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Force Method: Analysis of

Statically Indeterminate
Structure
INTRODUCTION

• For determinate structures, statics (equilibrium) is
sufficient to calculate its internal forces,
• For indeterminate structure, statics (equilibrium) alone
is not sufficient to conduct structural analysis.
Compatibility equation will be needed.
• Compatibility equation is based on the geometry of the
deformation of the beam. Compatibility of deformation
among members and at supports are required to form
the equation.
Force Method of Analysis:
• Convert the indeterminate structure to a determinate one by
removing some unknown forces (usually support reaction)
and replacing them with (assumed) known/unit forces.

• Using superposition, calculate the force that would be
required to achieve compatibility with the original structure.

• Unknowns to be solved for are usually redundant forces.
Redundant force is the force that have to be removed from
the beam to make it statically determinate and stable.

• Coefficients of the unknowns in equations to be solved are
‘flexibility coefficient’.
Procedure of Analysis:

1

• Tentukan derajat
ketidaktentuan statis dari
actual beam/indeterminate
beam yang akan dianalisis.
2

• Hilangkan restraint dari indeterminate beam sedemikian
sehingga ia menjadi determinate beam.
• Jumlah restraint yang harus dihilangkan sama dengan jumlah
derajat ketidaktentuan statis.
• Restraint yg dihilangkan tsb diubah menjadi gaya redundant
(reaksi lebih) pada determinate beam. Determinate beam
dengan redundant disebut primary beam.
• Redundant ini yang menjadi unknown dalam force method dan
harus dicari nilainya.
Primary Beam Indeterminate
/Determinate Beam Beam

Value of unknown = Reaction Cy from
load Cy roller support

Deflection at free = Deflection at roller
end C support C
3
• Hitung nilai redundant, yaitu
besar beban yang dibutuhkan
sehingga kompabilitas
dengan indeterminate beam
tercapai.
• Gunakan prinsip superposisi,
dimana defleksi total pada
titik C dapat dihitung dengan
?
penjumlahan defleksi yang
disebabkan oleh tiap2 beban
yang bekerja terpisah.

∆𝑪 = ∆𝑪𝑶 + ∆𝑪𝑪 = 𝟎
?

∆𝑪𝑪 = 𝒇𝒄𝒄 𝑪𝒚
∆𝑪 = ∆𝑪𝑶 + ∆𝑪𝑪 = 𝟎 COMPABILITY EQUATION!

?
∆𝑪𝑪 = 𝒇𝒄𝒄 𝑪𝒚

∆𝑪 = ∆𝑪𝑶 + 𝒇𝒄𝒄 𝑪𝒚 = 𝟎 • Asumsikan Cy sebagai beban
satuan, sehingga didapat
defleksi per satuan gaya
redundant Cy, 𝒇𝑪𝑪
−∆𝑪𝑶
𝑪𝒚 = 𝒇𝑪𝑪  FLEXIBILITY COEFFICIENT!
𝒇𝒄𝒄
Moment as
Redundant

𝜽𝑨 = 𝜽𝑨𝑶 + 𝜽𝑨𝑨 = 𝟎

𝜽𝑨 = 𝜽𝑨𝑶 + 𝒇𝑨𝑨 𝑴𝑨 = 𝟎 𝒇𝑨𝑨

 Slope at A per unit value of 𝑀𝐴

−𝜽𝑨𝑶
𝑴𝑨 =
𝒇𝑨𝑨
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
Example
EXAMPLE
Example
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE