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CE121F FW1

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Intramuros, Manila

ADVANCED SURVEYING

FIELDWORK NO. 1

LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE BY TRANSIT AND TAPE

(THE INCREMENTAL CHORD AND DEFLECTION ANGLE METHOD)

GROUP NO. 2

CHIEF OF PARTY: FRANCISCO, Edgar Manuel

MEMBERS:

CRISTOBAL, John Carlo

DELA CRUZ, Orlie

DOMINGO, Adrian

MARQUEZ, Mark Patrick

SAGUM, John Marciano

SUBMITTED ON: August 25, 2018

SUBMITTED TO: ENGR. Henry Florendo

PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET

FIELDWORK 1

LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE BY TRANSIT AND TAPE (THE INCREMENTAL

CHORD AND DEFLECTION ANGLE METHOD)

DATE: August 18, 2018 GROUP NO: 2

TIME: 12:00PM – 4:30PM LOCATION: Quirino Grandstand

WEATHER: Windy PROFESSOR: Engr. Florendo

DATA SUPPLIED:

R = 254.65

Backward Tangent direction: N 10o15’ E (azimuth or bearing)

Forward Tangent direction: N 46o15’ E (azimuth or bearing)

Station of the Vertex: 2+211.56

Adopt Full chord length of 20 m

STATION

CENTRAL DEFLECTION

OCCUPIED OBSERVED INCREMENTAL INCREMENTAL ANGLE

CHORD ANGLE FORM BACK

TANGENT

PC A 11.1646 2.5 1.25

B 20 7 3.5

C 20 11.5 5.75

D 29 116 8

E 20 20.5 10.5

F 20 25 12.5

G 20 29.5 14.75

H 20 34 17

PT 8.8919 36 18

ACTUAL LENGTH OF THE CHORD: 15.1

COMPUTATIONS:

R= 254.65m

𝐼 = 36°

The tangent distance must be solved using:

𝐼

𝑇 = 𝑅 × 𝑡𝑎𝑛( )

2

36

𝑇 = 254.65𝑚 × 𝑡𝑎𝑛( )

2

𝑇 = 82.741 𝑚

The middle ordinate distance (M) can be computed using:

𝐼

𝑀 = 𝑅 × [1 − cos( )]

2

36

𝑀 = 254.65𝑚 × [1 − cos( )]

2

𝑀 = 12.46 𝑚

The length of the curve (Lc) can be computed using ( I is converted to radians):

𝐿𝑐 = 𝐼 × 𝑅

𝜋

𝐿𝑐 = 36 × × 254.65𝑚

180

𝐿𝑐 = 160 𝑚

The long chord (C) can be solved using:

𝐼

𝐶 = 2 × 𝑅 × sin( )

2

36

𝐶 = 2 × 254.65𝑚 × sin( )

2

𝐶 = 157.38

The station of PC can be computed using:

Sta. of PC = 2+128.819

The station of PT can be found by:

Sta. of PT = Sta. of PC + Lc

Sta. of PT = 2+288.819

𝐶1 = 2+140 – 2+128.819

𝐶1 = 11.1646 m

𝐶2 = 2+288.819 – 2+280

𝐶2 = 8.819 m

𝐶1

𝑑1 = 2 × sin−1( )

2×𝑅

11.1646

𝑑1 = 2 × sin−1 ( )

2 × 254.65

𝑑1 = 2.5122

The value of the last deflection angle 𝑑2 :

𝐶2

𝑑2 = 2 × sin−1( )

2×𝑅

8.819

𝑑2 = 2 × sin−1 ( )

2 × 254.65

𝑑2 = 1.9883

1145.96

𝐷=

𝑅

𝐷 = 4.5

STATION INCREMENTAL CENTRAL DEFLECTION ANGLE FROM

OCCUPIED OBSERVED CHORD INCREMENTAL ANGLE BACK TANGENT

PC A 11.1646 2.5 1.25

B 20 7 3.5

C 20 11.5 5.75

D 20 16 8

E 20 20.5 10.25

F 20 25 12.5

G 20 29.5 14.75

H 20 34 17

PT 8.819 36 18

𝑑1 ° 2.5122° 𝑑1 °+5𝐷° 2.5122°+(5×4.5°)

2

= 2

= 1.25 2

= 2

= 12.5

𝑑1 °+𝐷° 2.5122°+4.5° 𝑑1 °+6𝐷° 2.5122°+(6×4.5°)

2

= 2

= 3.5 2

= 2

= 14.75

𝑑1 °+2𝐷° 2.5122°+(2×4.5°) 𝑑1 °+7𝐷° 2.5122°+(7×4.5°)

= = 5.75 = = 17

2 2 2 2

𝑑1 °+3𝐷° 2.5122°+(3×4.5°) 𝐼° 36°

2

= 2

=8 2

= 2

= 18

8(2) = 16 18(2) = 36

𝑑1 °+4𝐷° 2.5122°+(4×4.5°)

Deflection angle of E: 2

= 2

= 10.25, Central incremental angle of E: 10.25(2) = 20.5

Cristobal, John Carlo

CE121F – A1

Group 2

DISCUSSION

This fieldwork is entitled as laying of a simple curve by transit and tape with the use of

the increment chord and deflection angle method. This is done by having the first point of

reference anywhere on the field or in a designated position, a vertex is also chosen. With

the given value of R, I, station of vertex and the adapted full chord length the researchers

must then calculate the tangent distance (T), middle ordinated distance (M), length of

curve (Lc), long chord (C), station of the first station (PC), last station (PT), length of the

first and last sub chord (C1 and C2), and the value of the deflection angles. The number

of stations that must be observed is determined in the deflection angle where the

maximum deflection angle must be 18. After computing for the needed values, the curve

can now be sketched and produced. First is setting the angle to 0 degrees with respect to

the vertex, then the first deflection angle is to be measured and the length of the chord,

along this line we can now place the first pin, and this indicates as the first sub chord.

Procedure is repeated until the last point in the curve is placed. After that, we measure the

chord from the first point to the last and compare it to the computed length of chord.

CONCLUSION

After performing the fieldwork, I have observed and therefore conclude that to construct

or lay a simple curve, we can use the deflection angle method. This method gives us a

near precise measurement of our chords and angles, with consideration on how careful

we compute for the values, precise we place the marking pins as marks on every chord

member and in measuring the angle from the transit. This fieldwork is important for us

engineering students because curves are provided whenever a road changes its direction

from right to left (vice versa) or changes its alignment from up to down (vice versa).

Curves are a critical element in the pavement design. They are provided with a maximum

speed limit that should lie followed very strictly. Following the speed limit becomes

essential as the exceed in speed may lead to the chances of the vehicle becoming out of

control while negotiating a turn and thus increase the odds of fatal accidents. Also, it is

very necessary that appropriate safety measures be adopted at all horizontal and vertical

curves to make the infrastructure road user friendly and decrease the risks of unwanted

injuries.

Dela Cruz, Orlie

CE121F – A1

Group 2

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

Domingo, Adrian Christopher

CE121F – A1

Group 2

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

Francisco, Edgar Manuel D.

CE121F – A1

Group 2

DISCUSSION

Fieldwork 1 is about laying of a simple curve by transit and tape (the incremental chords

and deflection angle method). Before we start this fieldwork, our professor gives us data

then compute it, so we can use it on the field. The formulas used are mostly geometry. By

having knowledge about it we can easily do the fieldwork and the computations. The

procedure is that we need to make an arc of a circle by using a corresponding method

with the help of theodolite thus we can get the bearing and the measurement of each

point.

CONCLUSION

Based on the data that we gathered, we can conclude that to construct a simple curve we

can use the deflection angle method. This method can make a simple curve and can read

the deflection angle starting from the starting point using the instrument theodolite. .Our

group encountered errors mostly human errors, like wrong solving for a data, inaccurate

measurements using the tape, wrong reading of the deflection angle in the theodolite, and

lastly the mistake of removing the marking pin from the vertex so we had to guess on

where its original point and it is turned out to be wrong and we repeat it again from the

start. The curves are important on the road it keeps the vehicles to pass through safely.

Marquez, Mark Patrick

CE121F – A1

Group 2

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

Sagum, John Marciano

CE121F – A1

Group 2

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

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