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Chapter 1




Many teachers are not knowledgeable or find it difficult to use instructional

materials when teaching because of lack of training on its application for effective
use and dissemination of knowledge. Some teachers do not see the instructional
materials for use. Hence, teachers are faced with the problem of talking about
instructional materials without making bold attempts.

Every country develops its own system of education which undergoes

transformation to meet the challenges of the changing times. Educational system
is also confronted with several new choices, opportunities and challenges to
ensure that a modern, progressive and qualitatively superior system of education
can be implemented at all levels

As classroom teachers, it is essential that we become conversant with

the type of instructional materials, which can be used in any teaching/ learning
situations. Instructional materials as it is said are synonymous with what we call
'teaching aids'. Instructional materials constitute alternative channels of
communication, which a teacher can use to convey more vividly instructional
information to learners. They represent a range of materials which can be used
to 'extend the range of vicarious experience' of learners in a teaching-learning

Instructional materials refer to those alternative channels of

communication, which a classroom teacher can use to concretize a concept
during teaching and learning process. For instance, in teaching a topic a teacher
can manipulate real objects or use their stimulators. Instructional materials
therefore constitute the media of exchange through which a message transaction
is facilitated between a source and a receiver. In addition to extending the range
of materials that can be used to convey the same instructional message to
learner instructional materials also facilitate the 'process' nature of

In this passage, the process nature of communication implies that both the
source and the receiver of a message are actively involved in a communication
encounter. Infarct, it means that both the receiver and the source share and
exchange ideas, feelings in any communication (Tyler, 1987, Dike 1989).

Material and visual aides are means of communication tools which can
greatly influence the reception of transmitting messages and information.
Through them the transmission of information is made more effective, so that
learners are able to learn in the best way. Teachers intend use of instructional
materials to facilitate better understanding of the learners. The adoption,
purchase and use of instructional materials is an important and ongoing process.
This stimulates the learning of the students to have a better and fruitful
understanding of the lesson.

This study aimed to determine the instructional materials being used by Pre-
school teachers in related schools in Zapatera Elementary School.

Specifically this study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age

1.2 Gender

1.3 Years of Teaching

1.4 Educational Background

2. What are the types of Instructional Materials used in the preschool

classrooms in terms of:

2.1 Printed and Duplicated Materials

2.2 Non-Projected Display Materials

2.3 Still Projected Display Materials

2.4 Technological Instructional Media


There is no significant difference in the academic performance of pupils

taught using instructional materials.


The significance of this study will bring into light the importance of
instructional materials toward teaching pupils in primary and nursery school. It is
also believed that this study will be useful to teacher, if properly followed, if
instructional materials are effectively used in teaching, it will enhance better
performances in pupils learning and easy delivery of lesson.

This study is important and beneficial to the Pres-school teachers,

administrator, education students and future researchers.


This study focus on the instructional materials used by the preschool

teachers in the Elementary Department of the Zapatera Elementary School,

school year 2018-2019. It is intended to determine the Instructional materials

available in the preschool classrooms, the use and the extent of the Instructional

Materials in preschool teaching.

This study is limited only to preschool teachers teaching in the Elementary

Department of the Zapatera Elementary School due to time constraints.


Dissemination- in the field of communication, means to broadcast a message

to the public without direct feedback from the audience.

Vicarious- experienced in the imagination through the feelings or actions

of another person.

Stimulators- to rouse to action or increased activity; excite

Printed and Duplicated Materials- any publication, document, or record including,

but not limited to, the following: newspapers, magazines, books, photographs,
drawings, prerecorded magnetic audio tape.

Non-Projected Display Materials- visuals are those aids which are used without
any projection. So they translate abstract ideas into a more realistic format. They
allow instruction to move from verbal representation to a more concrete level.

Still Projected Display Materials- Audiovisual materials, including the resources

of films, radio, and television, help acquaint students with the achievements of
modern science, technology, industry, and culture and with phenomena that are
inaccessible to direct observation.

The study will be conducted in the Zapatera Elementary School Sikatuna Street,
Cebu City. The school catered only high schools during that time. Under his leadership,
the primary and kindergarten school was opened together with the reopening of the
Elementary Department in 1992. The school provides safety, friendly and fun


The respondents of this study are the preschool teachers in the

Elementary Department of Zapatera Elementary School.


A questionnaire was used as the main data gathering instrument for the

study. Through the questionnaire, researchers are given a chance to gather

information from respondents without demanding too much time and effort. In the

preparation of the research instrument, the things that need to be considered in

designing a proper data collection instrument is the first considered. The survey

proper explored the instructional materials being used by Pre-school Teachers,

particularly the effectiveness and how often the materials used, factors they

consider in selecting the type of materials to be used and their perception in the

guidelines to be followed in preparing instructional materials.


The research procedure that we planned to do is survey. The group

decided to use survey method in order to gathered data about name, age and

gender. The researcher drafted a questionnaire. The researchers personally

distributed the questionnaire to the respondents of the study. Then the

researchers gathered the questionnaire, analyzed, tabulated and interpreted.


The questionnaires were distributed to the pre-school teachers during our

vacant time and also allow the pre-school teacher to answer it on their vacant

time or available time. The respondents were given enough time to answer the

questionnaires, afterwards the papers were collected and tabulate, then will be

organize, arrange and checked.


The researchers will use the frequency formula in order to give in-depth

analysis to the study. The data gathered was tabulated carefully and interpreted

using the appropriate statistical treatment.

Sample Percentage:

The formula is P= f/n x 100


P= Percentage

f= Frequency

n= number of respondents

100= constant