carrying stores. . steel chests are riveted to the main frame at the rear. locks. having lift lids which are hinged and are equipped with hasps. The side. and one powder charge in a tin box. tools. and other various tools and accessories.217 The frame consists principally of four side rails. connected at the rear to the axle by flanges and pins. The The together with a number of small carry the sights and attachments. The chests are at the front side of flanged steel. when traveling. bracket Extending from the base of each chest toward the rear a steel is provided on which one round of ammunition is carried. together with one powder charge in left chest is constructed to a tin box. on either The inner rear corners of these chests are formed diagonally REAR VIEW OF CARRIAGE LIMBER. oil can. the frame being strengthened by diagonal stays. In th rear of the frame at the center. two inner and two outer. which prevents accidental unlimbering of the trial connector. The right chest carries the clinometer. The front end is joined together by connecting plates. a pintle is provided.

Forward of the steel chests. No brakes are provided on this etc. dimensions. 240 641 51 : 39 60 63. The wheels provided The are 60 inches in diameter. a wire net tray is provided for carrying drag ropes and lashings. Weight without two projectiles Weight on limber pintle. traveling position Weight on pole. 6 inches in width. Suspended below the frame at the rear. 5 line do do do With horse pole Without horse pole 186 77 78. on the top of the frame. extending across the frame. having steel tires outer end of the axle arms are equipped with drag washers to vehicle. carriage limber (at center tug hole) Without two projectiles With two projectiles Diameter of wheels Track of wheels. center line to center Length : 1 pounds do do do inches 2. a board is fastened. Weights.218 The shell is held in a vertical position on this support by a bronze bracket and a strap. 5 Width : Over axle with dust caps Outriggers extended Outriggers folded do do do 110 65 . and is equipped with friction clips for the accommodation of two rifles. assist hauling.




The ammunition wagon (caisson) consists principally of a steel frame, ammunition chest, fuze lockers, brake gear, draft fittings,
wheels, and axle.

The wagon is constructed to carry 24 rounds of ammunition, 24 powder charges in tin containers, and 2 fuze boxes. The exterior is fitted with fastenings to carry ropes, handspikes, also other tools


The ammunition



constructed of flange


having flange

brackets on either side at the center, which extend below the chest, providing bearings which receive the axle.


interior of the chest is divided into a front section

and a rear

section, by a vertical steel plate passing through the chest parallel to the axle. Each section is divided by steel plates passing crosswise

through the chest into three horizontal rows of compartments. The lower compartments contain 4 high-explosive shell and 4 shrapnel. The middle row contains 2 high-explosive shell, 2 shrapnel, 2 powder charges in tin containers, 1 fuze box containing 14 fuzes, and 1 empty

The upper row of compartments contain



charges in tin containers.


The powder charge
proper position by

containers, and the shell are retained in the quick release straps, and the shell are withdrawn

from their respective compartments by means of the packing blocks which inclose the nose of the shell, and by the withdrawing straps provided. The withdrawing straps extend the length of the shell and are fastened to the nose blocks, and are also rivited to the compartment
shell is

preventing their complete removal.



length, the withdrawing strap is over the base of shell allowing the complete removal of the slipped

withdrawn about half

while the packing blocks and straps are held in their respective compartments. The powder charge containers can be lifted out withshell,

out the aid of straps. The front compartment

is equipped with a steel door which is hinged at the bottom and swings downward when opened. The rear compartment is equipped with an armor-plate door hinged at The its lower edge, and when opened hangs vertically downward. front door when opened downward is supported by the footboard in a horizontal position. Each door when closed is held in position by latches provided on the sides of the chests, which swing over and engage steel handgrips riveted on either edge of the door at the top.


Extending above the chest

at the front

on either



are provided. The rails are constructed of steel and are provided with leather guards. The rails fit into small brackets rivited to the

and may be dismounted from the chest by removing the retaining pins. Three grip straps are also fastened to the upper front edge of the chest to assist the personnel when mounting the vehicle.
chest sides,

Straps are provided with the usual fastenings at the top of the chest accommodate the soldiers' personal equipment, and also picket ropes at the rear. At the front of the chest the fastenings accommodate blankets, lamps, and tool cases. On either side of the chest

fastenings are provided, the left side accommodating a leather case, and the right side a spanner wrench.

saw in a

two flanged sides connected by cross stays which consists of two flange steel members extending back the length of the vehicle. The outside rails are provided with flanges and holes through which the axle passes. The chest is mounted on the frame, the axle brackets on the chest corresponding with the flanges on the side rails, making a solid bearing for the axle, which
consists of
to the draft pole,

The frame


side rails, a wooden footboard and Suspended below the footboard on either side is a fuze locker, which provides carrying compartments for 30 fuzes, 15 in each locker. Each locker is provided with a door, which swings downward when opened, and each is equipped with a hasp and a

held in place by keys. Forward of the chest, across the




Suspended from the platform to the rear of the right fuze locker, a tin box, containing 3 pounds of grease, is strapped. The frame is provided at the rear with a steel prop which swings up to the right side of the frame and is retained in this position by a
spring clip when in traveling position. Wire-net receptacles are suspended under the rear section of the frame on either side of the prop bracket. The receptacles provide space for canvas watering buckets and ropes. The draft pole, which is an extension of the center rail of the frame,
joined at its extreme forward end by a lunette, which engages the pintle on the ammunition wagon limber when in traveling position. pole prop is also provided for supporting the draft pole when the wagon is unlimbered. The prop swings up to a horizontal


position when the wagon is in traveling position. Attachments on the underside support a jointed draft pole and a handspike. Tire brakes are provided for each wheel, the brake system being operated as one unit. The shoes which bear against the wheel are

supported by brackets fastened to the side

rails at the front.



the vehicle under the frame.

shoes are operated by a crank located on the left rear side of The crank is connected to the shoes

by rods supported on the frame. Wheels of the wooden type, 56 inches in diameter, having steel tires 3 inches in width, are provided on this vehicle. They are retained on the axle by means of an adjusting collar and linch pin. The bearing is protected from dirt and other foreign matter by a dust cap which fastens over the end of the hub box.


Drag washers

are provided on each wheel to which ropes



fastened to assist in the maneuvering of the vehicle.
Weights, dimensions,

pounds-Weight of wagon, empty do Weight of wagon, loaded and equipped do Pressure of wagon pole on limber pintle, loaded Pressure of wagon pole on limber pintle with two men on wagon, loaded pounds feet Height to top of handrail do Height, handrails removed
Width, maximum Length of wagon



732 556

do do


Greatest projection beyond track of wheels Wheel track Diameter of wheels


do do

196 229 4. 416 6. 291 9. 708 6. 25 63 56




ammunition chest;

The limber comprises

the frame with pintle;

fuze locker; draft fittings; wheels and axle. The limber is designed to draw the ammunition

wagon by means

of the pintle provided at the rear. The vehicle is equipped for 2-horse draft. It carries 16 rounds of ammunition together with the necessary powder charges. Provision is also made to carry 43 fuzes. 28 of which are carried in the ammunition chest, and the remainder in the fuze locker fastened to the top of the chest. Implement fastenings are fastened on the exterior of the chest and foot-

board, and accommodate


and the customary







constructed of steel and

provided at the rear with

three doors.

plates into Each division

The interior of the chest- is subdivided by two steel three main divisions, access to each being at the rear.

is separated by cross plates into four rows of comthe lower two rows of each division being subdivided into partments, smaller compartments to accommodate a total of eight high ex-


and eight shrapnel 1 5516021


_>_>:} )


The two upper rows

of the two outside divisions are constructed

accommodate a

total of 16

powder charges, each protected by

tin containers.

The two upper rows of compartments in the middle division accommodate a tray for small stores, such as cotton waste, pins, pliers, and other small tools; and 2 fuze boxes, each containing 14 fuzes. The
fuze boxes occupy the upper row of compartments. The powder-charge containers and the shell are retained in place in the chest by quick-release straps, and the shells are withdrawn


from the compartments by withdrawing straps and with those on the ammunition wagon.

blocks, identical

provided at the rear of the chest for each main compartment. The two outer doors are of armor plate and have hinges at the bottom edges, and when opened hang down vertically from the chest. A small armor-plate apron is hinged to each door at its upper edge. The aprons hang vertically from the door when each door is opened, and form an extension toward the ground, thereby




giving additional protection for the personnel serving the gun. the door is in closed position, the aprons fold down over the outside of the door and are retained in position by latches fastened


to the

upper part of the


which engage


hand grips riveted

to the aprons.

The middle compartment is equipped with a steel door which is hinged at the upper edge, and when opened, rests over the top of the chest. The spring latches with thumb lift grips are riveted to the door which engages suitable latches on the lower edge of the chest when the door is in the closed position. Two small clips which extend over the edge of the side, at the lower sides, act as retainers
for the outer odors

when they

are closed.

In operation the middle door is first opened, thereby removing the clips which bear against the outside doors, allowing the outer doors to be swung open. In closing the chest the two outer doors are

Handrails, protected by leather, are provided on either side of the chest, and extend above the chest. They engage suitable brackets riveted to the chest, to which they are fastened by pins. By the removal of the retaining pins, the handrails may be dismounted from
the chest.
exterior of the chest is fitted with implement fastenings and straps, the front plate having spring catches for three rifles. Three grip straps are fastened to the upper edge of the chest at the front,


on this vehicle. Three leather pockets, one on the rear middle door and one on either side of the chest, are provided for carrying fuze and limber
to assist the personnel in riding


A wooden locker for carrying fuzes is fastened by steel straps to the

top of the chest on the left side. The locker is equipped with a lift lid, hinged at the front and provided with a hasp and thumb lock at the front. The interior is constructed to carry 15 fuzes. Two
blankets, which serve as a seat cushion, are strapped to the top of the chest at the front, and the soldiers' personal equipment is strapped
at the rear.

Each side of the chest has riveted thereto a steel bracket, which extends below the chest body, and is provided with an opening through which the axle passes.

The frame which supports
of two side
seat for the

two middle

the ammunition chest consists mainly rails, and the connecting cross rails.

rails are connected at the front of the frame to form a wooden horse pole. The outer rails converge slightly at the front, and with the middle rails form a support for the wooden platform and footboard. Two of the cross rails extend across the

The middle

frame, directly beneath the edges of the chest, giving a solid support which the chest is fastened. The other cross rail extends across the extreme front of the frame and is fitted with hooks for the supto

yoke bar,

port of two singletrees. is provided.

A wooden horse pole,

equipped with a neck


Forward of
to the

the chest a

wooden footboard and platform



upper side of the frame. The boards have staples for the accommodation of leather straps, which secure rope lashings, shovels, and other similar equipment to the footboards. On the under forward right side of the frame a case is provided to
carry a bolo.
tion, a case

the left side of the frame, in a corresponding posiprovided to carry a water brush.


Suspended from under the wooden platform, on the left side, is a box containing 3 pounds of grease. Under the right side of the platform, fastenings are provided to carry two cans containing lubricating

A pintle, which engages the lunette on the draft pole of the ammunition wagon, is provided in the frame at the rear. In each side rail at the rear a hole is provided which forms a bear-

ing for the axle. The steel axle bracket on the sides of the chest correspond with these holes, and form a solid bearing for the axle, which is held in place by keys. Wheels of the wooden type, 56 inches in diameter, having steel tires
3 inches in width, are provided. An adjusting collar and linchpin screws the wheel to the axle. Protection against the ingress of dirt

and foreign matter is provided by a dust cap which fastens over the end of the hub box. Drag washers to assist in the maneuvering of the vehicle are provided on each wheel. The wheels and axle of the limber are interchangeable with those on the ammunition wagon. No brake is provided on the ammunition

Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight

Weights, dimensions,
of limber, empty of limber, loaded and equipped of wagon and limber, empty

-.pounds do do__ do of wagon and limber, loaded do of limber only, with wagon limbered up, empty do of limber only, with wagon limbered up, loaded of limber pole at position of center tug hole with wagon limbered pounds up, loaded, without men Weight of limber pole at position of center tug hole with wagon limbered pounds up, loaded, with 2 men on limber only Weight of limber pole at position of center tug hole with wagon limbered pounds up, with 2 men on limber and; 2 men on wagon feet__ Length of limber with pole do Length of limber without pole do Length of limber and wagon, over all do Length between axles of limber and wagon do__ Height of limber to top of handrails do Height of limber, handrails removed Width of limber, maximum do


2,632 3, 148

6,188 486 2, 730


Wheel track of limber
Diameter of wheels of limber Diameter of turning circle of limber and wagon



25 166 5. 5 22. 687 8. 25 5. 666 4. 895 6.291 63 56
23. 5

a slightly different firing mechanism. yet mobile enough to permit its use as a supplementary weapon. The howitzers manufactured in the United States RIGHT SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE IN TRAVELING POSITION. which gradually closes until the howitzer is brought to a stop. having a longer range and better characteristics. as the more suitable 105-millimeter caliber was not available then.HOWITZER MATERIEL. The carriage embodies many ingenious features designed to reduce the weight and insure stability. rubber instead tires. The type of 155-millimeter howitzer carriage adopted is known by the French as the 155-millimeter Court Schneider." in from those made in France by the designation The American materiel differs from the French of steel having a straight shield instead of a curved one. This necessitj.155-MILLIMETER . (SCHNEIDER). In recoiling the liquid is forced from one side of the piston to the other through a variable orifice. and is especially valuable for use against strongly intrenched infantry and in counter battery firing. and by the United States as the 155-millimeter howitzer carriage. The howitzer is mounted on a carriage having a single trail composed of two pressed steel flasks. The recoil mechanism is of the hydropneumatic type.led to the adoption of the 155-millimeter caliber. and several other minor changes. model of 1918 (Schneider). model of 1917. are also distinguished ''Model of 1918. MODEL OF 1917 Experience indicated the necessity of artillery of larger caliber than the 75-millimeter. The importance of this 155-millimeter howitzer is evident when it is realized that it is the largest weapon at the present time that can be used by combat divisions. the sleigh recoiling with the howitzer. The return of (227) . At the front end these are connected by the axle housing and at the rear by a fixed spade.

228 .

three caissons or ammunition vehicles. Separate loading ammunition is employed. sliding transversely along its axle the howitzer is capable of traversing through a total angle of 6.480 feet per second to a maximum range of about 12. The entire equipment is horse-drawn and the equipment for each howitzer includes a carriage limber.000 rounds. By the use of the reduced powder charges. It fires a 95-pound projectile with a muzzle velocity of about 1.300 yards. is effected by the expansion of the air com- recoil is practically constant. and a number of repair and supply trucks. shorter ranges are reached with SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE EN ROUTE. pressed during and in order to allow the howitzer to be fired at high elevations The length of without digging in the trail the trail is made of a curved shape. . FRONT VIEW OF CARRIAGE IN BATTERY. Its life. used when traveling to support the trail. before steep angles of fall and with less wear on the gun. is approximately 7. relining is necessary. Its maximum elevation is By approximately 42.229 the howitzer into battery recoil.

230 .

caisson. which is a U-shaped steel plate and rests on the trunnion bearing of the trail. The sleigh contains the recoil mechanism which permits long recoil and insures stability at low elevations. It has a muzzle velocity of 1. The 155-millimeter howitzer model of 1918. model of 1918 (Schneider). (SCHNEIDER). The limber is equipped with a connecting pole for motor traction. This materiel consists of: The 155-millimeter howitzer and carriage. the carriage sliding on the axle and pivoting on the spade. the projectile weighing approximately 95 pounds. the sleigh recoils on bronze slides on the cradle. which prevents the carriage from recoiling when the gun is fired. which may be used for direct fire. which is used to carry its proportionate share of the load of the howitzer and carriage in traveling position. The traverse is 52.480 feet per second and attains a maximum range of 12. This howitzer may be elevated from zero to 42 by means of the elevating mechanism. The howitzer is mounted on a sleigh and rigidly secured by a breech key and a holding-down band.300 yards. the cradle locked to the trail. The customary shield affords protection for the gunners from shrapnel and flying fragments. MODEL OF 1918 The 155-millimeter howitzer. however. This howitzer has given satisfactory results in actual service and has proven to be superior to other howitzers of similar caliber. The carriage and limber wheels are rubber tired and considered able to travel over any roads suitable for field artillery. 155-millimeter howitzer carriage limber. but heating as well as difficulty of preparing and serving of ammunition by the gun crew renders such rate impossible for any length of time. A maximum rate of fire of four rounds per minute may be attained. but was specially designed for indirect fire. The lower end of the trail rests on the carriage limber. (231) . model of 1918 (Schneider). model of 1918 The (Schneider).155-MILLIMETER HOWITZER MATERIEL. When the gun is fired. On account of its high trajectory it is able to direct shells on targets inaccessible to field guns of limited elevation. In traveling position the howitzer is retracted and locked to the cradle.5 mils to the right and left. The normal rate of fire is two per minute. and the spade revolved and secured to the bottom of the trail. is of the hydropneumatic long-recoil type.

232 g _l iL i! .

700 7.600 4. This materiel is used with motorized batteries. The caisson is of American design and manufacture. model of 1909 MI. 82 Width of limber track do 61 Turning angle of 155-millimeter howitzer. carriage. Total length do Weight of projectile Weight of maximum powder charge Muzzle velocity of shell Muzzle velocity of shrapnel : pounds do feet per second 95 8 1. Weight of limber. Weights. ballistics. are also used with this materiel. fully equipped Weight of carriage complete.233 The howitzer. completely equipped 1. Maximum traverse 3 (52$ mils) right and 3 (52$ mils) left. and a full complement of tractors and trucks is provided for the transportation and service of the battery. but without equipment Diameter of carriage wheels pounds do inches 729 53 Width of carriage track Normal length of recoil Elevation do do 60 30 to 42 20 51.690 6. The cart.250 10. 666 434 yards do 12. dimensions. and limBer are of French design and were manufactured in the United States.10 91. Weight of howitzer. including breech mechanism Caliber pounds inches 2. limber and carriage limbered degrees 52 . model of 1918. and reel. 440 pounds Diameter of limber wheels inches 42. Weight of howitzer and carriage. described with the 75-millimeter materiel.476 Minimum Maximum Maximum range Maximum range do do of shell of shrapnel 1. etc.

234 Vs .

235 .

firing. is of the built-up type and consists of a tube hava jacket shrunk over its rear half. front. e. sufficient resiliency to resume its original form after firing. which makes The recoil mechanism is of the hydropneumatic long recoil type.155-MILLIMETER HOWITZER AND CARRIAGE. The firing mechanism block is interchangeable with those used in the following weapons: 155-millimeter gun. primer is inserted. With this howitzer the type of recoil is known as constant. 240-millimeter howitzer. i. The breechblock is hinged at the right and by means of one motion of the breech lever can be rotated and swung clear of the breech. the asbestos On spread when pressure is applied on the mushroom head. The pad is protected by the small. MODEL OF 1918 (SCHNEIDER). mechanisms and serves as a support for the contains the recoil (236) . causes the split rings to breechblock. or to insert the block while the breech while the block breech is unlocked. by its shape.. model of 1918 (Filloux). Below the breech recess is the bridle which couples the gun to the sleigh and on the forward end of the howitzer a holding down band also functions to secure the tube to the sleigh. The breech end is equipped ing with a counterweight which is fitted with leveling plates to be used with a gunner's quadrant when setting elevations. The forward mushroom-shaped head of the breechblock is equipped with a flexible asbestos ring known as the obturator pad. steel filling-in disk is placed between the gas check pad and the A ring is compressed and acts as of powder gases back through the a gas check to prevent the leakage breech. The breech mechanism is of the plastic obturator type with an interrupted screw type breechblock. A safety device is mechanism block. contained in a canvas cover- The howitzer ing. 8-inch howitzer (Vickers Mark VI and VIIIJ). which is unscrewed each time a new used in connection with the it impossible to unlock the firing is in position. The gas check pad or plastic obturator is composed of a mixture of one part asbestos and three parts nonfluid oil. The firing pin is supported in the firing mechanism block. model of 1918 (Schneider). It has The firing mechanism is of the French percussion primer type. The asbestos pad. The primer is fired by means of the firing pin driven forward by a hammer operated by the lanyard. the The sleigh length of recoil is not shortened at high elevations. and rear split rings.

237 .

238 .

the trail pivoting on the spade. The gas used in the counterrecoil is mechanism may be either air or nitrogen. The wheels are of wood. is accomplished by means of a quadrant sight. The carriage with a pair of brakes acting directly on the rubber tires. which is sufficient to hold the howitzer in battery at all angles of elevation. The energy of recoil is absorbed by the friction of the liquid while passing through the openings in and around the recoil piston and by the compression of the nitrogen in the cylinders. the initial nitrogen pressure is approximately 485 pounds per square inch. one on each side of the carriage. for pumping in liquid and Suitable pumps air. axle on rollers fired.350 millimeters (53 inches) in diameter and are fitted with solid rubber tires. panoramic sight. The A lock is springs are compressed and the carriage rests on the axle. and peep 5516021 16 . the mounted on carriage travels along the When the gun is Belleville springs. howitzer by the breech lug and the holding and sleigh move on the cradle fastened to the trunnions of the carriage. Two traversing handwheels are provided. and caustic soda is used in the brake and counterrecoil mechanism.239 howitzer. To the underside of the cradle are fastened two elevating arcs by which the howitzer is elevated by means of the Elevations handwheel located on the left side of the carriage. 1. are provided with the materiel Cylinders of compressed nitrogen are carried to replenish the supply of nitrogen. is An equipped armor- plate shield for the protection of the personnel against small and shrapnel fire is also provided. water. arms Sighting sight. being secured to it down band. causing a traversing screw to travel carrying the carriage along the axle. The cradle is secured in the trunnions of the carriage and supports the sleigh during recoil. Gages are provided to indicate both the quantity of liquid and the nitrogen pressure. The traverse of the carriage is obtained by the traversing mechanism causing the carriage to slide on the axle. On recoiling. or a total of 105 mils. The movement is obtained by means of a traversing nut rigidly fastened to the axle. stationary. The movement is 3 each side of the center. When in battery. always used when available. from O c to 42 20' may be obtained. provided for relieving the strain on the traversing and elevating mechanisms when traveling. as it has no corrosive Nitrogen action on the mechanism. the piston rods remaining A recoil mixture of glycerine. The howitzer is returned to battery by the energy stored in the compressed nitrogen which forces the liquid out and reacts against the counterrecoil piston.

240 .

241 .

When not in use these equipments are packed in cases provided for that purpose and carried on the carriage The night lighting equipment consists principally of a chest. an aiming lamp.242 sight. may be mounted on the quadrant sight in place of the panoramic sight. Mounted on the top of the quadrant sight is the United States panoramic sight for laying the piece in traverse. The angle of site mechanism is combined with this sight. Two complete sets of night sighting equipment are provided for use when firing at night. . a portable lamp. or in emergency. limber. An extension bar is provided for use with the panoramic sight to enable the sight to be raised enough to see over the shield or other obstructions in direct left The quadrant aiming. used only in direct fire. It is used for laying the piece in elevation. The peep sight. an azimuth lamp. is mounted on the trunnion of the carriage. and the necessary cables and fixtures. model of 1918 (Schneider).

240 millimeters inches) in diameter. limbered Weight on ground under each wheel. 1. Additional support for the trail is provided by a trail rest riveted in front of the pintle trail bears. Weight and principal dimensions. (243) prac- . provided on the front of the frame for holding the limber up when not en route. with carriage limbered Weight of each wheel Diameter of wheels Width of track Turning angle of limber and howitzer carriage. with solid rubber tires.155-MILLIMETER HOWITZER CARRIAGE LIMBER. limbered NOTE. (48.82 61 52 8. riveted to the extreme rear end of the frame and and on which the fifth wheel of the Hooks are provided for carrying a picket rope. The and provides no seats for the personnel.440 _do do \lo inches do degrees pole is 930 380 335 48.82 Weight of limber empty Weight of limber completely equipped Weight of limber and carriage. 227 do 1. 1. and small boxes for carrying grease and the night lighting equipment are secured on the frame. employed This limber consists of a built-up steel frame mounted on wheels vehicle and axle. The standard short pole with the lunette for motor traction batteries is provided. A prop is The wheels are of wood construction. tically the pounds__ 1. It has no chests is pintle serves as a bearing for the lunette of the carriage when the howitzer is limbered. OF 1918 (SCHNEIDER). The 155-millimeter howitzer MODEL carriage limber is a two-wheeled to support the trail of the carriage when traveling. or the long pole may be substituted for horse-drawn equipment. The weight of this carriage limber equipped with horse same as with motor pole.


The 155-millimeter howitzer caisson MODEL OF 1918. is a two-wheeled. the opening between them forming a space which for the axle. pole socket. two caissons forming a train drawn by one However. The chest is divided into an upper and lower compartment. REAR VIEW OF CAISSON. and pintle bracket.155-MILLIMETER HOWITZER CAISSON. is The upper compartment arranged for the transportation of Powder is served to the projectiles and 16 powder charges. caissons in fiber containers. by removing the connecting pole and substitutthe standard pole the front vehicle of the train can be converted ing into a horse-drawn caisson limber. each containing 2 powder charges. chest is is made up of the lower and upper chest body and rear of armor plate. springvehicle for the transportation of ammunition. Any caisson in the battery tractor. into a caisson limber. The plate. The (245) . and houses the fuze box and 8 oil can. except the caisson equipped with the hand reel can be so converted The caisson carries 14 complete rounds of ammunition and 2 extra powder charges for the 155-millimeter howitzer. Normally supported it is a motorized vehicle.

246 .

Foot rests. When the doors are closed (with either common steel or gas shells) the door stiffeners bear against the bases of the projectiles. caisson prop when the caisson .247 container is fitted with an air-tight-joint metal cover and base. When used to transport comsteel shells Mark IV the loose diaphragms are placed inside the body of the caisson next to the front diaphragms. provision also is made on top of the chest for carrying the con- necting pole and on the rear for carrying the lunette and caisson prop when used as a horse-drawn vehicle. The lower compartment is arranged for the transportation of 6 projectiles. Mark IV . Axle brackets are clamped on either end of the axle just outside of the chest. holding them in place. Both compartments are provided with loose diaphragms. holding them firmly against the loose diaphragms. is also provided with an armor plate door bottom of the chest body. gas. The upper chest door when closed forms a cover for the chest and is held open by door props. and rotation or lateral motion of the chest is prevented by clamp screws and Belleville springs. or shrapnel. this door forms a cover for the lower compartment the apron doubles back against the lower chest door and is latched in place. When the doors are closed the door stiffeners bear against the bases of the projectiles. When carrying either common steel. axle passes through the caisson between the upper and lower intermediate plates. and grip straps are provided on the chest for the convenience of its personnel. With shrapnel the edges of the flanged holes in the loose diaphragm bear against mon the rotating bands of the projectiles. and has an armor plate hinged apron hinged to its edge. : Mark I. Blanket straps are provided on top of the chest for carrying the blanket rolls of the battery personnel . The chest The . this armor plate door serves as a shield for the cannoneers. When open. forming a shield for the cannoneers. . Semi-steel shell. Only one type of shell can be carried in the same compartment at one time. of the following types of shells 155-millimeter common steel shell. handrails. The outside of the chest is provided with implement fastenings for the usual complement of accompanying tools and accessories. When open. 155-millimeter shrapnel. the loose diaphragms are placed in position after the projectiles are inserted in the projectile tubes. the lower chest door and apron hang down. by the use of which the caisson can be made available for transporting any The lower compartment to the . 155-millimeter common steel shell. Mark II. in traveling it The down serves to support is swung up and held by the front end of the prop chain. Mark XVII. Mark I 155-millimeter common steel shell. When closed.

brake lever secured to a bracket riveted to the caisson body functions as a means by which the brakes may be applied. is fitted at the rear for the connection of the other One caisson in each battery is equipped with a reel for caisson.248 has a spring suspension similar to that of the 4. model of 1917. This is a hand-operated reel for the transportation and handling of telephone wire. Over-all length Over-all width inchea 79 78. standard pintle vehicles.345 3. for lightening road shocks. model of 1917. The brake drums are mounted on the hub boxes of the wheels and the band brakes lined with Raybestos. The caisson is usually equipped with the short pole for motor traction. A A FRONT VIEW OF CAISSON.447 949 006 60 60 18 4.) Weights and Dimensions. but the pole socket is designed so that the long pole may be used when it is desired to use the vehicle as a horse-drawn limber. 5 Over-all height do do 67 2.7-inch gun caisson. The caisson is provided with a brake mechanism of the band type. Weight without equipment (unloaded) Weight fully equipped (unloaded) Weight completely equipped and loaded Weight of reel caisson completely equipped and loaded Width of track Diameter of wheels Turning diameter of two caissons pounds do do do inches__ 2. do feet . (See page 168.

approximately or a little more than 10 miles. This monster weapon is of rugged design. P. The splittrail effect permits clearance for recoil at high elevations and allows firing over a horizontal field of 60 and an elevation varying from to Its 35. F. and by the United States as the model of 1918. muzzle velocity is sion that throws about 2. The gun recoils in slides formed in the cradle which rests in the trunnions of the top carriage. The Filloux gun is mounted on a carriage having a split trail of box girder section.411 feet per second. and interdiction. TRAVELING POSITION (RIGHT SIDE).700 yards. combining mobility and power. weighing 95 pounds. while the counter recoil is pneumatic. MODEL OF (FILLOUX). exclusive of the The type heavy howitzers and the railroad artillery. a rate of propulits projectile. No other availweapon of equivalent caliber can be considered to rival this type. which is spread out when in action.155-MILLIMETER GUN MATERIEL. is the heaviest mobile artillery. This piece is especially valuable in firing against captive balloons." (Grande Puissance Filloux). When (249) . The length of recoil is automatically controlled and varies with the elevation. counter battery firing. the ends of the trail being firmly anchored by spades in the ground. This caliber. and has a large horizontal training angle to render it suitable able for the concentration of artillery fire at long ranges. 1918 gun adopted is known by the French as the "G. 17. which corresponds of 155-millimeter field to 6-inch artillery. The entire recoil mechanism is commonly called the recuperator and is supported on the carriage at its trunnions.

250 .

CARRIAGE IN TRAVELING POSITION (REAR VIEW). which sup- ports the trails in traveling. The entire equipment A two rounds per minute. the trail and vibrations. model of 1918 (Filloux). the ammunition being carried in motor trucks or cargo carriers. consists of: 155-millimeter gun and carriage. model of 1918. model of 1918. . carriage limber. PREPARING CARRIAGE FOR BATTERY POSITION. 155-millimeter gun materiel.251 is closed up and the ends thereof are supported by limber provided with a steering gear brake.000 rounds and maximum rate of motorized. The life of the gun before is relining becomes necessary fire is is about 3. The above materiel is of French design and of both French and American manufacture. 155-millimeter gun carriage limber. In traveling position both carriage and carriage limber are supported on semielliptical springs to absorb all road shocks traveling. accompanies each gun. and drawn^ a carriage by a tractor. Caissons are not used with these guns.

252 .

elevation) Weight of projectile Maximum Weight of Weight of carriage only Weight of gun and carriage complete Diameter of wheels Width of track Height of axis of gun from ground (Mark III shell at 39 maximum powder charge pounds yards pounds do do millimeters 95 17. 482 to 35 60 do do degrees Range of elevation Maximum traverse Weight of gun carriage and limber Weight of limber complete The distance from center line of carriage axle axle. right 1042 Muzzle velocity Rifling: second 2.795 232.860 1. 190 4. etc. do __feet per in 2. including breech mechanism Length of gun Caliber pounds inches 8. uniform. Weight of gun.065 19. 160 2. 87 6. 250 1. ballistic*.411 One turn range hand. approximately do pounds do to center line of limber 23.050 3.253 Weights.989 caliber.700 25$ 11. dimensions. millimeters 500 .

this ring is compressed and acts as a gas check to prevent the leakage of powder gases through the breech. having the forward mushroom-shaped head of the breechblock equipped with an asbestos ring known as the obturator Upon firing. having four plain The breech mechanism is of the plastic obturator type. mechanism is of the French percussion primer type described under "155-millimeter Schneider howitzer. MAXIMUM ELEVATION OF GUN. All details except the firing mechanism provide interchangeability of parts with the 155-millimeter (G. the cradle are slots for the gun slides. and is pivoted by trunnions On the upper side of in the trunnion bearings of the top carriage. consisting of a tube strengthened by a ring. models of 1918 and 1918 MI. and the muzzle bell. jackets.155-MILLIMETER GUN AND CARRIAGE. pad. F. and to its lower side the elevatfiring ing rack is bolted. The cradle is a steel forging bored with three parallel cylinders for housing the recoil brake and recuperator. A Bronze clips to serve as guides in the cradle are secured to the sides of the jackets." page 236.screw type. (254) . The breechblock and four threaded is sectors. is of the built-up type. hoops. recoil lug on the under side of the breech ring provides means of attaching the recoil and recuperator rods. and is interchangeable with the guns enumerated therein. P.) guns of French manufacture. MODEL OF (FILLOUX). It has The sufficient resiliency to resume its original form after firing. of the interrupted. 1918 The gun.

255 5516021 .

256 .

I CARRIAGE IN FIRING POSITION. Nor- mally a small amount of oil must be between the valve and diaphragm. The control rod assembles within the bore of the piston rod. variable recoil The larger of the three cylindrical bores in the cradle block type. but The amount of this rotating changes the area of the orifices rotates. Its rotation is accomplished by means of an arm and gear sectors in such a manner as to shorten the recoil as the gun elevates. Its capacity is about 17 quarts. contains the recoil mechanism. length of the control rod. therefore. A replenisher or gravity tank is provided in connection with the recoil cylinder which assures the recoil cylinders being full at all times and also takes care of any expansion of the oil due to heating. Grooves of variable depth are milled along the recoils with the gun. while the other contains a mushroom oil. The diaphragm separates the cylinder and part of the second cylinder. phragm. so that it can always be seen whether or not they need filling.257 of the hydropneumatic. controlling the flow of oil through the ports of the piston during recoil. The recuperator mechanism consists of two connected cylinders. This mechanism consists of a piston and piston rod and a control The piston rod is connected to the breech lug and. from the high-pressure air. the two smaller ones. which compels the return of the gun into battery after recoil. the parts of The recoil mechanism is the recuperator mechanism. through which the oil can pass. rod. and does not move longitudinally. Oleonapthe is the liquid used in this recoil mechanism. The amount of oil in the recoil and recuperator "mechanism is shown by indicators. . valve and a diacontained in the first one containing the piston and piston rod which are attached to the breech lug.

258 .

It supports the top carriage. . pivots to traverse the piece. Belleville springs carry the weight of the gun when traversing. which astrail is of the split The box section.259 a steel casting mounted on the bottom carriage. Ti'dversing is accomplished by rotation of the top carriage on the bearing surface of the bottom carriage by means of a rack and train ACCESSORIES AND CATERPILLAR WHEEL SHOES. A traverse of 60 Elevating is accomplished by a rack on the cradle operated through gears by the handwheel located on the gear box at the left of the top to 35 are obtainable. each wheel having two solid rubber tires. They consist of 12 plates for each wheel. The tipping parts are carried on the trunnions of the top carriage. semble over the rubber tires. When traveling the spades are always removed from the trail. Elevations from type and consists of steel plate beams of Locks are pivoted at the forward end of the trails for securing them in the open position. and provides hinge connections for the trail. and attached to the limber. but on firing the springs compress and the firing stresses are taken on the bearing surfaces between the The top carri((</<' is on which it top and bottom carriage. A traveling lock is provided on the trail for retaining the gun in retracted position. houses the axle. carriage. of gears which are operated by the handwheel on the left side of the 30 right and 30 left is possible. When brought together they are clamped. one for soft and one for hard ground. The bottom <'<iri-'i(/c is a steel casting suspended from the axle (in traveling position) by a heavy multiple leaf spring. carriage. which also houses the elevating and traversing mechanism and permits high angle of elevation for the cradle. The wheels are of cast steel. and are equipped with the usual band brakes. which give a broad bearing surface under the wheel. Two types of spade are provided. When firing the axle is unshackled from the springs and the bottom carriage bears directly on the axle. Caterpillar wheel shoes for traveling over soft ground are provided.

260 .

10 pounds. MODEL 1918. replacing the road wheels on gun carriages or other normally wheeled vehicles are being tried out. except the difference in the bracket as indicated on page 239. Caterpillar tracks similar to those used on trailer caissons. The adapters are attached to the carriage axle. the point detonating fuze Mark IV used with the steel high explosive shell. is of the separate loading type. In addition to the experimental adapters on hand. The unit ground pressure when using wheels is 41 pounds per square that with the adapters. as well as gas shells and other Ammunition used The propelling charge of smokeless powder special ammunition. CATERPILLAR ADAPTERS. GUN. The adapters and wheels of this gun carriage are interchangeable.261 The sighting equipment is exactly the same as that described under the 155-millimeter Schneider howitzer. riage of wood or metal CATERPILLAR ADAPTER FOR 155-MM. F. the purpose being to greatly decrease the unit ground pressure. sufficient are being constructed to equip the weapons of one battery for more extended service test. P. G. The fuzes commonly used are the 31-second combination fuze for use with shrapnel and combining time and percussion elements. and the Mark II point detonating fuze used with gas shell. . inch . The adapter should not be confused with bands consisting shoes which are sometimes placed over gun carwheels to decrease the unit ground pressure. Either shrapnel or weighing high-explosive steel shell is used. a base charge and is a sectionalized charge made up of two sections one smaller increment. the projectile 95 pounds and the charge 25 pounds..

262 .

providing a means of steering. It is of I-beam section. steering mechanism. millimeters-traveling position) Distance from center line of carriage axle to center line of limber axle trails on limber) millimeters (263) 23.490 2. axle. The upper cross beam of this frame has a seat bolted to it for the brakeman. The axle is very similar to the usual design of front axles of automobiles. The carriage limber springs.155-MILLIMETER GUN CARRIAGE LIMBER. and seat. steering is accomplished. 160 1. who operates the gun-carriage brake when en route by means of a lever acting through a wire rope. frame.500 . The frame or clamp for holding the gun trail in position is mounted on the axle by means of two semielliptical multiple-leaf springs. The wheels are identical. and interchangeable. 1918 is a two-wheeled vehicle designed to support ends of the trails and to provide a coupling and secure the rear The attachment to the tractor when transporting the carriage.250 250 1.550 4. Weight complete pounds do Weight with carriage and gun do Weight of carriage on limber (traveling position) Width of track (center to center of tires) millimeters Free height und'er limber and carriage (traveling position) do do Diameter of wheels Height of seat cushion from ground (seat assembled on top of trails. with the wheels of the gun carriage.190 050 6. By means of a drag link and steering lever pivoted at the center of the frame and connected to the steel pole. MODEL OF (FILLOUX). Weights and dimensions. having forked ends with axle arms pivoted therein. FRONT VIEW OF LIMBER EN ROUTE. 3. principal parts are the wheels.

264 .

The firing mechanism is designed for percussion firing.500 feet per second and a range of 19. It consists of a 6-inch gun. Materiel of gun. The breech mechanism is similar to that used on the 8-inch howitzers. dimension*. having a muzzle velocity of 2. Weights. jacket. The firing platform and all of the accompanying vehicles of the is 8-inch howitzer materiel are used. The firing mechanism is of the percussion type and is not interchangeable with other British guns. MODEL OF 1917 (BRITISH). of pounds do do do Weight of shell or shrapnel Weight of powder charge (maximum) Weight of powder charge (reduced) (265) 100 23 15 pounds 7$ ounces . and breech ring. 279) for mounting this 6-inch gun are: The rear extension plug. both shrapnel being issued.650 yards. This Mark XIX gun is of wire-wound construction. The only changes necessary on the 8-inch howitzer carriages buffer (p. Ammunition of the separate loading type and shell used. Mark VIIIA. breech bush.248 9. The breech ring is for the reception of the breech mechanism and is provided prepared 6-inch with a lug on the underside for the attachment of the hydraulic and recuperator of the carriage. steel wire wound. Mark VII. On pulling the lever to the rear the breech screw is automatically unlocked and swung into the loading position. and is so arranged that the gun can not be fired until the breech screw is locked and the breech mechanism lever home. a series of layers of steel wire. model of 1917. Mark XIX. The gun body is of steel and consists of tubes.6-INCH The GUN MATERIEL. After loading. mounted on an 8-inch howitzer carriage. is modified and the cut-off gear is set differently to shorten the recoil when in action. uniform one turn in 30 calibers. both in design and operation. being designed and manufactured in England. which connects the gun to the recoil mechanism. 940 Weight gun with breech mechanism Weight of gun without breech mechanism Rifling. gun materiel. The breech mechanism is operated by means of a lever on the right side of the breech. known as the 6-inch gun carriage. Length of gun inches 219 10. one thrust of this lever inserts the breech screw and turns it into the locked position. is British throughout. and ballistics.

266 5 5 .

267 .

_ 19. 17. 350 38 12.548 22.268 Maximum range: yards.500 2.796 Weight of carriage only Weight of gun and carriage pounds do . Full charge Reduced charge Muzzle velocity : do feet per second-- 650 570 Full charge Reduced charge do degrees (fully equipped) Maximum elevation 2.

5 inches and the distance from the face of the tube to the base of the projectile is 54. Tapered throttling rods enter the holes in the piston head. track-laying Projectiles weigh- rifle. The recoil system consists of a simple hydraulic brake.000 yards. The volume of the powder chamber is 3. be fired at angles of elevation varying from and at the maximum elevation the extreme range obtainable 25. the gun being returned to battery by a pneumatic counterrecoil system. (269) is given to the gun. Under these conditions a muzzle energy of 8. The chamber diameter of the gun is 8. ing 153 pounds horizontal to may 40. The field piece 7-inch naval tractor mount. and it is brought to rest at the end of . the energy of recoil being absorbed through a distance of 32 inches by forcing a mixture of glycerine and water through orifices of gradually decreasing diameter cut in the head of a piston operating in the recoil cylinder.369 cubic inches. Mark V.7-INCH NAVAL TRACTOR MOUNT. which produces the maximum service pressure of 17 tons per square inch. MARK is V.39 inches. The area of the orifices is so calculated that a constant retardation the stroke. and as the piston moves back the size of the orifice is gradually diminished. 45-caliber naval a mobile. The recoil mechanism is of the hydraulic type. The maximum charge consists of 60 pounds of smokeless nitrocellulose powder. The recoil piston has holes bored through it to allow the liquid to pass from one side to the other when the piston starts to move back when the gun is fired. the muzzle velocity being 2.800 feet per second. bearing a 7-inch.315 foot-tons is CARRIAGE AND LIMBER IN TRAVELING POSITION (FRONT VIEW). imparted to the 153-pound projectile. The method of reducing the size of the orifices is interesting.

incorporated in the carriage trail. The piston The system REAR VIEW OF CARRIAGE. the trail is either shifted on the ground or the a firing platform which provides for training through a firing angle of 60. is traversing gear. counterrecoil system which is used on this mount is located on the top of the gun. as used on 155millimeter guns. A carriage is mounted upon . attached to the yoke operates in the central cylinder. a piston attached to the gun yoke moves backward in an air-tight cylinder containing air at a pressure of several hundred pounds per square inch. which rests on the carriage trail. In this type of mechanism when the gun is fired. A shell-loading tray. When a greater range of training is desired. permits of limited training either side of the center line. The sighting arrangements for the gun consist of a standard panoramic field sight fitted to a bracket attached to the gun carriage. still further compressing the air. worm gear. is used to load shells into the breech. and has been changed into a combination of three recoil brings the The cylinders. but simplified.270 mechanism adopted on this mount is similar to mechanism of the French type. The elevating gear consists of a simple combination of a handwheel. of liquid packing retained. and rack and pinion. and the entire system well adapted to American machining methods. The air pressure acting on the counterrecoil piston when the gun has reached the end of the The counterrecoil the counterrecoil gun back into battery or firing position. connected at the lower end by a bronze head.

adaptable to various soil conditions and light enough to permit of easy and convenient transportation. Training is accomplished by shifting the trail around the forward to beam beam arc of the platform to the set of pin holes nearest the desired angle. The firing platform includes a table. during action the limber and the tractor are withdrawn from the immediate field of danger. One section may be used alone if desired. When the mount is being pulled along an upgrade of appreciable slope. The limber is connected to the LEFT SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE IN BATTERY. when combined. The firing platform provides a durable and substantial foundation. The limber wheels are carried on taper axles and are equipped with pintle and lunette are progrease cups for lubricating purposes. tracks are such as to produce a pressure of about 14 pounds per square inch upon the soil during transportation. and a rear thrust which the trail is secured by suitable pins. Accurate adjustments in training are made with the traversing gear. mount by means of connection of the a swivel-pole which is pivoted on the limber trail. provide for training through an arc of 60. is designed to carry the mount over practically any kind of ground The proportions of the chain likely to be encountered in service.271 The track layer. but a small percentage of the weight being carried on the trail. The 7-inch naval tractor mount is so designed that its weight is almost entirely supported by the track layers. The track layer also serves as a stand or foundation for the mount during action. vided on the axle in case it is desired to attach an ammunition or A supply trailer for transportation. A supports the trail during transit. The rear thrust is made in two sections. which is approximately half that exerted by a horse. caterpillar tractor is used to draw this vehicle from one position A limber hooked between the mount and the tractor to another. the center of gravity 5516021 18 . which. upon which the track layers rest. which is of the double-tread caterpillar type.

remaining steady on the point of aim during continued firing. and yet the entire weight of the gun was so evenly and well distributed that no damage was done to the roads. which are used to draw the recoiling parts back sufficiently to bring about equilibrium. . The mount functioned perfectly. to throw the trail in the preclude any such occurrence. Track grousers may be bolted to the track shoes when there is likelihood of the sides. were as steady as a in an actual road concrete foundation. To mount slipping test this sidewise during transport on hill- gun was pulled over rough ground and proved able to cover any ground over which the tractor itself was able to operate. eyebolts are secured to the gun yoke. Obstructions were mowed down. The caterpillar treads. locked in position by the brake.272 is shifted and the weight of the gun may have a tendency air.

and locking rings. is incorporated in the rear section of the trail.700 pounds. The remainder of the twist is uniform. gun and breech mechanism is The rifling is right hand of hook section and consists of 28 grooves and lands. a worm shaft operated by ratchet wrenches shifts the trail with reference to the plate and enables the gun to be accurately trained. consisting structural steel frameessentially of two steel trunnion bearing plates cross braced at each end to form a single unit with a central well into which the gun recoils. weighs 12.7-INCH GUN. naval rifle is built up of a tube. This gear consists of a steel plate resting on the ground underneath the trail . hoops. The traversing gear.81 tons. These side girders are riveted to the carriage trail. CARRIAGE AND LIMBER IN TRAVELING POSITION (REAR VIEW). (273) . MARK V. The T-inch. which provides means for training 2 either side of the center line. The carriage and trail forming a rigid unit. are supported on the carriage axle which turns in hubs mounted in the truck frames of the track layer. MARK II AND CARRIAGE. The gun. On the left-hand side of the carriage is arranged the mechanism for elevating and depressing the gun. without the breech mechanism. The carriage which supports the gun is a work built up of standard shapes. 45-caliber. The gun is the heaviest and hardest hitting gun for which a mobile field mount has been requested by our Army. while the weight of 28. having an increasing twist from zero at the origin to one turn in 25 calibers at a point 22 inches from the muzzle. When erosion destroys the effectiveness and accuracy of the gun it may be rebuilt by boring out the tube and shrinking in a conical nickel-steel liner.

The energy of recoil is checked and dissi- slide. on which the trunnions are attached. pated by means of a hj^draulic brake mounted on the bottom of the This mechanism is made up of a piston operating in a cylinder filled with liquid and rigidly fixed to the slide. the liquid is forced around the throttling rods through the orifices in the piston to the forward end of the cylinder. The piston is attached to the gun yoke by the piston. runs in and out of the gun slide when recoiling. The and counterrecoil mechanisms are also attached to the gun The gun slide. all the liquid is in rear of the piston. operating through pistons attached to the yoke. meshing with the pinion of the elevating mechanism. The trunnion seats are placed at the upper end of the carriage. This cylindrical gun slide. bronze liners being recoil fitted to the inside of the slide to enable this to take place easily. As the piston recedes during recoil. Two orifices are provided in the piston head for throttling rods which are arranged longitudinally in the cylinder. The teeth of the arc are cut on a pitch circle concentric with the The trunnion centers to permit of a 40 movement of the slide in a ver- tical plane. The upper and lower extremities of the arc are fitted with limiting stops to prevent jamming. elevating arc segment. In battery.274 Navy guns do not carry trunnions attached directly to the gun . dissipating the energy through . carries the gun. they are turned on the outside surface of a gun slide. permit dug to TOP CARRIAGE AND AXLE DETAILS. starting from horizontal. The hydraulic brake. The trunnions of the gun are mounted sufficiently high so that at maximum angles of elevation only a shallow trench need be clearance for the recoil of a gun.rod which passes through a stuffing box in the rear end of the cylinder. is bolted to a pad on the left-hand face of the slide.

275 the frictional heat generated. The liquid used in the hydraulic brake consists of a mixture of 4 parts glycerine and 1 part water. is The cross section of the throttling must flow in passing through the upon such that a pressure approximately uniform is exerted the liquid throughout the period of recoil. as it enters the chamber and forces the liquid back into the cylinder through the orifice between the plunger and the plunger bushing screwed into the mouth of the chamber. rods. checked through the action of a counterrecoil plunger. its momentum is ASSEMBLED VIEW OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE. . mounted on the forward face of the piston. by volume. coil is Incorporated in the cylinder head is a counterrecoil chamber into which the recoil liquid flows during recoil. The length of re32 inches. around which the liquid orifices. When the gun is brought back to battery by the counterrecoil mechanism. This liquid is poured into the cylinder through a filling hole on the right-hand side of the cvlinder head. This action takes place during only the last 14 inches of counterrecoil stroke.

the compressed air acts upon the piston to return the gun to battery. Energy to return the gun to battery and to maintain it in that position at all angles of elevation is obtained by means of a pneumatic counterrecoil system. It is apparent that the factor of gravity decreased with the angle of elevation. the increased volume of the liquid simply compresses the air in the expansion chamber instead of acting to prevent the return of the gun to battery. A gun yoke when the gun recoils. On either side of the air cylinder and connected with it through a port is an air tube which serves as a reservoir. operating in an air cylinder and connected to by a piston rod.276 of the cylinder head is arranged to form an chamber to provide for the expansion of the liquid which expansion results from the frictional heat generated in the cylinder. . Counterrecoil system. the IN TRACK LAYER. cylinder piston. gauge This pressure assures the proper functioning of the counat angles of elevation up to approximately 34. terrecoil mechanism tery when it is fired at angles near horizontal. At the end of recoil. mounted on the top of air VIEW OF AXLE MOUNTED the slide. To assure the presence of a definite amount of air in the expansion chamber at all times. the system is charged initially with air at 300 pounds per square inch. serves to compress the air within the Since it is necessary for the counterrecoil system to support the weight of the gun and breech mechanism against gravity. When The upper portion expansion of the liquid takes place with continued firing. and hence less pressure is required to bring the gun to batpressure. the filling hole is fitted with a tube which extends down into the chamber and traps the desired volume of when the cylinder is filled.

the mechanism will function properly at all angles . thus before firing the springs are compressed until the hubs bear directly upon the truck frames. To insure return of the gun to battery when firing at angles above 34. wheels are mounted. the springs are taken up by means of holding down screws in order that the mount may keep steadily on the point of aim while firing. The axle. The function of the hub springs is to impart to the mount a degree of resiliency during transit. each link carrying a corrugated forged-steel plate which makes contact with the ground. and to prevent breakage of the of the instrument. When the gun is placed in firing position. when firing. resiliency in the mount is undesirable and often dangerous. a steel forging extending across the width of the carriage. To prevent the . is This bracket is held by oscillating bearings and so that the caterpillar may adjust itself to any spring supported unevenness in the road when the gun is in motion. The plates overlap when horizontal so that a continuous surface is presented. One turn of the elevating handwheel moves the gun 56' 17" in elevation or depression. This is accomplished by means of adjusting screws screwed down on the hub bearing blocks until the springs are compressed and the hubs rest solidly upon the truck frames. the mechanism may be relied upon to return the gun to battery at angles of elevation up to 23 or 24. air cylinders should be charged in accordance with the instructions. if the cylinder should be charged only to. The track itself consists of an endless belt of cast-steel links connected by hardened pins. it moved before firing. 225 pounds. is gauge glass and to preserve the accuracy recommended that the pressure gauge be re- The elevating gear train from the rack on the slide to the handwheel on the left side of the trail is made up of a pinion and shaft in mesh with the elevating arc. however. However. say. is supported in the track layer by a hub bracket which in turn is carried by the structure of the girder on which the sprocket and truck SIDE ELEVATION OF TRACK LAYER.277 When charged to 340 pounds pressure.

The track links run over a large idler wheel. sand. seven truck rollers.278 corrugated surface of the tread from slipping in soft ground. detachable grousers are provided. Friction brakes operating against the forward idler wheels are mounted on the truck frames. These brakes are of the spring release type and are applied by means of handwheels functioning through yokes and levers to the brake shoes. roller bearings are fitted in the truck and idler rollers. is The track The aft idler wheel bearings are so mounted that they may be moved backward or forward as necessary to adjust the tension and to take up wear on the links and shoes. or soft earth. carried around two track idler wheels which are provided with bearings mounted on the extremities of the track frame. CARRIAGE IN BATTERY POSITION*. A brake is provided to permit control of the mount when descending hills and also to lock the caterThe brake conpillar in position when the gun is set up for firing. and four track rollers on each caterpillar track The sprocket wheels carry but little of the load except when layer. Simple as the brake is it tion in controlling the heavy any tendency of the mount to has been exceedingly satisfactory in operamount on steep grades and in checking move on firing. the tension applied being controlled by an adjustable spring. the ends of the rollers being closed by steel plates to prevent the entrance of dirt when the mount is hauled mount. a sprocket wheel. the gun is descending a grade or when the brake is applied to the For smooth running and reliability. through mud. SHOWING MAXIMUM ELEVATION OF GUN. sists of a toggle joint operating on the rim of one of the sprocket wheels. The quadrant sight (Schneider) is mounted on the left trunnion of the carriage both in traveling and in action. .

Inherently a long life of the piece. When these howitzers have to be transported over land full of huge craters. elevated trajectory. compromise between is The fire characteristics of this howitzer are a those of a gun and a mortar. The chief aim of the howitzer is incumbrance such as trenches. The explosion of a shell so high angle fired is much more effective than one that is fired with only a slightly to destroy and the like. favorable angle of fall for penetration. but there are limits to its mobility. the range.8-INCH HOWITZER MATfiRIEL (VICKERS). This caliber is mobile in a sense. (279) . pill boxes. is not great. it is almost gain impossible to get the heavy howitzers away quickly enough to save them from being captured by the enemy. A shell that travels from the howitzer ascends at a and drops almost vertically. The trajectory classed as curved and the useful angles of elevation and resulting angles of fall lie between 15 and 45. a small zone of dispersion. being comparatively short when compared with a gun of the same caliber. is capable of a greater angle of elevation than the same caliber of gun. the country encumbered with all kinds of debris and frequently reduced to a sea of mud. however. it can be " " push usually nets a considerable easily seen why a successful in captured artillery. If the trenches give way. The howitzer. 'with the roads entirely destroyed. barbed wire. and economy of ammunition result and may be said to be the advantages of the 8-inch howitzer.

280 .

281 The 8-inch howitzer. which is transported on a two-wheeled wagon. the former is the preferred type. On reaching the spot selected for position the firing platform is buried flush with the surface of the ground. The number of rounds they are capable of firing before the lining becomes badly worn depends on whether light or heavy propelling fact that the Mark VIILJ The use of light propelling charges and greater trajectory elevation to get the desired range is recommended.000 rounds. and consequently a greater maximum range than the Mark VI by some 15 to 20 per cent. Mark XIX. whereas the Mark VI type is of the " built up " construction. Marks VI and VIII$ and 6-inch gun. is called the "Vickers" model of of which there are in use two types.2-inch or 240-millimeter howitzer. . furnishing a steady emplacement from which to fire. rather than heavy charges and lower elevation. being mounted on a wheeled carriage and not having to be disassembled for transporation. Mark VI. Due to the howitzer has a greater muzzle velocity. is 7. also that the difference between the two being that the powder chamber walls of the overcomes Mark VII proved this defect by to be too thin. The Mark VII has lately been superseded by a Mark VIIIJ. actual experience the average life of the 8-inch howitzer. the wagon being attached to the howitzer carriage and drawn as part of the unit with the carriage and limber by a tractor. while the Mark VIII having thicker powder chamber walls. From information based on charges are used. the Mark VI and Mark VII.800 rounds. while that of the Mark VIII Comparative table of weights. the range than the " latter. varies greatly. The life of the howitzers before relining is necessary. the main differences between the Mark VI and the Mark VII being that the former has a lower muzzle velocity and consequently a shorter The 8-inch howitzer materiel Mark VII has a barrel of the " wire wound construction. dimensions. The Mark VII is also longer and heavier than the Mark VI. is much more mobile than the 9. is 3. 1917. and ballistics for 8-inch howitzers. This howitzer when set up ready for firing rests on and is braced upon a firing platform.

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dimensions. and ballistics for 8-inch howitzers. Mark XIX Continued. Marks VI and F///$ and 6-inch gun. .283 Comparative table of weights.

A and vice trail is versa. trunnions and rests in bearings provided is pivoted at its front center to a transom on the trail in such a manner that it is free to rotate under control of the traversing gear. traverse for each of the three REAR VIEW OF CARRIAGE. in the top carriage. composed of two side members supported at the front end of the axle and terminating in a spade at the rear end. 45 Mark VIII A carriage. SHOWING MAXIMUM ELEVATION OF HOWITZER.284 The elevating elevation for the and 38 for the mechanism permits a movement for the Mark VI carriage. Screw brakes for use in firing or traveling are fitted to either side at the for- The ward end of the trail. . traveling lock is provided on the trail to lock the trail and cradle together to prevent strains on the elevating and traversing A mechanisms when traveling. quick-loading gear is fitted to the cradle for bringing the howitzer rapidly to the loading position (7 30' elevation) after firing. 4 to the right or 4 to the left of the cradle pivots on The which in turn center line of the trail. its of 50 maximum Mark VII carriage. a total of 8 types.

. Marks VI and VII. Mark VIII-A.285 The wheels steel cleats to are made entirely of steel and have wide tires fitted with ensure good traction. SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE IN BATTERY Comparative table of weights and dimensions of 8-inch howitzer carriages. The sighting gear is composed of a rocking bar sight with panoramic sight and clinometer for the usual method of sighting and a dial sight for the quick laying of the piece. and 6-inch gun carnage.

model of 1918 (Vickers. model of 1917 (Vickers). Firing platform and wagon. model of 1917 (Vickers). Mark VI). model of 1917 (Vickers). Limber. The platform is used whenever conditions and time permit emplacement. Mark VII). Mark VIII). Howitzer. Mark VII). Mark VI). . Limber. consists of : Carriage. : consists of Carriage. model of 1917 (Vickers). Mark VIIL}). model of 1917 (Vickers. model of 1918 (Vickers. The 8-inch howitzer materiel. Firing platform and wagon. Mark VI and Mark VII). to Mark VIII United States. model of 1917 (Vickers). The Firing platform and wagon. model of 1917 (Vickers. 8-inch howitzer materiel. which consists of two wheels and an axle. model of 1918 (modified from Vickers. Howitzer. The above materiel is of British design and of both British and American manufacture. model of 1917 (Vickers. model of 1917 (Vickers). Model of 1918 (Vickers. Limber. Eight-inch howitzer materiel (British) consists of: Model of 1917 (Vickers. to which the parts of the platform are securely clamped. For transportation the platform is disassembled and placed on a transport wagon.286 These types of carriages are provided with a platform by means of which a traverse of 26 right and 26 left is obtainable. Mark VI).

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and a breech bushing is provided for reception of the breechblock. The total length of this howitzer is about 10| feet and its maximum range is approximately 10. The jacket in this case supports the howitzer without the use of guide rings. .760 yards: this howitzer is mounted on the Mark consists of a tube over VI carriage. A breech bushing similar to that of the Mark VI is fitted for the breech mechanism. A breech ring is shrunk on over the jacket and carries a lug for connecting the gun to the recoil mechanism. over which is shrunk the jacket. The Mark VI howitzer is of the built-up-construction type and which is shrunk a jacket. A breech ring is also shrunk on for additional strength and carries a lug for connecting the gun to the recoil mechanism. This howitzer (288) is mounted on the Mark VII carriage. REAR RIGHT SIDE OF CARRIAGE IN FIRING POSITION. The total length of this howitzer is about 12| feet and its maximum range is approximately 12. an inner and an outer. Front and rear guide rings provide means of supporting the howitzer in the cradle.360 yards. The Mark Vlll\ howitzer is also of the built-up-construction type. but differs from the Mark VI howitzer in that it consists of two tubes.8-INCH HOWITZER AND CARRIAGE (BRITISH).

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Howitzers fitted for one type of primer will not permit the use of the other type. For used. The recoil mechanism is an hydraulic brake to absorb the energy of recoil of the piece. firing the charge. It has sufficient resiliency to resume its original form after firing. this ring is compressed and acts as a gas check to prevent the leakage of powder gases back through the breech. The one known fits as the two separate types of igniters or primers are T tube consists of a small T-shaped . The breechblock with a The forward mushroom-shaped head of the breechblock is equipped flexible asbestos ring. This mechanism is common and interchangeable with the 155-millimeter gun and howitzer. known as the obturator pad. BREECH BLOCK. which by one motion by releases the screw threads and opens the breech. the percussion primer. . On firing. also the 240-millimeter tion to a blank It fits a percussion firing howitzer. as described on page 236. copper tube which into a suitable socket in the breech it is fired by pulling a friction wire out of the tube by means of a lanyard. Both types have a safety lock. The recoil mechanism is of the hydropneumatic long-recoil type and contains both recoil brake and recuperator. The other type. rifle is very similar in construc- mechanism cartridge. on closing. a lever on the right-hand side of the breech. It consists of a piston rod and piston traveling in an oil-filled cylinder.291 It is operated is of the interrupted-screw type. on the breech which fires the primer by means of a hammer operated by the lanyard. or vice versa. The piston rod is connected to the cradle. which prevents firing when the breech is not entirely closed.

292 o CD .

block gun is fired the piston is forced against the oil in the cylPorts are provided in the piston to permit of the passage of some of the oil. operated by lugs sliding in spiral grooves in the cylinder walls. when FRONT VIEW OF HOWITZER CARRIAGE. a method is provided for automatically closing the piston valves sooner as the elevation increases. but as the howitzer further recoils a valve on the piston rod. gradually closes the port so that no oil can pass and the howitzer is brought gradually to rest. The cylinder is connected to a lug on the howitzer and recoils with it so that the inder. thus shortening the recoil. It consists of two liquid . The recuperator or counterrecoil mechanism serves to return the howitzer to firing position after recoil. This buffer prevents violent return into firing position after recoil. At the beginning of the recoil a large quantity of oil is permitted to pass.293 which remains stationary while the howitzer recoils. The mechanism which accomplishes this feature is known as the valve turning gear. The rear end of the piston rod is extended and so designed that it forms a counterrecoil buffer when it enters a suitable chamber bored out in the buffer plug. In order to prevent the gun striking the ground when firing at high elevation.

wheels with and the elevating and traversing gear. trail. The Mark VI and Mark VII carriage are similar in design and differ only in that Mark VII has a slightly larger recoil mechanism and the trail is cut out somewhat to allow for the greater length of the howitzer recoil. . On recoiling. cradle. this air expands to its original volume it drives the oil back against the recuperator pistons. absorbing about 10 per cent of the energy of recoil.294 cylinders which are connected in turn with two air cylinders. When air in the recuperator is maintained at a pressure of about 700 pounds per square inch in order to prevent the howitzer slipping back on the cradle at high elevations. A suitable pump is provided with the material for maintaining this air pressure. so as to permit the necessary traverse. The carriage axles. thereby highly compressing the air. ELEVATING AND TRAVERSING MECHANISM. It is pivoted in the front transom of the trail. thereby returning the howitzer to firing position. the recuperator pistons force the oil out of the recuperator cylinders into the air cylinders. consists of a top carriage. The top carriage is built up of nickel-steel plate and carries the trunnion bearings for the cradle. carries the recoil The cradle which ways for the mechanism and provides in action is slide recoil of the howitzer when supported by the trunnion bearings of the top carriage. The recuperator also acts as an auxiliary recoil The buffer.

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permitting various zones of fire.297 The trail is of the solid type. The propelling charge is contained in cloth bags and is made up of separable increments. Each round is issued with the projectile filled. These are issued filled but not fuzed and are fitted with howitzer. and the Mark VIIIA. of the separate loading type is used with the 8-inch Shell issued is of the high-explosive type only and weighs 200 pounds.33 pounds. The Mark VI carriage permits of an elevation of 50. The weight of the The propellant charge will projectile complete is 90. Fuzes of types to suit different conditions of firing are provided. also Mark VIIIA the adapter is fitted the adapter and booster in place. provided to allow the gun to be brought quick-loading gear to loading position when firing at high angles of elevation. the Mark VII. The maximum charge for the Mark VI howitzer weighs 10. 45. The elevating and traversing gears are operated by handwheels on the left side of the carriage. 38. a Ammunition booster and adapter. cut out to provide clearance for the howitzer to recoil.5 pounds. dial sight is provided on the right side of the piece for quick A laying.8 pounds for the . 66 inches in diameter is A They are fitted with brakes which act on each wheel. 17. Mark VIII on a howitzer. closely resembled the American that it was decided to use the regular Mark II high-explosive shell. is Separate loading ammunition used in the 6-inch gun mounted The original British ammunition so carriage. . These are located on the left side of with tires 12 inches wide. the piece and serve to lay for elevation and traverse respectively. The fuze hole in with a white-metal plug. giving delayed or instantaneous action. All three carriages permit a traverse of 8. consist of a base section and increment section having a total weight of approximately 25 pounds. independently Sighting is accomplished by means of a rocking-bar sight supplemented by a panoramic sight. The spade is removable and the shoe or bracket may be substituted when firing on scotches or using the firing platform. rapidly The wheels are of the all steel wide-tire type.

for more extended service test. application of the adapter to this weapon requires a slight alteration in the wheeled carriage. wheels and adapters are not entirely interchangeable. i. is 32 pounds per square inch. By using the adapter this is reduced to 12 pounds. with the corresponding increase in mobility. MARK VI AND VII. The unit ground pressure of this The CATERPILLAR ADAPTERS FOR 8-INCH HOWITZER CARRIAGE. In addition to the experimental adapters on hand. in accordance with recommendation of the Artillery Equipment Board. weapon on the wheeled carriage . e. sufficient are being constructed to equip the howitzers of two batteries..298 CATERPILLAR ADAPTERS.

It passes through bearings formed in the rails and is held in position by brackets. The axle equipped with guard irons and blanket straps. 1917 The limber provided with this and for the 6-inch gun materiel is of steel construction and provides a chest for tools and spares. and fitted to carry tools. route. spare packings the chest is The top of Clips are secured at the front of the chest to accommodate two rifles. and other implements. limber. but two types of poles are provided. Weights and dimensions. Those limbers which were proofed manufactured in the United States are provided with steel chests which vary slightly from the wooden chests in fittings provided for bolted to the top of the tools and accessories. also seats for the personnel. The wheels are 66 inches in diameter and have a tire 6 inches in width with rounded edges. canvas and hinged at the front. is of wood The lid is covered with waterrails. and carriage (limbered) Overall length of limber.8-INCH HOWITZER CARRIAGE LIMBER. used in emergencies when attacked en other necessary stores. a long one for horse-drawn vehicles The box or and is and a shorter connecting pole for motor traction. receptacles being provided on the sides and ends to take an The interior of the chest is ax. No ammunition is carried in this limber. empty Weight of limber. carriage. is cylindrical in shape and fitted with special axle arms. fully equipped and loaded Diameter of wheels degrees pounds do inches 2. MODEL OF (VICKERS). inches Length of wheel base. a shovel. chest. for buffer and recuperator. of limbers manufactured in England. 550 40 160 600 Width of tires Width of track Weight of each wheel do do pounds (299) 66 6 82 554 3 Number of men carried . and firing platform wagon (tractor draft) 187 inches Turning angle Weight of limber. 2.

300 .

carriage. This bracket travels in a groove which The spade must when using this gives a bearing for the bracket and also provides a means of traversing the piece 52 on the platform. These components form a triangular-shaped frame upon which the . is removed and is another float plate. firing platform is provided A wooden the 8-inch howitzer and 6-inch sufficient on which the carriage of gun materiel can be mounted when time is permitted for setting up. By using the traversing gear on the carriage a total traverse of 30 on each side of the center is obtainable. the upper one being curved at its front edge to form a guide for shifting the trail. The platform is disassembled and mounted on a pair of wheels and axle for transportation. The platform consists of wooden beams which assemble to form a triangular platform. The main objects in the use of the firing platform are: To provide a reliable support for the wheels and rear end of the trail. The carriage wheels rest on steel on the wheel platform and are guided by curved-steel angles plates which prevent lateral movement of the gun off the target when in The support be placed when firing. which its place. carriage may is placed near the apex of the formed by the hinged side and rear beams. two side beams hinged together at the forward end and a rear beam made in a top and bottom section. for the carriage wheels action. and platform wagon. The firing platform is composed of a support upon which the wheels of the carriage rest. : (301) . to insure the gun remaining on the target when firing and to provide means for shifting the trail transversely through an angle 52 (26 each . the float plate. The usual plan is to draw this combination by a tractor. the firing platform is used.8-INCH HOWITZER FIRING PLATFORM AND WAGON. having a thrust bracket attached. The rear beams triangle form the base. so as to prevent sinking or movement when firing on soft ground. be removed and a special bracket fitted on the trail platform.side of center). MODEL OF 1917 (VICKERS). When tached. with spade atis bolted to the underside of the trail. bolted in In traveling the units of the 8-inch materiel are arranged in the following order Limber.

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Overall length of wagon (traveling position) Overall height of wagon Overall width of wagon inches '. Diameter of wheels Width of tires Width of track Road clearance Weight of platform Weight of wood platform and wagon (complete) Weight of steel platform and wagon (complete) do do do do do do pounds do do 5. 240 66 105 66 6 85 18 740 7.303 Weights and dimensions.840 9.630 5516021 20 .


gravity tank insures that the recoil cylinder will at all times be filled with the proper amount of oil and provided A with the necessary amount of void for the expansion of the oil. Both types are provided with an earth box which is secured on firing beams. ram. While these calibers are mobile in a sense. The 9. mechanism is of the hydropneumatic type consisting of a cylinder. the top carriage and cradle the second load. with the roads entirely destroyed. and in which the earth excavated for the firing beams is thrown the additional weight gives . the recoil piston rod and the recuperator cylinder remaining stationary. The recoil mechanism is of the variable type which limits the amount of recoil according to the elevation. it is very to save difficult to get these heavy howitzers away quickly enough them from being captured by the enemy. Both types of 9.2-INCH HOWITZER MATERIEL (VICKERS). both being platform mounts as illustrated. while the Mark II type is 17. one can realize just why a successful attack usually nets captured artillery. In the operation of firing the howitzer the recoil cylinder and the counterrecoil. or recuperator piston rod. the howitzer proper forming one load. and on the other hand.305 9. The counterrecoil buffer in the recoil cylinder limits the counterrecoil of the howitzer and allows the piece to return to battery position without shock.3 calibers. and the platform the third load. the recoil cylinder being fitted with a counterrecoil buffer to control the return of the howitzer into battery. for full of of mud. These units break up into three separate loads for traveling. the country encumbered with all kinds of debris. and frequently reduced to a sea to their mobility. if the trenches give way. The flow of oil in the recoil cylinder past the piston rod and valve limits the length of the recoil and the comit pression of the air in the recuperator cylinder is sufficient to return to battery after the force of the recoil has been absorbed. yet there are limits when they have to be transported over land huge craters. the principal difference being that the latter model is a more powerful weapon. greater stability when firing.2-inch and 240-millimeter howitzers are the largest weapons of the mobile type in service witli the American Army at the present time. The Mark I type of howitzer is 13 calibers long. . The floating piston forms a barrier between the air and oil to prevent aeration and to form an intensifier to prevent leakage of air by opposing a counterrecoil The superior pressure of liquid to it. move to the rear with the howitzer.2-inch howitzers are practically similar in all features. and floating piston with rod.

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and the like. The gun is primarily intended for attacking troops while the chief aim of the howitzer is to destroy incumbrance such as trenches. pill boxes. while the Mark II (high velocity) has an average life of 3.2-inch howitzer. barbed wire. . is capable of greater angle of elevation than the same caliber of gun.300 rounds. A shell that travels from the howitzer ascends at a high FRONT VIEW SHOWING MAXIMUM ELEVATION OF HOWITZER. angle and drops almost vertically.307 The howitzer.500 rounds. being comparatively thick and short when compared with a gun of the same caliber. is From information based on actual experience. Mark I type (low velocity). has an average life of 8. The explosion of a shell so fired much more effective than one that is fired with only a slight elevated trajectory as in the case of the field gun of the same caliber. the 9.

Howitzer transport wagon. carriage transport wagon. Mark II. The three wagons are drawn en train by tractor but singly in case of necessity. LOADING POSITION OF HOWITZER. Individual brakes are fitted on the hind wheels. model of 1917. thus forming the body of the wagon. SHOWING SHELL ON TRAY. The 9. model of 1918. may be hauled Mark I consists of: Howitzer platform transport wagon.308 The howitzer transport wagon is a four-wheeled vehicle the body of which contains a winch for removing and mounting the howitzer in the cradle. Howitzer carriage. The top carriage transport wagon is formed by attaching two axles with wheels to the top carriage. consists of: platform transport wagon.2-inch howitzer materiel (Vickers). .2-inch howitzer materiel (Vickers). model of 1918. carriage. The Howitzer Howitzer Howitzer Howitzer 9. model of 1917. model of 1918. The carriage bed (or platform) transport wagon is formed by fixing a front and rear axle to suitable attachments on the bed. which forms the body. model of 1918. Howitzer carriage transport wagon. This vehicle is usually coupled behind the platform wagon. Attachments are provided for brakes which act independently on each hind wheel and connections for attachment behind the howitzer transport wagon. transport wagon. model of 1917. This vehicle is equipped for motor traction and has brakes acting individually on each hind wheel. model of 1917.

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which secured longitudinally by the breech bushing. The howitzer consists of a tube. thus three four-wheeled vehicles are issued for this purpose. The first carries the howitzer. a series of layers of steel wire. MARKS (BRITISH). I AND II This materiel is designed to be transported in separate loads. States is all of which is of British design. equipment made both and REAR VIEW OF CARRIAGE. breech bushing. Over the exterior of the tube is shrunk the jacket. which is shrunk over the tube at the muzzle. Over the exterior of the tube is wound a series of layers of steel wire extending from the breech end to the stop ring.2-INCH HOWITZERS AND CARRIAGES. The bushing The breech ring is is prepared for the reception of the breechblock. and the third the plat- form and earth box. the second the carriage. SHOWING HOWITZER AT MAXIMUM ELEVATION. but the United in this country in possession of in Great Britain. is (310) . screwed and shrunk over the jacket at the rear. muzzle stop ring. and breech ring. jacket.9.

must be swung open by the handle provided on the breech. moves with it. The breech is closed by a parallel screw having five portions of the screw thread removed longitudinally. inches The breech mechanism of the screw type with plastic obturator is so arranged that by partially revolving the operating lever the breechblock is unlocked and the block with the gas-check pads and disks withdrawn from the seating in the chamber. The recoil is controlled by passage of oil through ports in the cylinder. Later models are fitted with the French percussion type of firing mechanism described with the 155-millimeter howitzer Mark materiel on page 236. which revolves and withdraws the breech in one motion from front to back. which shortens the length of recoil after 15 The recoil cylinder.2-inch howitzers are indicated in the accomdiffers in that it The Mark II other on which the wire wound. while the piston rod is secured to the cradle and remains stationary. mechanism is of the hydropneumatic type and is equipped recoil. Both types are fitted with a firing mechanism to accommodate the T-tube primer.311 has two tubes shrunk one over the The Mark I howitzer is 133 is in length. while the Mark II is 170 inches. The Mark I breech requires two operations to open. then BREECH MECHANISM (MARK it I). panying table. and ballistics. giving the important dimensions. A handle turning on the rear of the block revolves and releases the block. located above the howitzer and secured thereto. weights. The II breech can be opened by one motion of a lever on the right side of the breech. each one-tenth of the circumference. The recoil with a variable elevation. which are varied by the valve located near . The main characteristics of the Vickers 9. The breech mechanism can then be swung into the loading position by means of a handle on the rear face of the breechblock.

maintained in the air chamber to hold the piece in battery. To the rear transom is secured a A pinion which. meshing with a rack on the bed. ft/MCt LU RCTRIHINC C/ITCH BREECH MECHANISM (MARK II). Grooves cut in the cradle cylinder serve to guide the howitzer during recoil. On the left rear side of the body is a loading gear. which fits over the pintle on the bed and on which the top carriage pivots. . which consists of a swinging arm with a winch and loading tray. This valve gage spiral grooves in the cylinder. To maintain this pressure a pump is attached to the carriage. access to working parts and loading platform on the rear for the personnel. which on expansion will return the howitzer An initial pressure of 475 pounds per square inch is to battery. serves to traverse the Suitable platforms are hinged to the body. . is is A mixture of glycerine rotated by lugs which en- and oil used in the cylinder. The end of the piston rod is extended and shaped to form a counterrecoil buffer.312 the piston on the rod. The oil and air in this cylinder are separated by a floating piston. The recuperator is located below the howitzer. The cylinder being secured to the cradle remains stationary when the howitzer is recoiling but the ram is secured to the howitzer and moves with it. front tranThe top carriage or body is built up of steel plates. som carries the pivot block. The cradle is a cylindrical casting formed to house the howitzer. . The ram on recoiling increases the liquid pressure on this piston this in turn compresses the air. Later models are fitted with gravity tank on top of the recoil cylinder to replenish the oil and relieve pressure due to expansion. A toothed arc on the left trunnion operates the valve turning gear through gearing. which can be operated either by hand or a small gasoline engine. thus permitting piece. It is provided with trunnions and has the elevating arc secured to its lower side.

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quick-loading gear operated by a handwheel on the right of the carriage permits the howitzer to be brought readily to the loading 55 angle. RIGHT SIDE VIEW OF CARRIAGE IN BATTERY. SHOWING LOADING GEAR MECHANISM IN ACTION. elevation. A The firing angle ranges from 15 elevation to . which. motion being transmitted to a vertical rack pinion which works in the rack at the rear of the bed thus a traverse of 30 right . 3 depression.314 The traversing gear is actuated by a hamlwheel on the left side of the carriage. operates the arc beneath the cradle. METHOD OF LOADING. and left may be obtained. through a system of gearing. The elevating gear is operated by a handwheel on the left side of the carriage.

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316 .

The dial sight is similar to the United States panoramic sight.320 6. .. do do do do inches do.080 35. Ammunition employed is of the separate-loading type. degrees do.317 The bed on which the top carriage pivots consists of side guides of box section with transom. The bearing of the top carriage is formed two steel and a travby an upper and lower roller path. do.. Weight Weight pounds. Maximum Loading angle (depression) Amount 29. /Sighting is ramic sight.200 1..060 9. 6.100 5. .576 170i 27 290 1.600 4. and ballistics. a pivot block. do. dimensions.100 10. Weight. complete with howitzer (but without dirt in pounds. ersing rack. or a accomplished by means of a rocking-bar sight. .800 133J 13f 290 1. Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight Length Length of mount in firing position earth box) of body and cradle of bed and earth box of earth box empty of firing beams of ground ramps of recoil at 15* elevation of recoil at 50 elevation angle of elevation of traverse per sec. a panoNo. pounds.200 410 40 19 50 3 60 . ..100 2. 7 dial sight located on the left of the carriage. which can be substituted. which are fitted with percussion fuses. yards . do inches . do . The propelling charge is put up in cloth bags.700 530 44 19 50 3 60 Rifling (uniform). Powder charge Weight of shell Muzzle velocity Maximum range ft.100 8.. The rocking-bar sight serves to lay for elevation and carries the telescope sight or the dial sight for laying for direction. charges built up with four and with five increments for zone fire being provided. Highexplosive steel shell weighing 290 pounds are used. . The charge is ignited by the T-tube friction type of primer.200 9. . At the front of the bed are suitable connections for fastening a steel box which is filled with earth to help maintain stability.500 11.500 13.187 10. MarkL of howitzer without breech mechanism of howitzer with breech mechanism Total length of howitzer Mark II.

are secured to a crossbar for connecting the rear of the wagon to the carriage body when mounting or dismounting the howitzer. the muzzle end being supported by two bronze brackets and secured to METHOD OF MOUNTING HOWITZER. one on each side.9. (318) . The front axle is of forged steel. A winch gear for the purpose of shifting the howitzer into or from the cradle is provided. each axle arm being provided with a dust excluder and linch pin. and has provisions for the attachment of a tractor. The brake gear consists of two brake arms and brake screw fitted with handwheels and two brake blocks. are attached for use when traveling. having an axle arm on each end. Each side is operated indeshoe. lar This wagon consists of a front and rear axle and a steel rectangubed prepared for transporting the howitzer. Two rods. imparts motion to a larger endless chain to which the howitzer is connected. by a wire rope and draw nuts. The bed for transporting the howitzer is prepared on its upper surface to receive the howitzer and is supported at the rear on an axle. A roller scotch and drag by chains. The frame is fitted with a draft link in rear for attachment of the draft connector of the next load. consisting of an endless chain which. The framework is formed for the reception of the axle and draft pole. by means of sprocket wheels. steel which are fitted 60 by 6-inch steel tired wooden wheels. When traveling the front end of the howitzer is secured by pawls.2-INCH HOWITZER TRANSPORT WAGON (VICKERS). connected pendently by handwheels from the rear.

319 Weights and dimensions. .

320 .

with two vertical holes for lifting screws. rear axle. Weights and dimensions.321 9. in general is very similar The front axle and draft The howitzer platform transport wagon to the howitzer carriage transport wagon. and a brake gear which is operated from the rear by handwheels. linch pins and adjusting collars. except When preparing for travel the is provided for the raising screw. connections are entirely similar to those on the howitzer carriage that only one hole in the center of the axle transport wagon. which is fitted attached to rear of the bed. is The axle is fitted with dust excluder. . each side being operated independThe roller scotch and drag shoe are similar to those used ently. with the howitzer carriage transport wagon.2-INCH HOWITZER PLATFORM TRANSPORT WAGON (VICKERS).

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FRONT VIEW OF CARRIAGE. life of the 240-millimeter howitzer before relining approximately 5.000 rounds. SHOWING MAXIMUM ELEVATION OF HOWITZER. obtaining a range of almost 10 estimated that the is miles. Although approximately the same size as the British 9. the French gun is by far more powerful than either. (323) . The 8-inch and 9. their shell weighing 200 and 290 pounds. the 240 hurls a shell weighing 356 pounds and carrying a bursting charge of 45 to 50 It is pounds of high explosive. The 240-millimeter howitzer unit. differs from the smaller type of field artillery pieces in that it is split up into a number of loads for transport.240-MILLIMETER HOWITZER MATfiRIEL. a MODEL OF 1918 accommodate American manufacturing French design modified to practice. The platform is stabilized by two hinged floats at the rear.2-inch howitzer (the exact diameter of the bore of the 240 being 9.45 inches) and only a little larger than the 8-inch howitzer.2-inch howitzers have ranges in the neighborhood of 6 miles. respectively. (SCHNEIDER). When arranged for firing the carriage is set upon a structural-steel platform which rests in a specially pre- pared pit and has a large trunk portion embedded in the ground to absorb the reaction of the recoiling parts. On the other hand.

324 .

325 Comparative characteristics of heavy artillery. .

This erecting device is also used for lifting and placing projectiles on the shot truck from the shell storage. The following sighting equipment meter materiel : is carried with the 240-milli- Quadrant sight. will fire a projectile weigh356 pounds and containing a bursting charge of about 49 pounds of T. Sight extension. METHOD OF LOADING THE HOWITZER WITH RAMMER CAR. and a rear two. The howitzer. of the separate loading type is used with this howitzer. consisting of point. The cradle and howitzer are drawn into place by a cable and windlass which is attached to the forward part of the top carriage. wagon. Night lighting equipment for sights. top carriage transport platform transport wagon. an erecting device made of structural steel is used for placing the platform and top carriage in position.fuzed high-explosive common-steel shell and point-fuzed gas semisteel shell. false trail.wheeled wagon. port vehicles . In assembling and dismounting. model of 1918. and accessories for each unit are carried on two 4-ton trailers and the six loads are drawn by caterpillar tractors. to a distance of approximately 10 miles. the fuze hole being closed with a suitable plug.326 unit composed of a limber. The shells are issued filled but Ammunition The not fuzed. Gunner's quadrant. T. Panoramic sight. when elevated to about 43^ and using a propelling is The tools charge of 35 pounds. model of 1917. components the filled projectile. of each round are the primer. and the fuzes. and cradle transport wagon.000 pounds per square inch on the base of the projectile. the propelling charge. N. there are provided four transhowitzer transport wagon. giving a pressure of about 33. To transport the complete carriage. Peep sight. model of 1918.

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axles. over which fits to the axle. The jacket is shrunk on the rear end of the tube and is secured from slippage by threads cut in its inner surface. The limber consists of wheels. model of 1918. pole. model of 1918.329 Each transport vehicle consists principally of a limber. and guide bosses for joining the sleigh to of which the howitzer . the transport by means of the false trail and form short having four wheels. but was manufactured Howitzer Howitzer Howitzer Howitzer Howitzer Howitzer and carriage. carriage limber. model of 1918. platform transport wagon. and rear axle and wheels. axle. ftlfi-mitllimeter sists howitzer materiel. transport wagon. and lugs for rollers used in the dismounting and mounting of the howitzer. which screw over corresponding threads on the tube. The rear axles are provided with suitable means for attachment to their respective units. model of 1918 (Schneider) . and band brakes are fitted on all the rear When units. top carriage transport wagon. The breech mechanism fitted . 240-MILLIMETER HOWITZER MODEL MODEL OF 1918 1918 MI AND CARRIAGE. false trail. All wheels the complete carriage are equipped with solid rubber tires. and turning arc and is similar for each wagon. It is equipped with a pintle. one for each wagon. and hoop. One motion of the breech lever swinging from left to right turns and swings the breech clear. which hoop is fitted at its rear end with a hinge lug. model of 1918. At the front end of the hoop is a boss to accommodate the axles of the transport wagon. They are front end with a lunette ring and at the rear with a Four fitted at the locking arrangement for attachment to the unit to be transported. pintle. The above materiel is of French design. vehicles are close coupled is set up for firing. (SCHNEIDER). a jacket. also a T-slot to suit the false trail when en train. only in the United States. The howitzer is built up of alloy steel and consists of a tube. con- of : cradle transport wagon. vertical clips for joining the howitzer to the sleigh. model of 1918. model of 1918. which can be drawn away. is of the interrupted-screw type and is with a plastic obturator. The turning arc is attached and the false trail bears on it as it rotates around the false trails are provided. is shrunk and screwed on the tube forward of the jacket. the rear end The is prepared for the reception of the breechblock. the lunette ring of the false trail.

while the recoil and the middle the recuperator The recuperator cylinder is connected by passages to the cylinder. 155-millimeter howitzer. long-recoil type. The cradle carries the trunnions and is a nonrecoiling part. the upper two being bored about half the length of the sleigh and are closed at the front end by caps. Grooves in the sleigh house guides are fastened to the cradle. The left reservoir has an opening in which the pressure gage is fitted to test the pressure of air or gas. The lower two outer cylinders form the cylinders extend the full length of the sleigh. of the French percussion type. . is bored out to house the recoil mech- anism and supports the howitzer. which move with the recoiling parts. two air chambers. which are used in mounting and dismounting. being attached to it by lugs and locking clips. In the sleigh forging are bored five longitudinal cylinders. and therefore recoils with the howitzer when in action. On return to battery the throttling rods act recoil piston rods are The cradle. forming air reservoirs. as a buffer to prevent violent return into battery. which serve to guide the howitzer in recoil. MOUNTING THE CRADLE. model of 1918 (Schneider). sleigh. The sleigh is also fitted with two tracks for the rollers on the howitzer. permitting the liquid from the recuperator to flow into them. hollow and are fixed rigidly to the In the hollow space travel the throttling rods. model of 1918 (Filloux). The recuperator piston rod and the recoil piston rods are attached to it.330 The firing mechanism is as used on the 155-millimeter howitzer. a steel forging. The recoil mechanism is of the hydropneumatic. These rods are so shaped that they give a throttling effect on the liquid which passes through annular openings around the piston. Marks VI and VIIIJ (Vickers). the length of recoil being constant for all elevations. the same and is interchangeable with : the mechanism of the following materiel 155-millimeter gun. The 8-inch howitzer.

331 .

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a lanyard. A means of rotating the top carriage and traversing the piece. by means of which the howitzer can be quickly brought to the loading angle (9 15') and again elevated without the use of the slower method of using the elevating gear. which is sufficient to keep The the howitzer in battery at all elevations. built-up unit. is operated by a handwheel on the left side of the carriage LOWERING THE TOP CARRIAGE IN POSITION. and caustic soda. In case of emergency the piece may be fired by means of The elevating mechanism consisting of elevating arcs. which. pumps are provided for filling these cylinders. The top of the flasks forming the top carriage carry the trunnion bearings for the cradle. A maximum elevation of 60 can be In connection with the elevating gear a quick-loading gear is provided. Suitable firing handle is fitted on the left side of the cradle. thus providing a . through a system of gearing.333 air (or nitrogen gas) in the recuperator is maintained at a pressure of 568 pounds per square inch. obtained. At the front of the carriage a pintle bearing is provided. A pinion at the rear of the carriage meshing with a rack on the plat- The top carriage is a structural steel. Tanks of compressed nitrogen are kept at hand to replenish that in the recuperator in case the pressure gets low. the firing handle being accessible at all elevations of the A howitzer. operates the percussion hammer on the breech. water. handwheel on the right side of the carriage is used to operate the quick-loading gear. The liquid used in both recuperators and recoil cylinders is a mixture of glycerin. which bears on the pintle of the platform. which tip the cradle. through a system of shafts.

It may also be used as a derrick for handling shells. transport wheel tracks. The platform on which the top carriage rests is a structural-steel unit composed of a top and bottom plate secured by channels. liquid pump. axlelifting levers. Accessories. and maintenance of the piece. The principal ones are as follows Erecting frame. which function to give stability to the mount at extreme angles of azimuth. etc. The middle portion is open and has a trunk section to provide a space is for the howitzer to recoil at high angles of elevation. shot barrow. On the form swings the rear end of the carriage 10 A loading platform tracks are provided for a rammer car which is used to transport a projectile from the loading crane to the breech and to ram it into the bore of the howitzer. windlass mounted on the top carriage is used for setting up and dismounting the unit. : air pump. At the rear of the top carriage is attached a loading platform on which is mounted a loading crane for handling the shells. The traversing METHOD OF LOWERING PLATFORM. A traverse of each side of center is thus obtained. rack is secured to the rear end of the platform. shell tongs. It is operated by hydraulic jacks and is used in assembling and dismounting the piece. Axle brackets and attachments for the wagon false trail of the transport are provided for use when traveling. When used for this purpose. sights. This ramming of the projectile accomplished by means of a movable chain on the rammer car which has suitable lugs for engaging the shell and is operated by cranks on the rammer car. The erecting frame is composed of structural-steel beams. considerable number of tools and accessories are A required for the erection. track for shot truck.334 in traverse. shot truck. a trolley attachment with shell tongs is provided. wheel blocks and mats. operation. hydraulic jacks. Built-up steel floats are attached to the rear of the platform by swinging arms. .

335 5516021 22 .

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Maximum range Weight of howitzer and breech mechanism Amount of traverse (right and left) . with elevating and traversing gear.931 855 6. 33. cradle lock. 12. 000 10. draft hook. Weights. 6 pounds do per sec yards pounds degrees angle of elevation of howitzer angle of depression of howitzer Loading angle Normal length of recoil Maximum recoil allowable Height to center of trunnions Weight of howitzer arid transport wagon Maximum Maximum do do do inches 38$ 356 1. 5 15. 73 64. and will carry two of the The track for this truck is 600 millimeters projectiles.) do Cradle (complete.369 inches from the muzzle. 700 18. 41. etc. filled with liquid and all pistons.024 . 1 turn in 40 calibers at origin to 1 calibers at a point 24. 831 10 60 1 do do 9i 44. rear clips. rails joined by pressed-steel ties. floats) 5. 16. Weight of howitzer Length of howitzer Rifling Right hand. and ballistics. but without elevating arms) do Recuperator (steel forging only). traversing rollers. 220 605 545 230 296 024 747 (complete. Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight Sleigh and transport wagon of top carriage and transport wagon of platform and transport wagon of cradle 14. 4. and pintle springs. 1. Transport wheel tracks with inclined planes Erecting frame (complete.068 3. dimensions. bearing caps. jack rollers. with hydraulic jacks) pounds do do 895 175 3. Weight of powder charge Weight of projectile Muzzle velocity ft. swinging arms. pounds do do do do do caps.) pounds do Rammer car do Loading platform do Loading-crane bracket and loading crane do Shell tongs do Shot truck Platform with (complete. 790 199. packings. 83 46. footboards. completely machined do Elevating arms (including quick-loading gear) Top carriage (complete. It is supplied in built-up lengths of light steel (23f inches) gauge. windlass. pounds inches turn in 20 10.685 540 555 441 39 430 11. of complete unit in firing position of erecting frame '.337 The shot truck is is a track which laid a four-wheeled vehicle with flanged wheels fitting from the magazine to the piece. pounds etc.

338 .

In order to transport the complete carriage there are provided four transport vehicles. the howitzer transport wagon. and wheels. platform transport wagon. rear axle. of which is steel parts joined with a flexible of a coil spring. HOWITZER TRANSPORT WAGON. The limber all consists of two wheels. false trail. pole to make up for any difference in height between the limber and the vehicle to which it may be coupled. plunger. and cradle transport wagon. Safety chains are attached to the pole to hold the false trail on the pintle in proper position. Each wagon consists principally of a limber. This spring coupling any sudden shocks during transportation. pole. namely. an axle. top carriage transport wagon.240-MILLIMETER HOWITZER TRANSPORT LIMBERS AND WAGONS. consisting joint. and turning arc. providing a movement of about 15 inches at the end of the The pole composed of two CRADLE TRANSPORT WAGON. also relieves the vehicles of Each limber is (339) . are similar for each wagon. and hinged spring coupling. provided with a pintle over which fits the lunette ring of its false trail.

340 .

The TOP CARRIAGE TRANSPORT WAGON. body of the false trail is formed to suit the heights of the unit to which it attaches and has brace rods for stiffening. Provision is made for the setting of the brakes by the operator of the hauling tractor by means of a rope attached to the operating lever and extending to the tractor. especially the front end that has the lunette ring. wagon is curved to suit the radius of the howitzer and has pawls which lock the howitzer in place. Band brakes are used and are alike for all four types of rear axles. but the brake-operating mechanism is different for the various transport wagons. . They are similar in most respects. This lunette ring floats in the trail and is surrounded by coiled springs which take up the shocks incidental to transportation. The axle for the howitzer PLATFORM TRANSPORT WAGON. false trails are provided.The turning it arc is attached to the axle and the false trail bears on as it rotates Four around the pintle. one for each wagon. The shaped to rear axle of the transport wagon is made of a special forging suit the unit which it carries. A locking arrangement is provided to lock the units to the false trails and is operated by means of a hand lever. The brakes on each vehicle are connected by a connecting lever shaft which is operated by a lever with ratchet and transport pawl.

having four wheels which can be drawn away. 864 10. 700 3. Both the limber and rear axles are equipped with standard rubbertired wheels.200 4. and top carriage. Weight under front wheels Weight under rear wheels (complete) (close coupled) pounds do do do do do inches axle and brake Wheel base Overall length Cradle (with elevating arms and sleigh) transport Weight of transport wagon (close coupled) Weight of front wheels and axle do 15. 485 11. axle. and brake Weight under front wheels Weight under rear wheels Wheel base do Overall length Top carriage (with rammer car. loading platform. 745 153 292 350 1. loading crane) and pounds 12. 075 150 267 Weight of front wheels and axle Weight of rear wheels.385 1. 530 11.030 8. 515 181 280 16. 356 162 314 14.335 4. 450 each pounds 4. 050 4. 185 650 do__ 4. Weights and dimensions. 750 4. howitzer.285 4.342 When vehicles are close coupled the complete carriage is set up for firing. the transport by the false trail and form short units. 185 2. and brake Weight under front wheels Weight under rear wheels Wheel base Overall length do do do do inches 1. Platform hook) and transport wagon (including brake lever and draft pounds do do do do do inches 230 Weight of transport wagon (close coupled) Weight of front wheels and axle Weight of rear wheels. axle. 285 Weight of transport wagon (close coupled) do 475 Weight of false trail complete for platform Weight of false trail for cradle. 185 2.385 4. axle.335 do pounds __ do__ Weight of transport wagon wheel Howitzer transport wagon (close coupled) Cradle transport wagon (close coupled) Top carriage transport wagon (close coupled) Platform transport wagon (close coupled) do__ do__ do do .675 4. 545 transport wagon do 4. Brackets are provided attached to each axle for the brace rods which are used when the vehicles are unloaded and close coupled.335 1.335 1.605 wagon pounds do do do__ do do inches Weight of rear wheels. Howitzer and transport wagon Weight of transport wagon Weight of front wheels and Weight of rear wheels. 185 2. 2. and brake Weight under front wheels Weight under rear wheels Wheel base Overall length Weight of limber wheel 4. axle.

do do Wheels on transport wagon. center to center of tire do do Bearing surface Rear wheels Width of track. center to center of tire do do Bearing surface Maximum width of widest transport wagon (platform) do Maximum height of highest transport wagon (top carriage) do Maximum overall length of longest transport wagon (howitzer) do : 60 by 8 49 by 4 60.. 83 3. 102 do of 102 15 544 wagon and inches ground ) Diameter of smallest circle in which a transport wagon will turn. 84 4. 74 102 102 314 . 54 : 63.343 Maximum width of transport wagons (platform) Maximum height of transport wagons (top carriage) Minimum road clearance (distance between lowest point inches. rubber tired Wheels on limber. rubber tired do Limber wheels Width of track.

In considering the question of antiaircraft materiel it is to be rethat the science of antiaircraft gunnery has changed probto a greater extent than that of any other branch of the service. ably It was unheard of at the beginning of the war, and in consequence has grown from nothing at all to an important phase of operations. As a result, materiel is constantly changing and can not be said to have reached a definite basis even at this time. The materiel was " " greatly affected also by the change from position warfare to warfare of motion; portability changing from a somewhat neglected factor to one of paramount importance. In field artillery practice, range problems are presented in connection with mortars, howitzers, and guns, but the results to be accomplished and the problems in connection with each of these weapons are quite different. The provided elevation of the guns of some calibers is small, while the muzzle velocity of some of the howitzers and all of the mortars is comparatively low also the traverse of all three



different types of





field target is

usually sta-


maps being
available in



available for establishing which to figure its range.


and ample

Observation of the

point of fall of one shot serves as a guide in correcting the range for the next shot. Frequently it is possible to choose atmospheric conditions under which the weapon would be employed, and assisting or

opposing longitudinal windage, or driftage due to side windage, calculated with the aid of wind gauges.


For antiaircraft service the problem is entirely different. The single weapon must be able to cover the elevations of all three types of the field artillery weapons and preferably have a traverse of 360.
These wide variations in elevation introduce serious recoil problems, and the difference in the traverse problem may be to some extent

by reference to the fact that the millimeter French, model 1897 MI, field gun

total traverse of the 75-

is only 6. Instead of a stationary target there may be presented one whose speed is one-sixth of the speed of the projectile itself and whose course can in no wise be forecast by road direction or terrain forma-

and whose position may be at any vertical or horizontal angle. The possible altitude and speed of airplanes increased from time to time, making useless the earlier and present basic data to be employed in the design of protective materiel. Under certain conditions of airplane approach the range must be calculated on the instant and there is no choice as to atmospheric conditions. As the target is not station
tionary, range corrections are difficult to estimate

by observation.


While gauges may indicate the direction and force of the wind


the altitude at which they are set. they furnish no indication of air currents existing at other altitudes through which it might be neces-

sary for the antiaircraft projectile to pass. With the flat trajectory of a fieldpiece at but a few degrees elevation, the density of atmosphere through which the projectile must pass is largely uniform,

while at high angles of fire with antiaircraft guns the projectile passes through atmospheres of different rarefactions, and hence different resistances to the passage of the projectile. These influences
affect the trajectory of the projectile, the rate of travel of the projectile,

and the time element of the burning of the fuze. field artillery, shrapnel is employed with both a time fuze and an impact fuze, and high-explosive shell with impact fuze only,


but antiaircraft projectiles are fitted only with time fuzes, as otherwise a projectile which has missed its aerial mark would be apt to cause damage within friendly lines through impact explosion on

reaching the ground.
is practically no position which is entirely free from the of aircraft attack, and as there is no means of determinpossibility ing the direction from which such attack may come, ready mobility of antiaircraft guns is most desirable, and as opportunity to reach



the target


is essential.

frequently only momentary, rapidity of sighting and of In the case of indirect fire from a camouflaged

gunner has not even had a view of the approaching but must lay his gun on the basis of telephone data, or data plane, otherwise transmitted from the battery commander's station. The antiaircraft target may be a balloon either stationary or towed a dirigible, or an airplane, but is most frequently the latter. Location of the position of balloons or dirigibles is comparatively simple, as compared with airplane location, owing to the size of the target and the stationary position or low speed of motion. For night fire, searchlights or other illuminating means are required, and for night fire or protective fire in thick weather, sound-locating devices
position, the

are employed.


earlier fire

from antiaircraft


was directed



the burst; that is, by firing a shot, and judging the direction of the next shot solely by observation of the nearness to which the burst

shot had approximated the position of the target. In the meantime, however, the position of the target had changed. This system has given way to the use of an elaborate system of instruments of the

for the determination of


in accordance with certain established

In the attack upon aircraft the desired end may be accomplished by the destruction of the aircraft itself or by the disabling of its occupants, in which latter case the destruction of the aircraft would follow. The methods adopted include destruction by incendiarism, by direct hits, by flying particles from exploding shell or shrapnel, and by shell shock. Methods of fire may involve explosive projectiles from a single gun, salvos or barrage fire from a number of guns, rapid firing from pom-poms (small caliber guns, firing explosive projectiles), or from machine guns firing small-arms ammueither

Because of the important field played by aerial sound-detecting apparatus, searchlights, and telephony, including wireless, future
progress in the design of antiaircraft artillery will consider these With the perfection of airplane motors and their intersubjects. connected functioning apparatus, the design of aircraft, and the art of flying, other factors upon which the design of artillery equipment

should likewise be based, enter into this problem.





hardly possible to estimate how great will be the future importance of the perfection of the country's aerial defense from a strategic point of view. Aviation as an offensive arm will remain a principal arm, and antiaircraft artillery, as a defensive branch, will play the part that coast artillery plays to the naval squadrons. Antiaircraft gunnery differs from other forms of gunnery, such as field-artillery problems. It is a new subject, one more complicated than any other artillery problem, and consequently one which essentially demands new methods and modes of measurement. Development has gradually led to the design of the 3-inch autoIt is

trailer carriage,

which consists of a 3-inch gun, model 1918, antiand a 3-inch autotrailer carriage, model of 1917. mounted aircraft, on a four-wheel trailer truck, having springs and solid rubber tired wheels. The gun and the mount remain fixed on the trailer, both in traveling and in battery positions. The muzzle velocity of the gun is 2,400 foot-seconds. Both shrapnel and high-explosive shells, each weighing about 15 pounds,
are employed.
elevation of 10
6,100 meters.




elevation of 85


tical ordinate, limited

by the time fuze,

7.940 meters.

maximum verAt minimum

the projectile strikes the ground at approximately elevation the bursting vertical ordinate is meters and the horizontal ordinate approximately 7,025 meters. 1,176 The recoil mechanism is similar to that employed with the

At 23

American 75 millimeter, model

1916, field gun, but with the use of a This recoil mechanism is of the counter-recoil buffer. spearhead and the variable adjustment of the stroke is govhydro-spring type

erned by a rotating valve, the movement of which moves port holes behind the edges of three lands permitting the passage of oil to the by-passing recesses. The anti-aircraft gun, together with the recoil mechanism, is held by the cradle and swings from 10 to 85 elevation in the trunnion bearings of the top carriages. A base plate rigidly bolted to the trailer chassis supports the top carriage on traversing rollers on which the top carriage rotates 360 in azimuth around a pintle on the
base plate.




trailer carriage is

lifting jacks

equipped with outriggers. Stability and which, when in firing position, rest on detachable

on the ground, support the entire weight of carriage and These outriggers and jacks are employed to stabilize this unit when in action and to prevent the mount from overturning when the gun is fired at low angles of elevation.


In traveling position the outriggers are folded up, the jack screws raised, and the floats and spades carried in another vehicle, with the exception of the stability jack floats, which are attached to the


(352) .

Weights. 95. 1918 and 1918 MI. and shrapnel. allowing a greater thickness of metal in rear of the jacket. Traveling locks are provided to lock the gun at about elevation to protect the elevating mechanism. Weight of gun (including breech mechanism) Caliber pounds Total length of gun Length of bore Volume of chamber rifled portion of bore of grooves Width of grooves Depth of grooves Length of Number Width of lands 1. of which there are two models. illuminating shell. mounted on an autotrailer. the recoil cylinder and counter. consisting of time- fuzed high-explosive.400 12.. in__ 200 inches. The gun. which is pulled backwards and down to open the breech. 3-INCH The 3-inch AUTOTRAILER CARRIAGE. and operated by a handle on the right side of the breech.2927 do 0. . dimensions. model of 1917.6 inches longer at the threaded part. respectively. ft.87 inches from the muzzle and uniform from that point to the muzzle. In azimuth the carriage is locked lengthwise of the trailer to remove unnecessary 20 strains from the traversing mechanism when the unit is traveling. 03 0. 140 yards Twist. right hand increasing from one turn to 50 calibers at the origin to one turn in 25 calibers at a point 8. The breech mechanism is practically the same as that used on the 75-millimeter field gun. is built up of nickel-steel forgings and consists of a tube. which is 1. Fixed ammunition is used with these guns. 10 dc inches Maximum Muzzle velocity range per sec__ 2.353 jack screws.000 pounds. 75). 87 24 inches. and a breech ring.966 3 do 129. The 1918 MI model differs from the 1918 model only in the jacket. and a 3-inch autotrailer carriage. Lugs are provided at the top and bottom of the breech ring. This unit considered able to traverse over any roads suitable for field ar- tillery. and ballistics of gun. antiaircraft. a jacket. to which are secured. being of the drop block type. tracer shell.69 do 120 cu. model of 1918. the latter being screwed to the rear end of the jacket forming a housing for the breech mechanism. model of 1916 (American) (see p. autotrailer carriage consists of a 3-inch gun. thereby strengthening the gun around the chamber. Weight of complete unit is approximately 14.recoil spring rods. 0.. All the shell and shrapnel are issued fuzed. semiautomatic. Adjustable seats and foot rests for the gunners and platforms that fold is up when traveling are fastened to the top carriage.

354 The carriage comprises the top carriage and cradle. when in firing position. The top carriage consists of two side frames bolted to a bottom plate which in turn rests on a circular roller frame and rotates about a pintle on VIEW OF RIGHT REAR OUTRIGGER WITH JACKSPADE AND FLOAT REMOVED AND BRACE DROPPED FROM SHACKLE AT INSIDE END. LEFT REAR OUTRIGGER IN POSITION. the base plate. The top carriage is . rest on detachable floats on the ground and support the entire weight of the carriage trailer. WITH FLOAT CONNECTION FOLDED. The base plate is rigidly bolted to the trailer chassis and equipped with outriggers and stability and lifting jacks which.

model of 1916.355 prevented from tipping or lifting from the tranversing rollers by a front and rear clip which are fastened to the bottom plate and which engage an annular flange on the base plate. is The recoil mechanism is of the variable recoil hydro-spring type and operates the same as that of the 75-millimeter field gun. The only noticeable difference between the two is that a .

The pinion when rotated causes the top carriage to revolve about its pintle on the traversing rollers. and spring cylinder with springs assembled) pounds 1. two on either side. and accessories) pounds 14. trunnions. at an elevation of about 20 and lengthwise of the trailer.010 Weight under rear wheels (fully equipped) do 26. without tools and accessories or ammunition) 4. 203 Weight of trailer (with ammunition chest only. Weight of carriage unit complete (including spare ammunition chest filled with ammunition. a worm wheel. The length of recoil varies from 16 inches at 85 elevation to 40 inches at 10 elevation. which are used by the personnel who operate the sights and elevating and traversing mechanisms. 200 do Weight under front wheels (fully equipped) 7. the gun is locked. When traveling. rotates a pinion which in turn meshes with an annular rack bolted to the base plate. Four seats are attached to the top carriage. gun. a worm. Weights and dimensions of carriage. Platforms are bolted to both sides at the rear of the top carriage for the personnel who load and fire the piece.356 spear buffer is used instead of a valve in the buffer rod head as is used in the 75-millimeter gun. tools. including oil. An elevating arc having teeth is secured to the lower side of the cradle and meshes with a Hindley worm which is driven through bevel and spur gears by a handwheel located on the right side of the top carriage. and ammunition chest only do 13.085 Weight of cradle (recoil cylinder complete. The traversing mechanism is attached to the left side of the top The handwheel. 8 Weight of one round of ammunition (complete) Maximum angle of elevation Minimum angle of elevation Traverse of carriage degrees-- do do inches Maximum length of recoil Minimum length of recoil Number of rounds in ammunition chest Number of rounds in spare ammunition chest Height from ground to center of trunnions Height from ground to top of gun (in traveling position) Maximum width of carriage do 85 10 360 40 10 14 16 119 77 inches__ Maximum Maximum length of carriage (drawbar up) length of carriage (drawbar down) do do do do 230 243 . and a friction clutch.085 pounds Weight of trailer with carriage. by upper and lower traveling locks for the purpose of taking up any strains or shocks which might come on the elevating or traversing mechanisms. gun slides.075 do 7. carriage. The platforms may be folded up and the seats swung to one side for traveling. through bevel gears. piston rod bracket complete.

357 .

The carriage. thus bringing the center of gravity of the carriage lower and lessening the possiThe space at the front of the trailer formed bility of overturning.358 upon which the carriage is mounted consists of two parallel side frames. except that a support is for the ammunition chest. The similar to the front. The chest which carries 16 provided rounds of ammunition also serves as a seat for the operators of the is rear section foot rest is fastened to the rear tool box cover. Between the front and rear wheels the frame is so depressed that the base plate of the carriage is on the same plane as the hubs of the wheels. and bracing making up the complete chassis. by the side frames and cross members is provided with a bottom The trailer FRONT VIEW OF TRAILER. between which are secured the cross members. plate. chassis is supported on the axles. and hinged cover. and is utilized as a tool box. The trailer is A lunette towed and steered by a drawbar equipped with a and fastened to the front axle in such a manner that the . both front and rear by semielliptical springs. a top plate.


(360) .

shielded by reflectors. 25 28. 281 11. Road clearance under front axle Road clearance under rear axle Height from ground to center line of pintle Over-all width at widest part Center to center of spring pads (front) Center to center of spring pads (rear) inches do do do do do 156 60 200 48. 125 3. The trailer may also be steered by the rear is released and the steering bar is on the rear end of the trailer to acpintle provided commodate any vehicles which may be attached thereto. An open sight attached to the sight proper for rapid location of the target. or by a manually operated generator. A is W-eights and dimensions of trailer. 6 10.361 trailer will actually follow in the path of the truck or tractor by which it is drawn. empty Diameter of brake drum do do do do feet Turning radius . consists of two units. the current being supplied trical equipment. 625 28. the two units being connected by a coupling shaft. wheels when the rear wheel lock inserted. one being mounted on the right trunnion of the cradle and the other on a bracket attached to the left side of the carriage. are used to illuminate the necessary scales and cross hairs. is A . model of 1918.volt system is used. 5 The sight issued for antiaircraft carriages.5 28. All necessary points for night firing are illuminated by the elec6. 375 20. storage battery. Small lamps of one or two candlepower. 800 37 6 15 13 16. 5 77. This vehicle is equipped with a brake of the internal expanding type operating within drums attached to the rear wheels and applied and released by a lever on the right side of the trailer by one of the personnel seated on the ammunition chest. Wheelbase Width of track Length of frame over all Width of frame over all Weight of chassis Size of tires inches do do do pounds inches Width of tires Height from ground to center line of drawbar Height from ground to top of frame. by dry batteries. The elements on the right side are the range and elevation corrector and those on the left side are the angle of site and deflection corrector.

362 .

the antiaircraft arprinciples. little stress upon the possibility of inflicting GUN MOUNT IN ACTION. The tors principal use of antiaircraft to hinder avia- from carrying out their missions. is still a question of luck. one type of antiaircraft gun carriage or mount can possibly It is. however. by The earlier antiaircraft artillery fire of the burst. fire Experience has taught aviators to defend themselves against continual changes in direction. which covers a very much larger area than the intact projectile. The destruction of airplanes. would No (363) . with the means actually at its disposal. or through the concussion caused by the exploding projectile. The artillery practice is. to so direct the projectile that it will explode at a more or less predetermined position and cause damage either by the fragmentation of the projectile. as it is a direct hit by the projectile which is fired from the considered that the possibility of such hit is too remote. the effect of which also be felt through a considerable sphere. possible satisfy all conditions of modern warfare. damage through gun.3-INCH ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN MOUNT. but that eventually gave was directed by observation away to direction of the fire by carefully deduced tillery theory lays but Nevertheless. therefore. MODEL OF artillery is 1917.

364 .

model of 1917. a cater- these types pillar tread trailer. with conmounted on a solid concrete base about VIEW SHOWING RIGHT SIDE OF MOUNT.. a two or four wheel trailer. The gun is mounted on a cradle of the sleeve type. or 1917 Mil. as each of of vehicles has its own sphere of action. commonly known as the 15-pounder gun. However. or as a semifixed mount. designed to be mount is of the barbette type.38 pounds. The cradle is . The gun has a 12-inch recoil and a muzzle velocity of 2. model 1917. The gun mount is designed to mount the 3-inch antiaircraft gun. the problem of seacoast defense and for the defense of depots. and of the complete round of fixed ammunition 28. the weight of the projectile being 15 pounds. etc. The 3-inch antiaircraft stant recoil. which also serves as a housing for the spring and recoil systems.600 footseconds. led to the design of the 3-inch antiaircraft gun mount. 30 inches thick and 18 feet in diameter.365 to design a standard gun and top carriage having a wide range of action and by means of interchangeability enable this mount to be used on either a truck mount. 1917 MI. Both high explosive shell and shrapnel may be employed.

65 55 137. stresses. Each round consists of the cartridge case with its primer and powder charge also the filled and fuzed projectile. 15 32 28.366 suspended by the trunnions from the top of the pivot yoke. to limit the elevation to 85. securing the latter against any rearward movement of the tube under firing jacket. however. illuminating shell.fuzed high-explosive shell. and to 90 elevation.22927 Width of grooves Depth . A lug also projects from the under surface. The jacket envelops the rear portion of the tube and forms the recess or seat for the breech mechanism. and locking hoop.28 inches from muzzle thence uniform. consisting of tube. The model of 1917 MI gun is similar in general construction to the model of 1917 gun. filled and fuzed Weight of charge Weight of fixed ammunition (1 round) Travel of projectile do do 5.600 32. do 0. is . dimensions. Fixed ammunition Weight. A recoil lug projects from the upper surface of the jacket near its extreme end and affords a point of attachment for the piston rod of the recoil cylinder. in ft. consisting of a tune. which rests and revolves on 30 rollers on the roller path of the base plate. The locking hoop is omitted . tracer shell. right hand.000 12. 1 turn in 50 calibers at origin to turn in 25 calibers at 9. 000 The model of 1917 gun is built up of alloy steel. The breech end of jacket is threaded to receive the breech ring. The base plate is held in position in the emplacement by 16 anchor bolts set in the concrete.33 296 cu. to which are attached the counterrecoil spring rods. 105 3 Total length Length of bore in calibers do bore inches 174. Weight Caliber pounds inches 3. Removable stops are provided. The locking hoop is forced on the tube and forward end of the jacket. and shrapnel. 28 Length of Rifling : rifled portion of Number of grooves 24 inch__ 0. due to possible injury to the personnel when the piece is fired at a higher angle. The field of fire is 360 traverse. except that instead of the breech ring being integral with jacket. and ballistics. pounds Weight of projectile. which is screwed and shrunk on the jacket and held by a lock screw. 755 9. it is a separate piece. The pivot yoke is bolted to the racer. per sec__ Maximum Maximum Maximum pressure per square inch horizontal range vertical range pounds yards do 2.375 Volume of chamber Muzzle velocity __inches__ 139.03 Twist. used in these guns.

367 5516021 24 .

368 j nnm t w o .

4. and base plate_do do Weight of sight and supports 12. one on each side of the block. no cocking of the firing pin is will just slide along the required other than a pull on the lanyard or trigger shaft. The breech recess is rectangular in shape. giving a wedging shape. friction band. 3. extractors. 7. 5. 175 280 105 000 100 000 75 The mount is anchor bolts are thrust plates. is secured to the gun by screws. A venthole permits the escape of gas from a ruptured primer. latch. firing mechanism. Two holes are drilled from the rear face of the breech.369 The model of 1917 Mil is similar in general construction to the model of 1917 MI. that is. insuring a clearance between the cartridge case and the block. Two extractor trunnion seats. case. operating cam. operating lever. or for a storage battery when . one in each side. keeping place and it in The cam also aids the extractor in ejecting the cartridge case. and when opened. breech mechanism consists of the following parts: Breech- block. in which 16 set. grooves effect against the end of the cartridge case when the block is closed. connections are emplaced in a concrete emplacement. mount. and depressions provided for 8 leveling screw A niche for an outlet box. except in the method of securing the latch plate On the models of 1917 and 1917 MI the latch plate to the gun. one on each side. The toe of each extractor is cut to a radius which body of the cartridge when in place and the rim of the cartridge case. engage The firing mechanism belongs to that type known as the continuous-pull mechanism. is and closing spring of the drop-block type and is rectangular in run lengthwise on the block. to accommodate a spring and plunger which press against the hub of the extractor. Two extractor grooves. At the top The breechblock Two of the block a radius is cut to permit of clearance when inserting the projectile. Weights. etc. roller cage. through which electrical made to the main base. trigger shaft. while on the 1917 MI the latch plate is secured to gun by means of a lug. operating handle. are cut to the proper radius for the extractor to rotate and slide. are cut parallel to the guide grooves and curve to a certain cam development which permits the proper action of the extractors. This arrangement permits of repetition of the blow from the firing pin in case of a misfire as often as desired without the opening of the mechanism. Weight of mount only pounds-do Weight of gun and mount do Weight of gun and cradle do Weight of cradle and recoil systems do Weight of yoke with elevating and traversing mechanisms Weight of traversing rack. operating cover. thus eliminating any chance of the cartridge case jamming. 15.

portable lamp. which rests on the concrete upper surface machined to form the lower roller path. upon which the pivot yoke is machined to form the upper roller path. and engage with a lug on the base plate to prevent the racer from leaving the rollers. The traversing rollers. including traversing rollers and distance ring. or grit by dust guards. The racer bolted. elevating mechanism. This emplacement is constructed by the Engineer Corps. sand. is constructed in the concrete meet the requirements of the mount. equally spaced around the circumference of the flange. The oil grooves on the circumference of the distance ring serve to distribute oil from the elevation stop. is made to grip rollers. 30 in number.370 generated current to is not available. a cover in the base of the yoke is removed. cable. consisting of two vertical side frames joined in front by a transom. firing mechanism. clips. Sixteen holes. and the upper surface to fit the yoke. The rollers. Motion of the mount in azimuth is obtained by a traversing pinion and shaft. The base plate is emplacement with retain the base plate in its proper position in the emplacement. when the gun is fired. cradle (containing recoil cylinder and counterrecoil mechanism) traversing mechanism. resting on the base plate. The principal parts of the mount are the base plate racer pivot yoke. Power is transmitted from the traversing handwheel to the traversing . which also furnishes and installs the necessary outlet or storage battery and furnishes the plug box. are bolted to the under side of the racer. The racer rests on the Two rollers and rotates freely about the hub on the traversing rack. At the top of each frame is a trunnion bearing and trunnion cap lined with bronze bushings. are interposed between the roller paths of the base plate and racer. A the traversing rack. Tapped holes are provided in the left frame for the depression and is a circular steel plate. forming the base of the yoke. bearing the weight of the mount. roller paths. the pinion meshing with the teeth of the traversing rack. circuit. illuminating . and on its exterior receives the trav- ersing rack. . cylindrical projection in the center forms on its interior the housing A for the 360 electrical contact. and overturning the mount. traversing rack. which allows slipping of the traversing rack to protect the teeth of the traversing pinion from too heavy a stress. and pinion are protected from the entrance of dust. to the axles of the friction band. front and rear. is The under surface The distance ring is a circular bronze ring provided with spaces and bearings for the traversing rollers. are provided to receive the foundation bolts which a circular steel casting its and sight. To adjust this band. giving access to the parts beneath. and plug. The pivot yoke is a steel casting. . holes in the flange.

371 .

372 .

Three longitudinal throttling grooves are cut in the interior surface of the recoil cylinder. with the aid of the counterrecoil springs. through The counterrecoil buffer . The recoil cylinder has a capacity of 6 pints of cradle The hydroline oil. bored and bushed to receive the gun. With the cylinder in assembled position one groove is located at the bottom. thence to the mount through a set of gears and a clutch mounted in the traversing gear case. the cradle forms the housing for the recoil and counterrecoil systems. The elevating mechanism consists of an elevating rack keyed to the underside of the cradle. Recoil mechanism is of the hydrospring type. having teeth on its face which mesh with the elevating worm. slightly smaller than the bore of the cylinder. the remainder of the energy being absorbed by the springs. Spring rods are attached at one end to the gun lug and at the other end to the spring-rod piston. but their depth is proportioned so that the areas of the orifices. Two speeds of traverse are possible upon throwing the clutch in by means of a handle. will be such as to give. The recoil cylinder is screwed from the front into a seat provided in the top of the cradle. passes through the front end of the recoil cylinder and enters the recess in the forward end of Two spring compressor the piston rod. Front and rear liners are provided through which the gun slides in recoil. The width of the grooves is uniform. The counterrecoil plunger. designed to check the recoiling parts as they return to battery. is tapered so that the escape of oil during the varying diametrical clearances between xxmnterrecoil. a constant resistance throughout the length of recoil. The interior of the cradle has a cored recess to suit the firing mechanism. When the is first assembled it is secured against rotation by a retaining screw.373 worm. The rack is of sufficient length to provide for elevations from to is 90. varying with the position of the piston during recoil. carrying compressing the counterrecoil springs. each groove subtending an arc of 30. so that high or low speed gears are connected to the upper traversing shaft. A portion of the energy of recoil is taken up by the resistance the liquid offers to being forced through the variable slots formed by the throttling grooves and the constant clearances between the piston head and the interior surface of the cylindrical bore. When the gun is fired it recoils to the rear about 12 inches in the with it the recoil piston and spring rods. thereby cradle. The pressure in the cylinder is therefore a uniformly decreasing one. cylindrical holes bored in the cradle form the housing for the counterrecoil springs. In addition. The piston rod is attached to the gun lug at one end and provided at the other end with a piston.

and elevation correction lamps. correction scale. and the required arbitrary correction. will offer such resistance as will control the motion of the gun during its return to battery position after firing. Sight for antiaircraft mount. model of 1917. The parts consist . A circuit is taken from the right receptacle box with a spliced branch feeder to a candelabra receptacle for the reticule lamp and deflection pointer lamp. The rheostat used cuts down the voltage and makes the use of low-voltage lamps and batteries practicable in case the line voltage through accident. and armored type. mechanism consists of a firing handle whose shaft passes the center of the right trunnion and carries on its inner through end a lever which operates the firing shaft. Previous to the firing the gunner pulls the firing handle which compresses the cocking TJu' -firing spring solid and moves the lever on the breech to the tripping position. To the gun. The two branch feeders leading from the rheostat to the receptacle boxes and thence to the lamp brackets are of the portable conductor type. range disk pointer. These lamps are supported by lamp brackets fastened to the trunnion and sight mechanism. compressing the The two-stage movement firing spring.374 the plunger and the hole in the piston. Another circuit is run from the left receptacle box with two spliced branch feeders to a candelabra receptacle for the elevation pointer. thus tripping the firing pin. The cable leading from the 360 contact with the plug. range For any visible target the data disk. of the firing handle is intended to permit a shorter movement at the fire moment plate. travel necessary to properly lay in elevation and deflection. switch. circuit has a 360 The illuminating contact mounted in the base Direct-current mains of either 110 or 220 volts are connected with an outlet box located in the concrete emplacement. from which two branch feeders are taken to the two receptacle boxes bolted to the yoke. and pointer. . Two circuits are led from the 360 contact. and rheostat is of the twin conductor. of a sight proper (telescope) the sight mount. the gun consist of fuse-setter range. the gunner pulls the firing handle. the gunner will know when the mechanism has reached this position by feeling the increased pressure exerted by the firing spring. This instrument includes all parts used to direct the elevating and traversing of mount so that the gun may be pointed properly in elevation and direction. and the other circuit leading to the switch box. from here it is led to the rheostat. one leading to the plug box of a portable lamp of line voltage. leaded. of firing. fails The various cables are fastened to the mount by means of cable straps and twisted hooks.

imparting to the sight a movement in azimuth and elevation. respectively. whence the gun by means of the elevating any mechanism is also elevated to the same angle (corrections being zero). whereby the sight proper may be set in elevadesired angle.375 The target is brought into the field of view by turning the azimuth and the angle-of-sight knobs. An azimuth scale is also provided between the fixed and rotating scale is provided A tion at mechanism may be parts of the carriage so that the gun by means of the traversing set at any desired angle in azimuth. .

376 CD .

i. reconnoitering airplanes continually increase the height at which they cross the lines. The necessity of extemporizing an antiaircraft weapon to meet the above requirements led to the design of the 75-millimeter antiair(377) . Fire against very speedy airplanes attacking positions. teries when they wish to attack trenches or batwith machine guns. to continually change their direction. The result is that three kinds of fire have also fly very high. except become particularly important: Fire against airplanes at a great range and a great height. e. MODEL OF To 1917. and battle planes must TRUCK IN TRAVELING POSITION (RIGHT-SIDE VIEW). principal result hoped for by the antiaircraft artillery fire is to prevent airplanes from accomplishing their mission by obliging them to fly at increasing altitudes. one-sixth the average velocity of the The projectile itself in the case of the 75 -millimeter field gun. Observation airplanes are obliged to fly out of range. sider that one appreciate the difficulty of antiaircraft fire it suffices to conis firing practically at a bird whose velocity is about 50 meters per second. Raids of this kind are almost exclusively carried on at night. Fire at night against bombarding airplanes.75-MILLIMETER ANTIAIRCRAFT TRUCK MOUNT. At the present time the antiaircraft artillery aims to keep airplanes beyond the limit of their range. and also to prevent their crossing certain regions..

the former weighing 14. swivel gun mount. counterrecoil springs. MODEL OF 1917 SIDE ELEVATION.M. designed to receive the base plate of the top carriage.830 feet per second. and with the latter 14. which was most This gun and recoil mechanism is secured on an offset available.980 meters is obtained. and buffer. 75) is carried on a cradle which rocks in elevation about the trunnions of the top carriage. The gun (see p.378 craft truck mount.3 With .7 pounds and the tical fuze with each. Model TBC. employing a 20-second (maximum) time a maximum vertical elevation of 82 a verbursting ordinate of 5. and uses high-explosive and shrapnel shells. The piece has a recoil of 33 inches on its cradle and is provided with a recoil cylinder. pounds. suitably mounted on a 2^-ton White gasolinedriven truck. The piece has a muzzle velocity of 1. e 6 g it n go tr fi to 4 e ing mechanism a range of elevation from 31 to 82 is obtainable. and by means of the elevat- 75M. ANTI-AIRCRAFT TRUCK MOUNT. This development involved the use of the American model 1916 field gun and recoil mechanism.

the carriage. __do__ . heavy base plate is secured to the rear end of the chassis. dimensions. HON. In both cases the bursting ordinates were is limited by the time fuze. which is the field of fire. and Caliber ballistics. 72 28.9 72. vehicle is supported on a rigid horizontal platform formed by the A When in action the stability equipfiring jacks and the base plate.7 14.625 Service muzzle velocity feet per second 1.- Total length of gun Length of the rifled portion of the bore do do Length in calibers Weight of projectile Shell 953 90. The chassis is equipped with firing and stability jacks to relieve the rear springs and truck of all With the jacks properly placed and leveled.595 82 Maximum elevation degrees 31 do Minimum elevation 240 Total traverse. : Shrapnel Weight of full powder charge pounds__ do do 14. By means of the traversing mechanism.3-pound shell) __yards__ 10.830 Horizontal range at 45 elevation (14.750 obtained.4 2. and the top carriage swings in azimuth about a central pintle bolt on rollers. Weights. located directly behind the driver's but as the length of recoil is fixed.379 minimum meters is elevation of 31 a vertical bursting ordinate of 1. the firing strains. carrying the gun and its corresponding mechanism. inches. the firing position is limited to such horizontal position of the mount as would permit of the gun recoil clearing the sides or rear of the truck chassis.3 1. can be traversed through 240.. The gun with the breech seat. ment functions to prevent the mount from overturning when the gun is fired at low angles of elevation.

The clip prevents the traversing rollers from leaving their path due to the shock caused by action of recoil or counter recoil. When prestop plunger. which project out chassis. 500 209 74$ I57i 36 x 4 of chassis only (without attachments) do of top carriage. A pintle bolt projecting from the base plate through the case of the top carriage forms an axis about which the carriage is rotated in azimuth upon four rollers resting on the roller path of the base plate. rear Road clearance - do do do do tons 36 x7 9$ 2$ 62 Rating of load Tread inches-- The principal parts of the carriage are: The base plate. stability jacks. Wheel base Wheels. Four lugs radiating from the pintle bearing serve as points of attachment for the firing jacks and rail tie-rods. The recoil mechanism is of the hydrospring type. etc do Total traveling weight of unit (fully equipped) do Over-all length of vehicle (traveling position) inches__ Over-all width of vehicle (traveling position) do . angle of sight mechanism. thus permitting the proper position of carriage when en route. including attachments and accessories pounds do do 750 3. cradle. Recoil mechanism. elevating and traversing mechanism. are secured to the top carriage. breech mechanism. The Ixise plate is a rectangular steel casting secured to the truck and serves as a support for the top carriage. The traverse of the top carriage is limited by lugs provided on the top of the clip surface. or throttling bars. firing jacks. thus eliminating all unnecessary strains from the rear springs and wheels of the truck. and its corresponding mechanism. and carriage of chassis. paring for travel the stop plunger can be raised to clear the limit stop. recoil rails. serving as points of attachments for the stability jacks. and riage. is a steel casting. front Wheels. one on either side. for the use of the cannoneers during action. top car- mechanisms. The firing strains produced during action are transmitted through these lugs and jacks. The The top carriage cal side traverse of the carriage is limited to 240 by means of a traversing which engages the lugs on the clip surface. 500 4. with recoil cylinder mounted above the gun. Four seats (two on each side) riveted to swinging arms.380 Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight of gun and breech mechanism of gun. Between the two side frames is housed the angle of sight mechanism. Three longitudinal ribs.300 4. are .100 4. At the forward end of the base plate are two lugs. 250 9. comprising a base and two vertiframes designed to mount the cradle to permit sufficient clearance for the recoiling parts at high angles of fire. of uniform width but varying height. at right angles to the truck chassis.

which fits into the bore with a small clearance.formed on the inside of the cylinder and engage with corresponding grooves in the piston head. The rocker. when the recoil cylinder moves to the rear the oil in it must pass from one side of the piston to the other. Bearings are provided in the bottom of the rocker for the elevating mechanism and a rack is cut on the exterior of its yoke for the angle of sight worm. thereby regulating the amount of recoil. The forced out as the buffer gradually enters the hole. This clearance depends on the taper of the buffer. angle of site. The energy stored up by the springs returns the gun to battery position. The traveling lock cylinder. Above the cylinders are the bronze lined gun ways or slides. a U-shaped forging. Riveted to the right side of the cradle is the elevation stop and the depression stop. At the front end of the base plate is hinged a lock bar and brace. thus. The cradle comprises the counterrecoil spring cylinders with their component attached parts. due to the fluid in the hole of the piston rod being return buffer. The energy of recoil of the gun is absorbed by the resist- ance which the oil offers to being forced through small openings past the piston. In each spring cylinder. piston rod is a hollow steel tube and is fitted with a bronze The rear end of the piston rod is bored out to accommodate the counterrecoil buffer. and each pair of inner springs is separated from the next pair by a bronze separator. also by the compression of the counterrecoil springs. thus the elevating. The piston rod is secured to a nonrecoiling part of the carriage . movement is eased and regulated by the counterrecoil which prevents any undue shock to the recoiling parts by offering resistance. The inner and outer springs are wound in opposite directions to prevent nesting. The clearance between the bars and grooves determines the amount of oil which may pass from the back to the front of the piston head. and traversing mechanisms are relieved of all unnecessary vibrations when the vehicle is en route. The head. The trunnions are secured to the cylinders. is located under the rear end of the spring This device functions to lock the cradle at an angle of approximately 32 in elevation when preparing for travel. and the elevating arc is bolted to lugs on the bottom. When fired the recoil cylinder gun moves back on its slides. is journaled upon the trunnions. The spring cylinders are below the gun and in the form of two cylinders joined at the center. carrying with it the and counterrecoil springs. which . as the hole in the piston rod is of constant diameter. three coils of inner and outer counterrecoil springs are assembled over the spring rod.

. must be traversed to axis of the gun its traveling position. In order to bring this lug in proper position to receive the lock bar the cradle GUN MOUNT SHOWING GUN AT MAXIMUM ELEVATION.382 engage a lug provided on the rear end of the cradle. to bring the into a vertical plane with the center line of the truck chassis. that is.

and rack. mainly of a traversing handwheel and shaft. worm. Any movement imparted to the worm by the handwheel will cause the cradle to move with relation to the top carriage. The worm engages the worm wheel and can be either engaged with or disengaged from the shaft by means of a clutch operated by a foot lever.7. TRUCK IN TRAVELING POSITION (LEFT SIDE VIEW). bevel pinion. and rotates the cradle about the trunnions. The shaft on which the elevating handwheel is mounted extends through the side frame of the top carriage. One turn of the handwheel consists gun to be traversed approximately 2. To one end 5516021 25 . the rocker. worm wheel. and a train of miter gears mounted on the right side of the rocker. handwheel shaft. If the clutch be disengaged. The traversing pinion engages the traversing rack which is secured to the base plate.383 The elevating mechanism consists of an elevating worm. The angle of site mechanism consists of a handwheel. clutch. The worm is operated through gears and a shaft by means of a handwheel. One turn of the handwheel will cause the gun to be elevated or depressed approximately 1. The angle of site worm is secured will cause the to the top carriage and engages in a rack cut in the face of the yoke of of the shaft which extends out to the right side of the top carriage is secured the handwheel and to the other end is fixed a miter gear. and the top carriage may be traversed about the pintle bolt by hand. traversing pinion. an elevating arc or rack. The traversing mechanism located on the left side of the top carriage. The to 82 elevating arc permits a change of elevation from 31 mini- mum maximum. and angle of site worm. the worm and worm wheel are released from the gear train.

is shown on page 385. When the vehicle is to be emplaced. The middle angles at the front ends of the stability rails are attached which in turn are connected to the on the lugs. The stability jack struts are unpinned from the forward lugs. . and tie rods are provided with each mount. which enables the jack to be seated on inclined surfaces. They are crossed being straight under the rear axle of the truck. base plate. The stability jack floats are provided with spades. removed. The firing jacks act as rigid supports for the base plate at the rear corners. and carried in holders on the base plate. The foot is provided with a sharp-pointed spade. There are two firing jacks. both of the truck wedges are on the ground with the channel side up. and also to take the firing strains. Two steel blocks are provided for blocking the front wheels when they are run up on the truck wedges. Their function is to prevent the overturning of the truck when the gun is fired at low angles of elevation.each rail. and spade. the rear ends being located so that stability rails Two the firing jack floats set in the spaces between the angles of. The stability jacks are essentially the same in construction as the firing jacks. The tie rods are folded with When the jacks and chained in position. the bodies being hinged at the rear corners of the base plate as float. Firing and stability jacks. foot. A tie rod is used between the two jacks to keep the jack bodies from spreading out when the load is put on the screws. At the end of the jack screw the foot. The principal parts of the firing jacks are the jack body. but heavier. The stability jacks are hinged to the base plate. a shaft. and a miter gear of the same size as that on the bracket at an angle of 90 to the handwheel shaft and with the miter gears at One turn of the handwheel will cause the rocker and the cradle to be elevated or depressed approximately 25 mils.384 The angle of site worm is a one-piece forging comprising a worm. and each is supported by a strut hinged in a lug secured to the truck chassis. elevation. on the adapters to the stability rail tie rods. one and the other having an offset. and the front wheels placed of the truck are run up the channels between the flanges. the carriage is in the traveling position the firing jacks and stability jacks are folded up and secured by chains. which is driven into the ground. directly opposite the firing jack lugs. The rocker allows a correction of 124 mils depression and 200 mils the ends in mesh. one on each side. jack screw. and relieve the truck chassis of firing strains. The spades are removed and placed in receptacles provided on the chassis. or secured by a ball joint. The purpose of these wedges is to raise the front end of the truck so that the mount will be level when the rear end is jacked up.

three-cell. and are carried in a metal container which is bolted to the chassis of the truck. the rear springs compressed and the rear wheels off the ground when the mount is jacked up. when fully charged and in good condition. and two pieces of pipe are inserted in the front loops of the slings and placed across the ribs on the front end of the base plate. Two steel rods are inserted in the rear loops of the slings and placed across the rear end of the chassis when the mount is emplaced.385 Rear axle slings. 6 to 8 volt batteries are provided. suitable wiring. one on either side of the transmission. The purpose of these slings is to keep FIRING AND STABILITY JACKS. each of 120-ampere-hour capacity. The electrical equipment consists from a storage of five lamps receiving current Two battery. will furnish energy for about 24 hours' continuous service for all lamps. . One battery. and switching arrangements. one for reserve. the slings hang loosely under the truck. When traveling. The front ends of the slings are looped around through holes in the base plate and clamped in place permanently.

The lamps are specially designed to withstand the shock of firing and are rated at 2 candlepower. Reticule. For any visible target. Range disk pointer. Should it be by necessary to remove the top carriage. Elevation pointer. the sight The sight for all this antiaircraft vehicle is cludes mount.386 is permanent and the connecting wires are armor wherever mechanical injury is likely. and the lamps should be disconnected by means of this switch when not in use. the data necessary to properly lay the gun consist of fuze setter range. . Detailed description of the model 1917 antiaircraft sight may be found in separate pamphlet covering fire-control instruments. and any desired arbitrary correction. correction scale. the lead from the battery which runs through the pintle bolt may be disconnected above the top of the bolt by unwrapping the insulation and opening the con- All wiring steel necting plug there provided. switch is provided in the main battery lead which controls the lamps. all A snap an instrument which inused to direct the elevating and traversing of the parts mount so that the gun may be pointed properly in elevation and azimuth. range disk. and pointer. The parts consist of a sight proper (telescope). . TRUCK MOUNT IN BATTERY POSITION. imparting thereby to the sight a movement in azimuth and elevation. respectively. travel in elevation and deflection. Elevation correction pointer. One lamp is provided for illumi- nating each of the following parts: Deflection correction pointer. The object is followed by continuing the movement of these knobs. The object is brought into the field of view by turning the azimuth and the angle of site knobs.

The idea of mounting guns and howitzers on carriages equipped with motors for propelling the carriages originated during the war in the United States and France. United States motor carriages were first made in an effort to produce a transport vehicle which would provide a faster means for 105-MM.GUN AND HOWITZER MOTOR CARRIAGES. It is interesting to note that in France during the war a motor carriage mounting a 220-millimeter howitzer while carrying out a series of maneuvering tests was actually engaged in warfare. In the United States during and since the war a number of experimental types of motor carriages have been built for various caliber (387) . and. In France the motor carriage was developed from a tank equipped with a 75-millimeter gun. MODEL OF 1920. curiously enough. was conIn the ceived independently at the same time in both countries. HOWITZER MOTOR CARRIAGE. transporting guns from place to place.

Motor carriages are divided 1. Combined wheel and track-laying type. 3. cross streams even stability when when firing. and for the most part are apparent. Wheel type. ability to SELF-PROPELLED WHEELED MOUNT. higher speed on good roads. since there is but a limited amount of data available upon which to base a comparison.388 guns and howitzers from the 75-millimeter gun howitzer. ability to go anywhere off of roads. The wheel type has limited application. submerged. The mechanical characteristics of the motor carriages permit of tillery The certain advantages over existing types of artillery. all-around fire. to the 240-millimeter types of carriages for the 155-millimeter gun having widely different characteristics have been issued to the service for Two field tests. 2. relative advantages and disadvantages of tractor-drawn arand of motor carriages are many. Track-laying or caterpillar type. as follows " : position. A few of this type have been constructed for experimental purposes. namely. FOR 3-INCH ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN MOUNT. " . better firing immediately upon reaching battery fully into three general classes. since its use is restricted to good roads or around fortified places for antiaircraft use where good roads are available.

and each driving wheel is equipped with an internal gear for driving purposes. and thence to the rear wheel pinion shaft by another roller chain. The flywheel of the engine is also the main clutch by which power vehicle is is the transmission. a clutch foot pedal. Most of the experimental types built in this country and in France have been of this type. The a hand brake lever. For divisional artillery this type must be capable of high speed on good roads. a forward and reverse lever. The engine is started by means of a hand starter on the left side of the vehicle.389 The track-laying type. The following description applies to two types of motor carriages that have recently been issued to the service The engine is lubricated by the splash system. The transmission consists of a progressive change gear set with its It is driven by one of shafts parallel to the engine crankshaft. The gasoline system consists of a 30-gallon fuel tank. Obviously this type has certain advantages. The combined wheel and track-laying type may be operated on wheels similar to any wheeled vehicle when roads permit. With this type the track-supporting members may be sprung or rigidly mounted similar to the large tank construction. It is always operated as a track-laying vehicle. Both front and rear pinion shafts are provided with a differential. control group consists of a steering wheel which operates the front wheels. Power is transmitted to the rear wheels by a chain from the front its clutch. and a . foot accelerator for throttle control. since can be operated either as a wheeled vehicle or as a track-laying vehicle. a change gear lever. Each wheel is mounted on a single annular ball race. gears meshing with a gear on the driven part of the engine Power is transmitted from the transmission to the front wheels by a roller chain which drives the front wheel pinion shaft. The transmitted from the engine to mounted with double solid-tire wheels 41 inches in diameter by 10 inches base. wheel pinion shaft to a jack shaft through a set of bevel gears and shaft on the left side of the vehicle to a jack shaft behind the gun fastening. or caterpillar type. The gear set of the transmission has three speeds forward and three speeds reverse. has a track construction similar to the ordinary tractor. or may be operated on a track which passes over the wheels and is driven by the it power wheel. to use its trade name. from which gasoline is : supplied to the carbureter on the engine by means of a vacuum tank. giving a range of speed from 2 miles per hour to 15 miles per hour on forward or reverse motion. The transmission case and engine crankcase are integral. a brake foot pedal.

MODEL OF 1917. LEFT-SIDE VIEW OF MOUNT IN TRAVELING POSITION. between the front and rear wheels.200 revolutions per minute. This motor carriage represents one of the first efforts made in the United States to mount cannon on a vehicle of the self-propelled type. That part of the frame between the front and rear wheels is provided with four outriggers. The engine is located transversely at the front (390) . its limitations for this service were soon discovered. which develops 60 horsepower at 1. This vehicle was designed especially to mount a " 3-inch antiaircraft gun. chief among which were its great weight in proportion to the power of the gun mounted upon it and its dependence upon good roads. to take the 3-inch antiaircraft mount and to give 360 traverse. and because of these limitations. which can be folded up out of the way in traveling. it was not considered acceptable for use under field conditions.SELF-PROPELLED WHEELED MOUNT FOR 3-INCH ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN. They were designed during the war in an effort to produce a vehicle which would serve as a transport vehicle for cannon over good roads. units comprising the vehicle are assembled on a main This frame is of a built-up construction and is arranged. model of 1917. While the vehicle was given the designation of an antiaircraft carriage. The front and rear of the vehicle are provided with stabilizers. which can T?e screwed down on floats placed on the ground when the vehicle is in firing position. Power for propelling the vehicle is furnished by a 4-cylinder 4-cycle T-head gasoline engine. The various frame." described in detail on page 363.

040 276 102 101 174 157 41 10 85 15 : 5$ x 7 60 3 1 Number of speeds reverse Capacity of fuel tank vehicle drive gallons Type of Angle of gun elevation Traverse of gun mount Turning radius of vehicle feet 363. overhanging. including the engine. miles per hour Bore and stroke of motor inches Type of motor 4 cylinder. Two radiators are mounted in tandem and are cooled by a chain-driven fan. The instrument board has on it a speedometer and an ignition switch. the entire power plant. and radiator. hand-brake lever for the two rear wheels is located at the rear part of the carriage and is used only during firing or in extreme cases while traveling. ball-bearing crankshaft. transmission. horsepower Number of speeds forward over-all height of vehicle Maximum Maximum Maximum over-all 31. 30 4-wheel to 85 360 40 For additional information see page .680 14.720 17. A The general weights and characteristics are as follows: Total weight in working order Weight on front wheels Weight on rear wheels Maximum over-all length of vehicle pounds do do inches__ do width of vehicle do over-all width with outriggers in place do do Length of wheel base Diameter of wheels over tires do do Width of double tires do Distance from center to center of wheels or gauge Maximum road speed.391 end of the vehicle.

model of 1918. sets of coil springs. This motor carriage a self-propelled road vehicle of the track- is laying type. mechanism.500 revolutions per minute. MARK II. casting to which all of the various parts of the chassis and gun are attached. FOR 155-MILLIMETER GUN (FILLOUX). The engine is located under an engine hood on the front part of the frame with the radiator and coolis Power ing fan. box-section. an equalizing and alignment links. upon which is mounted the 155-millimeter gun (Filloux). 4-cycle Sterling gasoline engine. The main frame is a steel. which develops a maximum of 145 horsepower at 1. T-head. when starting . and several connecting " " furnished by a 6-cylinder. and which is supported on the roller frames of the track-laying mechanism by several TRAVELING POSITION (PLAN VIEW). Ignition is by dry-cell batteries (392) and coil.SELF-PROPELLED CATERPILLAR. MODEL OF 1918.

Power from and two steering clutch and planetary is conducted through a propeller shaft to the intermediate and final drive gears. similar to chain plate shoes bearing on the ground. two-spark Berling magneto when operating. In this way the frame is on an even keel and is relieved of most of the wearing strains. The truck frames support the frame through springs and are fitted with flanged truck wheels which roll on the rails of the track links. so that one track. relative to the main frame on to firm ground. at the left of the operator. thence to the driving at the rear of the vehicle. the rear position causes it to go through a planetary reducing set. links consist of a series of castings. The forward position of these levers causes power to be transmitted through the steering clutches. and a Schebler carbureter. a Stewart vacuum tank. and two brake foot pedals for use in either stopping or steering the mount. The engine delivers its power set to the transmission through a dry plate. The track-laying mechanism consists of two truck frames on each side of the main frame. The controls consist of master clutch and gear shifting hand levers. sprocket. With one lever in the . The T-section flat rails of the links provide a set of rails similar to a railroad track. Steering is accomplished by means of a lever for each steering clutch and planetary brake set. upon which the truck wheels roll. gear these The front transmission consists brake sets. This is pivoted at the front end of the main frame. multiple disc. The gasoline supply system consists of a 45-gallon supply tank. pressed into one end of the track links over the track connecting pins. They can be operated separately or together. a brake hand lever and spark and throttle levers on the control support in front of the operator. a steering clutch and planetary brake lever. and in this way the vehicle is steered. and two T-section which are connected by case-hardened pins. in passing over an obstruction rises. while the control position disconnects both and is a neutral position. kept The track links. of a selective change master clutch. which engages the track links. The motor carriage is operated by one man. and an equalizing mechanism. The front roller frames carry the front idler sprockets and support the frame through an equalizer arrangement. with rails. one on each side of the operator. The tracks are kept at their proper tension by means of a tightening screw on the idler sprocket axle at the forward end of the front roller frame.393 the engine and by a high-tension. The thrust of the sprocket driving teeth is taken upon hardened steel bushings. which is attached to the engine. an endless series of track links on each side. relative to the main frame and cause the opposite side to be pushed down. as desired.

thereby engaging the planetary reduction to both tracks simultaneously.394 forward position and the other in the rear the vehicle will turn in the direction of the lever in the rear position. With one lever in either the forward or rear position and the other in the central or neutral position the vehicle can be turned sharply in the direction of the lever in the neutral position by applying the brake foot pedal on that side. of the mount is controlled primarily by the gear-shift which provides for two speeds forward and one reverse. . to their rear position. An additional or secondary reduction can be obtained for each change-gear lever position by shifting both steering levers from their forward or direct position. The speed lever.

A 155-millimeter gun (Filloux). both right and left. but 360 traverse can be obtained by traversing the entire vehicle on the ground.395 In this way the speed can be reduced for a momentary pull without disengaging the master clutch and shifting the change-speed gears. . model of 1918. The gun has about 5 traverse. is mounted on a special bottom carriage fastened to the main frame near its rear end. traveling lock for the muzzle end of the gun is provided A at the front end of the mount. with its regular top carriage. A more detailed description of the gun and mount will be found on page 249. between the top and bottom carriages.

8 4. with gun __pounds__ 62. 1.75 4.200 Planetary low speed Direct low speed Planetary high speed Direct high speed Planetary reverse speed Direct reverse speed Capacity of fuel tank Capacity of oil tank Capacity of cooling system Gasoline feed. p.396 Weights. 4 gallons 1. miles per hour 3 9 4 6 __do do do do do 2. Weight complete. including breech mechanism Total length of gun (over breech face) Maximum range of gun Maximum over-all length. do do 45 5 20 by battery and coil. Road speed at engine speed of 1. . Center to center of tracks Width of each track link Ground pressure. sections. 2. Radiator. and specifications. dimensions. to 1.000 do 8. 6 5. Ground pressure. vacuum tank. 5 Road clearance Track Weight of each : track. Carburetor. Schebler Model A.5 3. m. Modine. Maximum Maximum over-all height width Center of gun bore above ground over-all : do do do__ do__ 700 254 100 87 16 118. 750 inches 232. _ '2. 75 1. cellular with removable Ignition. 25 5. m. 5 6.9 75 6. p. right or left (46 links) pounds__ inches.200 inches __do__ r. Bosch magneto. 3-inch depression Minimum Type of motor turning radius : pounds per square inch__ do do 145 horsepower at 1. 1.9 yards__ inches 17. 12. 6 2. starting Ignition. p. 3. Bore Stroke Horsepower per gross ton m. hard ground do_ 576 97 18 9. 7 7 160 Sterling T-head gasoline Number of cylinders r.500 r.3 5. operating. with full equipment Weight of gun.

tied together by three vertical transverse plates. and the other the radiator unit. endless tracks which go over and around the wheels. in which the power is transmitted directly to the ground through the drive wheels as in a motor truck. The top horizontal plate supports the base plate. 4-cycle. and Upon a hollow axle. Ignition is by dry cell batteries and coil. two horizontal plates. which is built up of two vertical side plates. The three vertical transverse plates are located in the driving or rear end of the frame and form two boxes one of which houses the . upon which the gun is mounted. is located near the bottom and at the front edge of the vertical side plates. The engine is located transversely a little behind the center of the vehicle. this motor carriage is mounted the 155-millimeter gun (Filmodel of 1918. and by a high-tension Bosch dual magneto when ' (397) . SIDE ELEVATION OF MOUNT IN TRAVELING POSITION. T-head Christie gasoline engine. when starting the engine. The various units comprising the vehicle are assembled on the main frame.200 revolutions per minute. Power is furnished by a 6-cy Under. near their lower edge and to the front of the vertical transverse plates. engine and transmission. forming a combined self-propelled wheeled loux). or through flexible. (CHRISTIE).155-MILLIMETER MOTOR GUN CARRIAGE MODEL OF 1920. The horizontal plates are attached to the side plates. and track laying vehicle. which develops 125 horsepower at 1. which supports the steering wheel brackets for carrying the front steering wheels. one above the other. The axle.

the tracks are divided and removed and carried on top of and underneath the shelves above the wheels. The vehicle is provided with four solid rubber. which disconnect steering levers. The gasoline system consists of a 30-gallon supply tank and Stewart vacuum tank which supplies gas to a Zenith carburetor on the engine. operating When as a track-laying vehicle. and can be operated either separately or together. steering accomplished by means of one on each side of the operator. When operating as a wheeled vehicle the steering handwheel is unlocked and operated the same as in a motor truck. . Cooling is accomplished by two fans and a radiator located just ahead of the engine in the frame. The final drive pinion shafts are each provided with an external band brake for stopping or steering the vehicle. The vehicle normally is driven with the gun breech first. In this manner the track is kept in line with the wheels. located on a sector beside the driver's seat. front steering wheel. or can be depressed to take part of the load when operating as a track-laying vehicle. The engine controls consist of spark and throttle levers in the direction of the shifted lever. namely. double-tired wheels on each side. The clutches are of the dry steel disk type. When operating as a wheeled vehicle the front wheels are steered by the operator in the same manner as in a motor truck. By shifting only one steering lever.398 operating. The two center wheels are mounted on an equalizer bar and can be raised clear of the ground when the mount is operated as a wheeled vehicle. rear driving wheel. The driving lugs also act as guides engaging with grooves in the center and front wheels. Each drive sprocket obtains its power from the engine through a separate transmission and clutch. When operating as a wheeled vehicle. final internal gear located in the driving wheel. and an internal final drive gear reduction. The change gears and reverse gears are shifted by hand levers directly in front of the driver seat. The track links consist of an endless series of flat shoes equipped with lugs which engage the driving slots of the driving wheel connected together by hardened steel pins. When operating as a track-laying vehicle the steering wheel arms are locked in a central position. the clutches and set the brakes. Each transmission consists of a forward and reverse gear set. a four-speed change gear set. The engine is lubricated by splash from the crank case. but can with the be operated in either direction. the machine turns is By shifting both levers together both sides are either in a neutral position with the brakes set or both tracks driving together. and two center wheels. and are located one on each end of the engine crank shaft. each lever controlling similar sets of gears in the right and left transmissions.. the wheels acting as idler sprockets for the tracks.

between the top and bottom carriages. 249). 5516021 26 . with standard top carriage. but 360 traverse can be obtained by traversing the entire vehicle on the ground. model of 1918 (see p. A traveling lock is provided for the gun at its muzzle end. fastened to the main frame near the hollow axle at the front of the A its On this vehicle the gun has 6 left and 7 right traverse vehicle. is mounted on a special bottom carriage.399 155-millimeter (Filloux) gun.

.89 5.500 revolutions per minute Forward (breech end first) First speed 6 : miles per hour Second speed Third speed Fourth speed Reverse (muzzle end First speed do ___do__ do__ first) 1. do_ do Bosch magneto.812(4if) 36 x ? 812(7M) . 700 yards degrees Maximum Maximum elevation 35 \ [ traverse __ do inches 6 left width Center line of trunnions above ground Road clearance Type of drive.945 12. 75 Track Weight of each track : __ pounds__ inches do Center to center of tracks Width of track shoes (46 to each track) Length of track shoes (46 to each track) Ground pressure. per gross ton Road speeds at motor speed of 1. Carburetor. Ignition.69 9. 5 6. 375 812(511) 120 6 5$ 7 Christie. do __do__ __ do gallons Capacity of cooling system Gasoline feed.000 232. with track over-all length without gun. . T-head. Ground pressure (tracks on) Wheels : pounds per square inch__ do [Inside 216 5.050 89. Weight Weight Weight Weight complete with full equipment of gun.000 do 8. 5. 5 116. combination wheeled and track laying. dimensions. zenith. hard surface (both tracks) 2.75 7.9 inches 17. and specifications.000 do 20. double-tired Type of engine : 36x4.400 Weiffhis.61 30 10 25 miles per hour__ Second speed Third speed Fourth speed Capacity of fuel tank Capacity of oil tank .25 do 9. Radiator. 39 2. double-tired Steering wheels. double-tired__ Center wheels.63 Drive wheels. cellular.5 1.-j^^ inches do 36 x 36 x 4.inches.75 66. including breech mechanism on front wheels on rear wheels Total length of gun (over breech face) Maximum range __pounds__ 40. gasoline horsepower inches. vacuum.65 3.- Number Bore Stroke of cylinders do__ Horsepower.750 do 20.82 11. over-all Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum gun over-all length without gun. without track over-all height over-all length with do do do do do do 236 204 200 80.

in order to protect it from sudden rushes by the enemy. the signal service and the tanks are all coordinated through headquarters with the service of the trenches. but details may be concealed. or other visual signals. and trench mortar personnel occupy the trenches interlaced through the intervening terrain to afford this protection and also to place the personnel of the army in a position to come into contact with the enemy without being obliged to pass over a wide intervening stretch of terrain under enemy fire. The trenches constitute the most advanced position of a combat army and the equipment and supplies placed at the disposal of those occupying them are generally classified under the broad heading of k' Trench warfare materiel. and communication is maintained through an elaborate system of telephone and telegraph wires. The trench system includes a front-line trench of broken-line for- mation. The trenches are carried up to within 200 yards or less of the enemy's front line and are the scene of constant watchfulness to prevent enemy advance and of constant attempts to reduce the enemy personnel. flare. Concealment of the general outline from airplane observation is impossible. each stretch of unbroken line being from 9 feet to 18 feet in length. as their effects are consolidated with the complete plan as soon as opportunity permits. and nothing is haphazard or independent of the comprehensive plan. The air service. machine gun. save during the heat of action or in the event of units becoming isolated. The field artillery is located from 1 to 5 miles or more behind the front line. for an observer in an airplane can not see whether a trench is occupied unless: the airplane flies dangerously low. and such movements are only temporary in their inde- pendence. and to advance the position of our own lines. while the infantry. field artillery. lower his morale. capture prisoners for the purpose of obtaining information." The trench forms protection against horizontal firing and permits of secret massing of troops for surprise attacks. pyrotechnic flashlights. and it is the constant aim of the Air Service. with its photographic equipment and telegraphic communications. to reduce this element of surprise.TRENCH WARFARE MATERIEL. An enemy entering this trench can sweep only the length of (40T) . The operation of all branches of the service are interrelated.


and its effects vary with the nature of the gas employed. The narrower a trench is the better the cover which it affords. elbowed. island pockets. Flame or liquid fire is employed both with a view to inflicting injury to the enemy and lowering his morale. advantage being taken of natural slope where possible. or other provisions. dugouts. tunnels. and thus allow for the evacuating of the wounded during daylight. bombing pits. and thence by other trenches. for the trench is open to water resulting from rainfall. or zigzagged and L connections. storage and forward dressing stations for the treatment of wounded. possibly several miles further back. knives. the carrying of stretchers. and hence reduces the casualties and destruction from this cause. shelters. This trench is connected by communication trenches to a supervision trench located to the rear. or frames quickly into position to retard the advance of the enemy troops who have gained the trench. as the conditions may demand. losses result through the detention of casualties in the trenches until darkness permits of their removal to dressing stations. but if trenches are not wide enough for stretchers. strong points. The wider trench submits it to greater effect from enemy artillery fire. The presence of water is always taken into consideration. and thus reduces the time during which men and supplies are detained under concentrated fire. into friendly territory. The wider trench also permits a more rapid movement of men and supplies between the front line and rear areas. Traps are arranged for the confusion of an enemy entering the trench. Gas is a constant menace in the trenches. The communication trenches have T or are curved. Communicating trenches are made of sufficient width to permit of ARRANGEMENT OF TRENCHES. Machine gun and mortar em- placements are built where needed and bomb-proof dugouts provided for rest quarters. . keeps. positions are arranged for dropping barbed wire. as it is heavier than air. Provisions are made for footing and drainage. and must fight around a barrier for the balance of the trench.403 the straight line.

carrying the propelling charge with it. and to prevent the construction of new works. The heavy trench mortar is designed for the attack of heavily proshelters. is very mobile. The trench mortars are divided into three classes : light. trenches. rial is inconsiderable. a type of weapon of simple construction having a short smooth bore. characteristics of each type will be discussed on the following . The pages. and other similar objectives not too strongly protected. strong points. machine-gun shelters. machine-gun It is strikes when it is dropped down the bore. On both types of mortars now issued to the service. The types now issued to the service are 3-inch Stokes trench mortar. The trench mortar is essentially a trench artillery weapon of limited range which will render very efficient service when properly emplaced and skillfully handled and served. medium.700 meters. Mark I. they are especially fitted to accompany the infantry as it advances. of the large crater formed by the explosion. In trench warfare the role of trench artillery is to harass the enemy by engaging living targets where opportunity offers. is very effective against wire entanglements. tected shelters and dugouts. knmvi a trench -mortar bomb. They are muzzle loaders and use as their projectile a thin-walled shell. This m'cp. due to its rapidity of fire. and are used to attack machine-gun shelters and other points which have temporarily checked the forward movement of the infantry.-. trenches. with its range of approximately 1.404 Trench warfare has shown the necessity for hurling large charges of high explosives for comparatively short ranges. and heavy calibers. Mark I. or troops driven into the open. 6-inch trench mortar. Owing to their high mobility. Its effect against matebut is particularly effective against massed troops. These mortars are used to form a barrage behind the hostile line to The light trench mortar prevent reserves and ammunition being brought up. thus automatically : firing the propellent. and seldom used against wire entanglements because strong points. the method of applying this principle is to provide a firing pin in the breech end of the barrel against which the shell. The medium trench mortar. This principle was successfully used on the British Stokes mortar and since has been adopted by both the French and our armies. the principle of autoignition is employed.-itv has led to the development of the trench mortar. Briefly. limited only by the difficulty of ammunition supply. to attack and destroy enemy defensive works and obstacles within range limits.

and a base. the complete unit weighing 110 pounds. lapped to . a bipod.3-INCH STOKES TRENCH MORTAR (MARK is I). The 3-inch Stokes trench mortar of British origin. and proved a very useful weapon owing to its simplicity. The barrel is a seamless-drawn (405) steel tube. light weight. and the principle of autoignition. The mortar essentially consists of the following components: A smoothbore barrel.

The trunnion standard . which. by means of which the elevating screw can operated by be rapidly raised or lowered. apart. steel. The upper end of the elevating screw is fitted with a yoke to support the traversing-screw shaft. these legs are by held apart by a cross stay which is arranged to spring just past the dead center in such a manner as to hold the two legs rigidly is The bipod made of tubular to a center trunnion is fitted with a pair of bevel gears a handle. size and necked down at one To the breech end is fitted FRONT VIEW OF TRENCH MORTAR.406 end called the breech or base end. consisting of two legs attached means of a compass joint. within which is secured a The barrel is supported near firing pin protruding into the barrel. The recoil of the mortar is taken up by a base plate against which the base cap of the barrel rests. a base cap. the muzzle end by a steel bipod fitted with elevating and traversing screws.

range. The barrel can be quickly disconnected from the mounting by ing bolt. indicates The range quadrant (or clinometer). the upper end of the barrel being supported by the about a 45 Minor adjustment for direction is secured by means of the traversing screw. the base plate is embedded in the ground at angle. lifting the locking pin and withdrawing the traversThe barrel may then be lifted out of position. plate has three depressions. in direction of line of fire can be position. made on either side of the center In firing position. . being set for the desired when the barrel has the proper elevation. and by shifting the barrel from one to another a change of 6 The base REAR VIEW OF TRENCH MORTAR. traversing screw carried by the traversing-screw shaft and driven by the dog clutch forms the means of traversing the mortar by engaging a nut fixed A to the barrel. forms a bolt held in position by a locking pin. screw. The lower end of the barrel is placed in the indentation in the base plate which gives the direction nearest to that desired. The shape of the base cap permits the lower end of the barrel to rest in any of these depressions. The barrel is then given the elevation corresponding to the desired range by operating the elevating legs of the bipod.407 shaft together with a traversing handle and a dog clutch.

With cartridge and three rings. which fits in a cartridge container at the rear end of the shell. Weights of mortar. traversing screw. fitted at its head with a detonating tu/i-. ring. Ignition of the obtained from the flash of the cartridge through ports in the cartridge container. Barrel. clamp. The primer of the on impact with the firing pin. carrying the cartridge case with it. The shell. To secure additional range. is projected from the barrel and the mortar is ready for cartridge is fired ballistite rings is another shell. 1 to 3 rings of ballistite can be placed around the cartridge container. The firing operation is as follows The shell with propelling charge : in position (the cartridge inserted in the cartridge container and the rings around the container) is dropped into the muzzle of the mortar. The crater formed by the shell has a depth of about 2 feet and a diameter of about 4 feet. The range secured with the cartridge alone varies from 150 yards at 75 to 300 yards at 40. cartridge end first. The weight of the shell is approximately 11 pounds. The primary propelling charge consists of a 12-gauge shotgun shell. but 10 rounds per minute is considered the average effective rate. and base cap Bipod (mounting complete) Base plate_. The extreme rate of firing under average conditions is about 25 rounds per minute. the range reaches a maximum of 750 yards at 40 elevation. pounds do do__ 43 37 30 .408 The shell or bomb used with this mortar is a steel cylinder loaded with high explosive. and slides down the barrel.




This mortar


ton trench mortar.

an American adaptation of the British 6-inch NewThe principle of autoignition is again employed

on this type.

While the principle of firing is the same as in the 3-inch Stokes mortar, the mounting is somewhat different, in that no
bipod is employed. This weapon is a most effective agent against machine-gun nests, barbed-wire entanglements, fortifications, etc., but is seldom used against personnel. This mortar consists of the following essential components

Barrel with clinometer.

The platform, The sub-base.

base, guys,



The barrel is of one piece, muzzle loading, having a smooth bore. The breech is closed and rests in a hemispherical socket-shaped steel base, supported upon a stationary platform, to which the barrel is stayed by three adjustable guys. The elevation, which varies from a maximum of 75 to a minimum of 40, and lateral deviation, are made by altering the length of the guys, which are adjustable by means
of handwheels. the clinometer attached to the barrel.

These adjustments are determined by the setting of The range can be varied by changing either the elevation of the gun or the weight of the propelling charg. The setting up of this mortar is a more elaborate proceeding than that of the 3-inch Stokes mortar. Various methods of installation for this mortar are shown on page 410. It will be noticed that in some cases the sub-base may be dispensed with. This depends entirely upon the nature of the terrain and the conditions under which the mortar is fired. The barrel is furnished internally at the breech end with an axial firing pin and externally with a guide stud and a misfire plug. Should the ignition cartridge fail to function when the shell is

dropped down the barrel, the misfire plug permits of the introduction of a small powder charge with fuze for the ignition of the propelling charge. Graduations are engraved on the barrel on the right and left of a zero line and are used for traverse setting of the clinometer.



The base is a steel casting having a machined hemispherical socket on the upper side to receive the rounded end of the barrel and provided with a guide groove which engages the guide stud on the barrel

when in position. The base is bolted

to the

hardwood platform.

Elevating and

traversing guys are anchored to the upper side of the platform, while the free ends of the guys are hooked into devices on the barrel when
the latter

mounted on the


Special hooks provide a method

of fastening the guys during transportation. Four wire-rope handles are provided as a means for carrying the platform. The clinometer consists of a quadrant graduated with an elevation

and straddled by a

level-vial carrier



about a

center on the quadrant. The level- vial carrier is provided with a pair of cross level vials. The clinometer is attached to the mortar barrel

bands and a clamping screw. lay the piece an indicating line on the quadrant is set to the desired traverse on the traverse scale on the barrel, and the indicator on the level- vial carrier is set coincident with the desired elevation on




the elevation scale on the quadrant. so that both vials show an exact level.

The guys The barrel

are then adjusted of the mortar then

points in the desired direction. The gas ejector consists of a metal head, to fit the bore, fastened to one end of a long tube at the other end of which is a handle.


the gas ejector is pushed down the barrel the burned <r;iM-> are forced up through the handle and out of the gun. When the gas ejector is drawn out, cold air is sucked through the handle and


The head is threaded to receive a wire brush or a head whenever it is desirable to clean or sponge out the bore. sponge The projectile is a cast-iron fragmentation shell with vanes, weighing approximately 53 pounds loaded, and containing a bursting charge of approximately 11 pounds of high explosive. The projectiles are fitted with delay and nondelay fuzes. The propelling charge consists of sporting ballistite contained in silk bags of 1 and 2 ounces capacity. With these two sizes of bags a number of combinations can be obtained and the range varied accordingly. The maximum charge is 9 ounces and the minimum 3
into the gun.


The bags are held in place between the vanes of the shell a propelling charge bag holder. The charge is ignited by an by

made from a standard rifle cartridge which is with the firing pin when the shell reaches the bottom fired by impact
ignition cartridge

of the barrel.

Over-all length of barrel Weight of barrel



Weight of base Weight of platform Weight of sub-base
shell box Range, minimum Range, maximum


\Veightofshell, loaded (approximately)

Weight of

pounds do do do do do




75 160 530 53 10 200 700



All wars have stimulated the development of implements of warDuring the recent World War new implements of war have

been conceived and developed, while others have been given the supreme test and found capable of further development. Of the problems arising from the war none is more important or more interesting than the development of artillery materiel. In analyzing it, a brief consideration of its state before the war and the effect of the World War upon it, both in this country and abroad, is necessary. The field gun with which our Army was equipped prior to 1917 was developed about 1902 to meet the demands for a stable gun carriage one in which the aiming of the piece was not disturbed by the shock of firing. From then on, no marked developments in design took place until the invention of the split-trail carriage, by which large increase in both traverse and elevation of the piece was made possible. In 1912 the design of such a carriage was initiated, which, after exhaustive tests, was put into production late in 1916. The design of howitzers and medium-caliber guns was limited by road conditions in this country. In these pieces power was sacrificed to obtain the necessary mobility. It had generally been considered impracticable to use heavy siege guns and howitzers in the field on this continent; therefore, none had been provided for our mobile

Practically all French and British designs for practically all calibers of guns and howitzers were adopted for war manufacture. The

French 75-millimeter field gun was put into production because the American split-trail carriage had not been thoroughly tried out in service, and the British 75 was ordered because production facilities were available. The United States entered the war with neither an adequate engineering force to develop


designs nor a trained production force

to organize manufacture. It had merely a handful of materiel and practically no facilities to produce more. Our allies not only furnished

us materiel, but gave us their designs and production engineers to assist us in organizing production. Most of our engineering talent was required to solve the problems of production. Although working under war pressure, time was too short to secure results. Had the war continued, some real development work might have been

accomplished with the large, earnest organization built up during
the war.

Considerable development of new types of materiel was carried out both here and abroad, but as far as pertains to mobile artillery the war mainly was fought with pre-war types of field pieces. The out-

standing accomplishment was the introduction by the French of the " G. P. F." and their antiaircraft artillery.



British gradually improved the range characteristics of their and had under way an excellent design of a new field gun.

The Germans easily ranked first in the development of artillery during the war. They developed and manufactured greatly improved pieces of all calibers. They recognized the value of range, not only in the design of more powerful guns of a given caliber, but also in mounting these guns on carriages so that their maximum range could be secured. By the use of these pieces the Germans caused much concern to the allied artillery commanders. Prior to the war, progress in the mechanical arts caused by the
development of the gas engine had had no appreciable effect upon the design of artillery materiel. The field piece had been conceived in terms of the horse, the mountain howitzer in terms of the pack
mule, therefore very little progress had been deemed possible as the horse was a fixed quantity. The perfection of the gas engine, how-

removed the horse as a limiting factor. The development of the automobile industry permitted high speeds of vehicle propulsion, and created a demand for alloy steels of high physical propever,

All these factors became important to artillerymen, for it evident that mechanical traction permits the increased weights required for long-range artillery; increased speed permits rapid strategic concentration of artillery; high-grade steels permit greater

in guns. Since the armistice the sentiment of our artillerymen is unanimously in favor of pieces of greater range, greater elevation, and greater mobility. This sentiment found expression in the reports of the various service boards and especially in that of the Wester-


velt board.

The report

of Staff, and

of this board was approved by the Chief recommendations have become the fundamental

specifications for mobile artillery materiel.


since, the efforts

of the ordnance engineer have been devoted mostly to the development of design under the Westervelt board program. Under that
calibers of pieces as used during the war will be developed, but they will have greater range, greater flexibility of mount, and greater mobility. Longer range will be attained partly through ammunition de-

program the same

velopment, and partly by increase in the length and muzzle velocity and elevation of the gun. As mobility requires lightness, the weight of the gun will be reduced as much as possible. To secure this, three


First, by using material of higher physical qualities; second, by wire- wrapping the tube; and

lines of

development are being followed

" " by the auto-frettage process. At present, no new problems are involved in the construction of the wire-wrapped gun. By the use of wire, lower-grade metal can be utilized in the forgings. Guns made by this process are slightly heavier than those made of chrome alloy steel. In the auto-frettage method of construction, the gun is built up of a few pieces of steel of medium physical qualities. The walls of


gun are

internally stressed beyond their elastic limit by internal

hydraulic pressure. The condition set up is similar to that produced by the shrinking process. The process is also a cheaper one than either the built-up or the wire- wrapped method of construction. Much research work still remains to be done in determining the

proper form of rifling, the effect of variation of elements of the bore upon the life of the gun, the production and heat-treating of metals used in gun construction, and in checking the fundamental
formulae of gun design. The trend of design for field artillery now proposed and under way shows several digressions from the present practice Motor transportation promises to almost completely revolutionize

motor-drawn carriage is not so limited in weight as the horse-drawn type, thus permitting heavier and more powerful weapons. At the same time the carriage must be designed to withartillery design.


stand the more severe usage of motor traction.

For pack howitzers, and field and siege pieces of 75-millimeter and greater caliber, the hydropneumatic recuperator is being employed. The St. Chamond-type recuperator is used for 75 and 105-millimeter

and the Filloux-type for 4.7-inch to 8-inch



developments have not been made in these types since the armistice. They have been merely adapted to meet the new conditions imposed. During the war great difficulty was experienced in the production of recuperators. Because of the use of oil and air under high initial pressure extremely fine workmanship was required in the finishing of the bore of cylinders and in the manufacturing of pistons. Development along these lines is being carried on in which the air is confined in a metal bellows, thereby eliminating the complex pistons now
necessary. Such a system also offers much simpler production problems in the degree of finish required in the bores of the recuperators. Two independent lines of carriage development are being pursued

the wheel type and the caterpillar type.
teristics are


desirable charac-

high elevation, wide traverse, a minimum depth of pit for clearance of recoil parts at high elevation, and stability at all elevations. The condition of high elevation and minimum depth of pit has necessitated placing the center of trunnions of the tipping

. is expensive The Westervelt board report contemplates a gun and mounted on the same carriage. but complicates the design of the carriage. and the sight for heavier guns will be a modified quadrant sight like that used on the 155-millimeter howitzer but with a panoramic sight. In the war models of motor-carriage mounts little attention could be given to reduction in weight and to refinement in design. The split trail 75millimeter carriage weighs about 700 pounds more than the box trail carriage.417 parts in the rear of their center of gravity. compared with 45. This is due partly to the greater elevation 80. For accompanying fire-control instruments various improvements are now in progress. secure the same reactions in the carriage from both a howitzer This simplifies production and supIt is difficult to gun and howitzer. not the desirability of standardization. nor even by that now being constructed. Provisions for elevating the pieces beyond that required for maximum range is causing complication of design and increased weights. Especially such essential characteristics as accessibility of parts for maintenance and elimination of mechanical weakness in details of construction must be worked out by experience. The field-gun sight follows in principle that developed for the 75-millimeter model of 1916 materiel. Bringing the center of rotation of the gun to the rear and the use of variable recoil permits lowering the axis of the gun. In considering any model the possibilities of perfecting the design into a desirable machine must be given the greatest weight. the mission of the piece. The ideal of the artilleryman is the reduction of the number of calibers to a minimum and the standardization of mounts. which is advantageous in permitting lightness of construction and shortening of the trail. The bottom carriage must be built out farther from the axle to permit clearance at the higher elevations. Wide traverse has resulted from the use of the split trail at the ex- pense of weight and simplicity of construction. The possibilities of development of these types of gun mounts should not therefore be judged by the materiel built under war contracts. the 4. but is much more compact. ply. Although the equilibrating system adds weight and complexity to the gun carriage. However. Marked development is being attempted in sighting systems. The desirability of such a program is apparent to the department charged with production and maintenance. and equalizing the forces required to elevate and depress by an equilibrating system.7-inch gun materiel is heavier than it need be because the 155-millimeter howitzer demands a heavier carriage. and this in weight. must fix its characteristics. For example. the advantages thus derived more than offset the former.

Motor-carriage development is now proceeding along two lines: first, the track-laying type found in tractors; and second, a combination wheel and track-laying type in which the mount may be operated on wheels on good roads or on tracks where road conditions are

Both types are self-propelled and have similar gun character-

istics; weights are about the same; speeds are similar off roads; while the second type promises greater speeds over good roads. Because of the promise of both types, light and heavy gun-pilot materiels of both are being built. 75-millimeter gun and 105-milli-

meter howitzer carriages have been designed and built by the Holt Caterpillar Company and by the Front Drive Motor Company. Good comparative tests of the two principles of construction should
be obtained from these pilots. The ideal traverse as expressed by the Westervelt board report is 360. This is being secured only in antiaircraft mounts in which the gun is pivoted on a pedestal. Mounting guns on a pivot like

mount requires increased height of trunnions and heavy mounts. In the infantry accompanying howitzer an attempt is being made to develop a piece which can be used either as a direct-fire gun against tanks or as a howitzer, taking the place of the 3 -inch trench mortar. Guns of both 1.8-inch and 2.24-inch caliber are under test.
that in the antiaircraft
will be capable of being broken up into man loads. calibers of antiaircraft guns are being developed 3-inch and 4.7-inch. The sighting system permits the application of azimuth



and elevation corrections and superelevation without disturbing the pointing of the sight. Compressed air will be used for loading. In
the heavier gun, a muzzle brake will be developed in order to lessen the load on the recuperator. With other guns, almost 85 per cent of

half that efficiency
control system.

the recoil energy has been absorbed in a muzzle brake, but only about is expected in this case. For antiaircraft work,

another big problem

to develop a satisfactory sighting



latest development in sighting systems for antiaircraft artilinvolves the removal of all sighting instruments from the carlery riage and the furnishing of graduated scales only for elevation and


traverse, thus eliminating the greatest cause of complexity in the gun mounts. The piece will be laid entirely by indirect fire methods from

data furnished from a central station. In general, it will be seen from the above that future artillery will more nearly approach the ideal, to the degree that the principles of high power and swift transportation are incorporated in the design. In war the former is probably the first demanded, in time of peace it is sometimes overshadowed by the latter. although





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