Headings in the Table of Contents are often different from the body text. All secondary indentations were added by the transcriber, representing text sections that have no distinct header. Line breaks were added when a single entry has two different links. There is no separate list of illustrations. Full-page plates have been placed before the discussion of each Design. The page number in the printed book is retained in the Table of Contents and some picture captions, and in marginal page numbers shown in parentheses. Floor plans of cottages and farm buildings have generally been moved to the Interior Arrangement sections; they were originally printed on the same page as the "Elevation". Page. PREFATORY, INTRODUCTORY, General Suggestions, Style of Building—Miscellaneous, Position of Farm Houses, Home Embellishments, Material for Farm Buildings, Outside Color of Houses, A Short Chapter on Taste, The Construction of Cellars, Ventilation of Houses, Interior Accommodation of Houses, Chimney Tops, 9 13 19 23 29 32 37 42 48 54 56 65 68


Preliminary to our Designs, DESIGN I. A Farm House, Interior Arrangement, Ground Plan, Chamber Plan, Miscellaneous, As a Tenant House, DESIGN II. Description, Ground and Chamber Plans, Interior Arrangement, Miscellaneous Details,

69 72 75 76 77 80 81 84 89 90 95

DESIGN III. Description, Ground and Chamber Plans, Interior Arrangement, Miscellaneous, vi DESIGN IV. Description, Interior Arrangement, Ground Plan, Chamber Plan, Surrounding Plantations, Shrubbery, Walks, &c.,

101 105 106 111 114 118 119 120 125


Miscellaneous. Cost of Building. Ground Plan. 129 DESIGN V. DESIGN VII. Carriage House. Chamber Plan.. A Southern. Lawn and Park Surroundings. Chamber Plan. DESIGN VI. Plantations. Chamber Plan. Grounds. and Surroundings. Construction. Interior Arrangement. Interior Arrangement. 133 135 136 142 147 149 154 159 162 163 163 166 168 169 172 175 176 177 178 4 . An American Homestead of the Last Century. A Plantation House. An Ancient New England Family.Tree Planting in the Highway. or Plantation House. &c. Ground Plan. Interior Arrangement. Estimate of Cost of Design VI. Description.

How to lay out a Kitchen Garden. Interior Arrangement vii and Ground Plan. Wild Flowers of America. Interior Arrangement. Hillhouse and Walter Scott as Tree Planters. Flowers. DESIGN and Ground Plan. DESIGN II.Miscellaneous. GROUNDS. 179 LAWNS. AND WOODS. 181 183 184 187 188 Fruit Garden—Orchard. I. Succession of Home Flowers. PARKS. Interior Arrangement. FARM COTTAGES. Influence of Trees and Forests on the Character of men. 194 197 202 203 206 208 213 214 216 216 220 220 5 . The Forest Trees of America. DESIGN and Ground Plan. no Rural Taste. III. Doctor Johnson.

House and Cottage Furniture. A PIGGERY. Elevation and Ground Plan. Interior Arrangement. AN ICE HOUSE. Elevation and Ground Plan. Cottage Outside Decoration. Mode of Taking the Honey. THE DOVECOTE. Elevation and Ground Plan. Elevation and Ground Plan. Interior Arrangement. and description. Different Varieties of Pigeons. IV . 226 229 231 233 235 246 249 252 258 260 264 265 267 269 271 275 278 279 281 282 6 . Interior Arrangement. THE POULTRY HOUSE. Cottages on the Skirts of Estates. OR BEE HOUSE. View of Apiary and Ground Plan. APIARY. AN ASH HOUSE AND SMOKE HOUSE.DESIGN and Ground Plan.

Floor Plan. Elevation. 283 286 291 293 295 300 303 304 308 311 313 315 318 319 322 323 Loft Explanation. DESIGN II. RABBITS.Construction of Piggery—Cost. Description. and Floor Plan. Rodman's Rabbitry. Mr. Cellar Explanation. Rotch's Description of his Rabbits. Dutch. DESIGN I. 324 plan. Description. and Yard. Interior Arrangement. Arrangement. BARN ATTACHMENTS. Mr. Underground Plan. or Garret. FARM BARNS. Mode of Feeding. Interior and Main Floor Plan. Rabbits and Hutch. 325 7 . viii Explanations. and English Rabbits.

Devon Cow and Bull. Short Horn Cow. Common Sheep. Elevation and Ground Plan. The African Goose. Remarks. Figure and Description. Interior Arrangement. The Butter Dairy. DAIRY BUILDINGS. Southdown Ram and Ewe. Cheese Dairy House. WATERFOWLS. 337 338 343 345 349 352 355 359 362 364 365 370 370 8 . IMPROVED DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Long-wooled Ram and Ewe. and Back of Hutches. 326 330 330 of Dairy House 331 333 335 THE WATER RAM. GRANARY—Rat-proof. Short Horn Bull.Front and Explanation.

is as much a profession as any other pursuit whatever. exclusively intended for the farming or agricultural interest of the United States. and in the lack of fidelity to their own interests which pervades the agricultural community of this country. understanding but imperfectly the wants and conveniences of the farm house in its connection with the every-day labors and necessities of farm life. beyond those of any other profession—for we insist that agriculture. Shepherd Dog. As an accessory to their labors in such advancement. that nothing of the kind has been heretofore attempted for the chief benefit of so large and important a class of our community as our farmers comprise. of consequence. by the too frequent example of the farmer himself—that everything connected with agriculture and agricultural life is of a rustic and uncouth character.China Goose. perhaps. Advertising Section. what little thought has been devoted to this branch of building. too. is entirely consistent. the present work is intended. 9 . It is a reflection upon the integrity of the great agricultural interest of the country. is not easy to say. not only to their domestic enjoyment. we shall find ample reason for the indifference which has prevailed among our rural population. Without going into any extended course of remark. by such as have given any considerable degree of thought to it. in reality. and. ix PREFATORY. and. that its condition or example should for a moment justify. has been incidentally rather than directly thrown off by those professionally engaged in the finer architectural studies appertaining to luxury and taste. among the category of neglects. A WORD ABOUT DOGS. in its true and extended sense. instead of the every-day wants of a strictly agricultural population. Smooth Terrier. Why it is. but their pecuniary welfare. It is an opinion far too prevalent among those engaged in the more active occupations of our people. one of great importance. To the reality of such neglects they have but of late awaked. It is. in the absence of familiar and practical works on the subject. as they understand the term. and discreditable to that interest. and indeed are now far too slowly wheeling into line for more x active progress in the knowledge pertaining to their own advancement. and one with which no aspirations of a high or an elevated character should. 371 372 374 377 381 {1} This work owes its appearance to the absence of any cheap and popular book on the subject of Rural Architecture. or at least need be connected. that it is a profession in which ignorance. or even tolerate it.— fortified indeed in such opinion. unless it be that they themselves have indicated but little wish for instruction in a branch of domestic economy which is. that any such opinion should prevail. Bremen Goose. on the subject of their own domestic architecture.

and. in these remarks. and. our position and influence in life. so influenced. Numerous farmeries in every section of the United States. no improvement in condition. in a degree. A log cabin. it may be also taken as an admission of our own neglect. and need not be inconsistent with the knowledge and practice of neatness. our associations. have usually a corresponding character in their personal relations. that he deserves no better? Is it because his occupation is degrading. as for those who occupy other and more active pursuits. and untidy. will be his practice in the daily duties of his life. a merchant. when it can be afforded. of its occupants. all due convenience. as a people. in many instances. even. with which they who inhabit it are content. our advancement in temporal condition. even to the indulgence of luxury itself. good and sufficient buildings are of the first consequence. We owe them a debt of gratitude for what they have accomplished in the introduction of their designs to our notice. in many cases. are destitute of comfortable. farm labor. taste. We hold. to depreciate the efforts of those who have attempted to instruct our farmers in this interesting branch of agricultural economy.—and I speak of this primitive American structure with profound affection and regard. thoughts. yet they are not. the family comfortably and tidily. and even elegance and refinement within doors. that the due accommodation of the various things appertaining to farm stock. in the items of convenient and economical arrangement of their dwellings and out-buildings. we are forced to say. to say nothing of the respectability or the elegance of domestic life. as appertaining to the uses for which they are applied. or effect. although humbly provided in their habitation and domestic arrangements. that where our farmers have taken the trouble to think on the subject. outlandish house. we find abundant cause for effort in improvement. Why should a farmer. laborious. But. as the shelter from which we have achieved the most of our prodigious and rapid agricultural conquests. and. to the utter violation of all propriety in appearance. in the books and publications of the day. then. that well conditioned household accommodations are as important to the farmer. either social or moral. miserable tenement. that such buildings have been executed.xi It is not intended. xiii the decided item of national good taste which the introduction of good buildings throughout our extended agricultural country will give.—may be so constructed as to speak an air of neatness. The character of the farm should be carried out so as to express itself in everything which it contains. any more than a professional man. to their demands. and when it is remarked that they are insufficient for the purposes intended. his position in life low. As a question of economy. Yet. in many of the plans and designs got up for his accommodation. their ingenuity has been equal. can lead to no elevation of character. that we have so far disregarded the subject ourselves. both in saving and accumulating. order. As the man himself—no matter what his occupation—be lodged and fed. intelligence. should have a tendency to elevate the social xii position. is as entirely disregarded as if such qualities had no connection with the farmer or his occupation. with great neglect of architectural system. in most cases. and when to this are added other considerations touching our social enjoyment. It is not intended in our remarks to convey the impression that we Americans. not least. that although many of the practical operations of the farm may be rough. it is quite important that he be equally well instructed in the art of planning and arranging these accommodations. Admitting. the various other structures which are necessary to his wants in their fullest extent. quite convenient household and farm arrangements. as to force upon others the duty of essaying to instruct us in a work of which we ourselves should long ago have been the masters. demonstrate most fully. or character. and even refinement in those who inhabit it. the associations. without further argument. and entire condition of the farmer. and his associations debasing? Surely not. only occupy an uncouth. his intellect ignorant. All 10 . also. because he is a farmer. or a mechanic? Is it because he himself is so uncouth and outlandish in his thoughts and manners. But. A squalid. and. and farm life. particularly in the older ones. and in designing. in a pecuniary light.

although none the less worthy. Even in the comparatively few buildings in the modern style to be seen in our farming districts. A farmer has quite as much business in the field. or a correspondence of one thing with another. should always be preserved upon the farm. the more natural and better course. at once pleasant to the eye. on examination. throughout. if he prefer to employ the ingenuity of others to do his planning. although. a fancy dress. the county. which have seemed appropriate for a work of the limited extent here offered. of every kind. The lover of country life who looks upon rural objects in the true spirit. to the purposes intended. the feeling will prevail that there is an absence of method. desire to embellish their farms and estates in an agreeable style of home architecture. All these are out of place in each extreme. We may. or plan is concerned. wind-broken. is. Nor is there any good cause why the farmer himself should not be a man of taste. from the various requirements of 14 those buildings being partially unknown to the architect and builder. than in living in a finical. so far as true propriety is concerned. are tolerably suited to the business and convenience of the husbandman. on examination. and. in truth. and that may serve to improve the taste of all such as. they are not copied from any in the books. and such as are within the reach—each in their kind—of every farmer in our country. and there is not a single reason why propriety and good keeping should not as well distinguish it. will be struck with the incongruous appearance and style of our farm houses and their contiguous buildings. who had their planning—and upon whom. in the arrangement and architecture of every building on his place. and convenient in their arrangement. be said to have no architecture at all. The former himself is a plain man. useful. also. All these detract nothing from his respectability or his influence in the neighborhood. and. yet substantial. owing to their own inexperience in such matters. that in their interior accommodation. and correct taste in the architectural structure of his buildings generally. as exhibited in our agricultural districts. as elsewhere. or about his ordinary occupations. so far as any correct system. or from any structures with which the writer is familiar. for the first time surveys the cultivated portions of the United States. with which numerous readers may be acquainted. has been chiefly confined to our cities and towns of rapid growth. in building useful structures. Or. gathered from other structures in use. and perhaps relative arrangement to each other. or exalted. pretending house. by the way.should bear a consistent relation with each other. as the other. substantial.— which. when following his plough behind a pair of fancy horses. on that account. plain. and applicable. Neither is he any nearer the mark. and a crownless hat. It is only necessary that he devote a little time to study. A fitness of things. still. as the better taste in building. has been to apply practical hints. which a few years past has introduced among us. in order to give his mind a right direction in all that appertains to this department. or the state. by the American farmer. that is. out at elbows. in most cases. and dilapidated house. he will find many.—he certainly should possess sufficient judgment to see that such plans be correct and will answer his purposes. and the one is as absurd. or gloved hands. The object. with a ruffled shirt. 13 INTRODUCTORY. xv both in outward appearance and interior arrangement. congruity. Yet they will doubtless. His structures. such as we see stuck up in conspicuous places in many parts of the country. as well as other men. His family are plain people. These plans are chiefly original. their employers have relied—a majority of such dwellings 11 . the town. be found in several cases to resemble buildings. where substance is required. in addition to our own designs. The plans and directions submitted in this work are intended to be of the most practical kind. should be plain. with ragged garments. as he has to occupy xiv a leaky.

and among a population claiming the intelligence we do. owing to the absurdity in style or arrangement. more or less. 16 It is the idea of some. and the proper accommodation of the farmer's family. or other farm stock. and. in its proper cultivation. We know of no good reason why the walls of a farm house should appear like a hay rick. Every human being is 15 bound. out of keeping with correct rules. a cultivation of the sympathies which every rational being should have. is as unnecessary as that the farmer himself should be a boor in his manners. or the work of a day—the exercise of a correct taste is important. no land upon earth exceeds North America. or out-buildings. that its interior arrangement be for the convenience of the in-door farm work. or in area limited. Nor do we know why a farm house should assume a peculiarly primitive or uncultivated style of architecture. with a pouring out of God's harmonies in the creation. as any other class of community. so that they be reasonably convenient. and. style. we have an endless variety. because such are the shapes best adapted to preserve his crops. should be quite as apparent. in shape. of what consequence is it that the farmer or small property-holder should conform to given rules. Indeed. and. that costs little or nothing in the attainment. not to plan and to build in conformity with good taste. In the available physical features of a country. with true taste. when attained. in all things. not in like character. is an absolute barbarism. to even embellish—if such a thing be possible—such exquisite objects with his own most ingenious handiwork. and. his cattle. and character.have turned out. should be as well housed and accommodated. but in his own proper way and manner. to the knocking together of a pigstye—a labor of years. or its roof like the thatched covering to his wheat stacks. that it is also uncouth. any more than the grocer's habitation should be made to imitate a tea chest. in a degree. in the style and arrangement of his dwelling. in all practical use. be like some of the stored-up commodities of his farm or plantation. under ordinary circumstances. down to the simply picturesque and beautiful. too. beyond the apology already given—that of an absence of cultivation. and answer his purposes? For the same reason that he requires symmetry. from other sensible houses. it is a profanation to do otherwise. or the planter. or personal dress. or cotton bale. that a house or building which the farmer or planter occupies. without a parallel. so far as his own acts or exertions are concerned. through the several gradations of magnificence and grandeur. It may be asked. than he found it. is a source of gratification through life. according to his means and requirements. no matter. should. if not absolute failures. It is an arrangement of artificial objects. to be sure. certainly not what the necessities of the farmer has demanded. and from it is derived the main 12 . From scenery the most sublime. We have stated that our prevailing rural architecture is discordant in appearance. Consequently. in all variety and shade. or the shipping merchant's a rum puncheon. household furniture. that it should assume an uncouth or clownish aspect. Why it is so. in his horses. inexcusable in a land like ours. or making but a share of the general progress which we exhibit. is the foundation of all human prosperity. and thought upon the subject. and want of fitness to circumstances adopted for the occasion. The farm. excellence of form or style. That it be a farm house. or any extravagant outlay in expense. is conceded. to leave the world somewhat better. ofttimes offensive to the eye of any lover of rural harmony. We have an idea that the farmer. but. not always—the farmer and cottager have gained nothing. in adapting them to his own uses. among thinking men. in so doing. and why not in the artificial? So far as the influence for good goes. We cannot subscribe to this suggestion. from the building of a temple. or mode. it may be added. and in as agreeable style. so far as the moral world is concerned. in compass vast. in harmony with natural objects. or a dolt in his intellect. inviting every intelligent mind to study their features and character. save in the mere item of outward appearance—and that. and when so to improve them requires no extraordinary application of skill. Such duty. in the exercise of such faculties as have been given him. is sufficiently apparent from its locality upon the farm itself.

we call old. among much that is valuable. Such. yet. to our convenience and comfort. and which would make it an object of attraction and regard. repose. which. massive walls. Alteration is not always improvement.wealth of the community. absurd. or that any mark of caste be attempted to separate them from any other class or profession of equal wealth. Sheltered in its own secluded. but of this treatise—it may be well to remark that it is not here assumed that there has been neither skill. might be well adapted. in the United States. in its own proper character. their low. as that his dwelling should not exhibit all that cheerfulness and respectability in form and feature which belongs to the houses of any class of our population whatever. whose population. and which. but that it should. they have been ruled out as antiquated. From the farm chiefly springs that energetic class of men. style. built after the fashion of his barn. or architecture. it may be not unprofitable to look about us. also left out. and quite well. and a moderate outlay. See their ample dimensions. with a cheerful. or that they deny themselves. in most cases. or discarded much that is valuable. It is quite as well to say that the farmer should worship on the Sabbath in a meetinghouse. indispensable to perfect housekeeping. nor occasional good taste exhibited. would soon dwindle into insignificance and decrepitude. primitive. it should exhibit all the pains-taking in home embellishment and rural decoration that becomes its position. Take. the existing condition of the structures too many of us now inhabit. however. GENERAL SUGGESTIONS. in the light of true fitness for the objects designed. and quietude which belong to the retired and thoughtful occupation of him who inhabits it. means. and consider somewhat. 13 . or necessity. where true comfort is concerned. or that his district school house should look like a stable. Why then should not this first. and vigorous life blood of the country. under the guidance of a better skill. express all the comfort. their heavy. are inconvenient. who have in the introduction of some real improvements. On the contrary. who replace the 17 enervated and physically decaying multitude continually thrown off in the waste-weir of our great commercial and manufacturing cities and towns. or the necessities in our household arrangement. there are found in the older states many farm and country houses 20 that are almost models. not the rule. and. form the exception. health-enjoying and life-sustaining class of our people be equally accommodated in all that gives to social and substantial life. in the construction of farm and country houses. a great deal in house-building has been introduced that is absolutely pernicious. At the threshold—not of the house. to a reasonable standard of taste in architectural appearance. and such as can hardly be altered for the better. yet independent domain. its due development? It is absurd to deny them by others. and unfit for modern builders to consult. for many generations back. intelligent exterior. in character. In ascertaining what is desirable to the conveniences. for convenience in the main purposes required of structures of their kind. yet instead of standing as objects for imitation. Not that the farm house should be like the town or the village house. and in the rage for innovation of all kinds. the least of such advantages. for instance. in America. some of our ancient-looking country houses of the last century. 19 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. in their way. without the infusion—and that continually—of the strong. and out of all harmony of purpose. ingenuity. substantial.

in the United States. tall. and every man possessed of a proper judgment will concede the superiority to the house of the last century. and the contiguity of stables. we acknowledge the better taste and judgment of our ancestors. our ambition. why should it not be encouraged? Home attachment is a virtue. deep fire-places in the chimneys. dispensed with. let us cultivate that study to the highest extent within our reach. proportionless. That American house-building of the last fifty years is out of joint. and cattle-yards—all these are wisely contracted. which. deadening. in the hope of bettering their condition. would give all that is desired. which in its plenitude of modern pretension looks so flauntingly down upon it! We cannot. sharp roofs. but as a reason why we have thus far made so little progress in the arts of home embellishment. its wide fire-places. and if the study and practice of a better system of building tends to cultivate a home feeling. throughout. rambling halls and rooms. requires no better proof than that the 21 main improvements which have been applied to our rural architecture. Such remark is not dropped invidiously. their high gables. our climates. as has too often been done. Utility is our chief object. our agriculture. and the lack of some modern conveniences. its heavy beams dropping below the ceiling overhead. or love of gain—and these not always successful—in seeking other and distant places of abode. in all the expression of home-bred comforts. We are different in our institutions. and promote our enjoyment. to be added. The wide. but instead of such style being abandoned altogether. in that particular. and coupled with that. and when so. the house itself might better have been partially reformed. the Americans are that people. and we acknowledge it a blemish in our domestic and social constitution. And if any one study tend to exalt our taste. and in clustering about our habitations those innumerable attractions which win us to them sufficiently to repel the temptation so often presented to our enterprise. who are at the same time a roving race. modern luxury. modern improvement has made obsolete. then. our habits. this tendency to change—a want of attachment to any one spot—is a reason why we have been so indifferent to domestic architecture. if not absurd. outspeak. Therefore let that virtue be cherished. or thrown off to a proper distance. which the ancient mansion really affords. so. that home feeling which should be a prominent trait of agricultural character. Bating its huge chimneys. and draw the comparison in true comfort. and contrast them with the ambitious. and card-sided things of a modern date. the huge. ricks.comfortable ceilings. as the effect of such changes. If. are in the English style of farm and country houses of two or three centuries ago. is a strong hindrance to the adoption of a universally correct system in the construction of our buildings. by the side of the other. and the interior arrangement adapted to modern convenience. and if there be a people on earth boasting a high civilization and intelligence. Such changes have in some instances been made. The frequent changes of estates incident to our laws. gimcrack neighbor. consistently adopt the domestic architecture of any other country. the indulgence of an agreeable taste may be permitted to every one who creates a home for himself. many things considered indispensable in a ruder age. how often does the old mansion. and spreading eaves. the proximity of out-buildings. True. the flashy. deep porches. and the many inducements held out to our people to 22 change their locality or residence. 23 14 . with outward features in good preservation. and in some particulars. to our use. or founds one for his family. An attachment to locality is not a conspicuous trait of American character.

with incidental accommodation for our immediate friends or guests—which can always be done without sacrifice to the comfort or convenience of the regular inmates. with no privilege of entail to our posterity. shaded valley. the American builder to examine well his premises. and each in harmony with the natural features by which it is surrounded. if the dwelling were only such as the estate required and could reasonably maintain. Hence. and build only to such extent. although in miniature. and it is a gratifying incident to the indulgence in a variety of taste. A liberal appropriation of rooms in every department. in convenience and accommodation. a spare chamber or two. He should build such a house as will be no detriment. no one style of rural architecture is properly adapted to the whole. subject ourselves to perpetual inconvenience for the gratification of occasional hospitality or ostentation. or to that of his family who is to succeed to his estate. an eye to his own interest. and its conformity to just rules in architecture need not be additionally expensive or troublesome. and the consequence of such attempt is too often a failure. the pointed Gothic may shoot up among the evergreens of the rugged hill-side. may nestle in the quiet. A house should be planned and constructed for the use of the household. and it no more requires an extravagance in cost or a wasteful occupation of room to produce a given effect in a house suited to humble means. and fit up our dwellings to accommodate "company" or visitors. 26 looking to a possible increase of family. so far as convenience and 24 comfort are concerned in a dwelling. and when the estate is encumbered with unnecessarily 25 large and expensive buildings. It behooves. a stinted and parsimonious spirit is not suggested. require that they be more imposing in character than the necessities of the occasion may demand. to ascertain the actual requirements of his farm or plantation. and in the indulgence of this false notion. True economy demands a structure sufficiently spacious to accommodate its occupants in the best manner. or to sale in mass. are continually subject to division. Diversified as are the features of our country in climate. embosomed in its vines and shrubbery. castellated mansions of England. and the indulgence of an easy 15 . an imitation of the high. involve no serious loss. extended. The Swiss châlet may hang in the mountain pass. or the attempt at magnificence in building. Magnificence. should admonish the builder of a house to the adoption of a plan which will. and of course a perfect condemnation in itself of the judgment as well as taste of him who undertakes it. or an additional room on the ground floor. otherwise its effect is lost. are altogether unsuited to the American farmer or planter. in its expense. on his own demise. nor cause him future disquietude. therefore. at a glance. Another difficulty with us is. may command the wooded slope or the open plain. whose lands. or the quaint and shadowy style of the old English mansion. and many a worthy owner of a costly mansion has been driven to sell and abandon his estate altogether.—MISCELLANEOUS. all suited to their respective positions. they become an absolute drawback to its value in either event. always. as against such rules. with its overlooking campanile. when. in case of the sale of the estate. instead of increasing in his family.STYLE OF BUILDING. the Italian roof. that we oftener build to gratify the eyes of the public than our own. An expensive house requires a corresponding expense to maintain it. Nor does the effect which such structures give to the landscape in an ornamental point of view. Holding our tenures as we do. if it be anything beyond a rude or temporary shelter. from his unwillingness or inability to support "the establishment" which it entailed. than in one of profuse accommodation. soil. rather than our own families. In this remark. may as easily and cheaply build in accordance with correct rules of architecture. that we possess the opportunity which we desire in its display to almost any extent in mode and effect. or the Continent. and at such cost as shall not impoverish his means. and always fitted for the spot it occupies. is the great fault with Americans who aim to build out of the common line. This is all wrong. and position. a contented and happy home would have remained to himself and family. apparent. surface. He who builds at all. to the selling value of the land on which it stands.

For instance: a farm of one hundred acres may safely and economically erect and maintain a house costing eight hundred to two thousand dollars. he would do well to consider that a farm is frequently worth less to an ordinary purchaser. and the station which he and his family hold in society. six. and the means of its owner. living upon the income he receives from it. Yet the numbers in their respective families. should comport in character and area with the extent and capacity of the farm itself. that the above sums are named as simply comporting with a financial view of the subject. purpose. To the farmer proper—he who lives from the income which the farm produces—it is important to know the extent of accommodation required for the economical management of his estate. looking as they do only at the extent of wood and timber. and paying no attention to the surroundings. and the indulgence of all such fancies is sooner or later regretted. better summed up in the term EXPRESSION—these are the objects which should govern the construction of our dwellings and out-buildings. and the main design for which it is erected. over and above the price of cheaper buildings. the relative position of each in society. or a copying of the massive piles of more recent date abroad. and all be consistent with a proper economy in farm management. The enjoyments of society and the intercourse of friends. or propriety with other things. the dwellings on each should bear. convenience. is the sheerest affectation. harmony—all. still. with an extravagant house upon it. 29 16 . if he only be content to pocket the loss which he can never expect to be returned in an increased value to the property. in which no sensible man should ever indulge. To one who has no regard to such consideration. and such as the economical management of the estate may warrant. in extent and expense. Let it be understood. and in their observance we can hardly err in the acquisition of what will promote the highest enjoyment which a dwelling can bestow. regardless of the size of their estates. and fastidious. Thus 28 the tawdry erections in imitation of a cast-off feudalism in Europe. Fancy purchasers are few. should always govern the resident of the country in erecting his dwelling. as we in this country have them. is governed solely by the profitable returns the estate will afford upon the capital invested. and in many cases will bring even less in market. On the other hand. and all this may be done without extraordinary expense. in proportion as the dwelling is expensive. which in most cases contribute more to the effect of the establishment than the structure itself. any amount of expenditure in building will fail to give that completeness and perfection of character which every homestead should command. The farm house too. or stone and mortar in the structure. or their taste for social intercourse may demand a larger or smaller household arrangement. in a wise construction of the dwelling. will require less house room than he who tills equally well his farm of three. The owner of a hundred acre farm. Substance. although in miniature. our own table and fireside. a consistent relation to the land itself. if uncultivated or neglected. perhaps. as well as to suit his own position in life. There is again a grand error which many fall into in building. this rule of expenditure will not apply. and then to build in accordance with it. He may invest any amount he so chooses in building beyond.hospitality. sharing for the time. It is out of all keeping. both in extent and cost. is a crowning pleasure of country life. while he who buys only for a home and an occupation. and which. or ten hundred acres. while one of five hundred to a thousand acres may range in an expenditure 27 of twenty-five hundred to five thousand dollars in its dwelling. than with an economical one.

both fruit and vegetable. A fitness and 17 . Custom. that indispensable feature in a perfect arrangement. It should combine all the advantages of soil. inexorably huddles himself immediately upon the highway. which the most liberal gratification. to make up a perfect whole in the family residence. in the location of the farm buildings. shade. does the same: while the Yankee. be the governing point in determining its position. but little choice is left.POSITION. A fitness to the purposes for which the dwelling is constructed should. The site selected for the dwelling. as affording cultivation and growth to shrubbery and trees. may demand. gives advantages which are denied in others. which it is necessary to discuss. there are right and wrong positions for a house. and not embarrassing to the main purposes of the dwelling and its appendages. as objects of admiration and beauty—delightful in the repose they offer in hours of lassitude or weariness. grateful to the eye always. If a site on the estate command a prospect of singular beauty. and the uses to which its various parts are applied. consistent with the circumstances of the owner. The house should so stand as to present an agreeable aspect from the main points at which it is seen. The site of a dwelling should be an important study with every country builder. be he settled where he will. In the south. That is indispensable to the preservation of the house itself. It should have an unmistakable front. if the luxury of a stream. Still. our soils are so universally adapted to the growth of vegetation in all its varieties. cultivation. should have a controlling influence upon the style in which the house is to be constructed. and rear. and in addition to that. and the character of the scenery and objects immediately surrounding it. or where water occasionally flows from contiguous grounds. or the character of the ground which his buildings may occupy. it should be thoroughly drained of all superfluous moisture. regardless of roads. and the health of its inmates. in fine. as well as in utility. should be added. be enjoyed. water. the dwelling should embrace it. on the most convenient site his plantation presents. to that part most usually occupied. in many parts of the United States. or west. To the last. seeming to have no other object than proximity to the road—as if his chief business was upon that. or the thoroughfares by which it is approached. Attached to the building site should be considered the quality of the soil. for on this depends much of its utility. whether his possessions embrace both sides of it or not. the planter builds. if the shade and protection of a 31 grove be near. a large share of the enjoyment which its occupation will afford. should distinctly appear in its outward character. and a due appropriation of these to an agreeable residence is equal in importance to the style and arrangement of the house itself.—at once the ornament most effective to all domestic buildings. any object in itself desirable. and they should be considered in the light of propriety alone. its benefits should be included. unquestionably. other things equal. and so long as a close connection with the thoroughfare is to control. if possible. and shelter. in Pennsylvania and some other states. The site should be dry. on every side. and appropriated in such manner as to combine all that is desirable both in beauty and effect. either in the east. or on a soil naturally damp. and slightly declining. or a sheet of water in repose. instead of its being simply a convenience to his occupation. if possible. as well as be easy of access to the out-buildings appended to it. should be turned to the best account. it should. and in the slave states generally. that hardly a farm of considerable size can be found which does not afford tolerable facilities for the exercise of all the taste which one may indulge in the cultivation of the garden as well as in the planting and growth of trees and shrubbery. Happily for the American. but if the surface be level. sides. the garden. disregarding the facilities of access to his fields. he is obliged 30 to conform to accident in what should be a matter of deliberate choice and judgment. It should be so arranged as to afford protection from wind and storm. present itself. north. the convenience of tilling his crops. regardless of conventional rules. the farmer of German descent. and to them.

and devoted to the meanest purposes. These remarks may seem too refined. or attractive points within it. but the entire picture. standing alone. or. and still permit them to fill up in perfect harmony the picture. This idea will illustrate the importance of embellishment. A farm with its buildings. which are of necessity naked of trees. and although humble. yet the character of utility or necessity which they maintain. a portion of these erections may be. if not of grace. complete each within itself.harmony in all these is indispensable to both expression and effect. or as a model of imitation. to guide the builder in the execution of his work. on which they apparently fall back for support. should be finished sections of the landscape of which it forms a part. but the house and its surroundings on every side should show completeness in design and harmony in execution. indiscriminately. no matter what the style. in all its parts. but in the erection of all the buildings necessary for occupation 34 in any manner. of comfort. a house and out-buildings flanked with orchards. And in their determination. and trenching upon the subject of Landscape 18 . would embrace a range too wide. not only in the substitution of trees as necessary appendages to a complete rural establishment. It is therefore. which may be required to give character and effect to a country residence. it might excite our admiration. They also seem to connect the house and out-buildings with the fields beyond. and which cannot be accomplished without it. Still. or a cottage with its door-yard and garden. and is thus important in completing the effect sought. as filling the eye with the most grateful sensations. General appearance should not be confined to one quarter alone. or is lost in the general landscape. should be the one selected with which to fill up and complete the design. and gradually spread the view abroad over the farm until it mingles with. or the indistinct outline of a distant town may form a striking feature in a pictorial design and the associations connected with them. would hardly be an attractive sight. to give effect from any point of view in which the homestead may be seen. A dwelling house. gives them an air of dignity. It would be incomplete unless accompanied by such associates as the eye is accustomed to embrace in the full gratification of the sensations to which that organ is the 33 conductor. a single 32 object should not control. or a simple country residence with the grounds which enclose it. a monument. but it would not be an object on which the eye and the imagination could repose with satisfaction. that will be required. and it becomes an object of exceeding interest and pleasure in the contemplation. the character in which they are contemplated may allow them to stand naked and unadorned by other objects. fills the eye at once with not only a beautiful group. and shrubbery properly disposed. A tower. and not dependent upon distant accessories to support it—an imperium in imperio. for a simply practical treatise like this. and give benefit or utility in the purposes for which it is intended. But assemble around that dwelling subordinate structures. in form and position. and that style of building constituting the most agreeable whole. as no specific rules or directions can be given which would be applicable. but associate the idea of repose. and abundance—indispensable requisites to a perfect farm residence. either on hill or plain. and of consequence. the architectural design should be in harmony with the features of the surrounding scenery. apart from other objects. and as out of place here. a steeple. or a wood. and such style is to be consulted only so far as it may in itself please the taste. A discussion of the objects by way of embellishment. that the particular style or outward arrangement of the house is but a part of what should constitute the general effect. in classic phrase. as completed. should be embraced in the view. and general hints on the subject are all indeed. Thus. HOME EMBELLISHMENTS. trees. As a mere representation of a particular style of architecture. in themselves combined.

They injure the walls and roofs by their continual shade and dampness. than in front. or within touching distance of a house. even where building timber is 19 . more or less litter. Therefore. trees are absolutely pernicious. the composition of our farm erections must depend in most cases upon the ability or the choice of the builder himself. still. and prevent a free circulation of air. shelter they do not afford except in masses. the best material which can be furnished for the walls of a dwelling. in many sections of the United States. although tree planting about our dwellings is a practice pretty general throughout our country. in the clefts of which wild vines may nestle. instead of becoming the principal objects of attraction in themselves. A single tree. which last is always better given to the house itself by a veranda. of grand and stately dimensions. They should also be so placed as to open the surrounding landscape to view in its most attractive features. always keeping in view an expression of the chief character to which the whole is applied. trees create dampness. in the long run the cheapest. The proper disposition of trees and shrubbery around. as he probably is.Gardening. and frequently vermin. or in the vicinity of buildings is far too little understood. and the most negligent apparel of nature in a thousand ways may give a character which we might strive in vain to accomplish by our own invention. yet they are important in connection with the subject under discussion. except at an expense and inconvenience altogether forbidding its use. Nothing is more common than to see a man build a house. it is quite as necessary that such good taste be kept in view throughout. With other farm buildings circumstances may govern differently. or but an incidental one of the present work. while he leaves the rear as bald and unprotected as if it were a barn or a horse-shed—as if in utter ignorance. when. is abundant. Yet it is a happy relief that where stone is difficult. will frequently give greater effect than the most studied plantations. when seen in connection with the 36 house itself. And this is called good taste! Let us examine it. or around which a mass of shrubbery may cluster. which when grown will shut it almost entirely out of view. A ledge of rock. Their disposition should be such as to create a perfect and agreeable whole. from the various parts of the dwelling. They exclude the rays of the sun. In a country like ours. from one or more prominent points of observation. even stone cannot be obtained. If it be necessary to build in good taste at all. will add a charm to the dwelling which an elaborate cultivation would fail to bestow. close to the house. the best of clay for bricks. Immediately adjoining. containing within its soils and upon its surface such an abundance and variety of building material. the strong natural objects with which they are associated should be consulted. and as a consequence. they compose its finest ornaments. perhaps in most elaborate and expensive 35 style. if planted at proper distances. Much in the effective disposition of trees around the dwelling will thus depend upon the character of the country seen from it. In the efforts to embellish our dwellings or grounds. or not at all to be obtained. A country dwelling should always be a conspicuous object in its full character and outline. MATERIAL FOR FARM BUILDINGS. consequently all plantations of tree or shrubbery in its immediate vicinity should be considered as aids to show off the house and its appendages. and which should control to a great extent their position. which is not designed to be a part. to say nothing of excluding all its architectural effect from observation. Stone is the most durable. and then plant a row of trees close upon the front. Trees near a dwelling are desirable for shade. and in almost all parts of our country. that his house is more effectively set off by a flanking and background of tree and shrubbery.

which would penetrate through the stone into the inside plastering unless cut off by an open space of air between. yet it is always in harmony with natural objects. Hence we may indulge in almost every fitting style of architecture and arrangement. is the cheapest material. be fitted by the aid of good mortar into equally substantial wall as the larger masses. to give them an agreeable color—bricks themselves not usually being in the category of desirable colors or shades. out-buildings. be it usually what it may. its transportation is so comparatively light. and to that add the interest upon it. and cheaper than brick in any event. and in addition. when abundant and easily obtained. nor build with soft or unburnt bricks in a wall exposed to the weather anywhere. 38 Stone is found either on the surface. We shall slightly discuss them as applicable to our purposes. Cottages. although some shades are more grateful to the eye than others. it may be the most economical. be laid up with a sufficiently smooth face to give fine effect to a building. is worked with the greatest facility. as best he may. and the period it may last. even taking its perishable nature into account. and as far as material is concerned. such as wood or soft bricks. than his choice is to be at fault. We cannot. It requires every few years a coat of paint. Without that. they need the aid of paint quite as often as wood. to which either kind of these materials are best adapted. never lay a cellar or underground wall of perishable material. may be made of wood. answer all purposes. they will in a wall remain for centuries. and is always associated with the idea of decay. or if small. for the accommodation of laborers. we are fully persuaded that they are worthless for any permanent structure. Brick walls may be thinner than stone walls. Stone requires no paint. or in quarries under ground. but from observation. Large bowlders may be either blasted. Wood.scarce. But other considerations generally control the American farmer. Bricks. Thus. But it is perishable. in the indulgence of any peculiar taste or fancy. and this weighty argument compels him into the "make 20 . On the surface they lie chiefly as bowlders of less or greater size. In quarries they are thrown out. rightly tempered with sand. and on many accounts. where wood is the cheapest and most easily obtained. usually of hard and durable kinds. of which a building can be constructed. Its color is a natural. either by blasting or splitting in layers. the insurance. in any particular structure he may require. they may with a little extra labor. where stone is not found. therefore an agreeable one. and the facilities of removing it are so cheap. But this we will say: If it be possible. the rooms are liable to dampness. to determine this matter to his entire satisfaction—always provided he have the means at hand to do either. aside from the greater advantages of their durability. stock. We are aware that 40 unburnt bricks have been strongly recommended for house-building in America. when easily obtained. urge upon the farmer the adoption of either of the above named materials to the preference of another. that wood is accessible to every one. excepting in new districts of country where good building lumber is the chief article of production. When made of good clay. it may be simply a matter of calculation with him who needs them. nor with stone which is liable to crumble or disintegrate by the action of frost or water upon it. and other cheap erections on the farm. but leave him to consult his own circumstances in regard to them. or split with wedges into sufficiently available shapes to lay in walls with mortar. supply its place 39 tolerably well. so as to form regular courses when laid up. stone is as cheap in the first instance as lumber. the annual wear and tear. in the consideration of material for house-building therefore. or may obtain. Yet wood may be moulded into an infinite variety of form to please the eye. for the time. unhammered. and all their varieties may. but they equally require "firring off" for inside plastering. and well burned. will in the end prove a dead loss in their application. and. The outer walls of a stone house should always be firred off inside for lathing and plastering. and particularly so on the farm where everything ought to wear the most substantial appearance. or crops. to keep them thoroughly dry. His pocket is apt more often to be pinched. except to strike off projecting points or angles. In their construction. and if used. to calculate the first cost of any material he has at hand.

lead. provided the main chance be attained. within a few years past. the time-honored white house with its green blinds. shade. White. particularly when the door and window casings are dressed with a deeper or lighter shade. pinched. or connecting parts of the building. A new school of taste in colors has risen. galvanized iron or tin. Where roofs thus intersect or connect with a side wall. as applied to 21 . should be laid so as to effectually prevent leakage. as a fitting and tasteful color for dwellings. and of no possible use whatever. which also may be of various shades. and the roof be wide over the walls. as all new things are apt to be. we have in every instance adopted the wide. or a natural and soft wood color. zinc. so different from the stiff. than the darker colors. the connecting gutters should be made of copper. being composed chiefly of white lead. and often so of brick ones. if they be covered with that material. put no counterfeit by way of plaster. as those shades predominate in the main body of the house. about the same time. as out of all good taste. 42 if it be no inconvenience to the ground below. both in town and country. is quite as advantageous to his interests as the other. or other false pretence other than paint. and tucked-up look in which so many of the haberdasher-built houses of the present day exult. Before submitting the several designs proposed for this work. that in addressing them to a climate strictly American. as some of the darker colors do. Instead of toning down the glare of the white into some quiet. Let stone be stone. zinc. often so tastefully gleaming out from beneath the shade of summer trees. too. by contrast or otherwise. or a durable wash upon wood: it is a miserable affectation always. and on a sudden condemn. and comfortable expression. also. that the recent gingerbread and beadwork 43 style of country building was introduced. or even the warm russet hue of some of our rich stones—quite appropriate. as a straw color. bricks show on their own account. it was thus considered a better preserver of the weather-boarding from the cracks which the fervid heat of the sun is apt to make upon it. This is sometimes done for effect in architectural appearance. and placed at least one foot back from the edge of the roof. and sometimes for the economy and advantage of the building itself. lead. too. there is no objection to let it pass off naturally. except when in keeping. and of all things. and giving that well housed. it may be remarked. gables and cornices. all buildings should show for themselves. We give some examples of the hipped roof. All counterfeit of 41 any kind as little becomes the buildings of the farmer. has always been considered. because they are convenient and cheap in their construction. OUTSIDE COLOR. As a general remark. nor do we doggedly adhere to it. as giving protection. carried to extremes. and can run off. and lead the water into conductors down the wall into the cistern or elsewhere. and as it reflected the rays of the sun instead of absorbing them. neutral shade. This color has been supposed to be strong and durable. and shelter to the walls. galvanized iron. The eave gutters should be of copper. or be absorbed into the ground without detriment to the cellar walls. however. steeply-pitched roof. And these were both. as may be required. consequently. We are not among those who cast off. into which the shingles. All this must be subject to the judgment of the proprietor himself. a drab of different hues—always an agreeable and appropriate color for a dwelling. and we also throw into the designs a lateral direction to the roofs of the wings. among us. in the United States. stucco. or tin. If the water be not needed. thus keeping them dry and in good preservation. with everything around it. which perhaps in its results. as the gilded pinchbeck watch would fit the finished attire of a gentleman. what they are built of. with broad eaves. until within a few years past.shift" system. For a century past white has been the chief color of our wooden houses.

or lead colors too somber and cold. and be quite proper. but in color and outside preservation denote that they are appendages to a stone or brick house. perhaps. together with its out-buildings. should be consulted. any more than in their architecture. almost. They may be even sanded to a color. that he does not play the mountebank. as to color. to the building . necessity. minding in the operation. which. One cannot build 45 a heavy house of wood. but at an expense too great to be borne by those of moderate means. in addition to their durability. or to cheat him who looks upon it into a belief that it may be marble. A wooden country house. It is true that in this country we cannot afford to place in stone and brick buildings those ornate trimmings and appendages which. as to "paint the lily. the purpose to which they are applied—every consideration connected with them. or porch. life-enjoying home. gloomiest pigment imaginable. Wood. It is a matter of taste or preference. The fashion which dictates them is a barbarous. and may be taken away without injuring or without defacing the main structure. or otherwise brought to an identity. And yet. amplitude of the buildings. we admit. if economy were not to be consulted. We candidly say that we have no sort of affection for such sooty daubs. but none the less a fraud upon good taste and architectural truth. with the material of the house. as a parapet. It is. that any color can be given to them which the good taste of the builder may require. when made of good material. Yet it is not essential that such appendages should be of so expensive material. and grained. and like the clown in the circus.—of substance and dignity. a balustrade. stained. even when the material of the house proper is of the most durable kind. in their color. and of consequence. The very purposes to which they are applied. is nothing less than a fraud—not criminal. or undressed leather—shades that comport with Milton's beautiful idea of "Russet lawns and fallows gray." Red and yellow are both too glaring. which. because they simply are appendages of convenience. They are not a material part of the building itself. void of all natural taste in its inception. but reared for purposes which may be dispensed with. Therefore all imitation or device which may lead to a belief that it may be other than what it really is. all these may be of wood. or bricks—the fashion must be followed without either rhyme or reason. 22 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. or luxury. by the way. Stone will give its own color. appear as if imitating either stone or brick.acrobatplanet. is light. in fact. They should still show that they are of wood. life-loving spirit about him. should always be of a cheerful and softly-toned color—a color giving a feeling of warmth and comfort. produce a fine effect. In a wooden structure one may play with his fancy in the way of color. nothing glaring or flashy about it. where they can be had as cheap as stone or wood. and hundreds of our otherwise pretty and imposing country houses have been daubed over with the dirtiest. but it should be of a color in keeping with its character. might be more durably constructed of stone. than a tomb would have in his lawn or dooryard. and do no violence to good taste or the most fastidious propriety. as the other does his burlesque visage the ridicule of his auditors. of itself. or that they remain permanently afterward. proper that 46 they be of wood. a strong argument in favor of bricks in building. and properly burned.wood. as compared with brick or stone. false. is quite equal to stone. Locality. make his tattooed tenement the derision of men of correct taste. a railing. or other unfounded pretension. such colors have no more fitness on his dwelling or out-buildings. a portico." Brick 44 sometimes must be painted. not a counterfeit of stone. such buildings should not. and by being painted in keeping with the building itself. A warm russet is most appropriate for brick-work of any kind of color—the color of a russet apple. piazza. and slate. and arbitrary fashion. making every habitation which it touched look more like a funeral appendage than a cheerful. some prodigiously smart folks paint—quite as decorous or essential. in fact. Yet they should not imitate stone or brick. that they were either built there. and to one who has a cheerful.

and painter. but chiefly conventional. and become their own subordinate character. such as painting. We eschew red. architecture. unless well 47 instructed. 48 A SHORT CHAPTER ON TASTE. in its effect upon any one having an eye to a fitness of things in country buildings. stand out in its own bold and unshrouded impudence. and whose labors have met the approbation of those competent to judge. or Spanish brown. with doors and windows touched off with white. and satisfactory to the mind. sufficiently explaining what is meant by the word taste. a perfect Ishmaelite in color. he should consult those who are proficient and experienced in the department on which he consults them. and quite as apt to have quack in them all. to apply forthwith to such as are masters of their trade for all the information they require on the various subjects connected with it. are the proper persons to dictate their various compositions.acrobatplanet. One who sets out to be his own architect. or whatever constitutes . but in all things affecting the substantial and important parts of his buildings. congruity. There is one kind of color." With this understanding.. Hints. from every thing in rural architecture. We shall not go into an examination as to that fact. and infinitely more tasteful and fitting. as appropriate to the object 23 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. made up of Venetian red. who has a fool for his client. builder. when he is neither a professional architect. and oftentimes matters of detail in interior convenience. As we have intended to use it. style. &c. a fitness to the purpose for which a thing is intended—got up in a manner agreeable to the eye and the 49 mind—preserving also a harmony between its various parts and uses. we shall offer no receipts or specifics for painting or washing buildings. there are other colors. perhaps. symmetry. Taste is a term universally applied in criticism of the complying with the proper shades in color which predominate in the building itself. is a monstrous perversion of good taste. or even an amateur. There can be nothing less comporting with the simplicity of rural scenery. that if it be so. sculpture. that it is a good. which are equally strong and durable. strong. than a glaring red color on a building. when pleading his own case. or compounder of colors. pleasing to the eye. That is the glaring red. order. It connects with nothing natural about it." is as old as the aforesaid schools themselves. and we do but common justice to the skill and intelligence of our numerous mechanics. it neither fades into any surrounding shade of soil or vegetation. is akin to the lawyer in the proverb. of which there are many schools —of taste. manner with respect to what is pleasing. ochre.. general outlines. Climate affects the composition of both paints and washes. &c. other than as giving vague and unsatisfactory terms to the reader in measuring the subject in hand. perhaps natural. not more expensive. and a perversion of every thing harmonious in the design. we mean—some of them. Not being a professional painter. proportion. and lasting color. when we recommend to those who contemplate building. or terms good-taste and bad-taste have been used in the preceding pages without. and all more or less arbitrary. therefore. And it may perhaps be added that none professing to be such. and defines perfectly our own estimate of the common usage of the term. Webster defines the word taste to be "the faculty of discerning beauty. which. The only apology we have ever heard given for such a barbarism was. particularly the northern and eastern. prevailing to a great extent in many parts of our country. The compound words. but simply answer. therefore. mechanic. and must of necessity. and many other minor affairs may be given by the proprietor. The proverb. are competent. and those who are competent in this line. as addressed to the sense. "there is no accounting for taste.

the Gothic. All such trumpery should be scouted from the dwelling house of the farmer. either of these arrangements or departures from a set and positive style. and are classified in the several schools of architecture. in Grecian architecture. in the leakages continually occurring. which a whole covey of such pretentious things could not. subject to the same capricious test in its government. and sheltering eaves may be frequently brought in aid to show out the rustic form in more completeness. but altogether inapplicable. and in many instances blending so intimately with the Italian. with their modifications—all of which admit of a variety of departures from fixed rules. They may not therefore be viewed as distinct delineations of an order of architecture. And what. also. against which last. from the main building. the Tuscan and Composite. and is. Yet styles are subject to arrangement. but as a mode appropriate to the object required. are carried to a needless excess. is admirably adapted to most parts of the United States." it should mean that it is in. 50 The Italian style of architecture. the Ionic. let us ask. and invite leakage and decay? If in appearance. or relieve the monotony of straight and continuous lines. running up like owl's ears. styles of Roman architecture. Other styles—not exactly orders—of architecture. expensive in their construction. and real utility. than either of the others. is the shape of the structure. and its wings. Congruity with the objects to which it is applied should be the chief merit of any structure whatever. or.for which it is required. not allowed in the more rigid orders—may be adapted in a variety of ways. consequently. These. For farm houses. with its hanging roofs. while the Swiss. To these may be added the Egyptian. and terraces. the Corinthian. make it exceedingly appropriate for general use. is also a beautiful arrangement of building for country dwellings. and in some one or other of the modifications named. and so long as that object be attained. the Swiss. or style proper. or rural Gothic. or a low window sufficient for the purpose intended. even. in rural buildings. are full of angles and all sorts of zig-zag lines. either of wind or rain. may also be carried into the Rustic—not a style proper. and freedom gives a wide range of choice. they provoke an association of that kind. and entail infinite trouble upon the owner or occupant. which are. grand and imposing when applied to public buildings or extensive structures. in ruder structures.acrobatplanet. they certainly are not in good taste. or in their construction commit a barbarism upon any acknowledged system of architecture. are the benefits of a parcel of needless gables and peaked windows. stretching off in any and almost every direction desired. And so long as they do not absolutely conflict with true taste. although they may add to the variety of style. and either of them. as hardly to mark the line of division." When we say. branching off sometimes into what is termed the English cottage style. and left to the 24 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and utility is fully subserved.—these constitute good-taste. good taste is not violated. in their proper character. are better fitted than any which we have noticed. The modern. of comfort. or approaches some particular style of building recognized by the schools. openness. and in greater harmony with surrounding objects. we have applied them in the examples submitted in this work. would give a tone of dignity. for dwellings and structures appurtenant to them. is "the manner or form of a thing. we hazard no impropriety in introducing them for the imitation of country builders. above the eaves of a house. to country or even city dwellings. and a foot or two of increased height in a wall. in the repairs they subject him to. more distinctly. which. the most massive of all. as the term is here understood. from their want of lightness and convenience. The term style. in itself—but so termed as approximating in execution or pretension to either of the above. It may or may not be in accordance with good taste. Its general lightness. Intimately connected with this subject. modified somewhat in pretension and extent. such as the Italian. except to create expense. verandas. Many of the designs recently introduced for the imitation of builders. either as distinct specimens of acknowledged orders. as the Doric. to the most agreeable and harmonious arrangement in architectural effect. in any of its 51 modifications. the Romanesque. "that is a stylish house. it is almost impossible to .

It should also be at least seven and a half feet high in the clear. and if it be even nine feet. while the kitchen section. pointing the stranger to its various accommodation. It should also be relieved from an appearance of monotony and tameness. that is not too much. at their junction with the main building. a library. Tinsel ornament. and the particular kind of storage for which it is required. and a scullery and closets. The front of a house should be the most imposing and finished in its architecture of any one of its parts. and all the other etceteras which belong to a perfect family homestead. (a stone drain is the best and most durable. each part of the house speaks for itself. well set in good hydraulic cement—or cement alone. to two. and the rooms in it well ventilated by two or more sliding sash windows in each. and show a different character of occupation from that of the main structure. Yet a square house is not so agreeable to the eye as an oblong. or more usually occupied apartments. in its occupation. and least of all should it be indulged in by the farmer. 25 Free PDF Ebook at http://www.special indulgence of the town builder. and wear a style and finish accordingly. its entrance the most highly wrought. The lawn or "dooryard. or gewgaw decoration should never be permitted on any building where the sober enjoyment of agricultural life is designed. It is its own finger-board. or such as will hold water. or sitting-room for their own leisure and comfort. a kitchen for the cooking. a house should stand somewhat broader on one front than on another. The side rooms. The most conspicuous part of the garden should show its shrubbery and its flowers. THE CONSTRUCTION OF CELLARS. for the parents 53 and the little ones. This last will make it rat proof. and should wear a more subdued appearance. devoted to every purpose which the farm requires. The walls of a cellar should rise at least one." should be the best kept ground on the place. and show its constant business occupation. A square form of house will afford more area within 52 a given line of wall than any other sensible form which may be adopted. where a family of any size occupy the latter. and unless some motive of greater convenience control otherwise. and from that. and give it thorough ventilation at all times. of which the farmer is well aware. retreat or advance a sufficient distance from a continuous line. according to size. as indicating the luxury of the establishment—for even the humblest habitations have their luxuries. It can never add consideration or dignity to the retired gentleman even. Thus.acrobatplanet. who have a parlor for their friends. as well as cool in summer. position. than the cellar. an ample bedroom and nursery. If the soil be compact. dwelling on his own cultivated . Such arrangement would be complete in all its parts. and such wings should. should have a good. that here dwells a well regulated family. require less pretension in both architectural effect and finish. as to relieve it effectually from an appearance of stiffness. or even three feet above the level of the ground surrounding it. and lasting. Thus. and openly lead off to where men and farm stock meet on common ground. by one or more wings. it should be thoroughly drained from the lowest point or corner. It is useful for storing numberless articles which are necessary to be kept warm and dry in winter. as plainly as if written on its walls. when the stone cannot be obtained—all the better. should distinctly show that they are subservient in their character. the several grades of apartments stretching beyond it. and the drain always kept open. No room attached to the farm house is more profitable. The side or rear approach should be separated from the lawn. and saying as significantly as dumb walls can do. according to circumstances. satisfactory. And so with the grounds. substantial stone-walled cellar beneath it. or rubble stones. so that a draft of pure air can pass through. Every farm house and farm cottage.) and if 55 floored with a coat of flat.

was scarcely able to warm the large living-room. and to deny one's self so indispensable an element of good health. VENTILATION OF HOUSES. a strong arm. Care. they will usually abandon their work. and in all cases the cellar wall should be full three inches thicker than the wall resting upon it. by the side of the wall. should be set up sufficiently high from the surface to admit a cat or small terrier dog beneath such floor. may answer this purpose when stone cannot be had. will exclude them from the foundations and walls of all buildings. are enjoying a strong and serene old age. be he farmer or of other profession. Nothing can be more annoying to the farmer than these vermin. Every out-building upon the farm. having a wooden floor on the 56 ground story. in their old-fashioned.acrobatplanet. With these suggestions the ingenuity of every builder will provide sufficient guards against the protection of vermin beneath his buildings. He is resolved that his children shall encounter no such hardships. and project at least six inches on each side. Pure air. This keeps them in place. perhaps. the sprinkling of snow which he was accustomed to find upon his bed as he awaked in the morning. is the cheapest blessing one can enjoy. and if the house walls above be built of stone or brick. therefore. as they allege. is little short of criminal neglect. In the cellar of every farm house there should be an outside door. and that himself and his excellent helpmate shall suffer no such inconvenience as his own parents had done. the foundation stones in the wall should be brought to a joint. and a trifling outlay in the . with a flight of steps by which to pass roots and other bulky or heavy articles. or if that be not practicable. let it be devoted to what purpose it may. from the very pains they so unwittingly take to ward off such afflictions. with its well piled logs. to which a wagon or cart may approach. with shivering sympathy. if circumvented by the projecting stones. and no doubt suppose. and the wide. when of stone. and enough of it. in the work of ventilation. by neglecting the simplest of all contrivances. This is indispensable. and renders them less liable to the ingress of water and vermin. or these hiding places will become so many rat warrens upon the premises. and a determined spirit. He possibly remembers.For the purpose of avoiding these destructive creatures. in a severe climate. sets about the very sensible business of building a house for his own accommodation. Looking back. to the days of his boyhood. as the usual manner of rats is to burrow in a nearly perpendicular direction from the surface. when intending to undermine it. in any event. All cellar walls should be laid in good lime mortar. with openings for them to pass in and out. yet to them not 26 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. they should be well pointed with it. when laid upon this bottom course. who now perhaps. should be taken to leave no haunt for their convenience. or the sheerest folly. either to receive or discharge them. from the wall itself. On arriving at the bottom. open fireplace which. two feet is better. invite disease and infirmity. finding himself prosperous in life. The thickness of wall should not be less than fifteen to eighteen inches. he remembers the not very highly-finished tenement of his father. Plank of hard wood. where the family were wont to huddle in winter. and prove most destructive to the grain and poultry. Yet thousands who build at much needless expense. for the protection of their health and that of their families. that had found its way through the frail casing of his chamber window—but in the midst of all which he grew up with a vigorous constitution. or hard burnt bricks. 57 A man.

" we replied. but while in the vein. charged with poisonous gases. or through the tight stoves. where too. and all sorts of bodily afflictions shortly make their appearance. unless it be to give warmth to the hall—and even then a snug box stove. What can be the matter? The poor creatures never dream that they have been breathing. for that matter—we buttoned our coat up close and high. He employs all his ingenuity to make every joint an air-tight fit. 'a plain farmer. where the cold cannot penetrate. A short time ago we went to pay a former town friend a visit. around the room were mahogany sofas and mahogany chairs. no seat to rest in. and walked the room. winning introduction to the good cheer that is to follow. children. must crave another word. are further warmed and poisoned by the heated flues of an air-tight furnace in his air-tight cellar. We rang the door bell. or a panel out of every door in the house. in great joy. 27 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. yet still attend to his town engagements. it stirs you up. They have little to do in the farmer's inventory of goods at all. A farmer's house should look hospitable as well as be hospitable. as he entered. if drooping. all too fine to sit on—at all events to rest one upon if he were fatigued. we entered a lone room. if cold. The blessed light of day was shut out by crimson and white curtains. There is no mistake about it. it is an air-tight concern throughout. and giving out about the same degree of genial warmth as the said eunuch would have expressed had he been there—an emasculated warming machine truly! On the floor was a Wilton carpet. which cannot escape through the tight walls. but then if a window is opened it will chill the rooms. or over the tight windows. mother. when she lived in town. and premature death—all for the want of a little ventilation! Better indeed. and on the center 60 and side tables were all sorts of gimcracks. costly and worthless. In short. disease. too fine to stand on. in most cases. and the broadest. my friend!" said he. decomposed air. no nothing like a farm or farmer about you. in the morning the air of their sleepingrooms feels close." We have slightly discussed this subject of firing in the farm house. and it only needs your charming better half. in a previous page. "but dear me. No fire to warm by.acrobatplanet. headaches. where he could indulge his agricultural and horticultural tastes. that instead of all this painstaking. and that will give them colds. most cheerful look of hospitality within doors." of the latest "premium pattern.' We have done so. father. with an "air-tight" stove. and thus they keep on in the sure course to infirmity. A servant admitted us. with the blazing wood upon it. and enjoy the quietude of the country. "Glad to see you—glad to see you. why so buttoned up. and where so. or to any other country house. the windows set into air-tight frames. if he can afford it." and thus they start. and upon the mantle piece. the better appendage. an air-tight stove is introduced into every occupied room which. Hearing our friend coming up from his dining-room below. for hour after hour. with its pipe passing into the nearest chimney is. held up by gilded arrows. thrust our hands into our pockets. all on the high road—if persisted in—to a galloping consumption. If such melancholy catastrophe be avoided. is an open fire in the chimney fireplace.' and 'take a quiet family dinner with you. His family breathe an 58 air-tight atmosphere. as if you were going? What's the matter?" "My good . He therefore determines to have a snug. and is the welcome. not soon to be changed. In short. the doors must swing to an airtight joint.uncomfortable tenement. than in heating furnaces or "air-tights. perchance. whom we always admired. colds. there was no comfort about the whole concern. Fuel is usually abundant with the farmer. and here find you with all your town nonsense about you. catarrhs. "you asked us to come over and see you. in cold weather. its 59 benefits are much better dispensed in open stoves or fireplaces. close house. He had removed out to a snug little farm. We are not disposed to talk about cellar furnaces for heating a farmer's house. was his cellar kitchen—that most abominable of all appendages to a farm house. and they wonder what is the matter! They live so snug! their house is so warm! they sleep so comfortable! how can it be? True. to take down her enameled harp. and leaving overcoat and hat in the hall. both outside and in. looking as black and solemn as a Turkish eunuch upon us. a pane were knocked out of every window. It thaws you out. which sooner or later conducts them to an air-tight dwelling. they eat their food cooked in an "air-tight kitchen witch. and to perfect the catalogue of his comforts.

our old schoolfellow. cottage furniture. civil people they appeared. Jocelyn was right glad to see us. we'll go down to farmer Jocelyn's. good-humored face. We continued.—Mrs. much better for all purposes. we talked of the fruit trees and the strawberry beds. too—and while they were in. and essayed to explain. who was a pattern of good housekeeping. and into their common "keeping room. his staid and sober wife. and knew the best apples all over the country. Patty's two rosy-cheeked daughters. a capital time! To cut the story short. that their good farming neighbors didn't call on them the second time—kind. truly. for an upper kitchen and its offices. no.and play 'In fairy bowers by moonlight hours. town-fed people in existence. and you. Now just turn all this nonsense in furniture and room dressing out of doors. but wound up with a sad story. and before we left they had exchanged ever so many engagements. and were truly excellent people.' to convince one that instead of ruralizing in the country. nor to affect ignorance. we talked of the late elections. Simplicity is all you require. has an open fireplace. my good friends. and I will stay.—in short. and all will go 'merry as a marriage bell' with you. A long digression. in a little time"—for they both loved the country. and equal simplicity in your furniture and appointments. Mrs. However. with whom we had romped many an innocent hour in our childhood days. but so true a story. natural country life before you are aware of it. and all together.acrobatplanet. But what has all this to do with ventilation? We'll tell you. and let some of your town friends have it. almost as pretty as their mother was at their own age. with a blazing wood fire on a chilly day. and with their healthy. and Patty. and one so apt to our subject can not well be omitted. for why." said we. acted as though afraid to sit down. was to teach Nancy and Fanny. that showed him no malice. To live on a farm. and they now live like sensible country folks. "Well. "you have altogether mistaken country life in the outset. But they looked a little surprised that such "great folks" as their new neighbors. while she. the exercise of which gave us all activity and good spirits. you had gone a peg higher in town residence! No. to knit a bead bag and work a fancy chair seat! And then we had apples and nuts. are worth the envy of all the dyspeptic. told Mrs." too. indeed. but walked the pleasant half mile that lay between them. Patty to learn her new friend to do half a dozen nice little matters of household pickling and preserving. and his 'latch string is always out. shall go with us. than this. Jocelyn's house was ventilated as it should be. and take a dinner of bacon and cabbage with him. and provided his house with simple cottage furnishings. He began to think he was not exactly in character. and cream cheeses. not in carriage and livery. His good wife came in. and this evening we'll go down to your neighbor Jocelyn's. all of the very best—for Jocelyn was a rare hand at grafting and managing his fruit trees. in turn. frolicksome children. Get some simple. it is neither necessary to be vulgar. He also threw a neat wing on to the cottage.—for he was 28 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and Mrs. "I came to spend the day and the night. and how they proposed to live. which both he and his wife afterward declared was infinitely better. should drop in so unceremoniously. comfortable.'" Our friend was petrified—astonished! We meant 61 to go it rather strong upon him. we had a long talk of their family and farming arrangements. nor clownish. We talked of farming. but now began to understand it. and we will see how quietly and 62 comfortably he and his family take the world in a farmer's way. for all house-keeping purposes. but still kept a frank. at 63 less than half the cost of the other. the embarrassment soon wore off. he lives up in sunshine. they were dreadfully embarrassed. We had. our friends couldn't . in manners. and afraid to stand up. how they had furnished their house. to chat away an evening. and you will settle down into quiet. and her currant tarts. N—— how she made her apple jellies. was quite as glad as he. If he does occupy a one-story house. N ——." We did go. We listened to his story. the next spring our friend sent his fancy furniture to auction. Jocelyn.

passing into conductors leading off through the garret. living apartments. Some builders prefer an air register to be placed in the chimney.. either admitted or created within them. and labor-saving. or made at the gables. more in accordance with a good and correct taste in the outward appearance of the house itself. an opening of at least sixty-four square inches should be made in the wall. as well as these. and contiguous as may be to the principally-occupied apartments. in the country. within 29 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and in its fine architectural appearance and finished appointments. All such details as these should be planned when the building is commenced. inconvenient. or a square or oblong opening for that purpose. as a rural residence and first-class farm house. In a stone or brick house. It is situated on his farm. at pleasure. For the admission of air to the first floor of the house. to keep it pure and dry. thoughtful man. fresh air in sufficient quantity may usually be admitted through the doors. conducted by the chamber ceiling overhead. rather ornamental than otherwise. as below. in appearance. at the floor. and expensive. his object should be to spread over. The several rooms of a farm dwelling house should be compact in arrangement. and so up into the garret. more convenient. near the ceiling. All this is a simple matter. One of the best ventilated houses we have ever seen. may be left in the base board. every room in the house. and so pass off the heated air. three miles out of the city. is an objection to this latter method. without particular expense or trouble. and closed or kept open. rather than to go deeply into it. Esq. so that the several flues may be provided as the building proceeds. but directed it throughout. in its . and in addition. near the ceiling. by smoke escaping through it into the room. 66 The general introduction of cooking stoves. even to the closets. for that purpose. who planned and built his house himself—not the mechanical work. and for inner rooms. or closets. they are sometimes incommoded by the summer heat which penetrates them. opening more or less. We repudiate cellar kitchens.a methodical. for which any builder can provide. if not thoroughly done. damp. unhealthy. Every closet is ventilated through rolling blinds in the door panels. at pleasure. 65 Where chambers are carried into the roof of a house. and other stoves and apparatus for warming houses. against which these air registers may be required. In sleeping rooms and closets. and that put us in mind of the story. from which apertures of escape may be left. to any extent. or under-ground rooms for house work. they may pass off into the openings of the partitions. and leading into an air flue. is not often excelled. This heat can best be obviated by inserting a small window at each opposite peak of the garret. to pass into the garret. but the liability to annoyance. as the doors leading outside are usually opened often enough for such object. or climb high in the air above it. and the other may be made. under the roof. INTERIOR ACCOMMODATION OF HOUSES. is that owned and occupied by Samuel Cloon. should be so arranged that a current of air may pass through. as being little better than a nuisance— dark. or wire screen. above the chambers. and covered by a wire netting. Such arrangement is cheaper. In living rooms. or by a blind in a window. and saw that it was faithfully done. Such opening may be filled by a 64 rolling blind. a small space may be left in the walls. To be perfect in its ventilation. over the fireplace or stove. when doors may not be left open. one or more of the lower panels of the door may be filled by a rolling blind. of Cincinnati.acrobatplanet. a special opening through the walls. And in all rooms. altogether. Ground. by which the outside air can circulate through. can hardly be necessary. which will continually ascend. being the cheapest item which the farmer can devote to building purposes. is passed off at once by flues near the ceiling overhead. and foul air.

we would always recommend. Yet even there they may be oftentimes properly so placed. whether we should pull down and rebuild the chimneys 68 altogether.the last twenty years. unless extraordinary ventilation to such rooms be adopted also. than when only partitioned inside to the common point of outlet. and although the cooking stove or range be required—which. who. which we acknowledge to be a great acquisition in comfort as well as in convenience and economy. An illustration in point: Fifteen years ago we purchased and removed into a most substantial and well-built stone house. In the construction of the chimneys which appear in the plans submitted. has been carried to an extreme. we set to work a bricklayer. and the flues carried up separately to the top. that when the wind was in some quarters the fires had to be put out in every room but the kitchen. with their hallowed associations. and to try an experiment was the cheapest. Every fireplace in the house (and some of them had stoves in. blow the wind as it may. simply built over each discharge of the several flues a separate top of fifteen inches high. in this wise: The remedy was perfect. to lighten female labor—it can be so arranged as not to interfere with the enjoyment or convenience of the open fire. In southern houses they are not so necessary. are made. and the whole expense for four chimneys. than the style of its chimneys. not only in shutting up and shutting out the time-honored open fireplace and its broad hearthstone. and assist greatly in warming the rooms through which they pass. Where holes. and kept apart by a partition of one brick in thickness. and other principally occupied rooms.) smoked intolerably. fires being required for a much less period of the year. earthen. with its cheerful blaze and glowing embers. Aside from the architectural beauty which a group of chimney flues adds to 30 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and on every side of . but giving out that genial warmth and comfort which. with their twelve flues. We have just shown that independent chimney tops pass off their smoke more perfectly. We have had no smoke in the house since. so much so. the chimneys of which were constructed with open fireplaces. thus. and carried out independently. and.acrobatplanet. or into chimneys. such holes should be at least one to two inches larger than the pipe itself. or attempt an alteration. stone. as we had given but little thought to the subject of chimney draft. to those who are accustomed to its enjoyment. as in no other way will they rid the house of smoky rooms. The main flues of the chimney conducting off the smoke of the different fires. The great charm of the farmer's winter evening is the open fireside. CHIMNEY TOPS. where they all met upon the same level surface. the great majority of them— particularly those for northern latitudes—are placed in the interior of the house. They are less liable to 67 communicate fire to the building. not wastefully expended. as chimneys in past times usually were built. was not twenty dollars! The remedy was in giving each outlet a distinct current of air all around. except in the chimneys. smoked less—although it did smoke there—than the others. After balancing the matter in our own mind some time. as good luck would have it. and in all rooms where stoves are placed. for the passage of stovepipes through floors. Nothing adds more to the outward expression of a dwelling. The chimneys can't smoke. in addition to the fireplace. partitions. on any and all occasions. open fireplace in its kitchen. is a pleasure not made up by any invention whatever. the open Franklin should take place of the close or air-tight stove. regardless of other arrangements which ought to go with them. A farm house should never be built without an ample. which. should be built separate. but also in prejudice to the health of those who so indiscriminately use them. or iron thimbles should be inserted. under our direction. and fires are daily required.

as carrying out more fully our ideas. and are so distinguished. requires 71 a more compact. and not affecting the shape. The northern dwelling. as comporting with the design of the house itself. They denote good cheer. while one in the middle states may assume a style of arrangement between them both. Another object we have had in view . and more particularly that of the farmer. The style and arrangement of these chimney groups may be various. are of little consequence. we are no professional builder. The particular form or style of work we have not directed. may be superseded by another fashion of to-morrow—immaterial in themselves. and so long as they please the taste or partialities of those adopting them. and a generous hospitality within— features which should always mark the country dwelling. which in these. 69 social firesides. both inside and outside of buildings. Some of these fashions are the result of climate. The object has been. although some of them are made for extremes of north and south. that he may have his own notions on the subject. however. yet expressive in their arrangement. and a free toleration in all such matters. is found in almost every village and hamlet of the land. we have seen that they are really useful.the building. in description. change. because. All minor subjects we are free to leave to the skill and ingenuity of the builder—who. and these. our superior. each in its place.acrobatplanet. prevail among builders in different sections of the United States. But as the point to which we have endeavored to arrive will be but imperfectly understood without illustration. and in equally good taste. that although 31 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and any good architect can arrange them as fitted to such design. thus far. only. and connected arrangement than that of the south. We give a wide berth. snug. and in which. square-sided piles so common throughout the country. must ever maintain their relation with the use for which it is intended. fortunately for the country. to make ourselves understood as desiring to combine utility with commendable ornament in all that pertains to them. the chief subjects connected with farm buildings—sufficiently so. and are not disposed to raise a hornet's nest about our ears by interfering in matters where every tyro of the drafting board and work-bench assumes to be. and some of 70 education. arrangement. Our illustrations will show them of different kinds. it need not be offensive to say. PRELIMINARY TO OUR DESIGNS. and that so frequently. which are generally cheap in construction. each fitted for their own climate and country. as before remarked. and accommodation of the building itself. to give hints. rather than models. There are. in the designs submitted. some of conventional taste. both in general construction and in the detail of finish. to both outside and inside work. and probably may be. and simple. that what is laid down as the reigning fashion to-day. and not be subject to the caprice and government of such as profess to exclusive knowledge in all that appertains to such subjects. and of course free from the dogmas which are too apt to be inculcated in the professional schools and workshops. beyond the formal. will be fully discussed. to give to every farmer and country dweller of moderate means the opportunity of possessing a cheap work which would guide him in the general objects which he wishes to accomplish in building. and in the explanations which follow. which should not be disregarded. Modes and styles of finish. we shall submit a few plans of houses and outbuildings. With them we are not disposed to quarrel. The designs we are about to submit are intended to be such as may be modified to any section of the country. We are quite aware that different forms or fashions of detail and finish. with its dependencies and appointments. We have discussed with tolerable fullness. In many cases they are immaterial to the main objects of the work. certain matters of principle. we trust.

although not copied. suitable for a farm of twenty.clever in their way. The L. and in New York. brick. fifty. with improvements and additions of our own. our plans will be submitted. may find in them something worthy of consideration. made less—thus affording very tolerable chamber room in the roof story. The body of this house is 40×30 feet on the ground. juts out two feet from the side of the house to which it is attached. Buildings somewhat in this style are not unfrequently seen in the New England States. We here present a farm house of the simplest and most unpretending kind. with the confidence that they will answer all his reasonable purposes. and intended to be altogether plain. as models which he may adopt. containing the wash-room and wood-house. the lower rooms nine feet high. Beyond this is a building 32×24 feet. and we offer them to the owner and future occupant of the buildings themselves. Therefore. to the plates for the roof. not without the hope that he even. or rear projection.acrobatplanet. they are sometimes apt to be mistaken. or an hundred acres. or wood. . FARM HOUSE. without assuming to instruct the professional builder. and a like roof 32 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. yet agreeable in outward appearance. from some farm houses which we have known there. and wagon-house. This house may be built either of stone. The style is rather rustic than otherwise. piggery. and the plan is in fact suggested. and 12 feet high. the roof intended for a pitch of 35°—but. Design I. the pitch of the roof being the same. with posts 7½ feet high above the floor of the main house. partitioned off into a swill-room. by an error in the drawing. and of quite convenient arrangement. with 10 feet posts.

and in any event are little better than a continual annoyance. The chimney is carried out in three separate flues. is placed on the front of the house. Outer blinds may be added. and another at the side door. to protect them from the . rustic porch. (76) 33 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. comfortable. with lattice work. are liable to be driven back and forth by the wind. but it is usually better to have these inside. sufficiently marked by the partitions above the roof. and fitted with simple sliding sashes with 7×9 or 8×10 glass. may run. by way of drapery. or sheltered. and home-like expression so desirable in a rural dwelling. 75 12×8 feet. as they are no ornament to the outside of the building. even if fastenings are used. thus combining that sheltered. The windows are hooded. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. if required. A light.acrobatplanet. over which vines.with the others.

in the highest part of the roof story. and trammel. 34 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. Between the two . also having a window. and from the inner side of these rooms each has a door passing to the kitchen. This last apartment 77 is 22×15 feet. is a sink. at the ends. is a bedroom.GROUND PLAN. with a window in one corner. over which is a single sash-light across. is a buttery. dairy-room. with a separate flue for each front room. 9×6 feet. with a broad fireplace containing a crane. and a single two-sash window in front. The chimney stands in the center of the house. on the rear side of the kitchen. into which a thimble is inserted to receive the stovepipes by which they are warmed. or otherwise. landing above. or chief living room. and a "patent" heater. or closet.acrobatplanet. lighted by a double. and a spacious family oven—affording those homely and primitive comforts still so dear to many of us who are not ready to concede that all the virtues of the present day are combined in a "perfection" cooking stove. from which a door opens on either side into a sitting-room and parlor. and adjoining this is a 78 side entry leading from the end door. At the inner end of the stairway is the cellar passage. lighted by a window in rear. The front door. in rear of the stairs. At the further corner a door opens into a snug bedroom 9×8 feet. as may be required. if they should be adopted into the peaceful atmosphere of this kitchen. On one side of the kitchen. and giving the greatest possible convenience in both living and house-work. opens into a hall or entry 9×7 feet. Between the entrance door and stove. thus making every room in the house accessible at once from the kitchen. with a waste pipe passing out through the wall. plain window. Adjoining that. at the outer end is the chamber passage. Opposite the chamber stairs is a door leading to the wash-room. hooks. although there is a chance for these last. 9×6 feet in area. each 16×15 feet. are in each room a small pantry or closet for dishes. if required. 9×8 feet.

which every farmer ought to do for himself. in front. &c. which are in the adjoining pen of same size. and harness pegs around the walls. the rooms eight feet high. &c. 16×10 feet. at the head of the stairs. &c. is a workshop and tool-house. if desired. should be the garden. a chimney and boiler in one corner. 16×14 feet. which last should always stand in full sight. which is 30×16 feet. unless they are cut short by inner partitions. and other articles. In rear of the main dwelling is a building 44×16 feet. is lighted by a small gable window inserted in the roof. the clothes-yard. and other small farm implements. The cellar is 7½ feet in height—and is the whole size of the house. shovels. in area. making his beehives. The open area in the center. In this room he will find abundant rainy-day employment in repairing his utensils of various kinds.. The building beyond. lighted by a window on each side. in lime mortar. and adjoining the wood-house. axes. and facing the most frequented room—say the kitchen—that they can be 80 35 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. A door passes from this wash-room into the wood-house. The roof story is partitioned into convenient-sized bedrooms. augers. a chest of working tools. with feeding trough. these several apartments make a very complete and desirable accommodation to a man with the property and occupation for which it is intended. Next to this is the wagon-house. in which is set a boiler. with a window in one end. Adjoining these. and a sink in the corner adjoining. and also storing his hoes. hencoops. with a water-closet in the further corner. with broad doors at the end. and a low chamber overhead for storing lumber. open in front.. as may be required. and an entrance door near the wood house. the cellar should be kept dry by a drain leading out on to lower ground. The posts of this building are 10 feet high. as they are in the largest chamber.. and having a window in one end and a door in the rear. &c. and the bee-house. meal. the ceiling running down the pitch of the roof to within two feet of the floor. and serves as a lumber room. laid with good stone wall. If not in a loose. leading to a yard. grain. . The washroom floor is let down eight inches below the kitchen. at the rear. In this is a joiner's work-bench. On one side and adjoining the house. Altogether. or other wood work. and two or more sash-light windows at the ends.CHAMBER PLAN. or sandy soil. &c. doing little rough jobs. This room is 7½ feet in height. with a window at the end. 79 contains a swill-house 16×12 feet. with storage for swill barrels. gravelly.. a bed may occupy a part of it. with a flight of steps leading outside. and is 16×14 feet. such as saw. potatoes. necessary for repairing implements. if necessary. &c. &c. with a chimney. place for sleeping. in rear of the kitchen. occupied as a wash-room and wood-house.acrobatplanet. for feeding the pigs.. and fireplace. to give closets. hammers. grain. or..

Within doors it is a work-shop too. Luxury is a quality more or less consulted by every one who 82 builds for his own occupation on a farm. not far distant. rather than ornamentally and profusely supplied. In western New York this house and attachments complete.200. No pretension or frippery whatever. of wood. It is not here proposed to give working plans. may be made to cost fifty to one hundred per cent. This is an exceedingly snug tenement. A few shrubs of simple kind—some standing roses—a few climbing ones. the wood-house. by the increased style. between scantily-accommodated houses. usefully. In regard to the surroundings. of a single room on the main floor. the body of stone. In the summer season. The shop out of doors. the lofts of the carriage or wagon-house and work-shop may be occupied with beds. when a larger number of laborers are employed. 36 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. may be built and well finished in a plain way for $1. they should be treated under the suggestions already given on these subjects. to give a higher finish. when the material for construction is once settled.seen daily during the swarming season. just as one would wish to look upon as a simple. to over-build. and that room badly appropriated and arranged. For the lowest sum. who are competent to give estimates for the cost of any given plan. that we present. Every feature should wear a most domestic look. MISCELLANEOUS. a syringa. but not so near as to cover the house. with a cheap wash to color it. A neat garden. as those performing household duties may keep them in view. and a little patch or two of flowers near the front porch. Indeed. and battens. over an economical estimate. and thus a large share of the expense of house building for a very considerable farm be saved. or particular directions for building any design even. is not always dry. and a lasting coat of mineral paint both outside and within. the question of expense is readily fixed. but the latter amount would give good work. and be made comfortable in the several rooms. perhaps. or elsewhere. and approach to this . but they have too much room. and the whole expression is given. nor always warm. where all who live in it are laborers in the field or household. from the main every-day approach by vehicles—not on the highway. Not that these latter houses either are too good. this design may be most conveniently adopted. a lilac. to a nicety. &c. There is always labor and occupation for the family. If built altogether of wood. but it is exceedingly well aired and lighted. a moderate court-yard in front. therefore but little room is wanted for either luxury or leisure. a snow ball. but on the farm road or lane—the business entrance. or estimates. in fact.acrobatplanet. and a place where industrious people dearly love to labor. The family inhabiting it in winter may be well accommodated for sleeping under the main roof. Trees should be near. On a farm proper. or even five hundred acres. and as good builders are in most cases at 81 hand. or it may be kept within bounds by a rigid adherence to the plan first adopted.500. and the farm house should be fully occupied. to $1. we acknowledge. the latter would preponderate. free access to the end door. the whole may be finished and painted for $800. or too convenient for the purpose for which they were built.. and in fact. and the tendency in building is constantly to expand. The material for construction best suited to the circumstances and locality of the proprietor must govern all those matters. if we were to draw the balance. As a tenant house on a farm of three. with the same accommodation. with grooved and matched vertical boarding. and everything around and about it should be of the same character. the lumber and work would be of a rough kind. or manner of its finish. wagon-house. The same sized house. on our old farms. unpretending habitation. while they can at all seasons take their meals. and breathe an air of repose and content. in the general business of the farm. which should also lead to the barns and sheds beyond. with the exception. and houses with needless room in them. the whole establishment is a workshop. four.

sufficient to grow the family vegetables—a few plain fruits—a posey bed or two for the girls—and the story is told. and which. It is therefore a total waste of money to build a house on a tenant 83 estate anything beyond the mere comfortable wants of the family occupying it. that presented a most comfortable and life-enjoying picture—residences once. be they ever so rough and homely. to a profound veneration. the plow is introduced. made to look comfortable. besides the females engaged in the household work. nor in the ease and facility of doing up the house-work within it. happy. We confess. FARM HOUSE Design II. in the barns and other out-buildings—all in a cheap. and farm furniture. Not early accustomed to them. As a farm business house. defaced. that expensive houses on their estates entail expensive repairs. Give a larger space for these things—anything indeed. and to furnish the room necessary for the accommodation of the crops. It has a subdued.(and that not a large one. or to the manner of using them. stock. So. we have not known it excelled. with a moderate display of skill. All these accommodated. and sacrificed to the commonest uses. if not affection. Notwithstanding these drawbacks. and should be given to the homestead.acrobatplanet. in its occupation. and a trifle of labor. A kitchen garden. for the humble farm house. too. with the grounds for domestic purposes around the house. yet will accommodate a family of a dozen workmen. in the character and construction of the . and your choice grounds are torn up. indeed. may be made equal to the main purposes of life and enjoyment for all such as do not aspire to a high display. they misappropriate. and which. tidy. and who are content to make the most of moderate means. field culture is adopted. too. unpretending look. as truly American in character. therefore. and pay little attention to the purposes for which the owner designed them." but under the hands of taste. a corn or potato patch is set out. quiet. has proved to be one of exceeding convenience to the purposes intended. a cheerful. We can call to mind many instances of primitive houses-log cabins even—built when none better could be had. the best rooms in the house. and sufficient. of those who swayed "the applause of listening senates. and that continually. perhaps. do we know a better. and the requirements of the house are ended. home-expression may be given.) for some regular business purpose. with perfect 37 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. This is the plan of a house and out-buildings based chiefly on one which we built of wood some years since on a farm of our own. for elegance—and ten to one. Many tenants are careless of highly-finished houses. Owners of rented farms should reflect. yet substantial way.

closet. which latter should be 8 or 10 feet in width. 2½ feet. the roof of which runs out at a less angle than the others—say 30° from a horizontal line. and affording ample 88 accommodation on each side to a pigeon-house or dovecote. Over the wagon-house is a gable. with 10 feet posts. for a buttery. and such pitch of roof (which last runs at right angles to the main body. and roof lodging rooms in the rear. and the roof running in the same direction. The style of this establishment is of plain Italian. giving partially-upright chambers in the main building. is the other extension spoken of. or kitchen part. wagon-house. with a projection on the rear 34×16 feet. The small gable in the front roof of the main dwelling relieves it of its otherwise straight uniformity. with a lean-to on the last of 15×10 feet. 87 is one story high. ample room is afforded them for a most comfortable mode of life. and become one at the roof. running off by way of L. 8 feet wide and 10 feet long. 36×22 feet. The rear. Beyond this. The roofs are broad. on the side given in the design. 36×16 feet. in the main body. The veranda may appear more ornamental than the plain character of the house requires. and paint. if required. are drawn together as they pass through the chamber above. but it may be made perfectly tight by closer shingling. The shallow windows. the roof has a pitch of 35° from a horizontal line. This addition should retreat 6 inches from the line of the main building. or wood. for receiving hay. or dairy. with 12 feet posts. for a piggery. and the style of finish conformed to the other. The kitchen chimneys pass up through the peaks of their respective roofs. also. for wash-room. and should be in like character with the other. The lower end windows of this part of the house are hooded. one and a half stories high. with posts 9 feet high. at right angles. leaving one foot above the upper floor. yet in keeping with the general style of the house. or if occupied by a farmer with but his own family around him. 38 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. the floor of which is on a level with the last. and affords a high doorwindow opening on to the deck of the veranda. to three or four hundred acres. and may be made of ordinary bricks. with a blind window swinging on hinges. The front chimney is plain. The main body of the house is 14 feet high to the plates. which gives them a snug and most comfortable appearance. and a coat of sanded paint laid upon it. on the same front line. The two parts of the chimney. while the deck or platform in the centre may be roofed with zinc. in the rear. affording a good lumber room over the workshop. occupied as a workshop. over the wings of the veranda give it a more cheerful expression. or lumber-room. or tin. and laps on to the main roof. the lower rooms are 9 feet high. of 26×18 feet.) as will carry the peak up to the same air line. is a building 50×20 feet. thus relieving the long. for the kitchen and its offices. stable. and of the same pitch.acrobatplanet. and store-room. In front of this wash-room. The rooms on this kitchen floor are 8 feet high. This house is. Attached to this is the wood-house. but any superfluous work upon it may be omitted.convenience. uniform line of roof. and protect the walls by their full projection over them. Adjoining the wood-house. and 18 inches on the rear. where not covered by the wood-house. as may be required. and may be equally applied to stone. as they appear in the front rooms. or bracketed. or all three combined. brick. is an open porch. or sheltered by a cheap roof. The several rooms in this building are 8 feet . The veranda roof is flatter than that of the house. under the roof. and a still further addition to that. and hay storage over the wagon-house and stable. as a chamber garret. and a wash-room. and sufficient for the requirements of a farm of two. of same height as the wash-room.

and 39 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. The front door of this house opens into a small entry or hall. or recess. A door leads into a room on each side. or this closet may be dispensed with for the use of this parlor. is used for dishes. and lighted and closeted in nearly the same manner. in the middle of the house. or closet adjoining. lighted on one side by a double window. On the left is a parlor 22×15 feet. This parlor is 9 feet high between joints. with shelves to dry dishes on. and lighted by the half of a double window. In the passage to the sitting-room also opens the stairway leading to the chambers. with a large closet in one corner. and given up to enlarge the closet which is attached to the bedroom. and beneath. and in front by a single plain one. On one side of the fireplace is a closet. and sitting-room. which is lighted by a low sash of glass over the front door. &c. near the kitchen door. of 6×4 feet. having an ample fireplace. Another door opens directly into the kitchen. that part of which. besides the L running up next to the kitchen. three feet deep.acrobatplanet. 9×6 feet. 13×10 feet. furnished with broad shelves. This room is 14×6 feet. The sitting-room is opposite to the parlor. next the kitchen. behind the chimney. The fireplace is centrally placed on one side of the room. and a single window near the fireplace. 19×15 feet. From the kitchen also opens a closet into the front part of the house for any purpose needed. is used for milk. is a flight leading down cellar. while the part of it adjoining the window beyond.INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. which accommodates with its other half the dairy. This adjoins the parlor. in which may be placed a table or broad shelf to receive hats and coats. A door also opens from this recess into the closet and dairy. being 36×22. next the outside wall. The cellar is excavated under the whole house. and lighted by a window in the side. It is 24×16 feet in area. and a spacious oven by its side. At one end of this kitchen is a most comfortable and commodious family bedroom. closets. with its hooks and trammels. The kitchen is the grand room of this house. cold meat and bread cupboards. It is lighted by a double window at one end. A passage leads by the side of the oven to a . as will be seen by referring to the floor plan. and at the inner end of the hall is a recess between the two chimneys of the opposite rooms. and another closet at the inner end of the room. with shelves. at the other end of it. Two 91 windows may be inserted if wanted..

The small one near the stairs may contain a single bed. This is large. This has a flight of stairs leading to the lumber-room above. A door also leads from the wash-room into the wood-house. as the case may be. is a small piggery. from which a flight of rough stairs leads to the hay loft above. one light deep by four wide. joins the workshop. which. 6×4 feet. should be separated from the lawn. for the convenience of a pig or two. may. there seldom being too much shelter of this kind on a farm. and an outer door. The establishment 94 should stand some distance back from the traveled highway. A flight of stairs. and the subject must be treated as circumstances may suggest. through the rear wall of this wood-house leads a door into the garden. 40 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. The yard. 92 and to the kitchen chamber on the other. or front door-yard of the dwelling. The small chamber leading to the deck over the porch. and by an outside door. The chamber plan of this house is commodious. if required. A chimney at the far end accommodates a boiler or two. and cultivation. into which last a door also leads. in which last are stalls for a pair of horses. in front of these last named buildings. and a fireplace. into a passage 4 feet wide and 12 feet long leading to the wash-room. or be occupied as a large clothes-closet. which may be required for uses other than the main labors of the farm—to run to market. by steps. shrubbery. in a continuous front line. leading to a store-room or area. Next to the work-house is the wagon and tool-house. Beyond this room.34×16 feet. The unfrequented side of the house should. Through this. leading to a garret over head on one side. 8 feet high. This water-closet is lighted by a sliding sash window. which may serve as one. see description of Design . the parlor and sitting-room. may be expected to require more commodious quarters. In this passage may be a small window to give it light. so that each horse may be led out or in at an easy angle from them. If the room be not all wanted for such purpose. or may not be occupied as a sleeping room. Beyond the stalls is a passage 4 feet wide. with a hipped roof. and be decorated with such trees. and at its extreme angle is a water closet. A pair of horses for such purposes should always be kept near the house. with glass windows. furnishing one large room and three smaller ones. a part of it may devoted to other necessary uses. and faces the partition. from the kitchen. For the furnishing of this apartment. On to the wood-house.acrobatplanet. in which is the oat bin for the horses. running off from both the wood-house and workshop. 18×16 feet. The door leading out from these stalls is 5 feet wide. They may be lighted by one or more windows in the rear gable. an indispensable appendage to farm convenience. from which it falls. also. stands next the dairy. leaving the main kitchen for a family and eating room. under either the sitting-room or kitchen windows. already described. or clothes-yard. as may be most convenient. however. also spread over the stable adjoining. by way of lean-to. The main business approach to this house should be by a lane. of 8×10 glass. or more laborers' bed-chambers. and flight of steps outside. carry the family to church. The horse-stalls 93 occupy a space of 10×12 feet. and one substituted for the other. or farm road opening on the side next the stable and wagon-house. In the wash-room are two windows. In this wash-room may be located the cooking stove in warm weather. because a plentiful store of wood is needed for a dwelling of this character. through this passage to the porch. on one of this size. above which is the hay loft. No general rules or directions can be applicable to this design beyond what have already been given. which are always required to consume the daily wash and offal of the house. or elsewhere. A door opens. A sink stands adjoining the chimney. may change their occupation. The plans of these will be described hereafter. and not for the general pork stock of the farm. a door leads into the kitchen chamber. as the taste of the owner may direct. with racks and feeding boxes. If more convenient to the family. The wood-house stands lower than the floor of the wash-room.

or preferences as to the mode of finish to their houses and out-buildings. Different sections of the United States have their own several local notions. The out-buildings attached. and these should all be made easy of performance. This house will appear equally well built of wood. either ornamental. are altogether matter-of-fact duties. as buildings of this character ought to command a corresponding share of attention with the grounds by which they are surrounded. Its cost. This may be done either by "plugging. without any departure from truth or propriety— always keeping in mind the object for which it is intended. and demanding infinitely less labor and pains to care for. and the last item should be. and painted or stained a quiet russet color—a color natural to the woods used for the finish.500.000 in the interior of New York. and durable. and the manner of inside finish to a house has a great deal to do with all these labors. There is no poetry about common housekeeping. and just enough to teach the active mistress and her daughters what a world of scrubbing and elbow work they have saved themselves in the enjoyment of a plainly-finished house. The material for a country house should be strong.acrobatplanet. and protect it afterward. Therefore all mouldings. because the distance at which the farm house is usually located from the 96 residences of building mechanics. or all of the designs that may come under our observation. or wood. may be applied at large. flanked with a garden. and in character for the occupation to which it is intended. but the whole may be substantially and well built of either stone. At this point of our remarks a word or two may be offered on the general subject of inside finish to farm houses. or brick house. labors indispensable too. for $2. to a single parlor. MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS. The material should be durable. an every-day vocation for somebody. in their wear. and always will be. or fruit and vegetable. beyond that for either town or suburban houses. not recreation. fashion.000 or $1. nor climate should be arbitrary. doors—all should be plain. In all these matters neither taste. Of course. and alterations. education. brick. fly. driving a plug of wood strongly into the mortar courses. because unnecessary. or spare bedchamber a little ornamental work be permitted. if it can be. renders it particularly troublesome and expensive to make . None but the initiated can tell the affliction that chiseled finishing entails on housekeepers in the spider. or other circumstances. and finish. and gewgawgery in interior finish should be let alone in the living and daily occupied rooms of the house. the inside walls should be firred off for plastering. Cooking. Bases. sashes. brick. where each may be had at equal convenience. or stone. scrubbing. and other insect lodgment which it invites—frequently the cause of more annoyance and daily disquietude in housekeeping. for the reason that the interior of the farm house is used for purposes of industry. may be $1. as little of dust. architraves. and make themselves comfortable. which may be applicable more or less to any one. In a stone. It should be strong. let even that be in moderation. chisel-work. with the same conditions as to finish. The work should be simple. and in amount beyond the ordinary housekeeping requirements of a family who have little to do but merely to live. and as seldom to be done as 97 possible. or finish. therefore what is here said. in construction. If. quite as appropriate and satisfactory in appearance. will add $400 to $600. instead of one full of gingerbread work and finery. in finishing up and perfecting the labors of the farm. although the first item always was." that is. sweeping. into which the firring should be 41 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. it is intended to do all the work plain. The manner of finish may be various. according to materials. and fly dirt as possible. showing. casings. and usually considered work. and the work simple in its details. because cheaper in the first place. house-cleaning. according to climate. washing. than real griefs from which we may not expect to escape.

and dry. The wood work on the outside of the latter should always be heavy. or beadwork should be permitted on the outside work of a country house at all. and only a sufficient quantity of ornamental tracery of any kind. we would recommend it in preference to any other. It may then be washed and scrubbed off as easily as an upper floor. not a hard finish. so that a stranger. or by laying a strip of thin board in the mortar course. to which point within. tidy. rather than to play the apothecary by giving any of the thousand and one recipes extant. in its absence. or chesnut are the next best. and thus make a more snug and compact arrangement than to have separate buildings for those objects. It makes close work too. and leaves no room for rats.acrobatplanet. This is better than blocks laid in for such purpose. A farm house. or. fawn. apples. the whole floor surface should incline. more so than paint. so perfectly in keeping was it with propriety. or chesnut. and we would prefer hemlock. No elaborate carving. or sandy soil. or uncouth expression. It should. or to the thin strip of board will split and wedge it closer to the mason work of the outside wall. if the soil be compact. and the bottom be floored with water-lime cement. drab. the entire length of each wall. either white. or black walnut. and well-ventilated cellar is one of the most important apartments of the farm house. is. leaving 2½ feet of cellar wall above ground—8 feet in all. If white oak cannot be had. or rafters. or brick work. and costly. to break the monotony of a plainness that would otherwise give it a formal. joists. neither drain nor flooring will be required. such as light blue. should wear the same appearance as a well-dressed person of either sex. after an interview. Sound white oak. In light frame-timbers. This will make it hard. girts. while nothing is so sweet. floated off as smoothly as may be. oak is inclined to spring and warp. the soap may be 42 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. well-lighted. and as it admits a space—no matter how thin—so that no outside damp from the walls can communicate into. A part of the wall above ground should be covered by the excavated earth. be unable to tell what particular sort of dress they wore. a block may get loose by shrinking. if not otherwise provided. and the smoke-house flue be carried up into one of the chimney flues above. but the nails which hold the firring to the plug. which is fine. and of this. should. and much less expensive. strong mortar. Our remarks upon the strength and durability of material in house-building do not apply exclusively to brick and stone. In the design now under discussion. can furnish a proper recipe applicable to the place and climate. and cheerful to the working rooms of the house as a lime wash. a cellar is made under the whole body of the house. durable. for the composition. (which holds a nail badly. and household vegetables. A wash-room. meats. green. whereas. pine. say 5½ feet. and relieve it of what some would consider a pasteboard look. such as studs. or russet. If the building site be . and then papered throughout for the better rooms. The cellar may be used for the storage of root crops. by brick or stone partitions. either cheap or expensive. the other varieties of oak. perhaps the best material for the heavy frame-work of any house or out-building. and in a gravelly. Even the ashhouse and smoke-house may be made in it with perfect 100 convenience. This is an important item. because it is effectually bound by the stone. in which. be well drained from some point or corner within the walls into a lower level outside.) whitewood. Paper gives a most comfortable look to the rooms. it answers all purposes. or through the inner plastering. also. and in character with the walls. ventilated. in fact. so far as being sunk into the ground is concerned. and sloped off to a level with the surrounding surface. On such subjects we choose to prescribe. or softened down with some agreeable tint. which holds a nail equally as well. A partitioned room will accommodate either a summer or a winter dairy. and for which 98 every professional painter and whitewasher in the vicinity. Wood is included also. The inside. and partition walls should be of coarse. of 99 any degree. to give the shade desired. or other vermin. mice. may be lighter than in one of stone or brick.nailed. and the commonly-used rooms whitewashed. and when to be had at a moderate expense. and dry. The outside finish to a wooden house. and this cellar is a shallow one. But in all cases the cellar should be well lighted. not looking at them for the purpose of inspecting their garb. and a multitude of conveniences may be made of it in all well arranged farmeries. giving an air of firmness and stability to the whole structure. A commodious. there is much difference in the kind.

and accommodation for a family of a dozen or more persons. and from that to 2 feet for a stone or brick one. bracket fashion. as may be most desirable. in which is a door-window leading from the upper hall on to the deck of the porch. 16×10 feet—not the chief entrance front. The style is mixed rural Gothic. is 24×32 feet. as choice or convenience may direct. All cellar walls should be at least 18 inches thick. Over this porch is a small gable running into the roof. But. yet in keeping with the character of the farm. in the perspective. say two and a half feet. containing the entrance or business front. A complete cellar wall should be thoroughly laid in mortar. but this is sometimes dug out by rats. The roof has a pitch of 30 to 40° from a horizontal line. The main body of this house is 42×24 feet on the ground. of the second class. a portico. where the hips of what would otherwise be the gables. to five hundred acres. and well laid in strong lime-mortar. and easy of access to the ground level on one side. and other extraordinary labor when fire heat is to be used. This 104 gable has the same finish as the main roof. We here present the reader with a substantial. Unmortared cellar walls are frequently laid under wooden buildings. for even a wooden house. thus showing the upper story not full height below the plates. one and a half 43 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. yet highly-respectable stone or brick farm house. FARM HOUSE Design III. and from which the best view from the house is commanded. and is apt to crumble and fall out otherwise. may properly be made in a cellar. practically.acrobatplanet. The chamber windows are two-thirds or three-quarters the size of the lower ones. and there are usually sufficient occupations for the cellar without them.made. such room is better on a level with the main floor of the dwelling. to break its monotony. Italian. The rear wing. The chimneys pass out through the peak of the . the tallow and lard tried up. and one and three quarter stories high—the chambers running two or three feet into the roof. and the farmer's standing and occupation. as a general rule. but rather a side front. On the long front is partly seen. by brackets. but running two to four feet into the garret. and broadly spread over the walls. showing the ends of the rafters. and bracketed. plain. which leads into a lawn or garden. suitable for an estate of three. connect with the long sides of the roof covering the front and rear. and pointed with lime-mortar inside. particularly when on a sloping ground.

which adjoins the parlor side of this hall. and also gives variety and relief to the otherwise too great sameness of roof-appearance on the further side of the establishment. It has also a fireplace near the hall 44 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. to light the chambers. That end over the workshop. The chimney is thrown up strong and boldly at the point of the roof. from which a well finished and sizeable door leads into the principal hall. and spread over the walls both at the eaves and gable. In the chimney. This hall is 10 feet high. the main entrance front to this house is from the wing veranda. As has been remarked. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. and next the wood-house. but hipped at one end. are drawn together in the chambers. and connects with the long building in the rear. with a low. Opposite the entrance door is the door leading into the parlor. if this method of warming should be adopted. thus showing only one escape through the roof. The gable to this wing is bold. and gives it character by the breadth of its roof over the walls. which. and farther along is the staircase. may be inserted a thimble for a hall stovepipe. and one on the front facing the lawn.stories high. The wood-house in the rear of the wing has a roof of the same character. The parlor. In the front and rear roofs of this wing is a dormer window. under the upper landing of which a door leads into a dining or sitting-room. and lighted by a full-sized window at the front end. and affords room and light to the lumber room over the shop. In front of this is a porch or veranda eight feet wide. is 18×16 feet. hipped roof. as may be determined. into which a door leads from the hall. and the strong brackets by which it is . shows a bold gable like the wing of the house. or garden. with two windows on the side. indicating the every-day uses of the fireplaces below. as are all the rooms of this lower main story.acrobatplanet. although distinct and wide apart in their location on the ground floors. shown in perspective. with a pitch of roof not less than 35°. in the same proportion as the roof to the main body. which has the same description of roof. 24×8 feet in area.

Another door. (which. which they keep so clean and tidy. for certain events not yet whispered of. a door leads into a room 18×12 feet. &c." and who extend a generous hospitality to their friends. also stands next to the entry. with the outer kitchen. richest gifts. with oven. and George. a door leading up a flight of stairs into the wing chambers. or family room. "well to do in the world. How delightfully look the far-off mountains. 16×16 feet in area. thus adding to its retired and private character. By another door. 6×5 feet. in which . is another door into the wash-room. and Robert.door. accommodates this room at the end. this leads to the kitchen. an open passage. broad stair of the flight of cellar steps. and lighted by a low. At the further angle is a door leading to an entry or passage on to the portico. which is lighted by three windows. And we need not go far. as this dwelling is intended for substantial people. and lighted by two windows. as may be required. to the left. 7×5 feet. 9×8 feet. or look sharp. for. the shining river. An ample fireplace. by doors leading from this wash-room. or dairy-room. or wash-room. and the milk-room are also accessible direct. or the nearer plains. with closets full of nice bedclothes. &c. is an every-day outer door. near the last.. may be placed a tier of narrow shelves. a door connects with a dining-room of the same size. The cellar and chamber stairs. or small sitting-room. and we are made to love them. In this wash-room is a chimney with boilers and fireplace.acrobatplanet. are other rooms for the daughters Sally. This passage opens into the back kitchen. under the staircases. also. and through this door. This milk. beyond the passage. is lighted by a window in the end. by which the occupied rooms connect with the lawn or garden. is another door leading down cellar. and from the hall. or prairies. a liberal provision of sleeping chambers is given to the main body of the house. is 18×16 feet. The chamber plan will be readily understood. and Nancy. having a window in one end. stealing through the meadow! Aye. &c. Through the rear wall is a door leading into a pantry. and near to that. and beyond that. leading out under the front hall stairs to the rooms of the main building. Opposite the parlor. A door also leads from that passage into a best pantry.. they must have their rooms—and good ones too. towels. and tea-table comforts. are sufficiently high for the purpose. for they are God's best. or the wimpling brook. table linen. one-sash window over the door. in the front kitchen. 45 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. at that point. for choice crockery. or wash-room.) is a passage leading to the kitchen. E is the entry just mentioned. The parlor chamber. and. leading into a small entry. passing by the upper. intending to be "somebody in the world. and Fanny. sweetmeats. in that passage. singing away through the valley. or left more open for the accommodation of the "work folks. Next to this milk-room door. At 108 the farther angle of the kitchen is still another door. if any people are to 109 be well lodged. six feet square. by a door in the side. or spare one. A fireplace is on the inner side of 107 this room. And then there are Frederick. Besides this. opening into a passage four feet wide. A closet. and requires no particular description. library." as occasion may demand. This is lighted by two windows. one of which looks into the wood-house. which is the best. Under the wing veranda. why not those who toil for it? All such accommodation every farm house of this character should afford. fine stalwart boys coming into manhood. but quite sure to come round. and a fireplace. and lighted by a short sash." one day or another. and has a closet of 6×5 feet. which may be occupied as a family bedroom. near the point of intersection of the wing with the main body of the house. The space over the wing may be partitioned off according to the plan. enjoy them all. with roomy sideclosets. and closet of the same size as the last. which also communicates with the kitchen.. and possibly Mary and Elizabeth—who want their own chambers. from the lawn porch of this snug farm house! The distant lake. over the outside door. one light deep. and another door leads to the hall. on the other side of this entry. and connects also. This portico may be made a pleasant summer afternoon and evening resort for the family. But. leads into a dairy or milk-room. to see the best men and the best women in our state and nation graduating from the wholesome farm house thus tidily and amply provided.

in the separation of these out-buildings. and the outer kitchen. labor. and any other storage required. and the additional cost of this insurance is not a tithe of what the extra expense of time. 18×16 feet. such as privies.000. requires. Or. and that for the morning fires may be deposited in it for immediate use. It may be an objection in the minds of some persons to the various plans here submitted. and is 36×14 feet in size. There should be no pinching in its proportions. but separated to some distance from the living rooms. and houses for the stock. not causing it to smoke from that cause. in our estimation.The wood-house strikes off from the back kitchen. They are an effeminacy. This completes the household establishment. ought never to be there. 12×5 feet each. (we do not now speak of barns. the hayloft. if more within the means and limits of the builder. a part of the wood-house may be partitioned off for a wash-room. such connection is altogether the most convenient and economical. and at a fireproof distance from each other. as they are more genteelly called. carry it up so high that it will be above the eddy that the wind may make in passing over the adjoining wing. and accessible by sheltered 112 passages to them. that in their use and occupation. depending somewhat upon the material used. At the far end of the wood-house is the workshop and tool-house. from which a chimney may pass up through the peak of the roof. This objection is conceded.) from the main dwelling. if the size and convenience of the family require it. but it may be also built of wood. and 46 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. Adjoining this is the wagon and carriage-house. The first-named sum would build the whole in an economical and plain manner. only. Over this. on the rear corner next the wash-room. The wood-house should adjoin the outer kitchen. to $3. or wash-room is a sort of slop-room. but we take it. 6×4 feet. At the further end is the water-closet. A bathing room may be partitioned off 8×6 feet. also. lighted by two windows. small grains. because the fuel should always be handy. the whole establishment is liable to be consumed. but many years observation have convinced us. with two stalls. Next to this is the swill-room and pigsty for the 110 house pigs. and a door to enter it from beneath the wood-house. We are well aware that such is not always usual. and the variety of objects with which it may be connected. as its position. retreating two feet from its gable wall. The only drawback is in the case of fire. and over it a loft for farm seeds. to let in hay for the horses. in the passage next the door. If so. which in a country establishment. There has. and we leave the surroundings to the correct judgment and good taste of the proprietor to complete. have no business in a farmer's house. and the finish put upon it. with a flight of stairs leading to the loft. by modern builders. that it is the business of every one not able to be his own insurer. particularly. although not laid down in the plan. and exposure is caused to the family by having the out-buildings disconnected. but every part carried out in its full breadth and effect. The workshop. In this loft are swinging windows. of necessity. is the lumber and store-room. crept into the construction of such dwellings. The cost of the whole establishment may be from $2. An appendage they should be. and the farmwork proper.000. and above. Stone and brick we have mentioned as the proper materials for this house. and introduced by city life. These last. that we have connected the out-buildings immediately with the offices of the dwelling itself. MISCELLANEOUS. to have his buildings insured by others. while the latter would complete it amply in its details. partly over the stable which stands next. if required. as described in the last design. some . if it occur in any one building.acrobatplanet. which. stretching. or water-closets. and the night wood. too.

as to see a country dwelling-house all perked up. may have their piggery and hen-house. and gives an air of comfort and repose to the whole—a family expression all round. 113 standing. as seen in some parts of the country. and daily or weekly taking it on to the manure heaps of the barns. literally. would. and fatted in three or four months. also. to this connection. without offence—all constituting a part of the household economy of the place. &c. Thus. On the score of neatness. A pig can always be kept. Each one shelters and protects the other. no bar can be raised to their adoption. they form a combination grateful to the sight.acrobatplanet. without any dependencies about it? No. and convenient at unseasonable hours for farm labor. which could not well be carried to the main piggery of the farm. domestic look to the whole concern. which encloses a kitchen garden. therefore.. in the foreground. as being chiefly used in stormy weather. come the carriage or wagon-house. dishwater. by itself. appendant to that. and these too. the kitchen wing. nothing is more congenial to sound physical condition than the occasional smell of a stable. A few fowls may also be kept in a convenient hen-house. may be removed by a cleanly keeping of the premises—a removal of all offal immediately as it is made. to eat up the kitchen slops from the table. each structure is appropriate in its way—and together. the minor offices of the house. and of course a stable for a horse or two for family use. as we have placed them. covering in. should come the workshop. on account of filth or vermin. unless the old-fashioned filthy mode of letting the hogs run in the road.small tool-house naturally comes next to that. parings. or depositing it at once on the grounds where it is required. 47 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. from the wash of the house. to accommodate a pig or two. In point of health. the chief structure. not within the immediate contiguity to the occupied rooms of the dwelling. Then by way of setting up. always accessible at night. and stable. or the breath of a cow. also. as practically having a separate character. if desired. in any well-regulated farmer's family.. out of doors. First should stand the house. All objections. What so naked and chilling to the feelings. the wood-house. These out-buildings . or family orchard. FARM HOUSE. should be a small pigsty. and a trough set outside the door-yard fence. more conveniently. were adopted. partially on their own account. Next to this last. &c. next in grade. no. In the same close neighborhood. refuse vegetables. carriage-house. by way of tapering off to the adjoining fence. give a comfortable. with a little grain. but still subordinate to the house and its requirements. as a complete rural picture.

the main roof of the house is made to appear like a double. sustaining the plate and finish of the roof above. either of which arrangements may be permitted. at the choice of the builder. By a defect in the drawing. and conform to the style of the main roof of the house. Retreating three feet from the kitchen side of the 118 house runs.acrobatplanet. and affords light to the central garret. if required. This veranda has a hipped roof. or the chambers may run a foot or two into the garret. 30×18 feet. The walls of the house may be 18 to 20 feet high below the plates. This building is one and a half stories high. and deeply drawn. or small sleeping rooms. at right angles. beaded and finished. with 12 feet posts. the roof a pitch of 30 to 45°. The front door opens from a veranda 28 feet long by 10 feet in depth. or braces from near their tops. breaking at the intersection of the gable. This roof should project at least one foot beyond them. 48 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. or truncated. The chimneys are carried out with partition flues. or hanging style of gable-roof is designed to give a more sheltered effect to the elevation than to run the end walls to a peak in the point of the roof. although it may be adapted to a domain of the same extent and value. one story high. with brackets. The cellar wall may show 117 18 to 24 inches above the ground. sheltering eaves. This is perhaps a more ambitious house than either of the preceding. or closely shingled. projecting two feet outside the line of wood-house and kitchen. on the ground. as shown in the plan. The height of the main walls may be two full stories below the roof plates. a wing 30×18 feet. which may be covered either with tin or zinc.Design IV. the roof of the veranda is not sufficiently thrown over the columns. and may be topped with square caps. and the eaves should project two to three feet. Adjoining this wood-house. The Swiss. if preferred. and roof in the same style and of equal pitch as the others. By an error in the . with ten feet posts. ceiled underneath—is shown in the design. in its ample finish. broad veranda. The roofs on each side are a straight line of rafters. and spacious out-buildings. These columns are plain. and open in front. yet. may give accommodation to a larger family indulging a more liberal style of living than the last. as climate may demand. with a veranda eight feet wide in front. may be shown. or store. dropping eight inches from the doorsill. which juts over the columns in due proportion with the roof of the house over its walls. The roof of these two is of like character with that of the main building. continues a wood-house. but brackets on the ends of the rafters. The gables are Swiss-roofed. or wood. the ground level of which is 18 inches below the floor of the wing to which it is attached. This is not so intended. or gambrel-roof. particularly in a northerly climate. painted. The main building is 44×36 feet. is a building 68×18 feet. or hanging roof over the ends. thus giving them a most sheltered and comfortable appearance. one and a half stories high. over the walls. so as to perfectly shelter the mouldings beneath from the weather. brick. Next in rear of this. The small gable in front relieves the roof of its monotony. and be pierced by windows in each end. The material of which it is built may be of either stone. as necessity or taste may demand. which will afford an upper garret. It is plain and unpretending in appearance. as the taste or convenience of the proprietor may suggest. A plain finish—that is. and at right angles with it.

On one side of the lower hall. From the rear of this hall runs a flight of easy stairs. The front door from the veranda of the house opens into a hall. lighted by three windows. and 11 feet high. thus giving it access to the kitchen and rear apartments. a door passes into the kitchen. or fireplace. 18×8 feet. 49 Free PDF Ebook at . amply lighted by sash windows on the sides. the pipe passing into a chimney flue in the rear. On the hall side of this room. A door passes from this parlor into a rear passage. 18 feet square. and 11 feet high. 18×16 feet in 119 area. and on the side opposite the parlor. a door leads into the rear passage and kitchen. and warmed by an open stove. GROUND PLAN. a door leads into a parlor.acrobatplanet.INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. a door opens into the sitting or family room. and three windows. into the upper or chamber hall. At the back end of the front hall. or entry. having an open fireplace. and over the door.

and edibles necessary to be kept at a moment's access. the innermost passage leads into a family bedroom. opposite that leading down cellar.acrobatplanet. This back entry is lighted by a single sash window over the outside door leading to the porch. for additional coolness in the summer season. to hot-water. at their discretion. From the rear hall. shutting off a part from the everyday uses which the family requires. in case the requirements of the family demand it. and the floor reached by steps. convertible to any use which the mistress of the house may direct. is a liberal open fireplace. and connected by a door. and well lighted by a window of convenient size. and still their eyes not be away from their subordinates in the other departments. 8×4 feet. drawers. may be sunk three or four feet into the ground. be made the chief family or living room.22×16 feet. Another door. 16×14 feet. conveniences of 50 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. 6×4 feet in dimensions. If necessary. also. In this kitchen. first. so near to the kitchen. and drawers. to the sink. which is 16×5 feet. also 14×8 feet. Opening into the wing from the kitchen. and warmed by an 121 open fireplace. this room may have a partition. A door at each end of these stairs. is the dairy. and the last one described converted into a library. if necessary. and stored away. Attached to this bedroom is a clothes-closet. and thus to the other interior rooms. lighted by a window in each outside wall. and the other little domestic accessories which good housewives know so well how to arrange and appreciate. with an ample oven by its side. Next the outer door. A flight of stairs. and shelves. is a small closet opening from it. which. which is 120 lighted by two windows. is a large closet and pantry. or stove. at pleasure. or milk-room. and a sink in the outer corner. table furniture. to the cellar below. In this room. with shelves. leads to the rear chambers above. leads into the back entry of the house. or through the rear outer door to the back porch. under them. tub. or . or nursery. This room is 14×8 feet. in which are stored the dishes. in rear end of the hall. under lock and key. and perfected. Next to this. in drawer. In this are ample shelves for the milkpans. CHAMBER PLAN. supplied with a table. and a corresponding flight. all the nice little table-comforts can be got up. and which may. opens into the passage through the wing.

A screen for the window gives all the privacy required. and stands quite eighteen inches above the ground level. thus arranged in the city-country houses. gypsum. Unnecessary. into the adjoining garden. 18×14 feet. A passage from the kitchen also leads into this. by a short pipe. which may be divided into two apartments. and all the slopping and dripping which such accidents 123 occasion. 20×8 feet. or country houses designed for the summer occupancy of city dwellers. repair. and a door leading to a platform in the wood-house. A fashion prevails of thrusting these noisome things into the midst of sleeping chambers and living rooms—pandering to effeminacy. by any means. At the extreme corner of the wood-house. to a water-closet. always a distance of some miles from the mechanic. and if they. to moisten and invigorate the trees and plants which require it. a door leads into a bathing-room. also. and. expensive. the bathing-rooms are usually placed in the second or chamber story. into which hot water is drawn from one of the boilers adjoining. a word or two will be suggested as to the location of the bath-room in a country house. on a stone under-pinning. because there is no want of room on the ground. to say nothing of the piercing the walls of the house. and so into the yard. Out of the house they belong. powdered charcoal. But. by a hand-pump. and discharges. and under all circumstances. &c. and the water for their supply is drawn from cisterns still above them. or introducing lime. and the excavation may not be necessary for ordinary household uses. The only defence for such location of the bath-room and cisterns is. by a minute's labor with the hand-pump. and. The access is almost. through a pipe leading into the well or cistern. shrinking female is as retired as in the shadiest nook of her dressing-room. So with water-closets. and cold water may be introduced. It is let off by the drawing of a plug. because an upper cistern is always liable to leakages. and a closet beneath it. This arrangement. and the thousand-and-one vexations. a separate establishment will be required. for cleaning out. In this plan. because they are so constructed in the city. As no more convenient opportunity may present itself. and inconvenient. and a consequent wastage of water. The wash-room is lighted by two windows in rear. which is reached by steps. find their way within its walls proper.churning. and a fireplace. This counts but little. for the admission of pipes to lead in and let out the water. And on the score of economy in construction. and. for the storage of 51 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and one in front. the water is drawn from the boiler by the turning of a cock. at times. and the succeeding designs of this work. if desirable. On the other side of the chimney. or accident. in case of ill-health. at all times. are boilers. from the continual up-and-down-stair labor of those who occupy the bath. This bathing-room occupies a corner of the wood-house. expensive. In the farm house. occupied by whom it may be. at the end. To get back to our description. In city houses. if not quite as private as the other. or grassplat. In the chimney. &c. in city houses.. if anything. an oven. or with a stone cellar beneath. and inconvenient. and expense of getting to and from the house itself. or other deodorizing material. the fault will not be laid at our door. A raised platform passes from the wash-room in. or in the country house proper. as easily approachable to invalids. and the most fastidious. The vaults are accessible from the rear. or anything else required. A sink is between the two rear windows. and the whole affair is clean and sweet again. surcharging the house—for they 124 cannot. wetting. that from the cistern. by the females of the family. the plan here adopted is altogether preferable.acrobatplanet. with conductor leading outside. past the bath-room. is made chiefly from the want of room on the ground floor. 7×6 feet. a door leads 122 into a wash-room. be kept perfectly close—with their offensive odor. over the place appropriated in this. Out of this milk-room. the convenience and privacy of access to them. a door opens into a feed and swill-room. by way of plumbers' bills. and rotting out the floors. if the dairy be a prominent object of the farm. for the iron . such arrangement is unnecessary.

or distant objects. no particular instructions can be given for the manner in which this residence should be embellished in its trees and shrubbery. If necessary. from the carriage-house into it. and a passage of four feet wide. and apartments in the loft overhead for roosting. and the whole are accessible from either flight of stairs. as it is viewed from surrounding objects. or chief approach. 127 Enough. To them may be devoted a well-dug plat beneath the windows. There are a sufficiency of closets for all purposes. through which a spacious walk. with stalls for two or four horses. a snug. ETC. which are so appropriately the care of the good matron of the household and her comely daughters. graceful. These chickens may also have the run of the yard in rear. and wanting to make the most of the limited piece of ground of which they are possessed. with a flight of stairs to the hayloft above. and should be left to town's-people. the presence of water. however. to a well-arranged and highly-respectable family. and a multitude of small ornaments—so esteemed. WALKS. and. with the pigs. expensive in its care. and. But as a rule. The chamber plan of the dwelling will be readily understood by reference to its arrangement. warm house for the family chickens. the chief every-day requirements of living. in which is. The large forest trees. A door leads from this room into the piggery. A door leads from this pen into a yard. by these remarks.roots in . and worked. 18×12 feet. for cooking food for the pigs and chickens. and to spare. leading out of the carriage floor. its command upon surrounding near. unmeaning circles. from the high road. in the second place. where they will be less offensive than if confined within. that no one rule can be laid down for individual guidance. life-giving pleasures. artificial piles of rock. either in stream. or depression. a dovecote. or lake. The rooms over the wing. as affected by the adjacent lands. In one corner of this is a boiler and chimney. Next to this is the workshop and tool-house. pond. in rear. leading to the loft overhead. and a varied selection of familiar shrubbery and ornamental plants checker the immediate front and sides of the house looking out upon the lawn. Nor would we shut out. 18×14 feet. work-people. by some—should never be introduced into the lawn of a farm house. in the way of prospect. 20×12 feet. would become such a house. the beauty and odor of the flower-borders. and planted. Vines. and at less exposure than if separated.acrobatplanet. a flight of steps. or climbing roses. The surface of the ground immediately adjoining the house must be considered. or in the garden. so many objects to be consulted in the various sites of houses. 125 Adjoining the workshop is the carriage house. SHRUBBERY. where corn can be stored for their feeding. might throw their delicate spray around the columns of the modest veranda. unsatisfactory and annoying altogether. and drawing under one continuous roof. Such things about a farm establishment are neither dignified nor useful. they should always have. or the absence of water altogether—all these enter immediately into the manner in which the lawn of a house should be laid out. 18×6 feet. It is unmeaning. &c. in the first place. should be devoted to the male domestics of the family. We only object to their being strewed all over the ground. such as serpentine paths. There are. may be built.—a 52 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. is the stable. where half-a-dozen swine may be kept. throwing a protecting air around and over its quiet. in the rear. SURROUNDING PLANTATIONS. always grand. of course. and appropriate. thus completing. and tortuous. also. of such cheerful. far or near. or 126 carriage-way should wind. After the general remarks made in the preceding pages. all filagree work. the position of the house. unpretending roof. 18×18 feet. having but a stinted appreciation of what constitutes natural beauty. its altitude.

except in leading them to and from its enclosures. with a herd of filthy hogs rooting about the fences. and it is equally a sin against good taste and neighborhood-morality. It may be remarked.tussoc of plant here. too. is not here intended—should be placed in near proximity to the house. in an enclosed country. should be as . as indispensable to a finished decoration of the farm. for the convenience of collecting them. in its occupation by the stock of the farm. The road lying in front. and as cleanly kept as any portion of the enclosures. By the adoption of such a course. and although fruit trees. grapes. in which our lot in life may be cast.—and that is. or whatever fruits may be cultivated. as they are to appear when the whole establishment is completed. TREE-PLANTING IN THE HIGHWAY. raspberries. or the depredations of creatures called human. or after-thought. in different localities. should enter into the composition of the site for the dwelling. basking along the sidewalk. quinces. or accidental demands of the future. when planted on their sides. but this disgusting spectacle has so often offended our sight. for the ample use of the family —they have not yet been noticed. the entire withdrawal of any use of the highway.. uncouth. and a scattering of both everywhere. The kitchen garden. Trees shade the roads. than the running of farm stock in the highway. They lower the dignity and simplicity of the country dwelling altogether. Such may. or between the different sections of the farm. should lie on the kitchen side of the house. currants. This is frequently recommended by writers on country embellishment. for market 128 purposes. should be a prominent object near this house. out-houses. and to interest them in all the little associations and endearments—and they are many. should be placed the bee-house. &c. should be brought close under the eye of the household. that we cannot forego the opportunity to speak of it. In fact. at least. that the fruitgarden—the orchard. We are now advancing somewhat into the elegances of agricultural life. the entire composition is more easily perfected. peaches. 53 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. A decided plan of arrangement for all the plantations and grounds. toward the stables and carriage-house. blackberries. and from them should lead off the main farm-avenue. than if left to the chance designs. plums. which can be disposed of at the commencement. or 129 feeding at a huge. such as strawberries. in the outward appointments of the farm house. Another feature should be strictly enforced. birds. and nothing left to accident. to have it otherwise. for household use. also.acrobatplanet. and with infinitely greater expression of character. in the road near the dwelling. pears. The business approach to this house is. should be close by. of course. a patch of posey there. as well as apricots. if possible. A fruit-garden. All the small fruits. that their labors and swarming may be watched. apples. in those already described. hollowed log. and nothing can be more unthrifty. What so untidy as the approach to a house. gardens. It may be out of place here to speak of it. without either system or meaning. in full sight from the windows. to any extent. nectarines. and good fruits too. when properly studied out—which go to make agricultural life one of the most agreeable pursuits. should hold a strong place in the surroundings of even the humblest of all country places—sufficient. the entire economy of the farm house. Nothing looks more slovenly. where. or may not be the fact. and to protect them from destruction by vermin. if not altogether so. gooseberries. and its appendages. at the approach of an otherwise pleasant farm establishment. to engage their care and watchfulness. chance.

130 We do not. and well-conditioned home. FARM HOUSE. however. with a herd. ranged by herds and flocks. therefore. and its climate. as yet. meandered by its own stream. leaning. such as all our farmers of ample means should be. or the grand and overshadowing branches of stately . in bad weather. injurious to the crops of the adjoining field. All such should be preserved. It may look out over broad savannas. in the season of their growth. It claims no distinct style of architecture. described. Its site may be on either hill or plain—with a view extensive. and shining waters. can be more beautiful than a clump of trees in a pasture-ground. Nothing. in the distance—each. or rushing swiftly over its own narrow bed—an independent. It will answer the demands of the retired man of business as well. but is a composition agreeable in effect. Yet. and appropriate to almost any part of the country. who indulges in the elegances of country life. having seen estates equally pleasant with. perhaps. perhaps. their shade is grateful to the highway traveler. and is every way a country gentleman. two stories high. spreading anon into the placid lake. perhaps. and is. Design V. Thus they are an evil. near the road. they add grace and beauty to the domain in which they stand. and shading the crops of the last by their overhanging foliage. as full in its various accommodation as an American farm or country house may require. or a flock beneath them. it may nestle amid its own quiet woods and lawn in its own selected shade and retirement. making the first muddy. substantial.acrobatplanet. cultivated fields. 54 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. the ground story 11 feet high. indiscriminately recommend them. among his friends and neighbors. in moist and heavy soils. as among the highest and most attractive ornaments which the farm can boast.and so they partially do the fields adjoining. with the greatest care and solicitude. in a rich meadow. in light soils. over the highway fence. or lord it over an extensive park. convenient. to decide for himself. standing upon its own broad acres. dispenses a liberal hospitality. or restricted. and when of proper kinds. and all. imposing features in the rural landscape. or flourishing in its solitary grandeur. and calculated for a large and wealthy farmer. and comporting with the character and standing of its occupant. We here present a dwelling of a more ambitious and pretending character than any one which we have. and without trees on the roadside. by preventing the sun drying them. and not. 134 The main building is 50×40 feet in area upon the ground. but leave it to the discretion of the farmer.

A small cupola stands out of the ridge of the rear building. with 10 feet posts. in the rear. and running 2 feet into the roof. to shelter them perfectly from the storms and damps of the weather. properly cased beneath. but this full finish has been added. to summon the household. 55 Free PDF Ebook at http://www.its floor elevated 2½ or 3 feet above the level of the surrounding surface. The rear wing is one and a half stories high. and be no detriment to the general effect which the deep friezes of the roofs. as the case may be. with a lean-to. 12×30 feet. dropped to a level with the ground. A broad roof covers the whole. 36×16 feet.acrobatplanet. At the extremity of this is a building. with a one story lean-to range of closets. is rather florid. to gratify such as wish the full ornament which this style of building may admit. 135 may give to it. standing at an angle of 40 or 45° above a horizontal line. and small rooms on the weather side. and in it may be hung a bell. which may serve as a ventilator to the apartments and lofts below. to their duties or their meals. Such. as comporting with the taste of the day. and projecting widely over the walls. and 9 feet high. by way of an L. 60×20 feet. the lower rooms 11 feet high. 30×20 feet. indeed. The ground rooms of this are elevated 1½ feet above the ground. 8 feet in width and 9 feet high. or the field laborers. The design. as here shown. as its position may demand. and 2 feet on the others. but the cut and moulded trimmings may be left off by those who prefer a plain finish. In the rear of these is a wood-house. 2½ to 3 feet on the main building. one and a half stories high. is our own . the chambers 9 feet high. and perhaps profusely ornamental in its finish.

56 Free PDF Ebook at .acrobatplanet.

and equally accommodating. in the rear of this room may be placed an iron safe. and 10 feet wide. with a floor and two columns. Under this main hall staircase. 40 feet long. the stovepipes that may lead into them. without communicating with the nursery. and a 137 corresponding one to the parlor. These two chimneys may either be drawn together in the chambers immediately above. or business apartment. A portion of this passage may be shelved and fitted up as a closet for any convenient purpose. a table and chairs sufficient to accommodate the business requirements of the occupant. with two side windows. opposite the two front windows are occupied as conservatories. or they maybe built in one solid mass from the 138 cellar bottom. is also a door leading to the dining-room. and a right-angled flight from that to the main floor above. This door leads from the office out on a small porch. or veranda. and opening by a broad door. From the veranda. and pass out of the roof in one stack. On the right of the main hall an ample staircase leads into the upper hall by a landing and broad stair at eight feet above the floor. or a stove. or entry. as saving a world of up-and-down-stairs' labor to her who is usually charged with the domestic cares and supervision of the family. a door and stairs may lead into the cellar. and. On the left of the hall a door opens into a parlor or drawing-room. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. which is 13×4 feet in area. corresponding to that in the library. let into the chimney. although . to admit a walk immediately into them. containing three sashes. or entrance projection of 18 feet in length. marked P. 57 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. which is 26×12 feet in area. and 12 feet in width. or sides of this veranda may be so fitted up as to allow a pleasant conservatory on each side of the entrance area in winter. and. a door leads into a large closet. the floor of which is eight inches below the main floor of the house. A door may also lead from it into the small rear entry of the house. with a gable and double roof of the same pitch as the house. with blank walls on each side. 12×8 feet. On the opposite side to this is the fireplace. would not detract from its expression of dignity and refinement. or a flue to receive a stovepipe. The front of this house is accommodated by a porch. in front. the dining-room. At the farther corner of the library a narrow door leads into an office. or the kitchen. Between the chimney flues. and a door leading to the rear porch. if continued through the summer. A chimney stands in the center of the inner wall of the library. Such a room we consider indispensable to the proper accommodation of a house in the country. or it may be used as a dressing-room. with a sash inserted in the door to light it. On the opposite side of the hall is a library. 8×5 feet.GROUND PLAN. by which it communicates either with the rear porch. A single window lights the front opening on to the veranda. Near the hall side of the library a door opens into a passage leading into the family bedroom. It may have an open fireplace. The nursery is 18×16 feet in size. and thus pass directly out. which also has a side passage of 8×4 feet. a door leads into the back hall. and another into the kitchen at its farther side. with an end window. a door in the center of the front. 9×8 feet. Beyond the turning flight below. The wings. On the extreme left corner of the nursery is a door leading into the back entry. and nine feet high. may be kept in it. in the cellar of the house. whichever may be preferred for warming the room. in the main hall. On the inner side of the nursery. 20×16 feet. or child's sleeping-room. as preferred. leads into the main hall. Opposite the turning flight of stairs. or nursery. with a central. the upper half of which is a lighted sash. In case these portions of the veranda. in their separate divisions. 20 feet square. by enclosing them with glass windows. or chest for the deposit of valuable papers. with a bay window on one side. This would add to its general effect in winter. or carried up separately into the garret. and seats beneath. but they are so placed here. and the introduction of heat from a furnace under the main hall. these windows should open to the floor. already mentioned. looking out on the veranda. as saving room on the floors. two feet in the width of which is taken from the rooms on the right of the main entrance.acrobatplanet. 18×16 feet. near the outer one. lighted by two windows. in which may be a fireplace.

20×10 feet. at the end of a passage four feet wide. From the rear entry opens a door to the kitchen. the bath-room may be entered from the main kitchen. leading through the lean-to. and lighted by a window in the lean-to. including the stairs. or under them. From this closet is also a door leading into the kitchen. is the wash-room. at the gable end of 58 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. 20×20 feet. also a window. &c. and an oven by the side of it—old fashion. The poultry room is lighted at the extreme left corner. &c. required for the preparation and deposit of the lighter family stores and edibles. and opening from it into the L before mentioned. and heavy house-work. as the case may be. and leading from it by a door through a lighted passage next the rear porch. passing by the rear chamber stairs. shelves. Adjoining the granary. Next to the bath-room is a bedroom for a man servant who has charge of the fires. or. through which may be passed all the meats and cookery for the table.) A platform. by the passage next the sink. past the passage down into the cellar—or this may be omitted. with a small chimney in one corner. either for safe-keeping. lighted by a large double window at one end. At the extreme outer angle is a water-closet for the domestics of the establishment. Next to this is a granary or feed-room. (The railing is made in the cut. is the carriage-house. and cupboards. In front of this wash-room and kitchen is a porch. lighted by a window. if preferred. A door also leads out of the rear on to a platform into the woodhouse. At the extreme right corner a door leads into the rear entry—or this may be omitted. 8×8 feet.This is lighted by a large double window at the end. shut apart. Here may also be bins for storage of grain and meal. or not. This closet is lighted by a window of proper architectural size. by a broad window. This bedroom is also 8×8 feet. or table furniture. and a passage four feet wide. leads from the back door of the wash-room to a 141 water-closet for the family proper. At the further end of the stairs a door opens into a poultry house. into a yard adjoining. if thought best. with a railing. 16×10 feet. into the cellar. lighted by a large window from the porch side. A fireplace. In rear of the kitchen. Here also the kitchen furniture and meats may be stored in cupboards made for the purpose. into which warm water is drawn by a pipe and pump from the boiler in the wash-room. either up or down. and nesting places. three feet wide. It has an outer door leading on the rear porch. table. In this should be a carpenter's work-bench and tool-chest.. if preferred. as may be preferred. opens into a large dining closet of the back lean-to apartments. eight inches below the floor. get up. and leading to it by a door. This flight of stairs may be entered directly from the kitchen. or stove—the smoke and fumes leading by a pipe into a flue into the chimney. poultry.acrobatplanet. and by themselves. on which to turn. a broad stair of thirty inches in width should be next the door. The wood-house is open in front. six feet wide.. Here the thrifty and careful housekeeper and her assistants may. as the door would be at right angles with the stairs. and a window on each side of that door. is a workshop. This bath-room is lighted by a window. or stove flue is in the center wall. Another door in the rear wall leads into the kitchen. and on 139 each side a closet for plate. at pleasure. together with ease of access either to the dining-room or kitchen—an apartment most necessary in a liberally-arranged establishment. On the lean-to side is a milk or dairy-room. 8×8 feet. It has also an open fireplace. In this may be made roosts. on the opposite side. These closets come out flush with the chimney. under which is a sink. and feeding troughs. with a single post supporting the center of the roof. and small-toolhouse. and 11 feet high. fabricate. 140 The kitchen is 20×16 feet. A low door under the window may be also made for the fowls in passing to the rear yard. Still another door to the left. 20×16 feet. Leading out of this is a flight of stairs passing to the chamber above. wood. where may be placed a boiler to cook food for pigs. leading either to the chamber. Overhead is a store-room for lumber. through the rear. or whatever else may be necessary for use in that capacity. or immediate service. In such case. and fitted up with a suite of drawers. 16×16 feet. Adjoining the wood-house. for the repairs of the farming utensils and vehicles. Another door leads from the wash-room into a bath-room in the lean-to 8×8 . without coming into the passage connecting with the entry or dining-room. and arrange all their table delicacies with the greatest convenience and privacy. &c. It may be also furnished with a cooking range.

in which may be placed a stove. at any season. they can be partitioned laterally from the hall. lighted by a window over the lower rear porch. This lean-to is eight feet high below the eaves. with the doors of the carriage-house. A door leads out of the piggery into the rear yard. with two double stalls for 142 horses. is a large passage leading to the porch. for the female domestic's sleeping-room. and a door leading into the side yard. which are well closeted. As the shed roof shuts down on to the pigsty and stables. A piggery 12 feet square occupies the remainder of the lean-to in rear of the poultry-house. passing its pipe into the kitchen chimney which passes through it.acrobatplanet. At the head of this flight is a chamber 20×12 feet. and doors made to enter them. poultry. in which two or three pigs can always be kept. and carriage-house is deposited the hay. and opening by a door-window on the middle deck of the veranda. In the loft over the granary. If it be desirable to construct more sleeping-rooms. four feet wide. which is nearly level. and tinned. into the stables. over the main hall.—This is easily understood. and spacious. 143 59 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. which are 12 feet wide. and occupy the lean-to. as are also the two sides. water-tight. apart from the swine stock of the farm. for small pork. A window also lights the rear of the stables. CHAMBER PLAN.which are large doors for entrance. where range also the poultry. On either side of this upper hall is a door leading to the front sleeping chambers. or coppered. and a door leads into a further passage in the wing. A rear hall is cut off from the front. if necessary. no loft above them is necessary. and fatted on the offal of the house. From the carriage-house is a broad passage of six feet. put in there through the doors which appear in the design. which leads down a flight of stairs into the kitchen . At the head of the stairs.

all of which are already treated in the general remarks. in taking up valuable room that can be better appropriated. and hence arose. which has crept into very many of the designs of modern builders. in all cases of the better kind of dwelling. that of using the living rooms of the family. if desired. which cannot of necessity.CHAMBER PLAN. 145 and not directly communicating with such apartments. in a house for summer occupation only. by which a passage. is the sleeping-room. open hall for more than one reason. In winter. except. without encroaching upon the occupied rooms in passing out and in. in the body of the work. gives a distinct expression of superiority in occupation to the other and humbler portions of the dwelling. the hall belongs to the front. making them inconvenient of access in crossing its wide surface. the construction of furnaces. as is common in many of the large mansions of our country. under their proper heads. although accessible to them. and after full reflection we have excluded it as both unnecessary and inconvenient. how much more snug and comfortable is the house. an offset should be excavated to accommodate the cellar stairs. with its open doors. and which cannot here be noticed—such as the mode of warming it. and. the pipe passing into the kitchen chimney. probably. To be sure. and should be cut off from the more domestic and common apartments by a partition. that the chief entrance hall should not be extended through. or chief entrance. of making the main hall reach back to the kitchen itself. any hour of the day. which should be centrally placed—its rear door being of a less pretending and subordinate character. Therefore. the front door is not the usual passage for the laborers or servants of the house. as convenience or necessity may require. Thus. be in keeping with its showy and pretending character. with double doors to shut down upon it. the older plans of by-gone years. it cuts the house into two distinct parts. is preserved." lighted on both sides by a window. Such we consider a decided objection. If it be constructed under the main body only. For summer ventilation it is unnecessary. &c. outer passage. as a part of its appointments. We object to the large. as passages from the kitchen apartments in passing to and from the front hall. connecting the best rooms of the house on each side. Another thing. the hall. Back of this. It may. This is here obviated by a cutting up of the rear section of the 146 hall. Thirdly. with its ample flight of stairs in the background. but they are subject. in their continual opening and shutting. as matter 60 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. from its front to the rear. by a stove. for taking in and passing out bulky articles. In the first place it is uncomfortable. or dress part of the house. three feet in width. and walled in with the rest. we believe. possibly. Many minor items of detail might be mentioned. 16 feet square. that may be given by simply opening the front door and a chamber window connected with the hall above. It is also lighted by a window over the lean-to. for the "men-folks. altogether exclude! Our own experience. It should contain only the front flight of stairs. at the end of the passage.acrobatplanet. Secondly. shut in from the prying winds and shivering cold of the outside air. too. by some builders. which is. which the opposite outer doors of an open hall cannot. The cellar may extend under the entire house and wing. in cold weather. with a flight of steps should also be made under the rear nursery window. more or less. to be called there to admit those who may come. through which a current of fresh air will always pass. This may also be warmed. A 144 wide. and partition walls should be built to support the partitions of the large rooms above. Another objection has been avoided in the better class of houses here presented. and the continual opening of a private room for such purposes is most annoying. the experience of most housekeepers will readily concede its defects. on the side. besides the doors leading to its best apartments on the ground . be considered a striking defect in the interior accommodation of a house of this character. it is uneconomical. in subjecting the house to an unnecessary draught of air when it is not needed.

the cost of an establishment of this kind would not vary much in the application of either one of these materials for the walls. the design shows a high degree of finish. according to its locality. The rules and customs of housekeeping vary. is either altogether left out. and must be considered in the items of expenditure. and veranda finish. or cast-off furniture. 61 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. should apply to the best mechanics of his neighborhood for information on that point. in attaching its roof to the adjoining outer wall. with the plainest finish. A house of this kind must. as. which. It is hot in summer. that he must be a poor mechanic who cannot. The manner in which houses should be warmed. simply joined on to a flush surface. if well and substantially constructed. and used as a receptacle for useless traps. we answer. or made a quite unimportant part of the dwelling. it should be more extended. unfit for decent lodging to any human being in the house. and from that. we have adhered strictly to the separate rear passage. only. Such. in framing the chamber partitions so connect the opposite plates as to insure 147 them against all such difficulty. a beam or lintel of wood should be inserted in the wall over the window-opening. and admits of a better ventilation. and as a decided improvement on the designs above noticed. also. where the prices of material and labor are different from our own. in any part of the building. It is but a lumber room. influence. CONSTRUCTION. be liable to wide differences of estimate in its cost. accommodation for servants and laborers. Where lumber. The garret. stone. of what the cost of building must be. We much prefer running the chambers partially into the roof.of convenience. and from our own experience in such matters. as. of course. and each are to be had at reasonable prices.000. There should be no sham. to prevent leakage of any kind. we should not indulge in. and the material of which it is built. and the cottage chamber is one of its chiefest characteristics. the . be done for $4. to receive the casing of the window. if building for ourself. A sheltered. that the drip of the wall. at best. If the 148 walls be of brick. by carrying their ceilings higher without the expense of high body walls to the house. wherever a veranda. up to $6. and of little account any way. as such appendages usually are—even if ever so well done—leakage and premature decay is inevitable. It may. which we think gives them a more comfortable expression. also. in such matters. and this can only be had by running such apartments into the roof. A plain style of cornice. and cold in winter. and the Canadas. as we have arranged our designs. The style of finish must. enter into the estimates for certain departments of building. its cost. should be the case with the intersection of the veranda or porch roof with the wall of the house. also. or porch is adopted. seldom wanted. These. and should be approached only by a flight of steps from a rear chamber or passage. and brick abound. If it be objected that thus running the chambers above the plates of the roof prevents the insertion of proper ties or beams to hold the roof plates together to prevent their spreading. beyond its point of junction with it. Great care should be had. as in our design.acrobatplanet. Every one desirous to build.000. comfortable aspect is that which should distinguish every farm house. we should certainly adopt. any estimate here made we know cannot be reliable as a rule for other localities. which would give them an otherwise naked look. in any part of the structure—if anything. they are the best judges. or stone. nor slight. in a considerable degree. and the driving of the storms may fall over the connecting joints of the window roof. in different sections of the United States. and from experience in their own particular profession. But the roof should not be contracted in its projecting breadth over the walls. The bay-window is an appendage of luxury. As already observed. quite two inches—three would be better—back from its outer surface.

Neat and tasteful flower beds may lie beneath the windows of the rooms appropriated to the leisure hours of the family. Breadth of ground between the highway and the dwelling adds dignity and character to its appearance. the elm. so as not to interfere with its proper keeping as a genteel country residence. These various appointments. Small yards. such as not to cut up and checker its simple and dignified surface. or a spreading park. of which we cannot be the proper judge. picketed in for small uses. or to see that his previous directions are executed.acrobatplanet. will have a bearing on the expense. the maple. should lay before it. the more acceptable will probably be its finish. A luxuriant fruit-garden may flank the least frequented side of the house. 149 A sufficient time should be given. to which the smaller varieties of shrubbery may be added. yet showing its connection with the pursuits of the farm and its dependence upon it. makes ample provision for the household convenience of the family. in its varieties. A capacious kitchen garden should lead off from the rear apartments. The various accommodation appurtenant to the dwelling. AND SURROUNDINGS. may be either carried out or restricted. His horse may be at his door in the earliest morning hours. the indulgence of a considerable degree of ornament may be given. his barns. a much greater distance. thus giving it a style of its own. The various offices and buildings of the farm itself. through which a well-kept avenue leads to its front. separated from the chief lawn. without inconvenience to the owner's every-day affairs. An ample lawn.the appropriations to hospitality—all. walnut. A natural forest of stately trees. and culinary fruits. and the main business of the farm may be at some distance. and managing his estate through a foreman. and most frequented . is never a satisfactory house in its occupation. and all these shut in on the rear from the adjoining fields of the farm by belts of large shrubbery 151 closely planted. properly thinned out. nor his circumstances warrant. as in keeping with its own liberal dimensions. according to the requirements of the family occupying the estate. and if two years be occupied in its design and construction. without which its effect is painfully marred to the eye of the man of true taste and judgment. in the surroundings of his dwelling. before his breakfast hour. butternut. only by a wire fence. but at a distance from it of one hundred to a thousand yards. hickory. which the occupant of a less extensive estate would neither require. or his flocks. or even. as the oak. A house of this kind should never stand in vulgar and familiar contact with the highway. he has sufficient employment in planning his work. should be chiefly forest trees. A house designed and built in a hurry. is the most appropriate spot on which to build a house of this character. and all minor concerns should be thrown into the rear. well shaded with trees. 62 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. or park. PLANTATIONS. beyond observation from the main approach to the dwelling. or lawn. to build a house of this character. Every appointment connected with it should indicate a liberality of purpose in the founder. it should be set off with plantations of forest trees. A year is little enough. well stocked with all the family vegetables. Its occupant is not to be supposed as under the necessity of toiling with his daily laborers in the fields. however. the chestnut. if the estate on which it is built be extensive. or an early walk may take him to his stables. or the larger orchards. and give timely directions to his laborers. The trees that shade the entrance park. and the more comfort will be added in its enjoyment. or a simple railing. GROUNDS. in their proper seasons. and the prevailing local taste of the vicinity in which it is situated. but no narrow or stingy spirit should be indicated in the general plan or in its execution. have no business in sight of the grounds in front. and therefore. should be at a respectable distance from it. in the various labor-occupations of the estate. although he may be strictly a man of business. Consequently. or view his herds. But that not at hand. of the largest growth. that he may 150 inspect his fields.

or beech. If the soil be favorable, a few weeping willows may throw their drooping spray around the house; and if exotic, or foreign trees be permitted, they should take their position in closer proximity to it than the natural forest trees, as indicating the higher care and cultivation which attaches to its presence. The Lombardy poplar, albeit a tree of disputed taste with modern planters, we would now and then throw in, not in stiff and formal rows, as guarding an avenue, but occasionally in the midst of a group of others, above which it should rise like a church spire from amidst a block of contiguous houses—a 152 cheerful relief to the monotony of the rounder-headed branches of the more spreading varieties. If a stream of water meander the park, or spread into a little pond, trees which are partial to moisture should shadow it at different points, and low, water shrubs should hang over its border, or even run into its margin. Aquatic herbs, too, may form a part of its ornaments, and a boat-house, if such a thing be necessary, should, under the shade of a hanging tree of some kind, be a conspicuous object in the picture. An overhanging rock, if such a thing be native there, may be an object of great attraction to its features, and its outlet may steal away and be hid in a dense mass of tangled vines and brushwood. The predominating, natural features of the place should be cultivated, not rooted out, and metamorphosed into something foreign and unfamiliar. It should, in short, be nature with her hair combed out straight, flowing, and graceful, instead of pinched, puffed, and curling—a thing of luxuriance and beauty under the hand of a master. The great difficulty with many Americans in getting up a new place of any considerable extent is, that they seem to think whatever is common, or natural in the features of the spot must be so changed as to show, above all others, their own ingenuity and love of expense in fashioning it to their peculiar tastes. Rocks must be sunk, or blasted, trees felled, and bushes grubbed, crooked water-courses straightened—the place gibbeted and put into stocks; in fact, that their own boasted handiwork may rise superior to the wisdom of Him who fashioned it in his own good 153 pleasure; forgetting that a thousand points of natural beauty upon the earth on which they breathe are "When unadorned, adorned the most;" and our eye has been frequently shocked at finding the choicest gems of nature sacrificed to a wanton display of expense in perverting, to the indulgence of a mistaken fancy, that, which, with an eye to truth and propriety, and at a trifling expense, might have become a spot of abiding interest and contentment.


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Design VI. A SOUTHERN OR PLANTATION HOUSE.—The proprietor of a plantation in the South, or South-west, requires altogether a different kind of residence from the farmer of the Northern, or Middle States. He resides in the midst of his own principality, surrounded by a retinue of dependents and laborers, who dwell distant and apart from his own immediate family, although composing a community requiring his daily care and superintendence for a great share of his time. A portion of them are the attachés of his household, yet so disconnected in their domestic relations, as to require a separate accommodation, and yet be in immediate contiguity with it, and of course, an arrangement of living widely different from those who mingle in the same circle, and partake at the same board. The usual plan of house-building at the South, we are aware, is to have detached servants' rooms, and offices, and a space of some yards of uncovered way intervene between the family rooms of the chief dwelling and its immediate dependents. Such arrangement, however, we consider both unnecessary and inconvenient; and we have devised a plan of household accommodation which will bring the family of the planter himself, and their servants, although under 157 different roofs, into convenient proximity with each other. A design of this kind is here given. The style is mainly Italian, plain, substantial, yet, we think, becoming. The broad veranda, stretching around three sides, including the front, gives an air of sheltered repose to what might otherwise appear an ambitious structure; and the connected apartments beyond, show a quiet utility which divests it of an over attempt at display. Nothing has been attempted for appearance, solely, beyond what is necessary and proper in the dwelling of a planter of good estate, who wants his domestic affairs well regulated, and his family, and servants duly provided with convenient accommodation. The form of the main dwelling is nearly square, upright, with two full stories, giving ample area of room and ventilation, together with that appropriate indulgence to ease which the enervating warmth of a southern climate renders necessary. The servants' apartments, and kitchen offices are so disposed, that while connected, to render them easy of access, they are sufficiently remote to shut off the familiarity of association which would render them obnoxious to the most fastidious—all, in fact, under one shelter, and within the readiest call. Such should be the construction of a planter's house in the United States, and such this design is intended to give. A stable and carriage-house, in the same style, is near by, not connected to any part of the dwelling, as in the previous designs—with sufficient accommodation for coachman and grooms, and the number of saddle and carriage horses that may be required for 158 either business or pleasure; and to it may be connected, in the rear, in the same style of building, or plainer, and less expensive, further conveniences for such domestic animals as may be required for family use. The whole stands in open grounds, and may be separated from each other by enclosures, as convenience or fancy may direct. The roofs of all the buildings are broad and sweeping, well protecting the walls from storm and frosts, as well as the glaring influences of the sun, and combining that comfortable idea of shelter and repose so grateful in a well-conditioned country house. It is true, that the dwelling might be more extensive in room, and the purposes of luxury enlarged; but the planter on five hundred, or five thousand acres of land can here be sufficiently accommodated in all the reasonable indulgences of family enjoyment, and a liberal, even an elegant and prolonged hospitality, to which he is so generally inclined. The chimneys of this house, different from those in the previous designs, are placed next the outer walls, thus 64 Free PDF Ebook at

giving more space to the interior, and not being required, as in the others, to promote additional warmth than their fireplaces will give, to the rooms. A deck on the roof affords a pleasant look-out for the family from its top, guarded by a parapet, and giving a finish to its architectural appearance, and yet making no ambitious attempt at expensive ornament. It is, in fact, a plain, substantial, respectable mansion for a gentleman of good estate, and nothing beyond it. 159


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This house stands 50×40 feet on the ground. The front door opens from the veranda into a hall, 24×14 feet, in which is a flight of stairs leading to the chambers above. On the left a door leads into a library, or 160 business room, 17×17 feet, lighted by three windows. A fireplace is inserted in the outer wall. Another door leads into a side hall, six feet wide, which separates the library from the dining-room, which is also 17×17 feet in area, lighted and accommodated with a fireplace like the other, with a door leading into it from the side hall, and another door at the further right hand corner leading into the rear hall, or entry. On the right of the chief entrance hall, opposite the library, a door opens into the parlor or drawing-room, 23×19 feet in area, lighted by three windows, and having a fireplace in the side wall. A door leads from the rear side of the parlor into a commodious nursery, or family bedroom, 19×16 feet in size, lighted by a window in each outer wall. A fireplace is also inserted on the same line as in the parlor. From the nursery a door leads into and through a large closet, 9×7 feet, into the rear hall. This closet may also be used as a sleeping-room for the children, or a confidential servant-maid, or nurse, or devoted to the storage of bedlinen for family use. Further on, adjoining, is another closet, 7×6 feet, opening from the rear hall, and lighted by a window. Leading from the outer door of the rear hall is a covered passage six feet wide, 16 feet long, and one and a half stories high, leading to the kitchen offices, and lighted by a window on the left, with a door opening in the same side beyond, on to the side front of the establishment. On the right, opposite, a door leads on to the kitchen porch, which is six feet wide, passing on to the bath-room and water-closet, in the 161 far rear. At the end of the connecting passage from the main dwelling, a door opens into the kitchen, which is 24×18 feet in size, accommodated with two windows looking on to the porch just described. At one end is an open fireplace with a cooking range on one side, and an oven on the other. At the left of the entrance door is a large, commodious store-room and pantry, 12×9 feet, lighted by a window; and adjoining it, (and may be connected with it by a door, if necessary,) a kitchen closet of the same size, also connected by a corresponding door from the opposite corner of the kitchen. Between these doors is a flight of stairs leading to the sleeping-rooms above, and a cellar passage beneath them. In the farther right corner of the kitchen a door leads into a smaller closet, 8×6 feet, lighted by a small window looking on to the rear porch at the end. A door at the rear of the kitchen leads out into the porch of the wash-room beyond, which is six feet wide, and another door into the wash-room itself, which is 20×16 feet, and furnished with a chimney and boilers. A window looks out on the extreme right hand, and two windows on to the porch in front. A door opens from its rear wall into the wood-house, 32×12 feet, which stands open on two sides, supported by posts, and under the extended roof of the wash-room and its porch just mentioned. A servants' water-closet is attached to the extreme right corner of the wood-house, by way of lean-to. The bath-room is 10×6 feet in area, and supplied with water from the kitchen boilers adjoining. The watercloset beyond is 6 feet square, and architecturally, 162 in its roof, may be made a fitting termination to that of the porch leading to it.

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CHAMBER PLAN. they may be continued indefinitely in the rear. opens from the rear section of this upper hall.acrobatplanet. 12×4 feet. The main flight of stairs in the entrance hall leads on to a broad landing in the spacious upper hall. A flight of stairs leads to the hayloft above. for the grooms. 163 The carriage-house is 48×24 feet in size. and the entire structure thus appropriated to every accommodation which a well-regulated family need require. with a window in the rear wall beyond them. CARRIAGE HOUSE. In the rear of the carriage-room is a harness-room. and beyond are six stalls for horses. by which that apartment may be reached. 10×8 feet. the door of which leads both into the carriage-room and stables. On the right is a bedroom. and by the flight of rear stairs communicates with the kitchen and out-buildings. The passage connecting with the upper story of the servants' offices. 67 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. which may be duly accommodated with closets. each lighted by a window. lighted by a window. from which doors pass into the several chambers. The sleeping-rooms of the kitchen may be divided off as convenience may dictate. A garret flight of steps may be made in the rear section of the main upper hall. and a granary of the same size. If farther attachments be required for the accommodation of out-building . with a projection of five feet on the entrance front. and the upper deck of the roof ascended.

which latter may detract from the precise architectural keeping that a dwelling of this pretension should maintain. and that there are no new and striking features in them. dignified appearance without—and such. The habits of southern life demand it as a place of exercise in wet weather. and the cooler seasons of the year. it may be remarked. than otherwise. it is poorly worth while to make it less convenient. of forty years ago—would set off and give effect to a mansion of this character. unique cubby-holes. comfortably-arranged dwelling within. and in the almost daily use of his library. indispensable to the full enjoyment of a southern house. or occasionally shooting up its 68 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. The trees and shrubbery which ornament the approach to this house. would add most to the beauty. such as having the nursery. have been thus far presented in our designs. many southern people almost live under the shade of their verandas. It may strike the reader that the house just described has a lavish appropriation of veranda. than a spacious veranda. These two requisites. utility and convenience. on the main floor of 165 the house. that utility and convenience are the main objects to be attained in any well-ordered dwelling. equally as well. the weeping-elm. for business purposes. in fact. So we would arrange it. or the linden. to receive their visitors and friends. The answer to these may be. without intruding upon the lawn at all. and complicated staircases might have given a new feature to one or another of the designs. and as a light fence may be thrown off from the extreme end of the side porch. The Lombardy-poplar—albeit. with its long slender branches and hanging leaves. in location. merely for the sake of . Indeed. if suitable to the climate. attained. The side front in this design is simply a matter of convenience to the owner and occupant of the estate. of the others. where such business may be done. dark closets. as well as everything which would stand in the way of the simplest. but the recommendation of these is an offence which we have no stomach to answer for hereafter. Objections may be made to the sameness of plan. No equal amount of accommodation can be provided for the same cost. Cellar kitchens—the most abominable nuisances that ever crept into a country dwelling—might have been adopted. no doubt.acrobatplanet. a side door and front is both appropriate and convenient. or bedroom. and is. having a respectable. intricate passages. to the especial delight of some who know nothing of the experimental duties of housekeeping. that the room appropriated for the nursery. winding. and unbending trees of our American forests. and the silver-maple. so far as any one feature of a dwelling can do it. the veranda on that side may be reached from its rear end. and most direct mode of reaching the object in view: a convenient. separating the front lawn from the rear approach to the house. the horse-chesnut. either in a clump at the back-ground. as well as a place of recreation and social intercourse during the fervid heats of the summer. that when a mode of accommodation is already as convenient as may be. than the more upright. and. The weeping-willow. or family sleeping-room. comfortable 164 enjoyment. who has usually much office business in its management. or the china-tree of the south. but we have avoided them. and comport more closely with the character of this establishment. as it was equally the admiration of our fathers. we trust. in the arrangement of the lower rooms of the several designs which we have submitted. Steep. an object of fashionable derision with many tree-fanciers in these more tasty days. cheapest. and the uniformity. and should be devoted to their exclusive use. It adds infinitely to the room of the house itself. The chief front entrance belongs to his family and guests. that no feature of the house in a southern climate can be more expressive of easy. LAWN. It is a delightful place to take their meals. stiff. and a needless side-front. AND PARK SURROUNDINGS. should be rather of the graceful varieties. In regard to the first. the third and principal one—comfort—is secured. and all sorts of inside gimcrackery might have amused our pencil.MISCELLANEOUS. may be used for other purposes. as shown in the design. and the veranda gives to a dwelling the very expression of hospitality. the mountain-ash.

Such are the episodes of country house-building. if he live in the country. well-conditioned farm. as comporting with the standing and influence which its occupant may hold in the community wherein he resides. with names and dates painted upon it—name and date we have forgotten." 1784. and fidget about it for a few brief years. pretension." . Indeed. by those who affect it as a matter of ostentation or display. The man of money. not fit to stand upon the premises of any man of substantial estate. both social and political. when too young to have any established opinions in matters of this sort. may build his "villa. if he can fortunately do so without stumbling over a lapstone. its style will admit of a wing. simply. If a more extensive accommodation be necessary. in place of the rear part of the side verandas. Not that extravagance. or greasing his coat against the pans of a cook-shop. 1817. Some five-and-twenty years ago. A man of mark. For the subjects of these. in our democratic country. solid. there will be found little intricate or really expensive work upon it. a plainer mode of finish may be adopted. Strength. ENDICOTT. or any other assumption of superiority should mark the dwelling of the distinguished man. he may even 168 hang his coat of arms upon it. and incontinently took off our hat in respect to the record of so much worth." 169 As our eyes read over this list. on examination. durability. dignified. 167 a house of this appearance is a mere bauble. swung a large square sign. The style of finish given to this dwelling may appear too ornate and expensive for the position it is supposed to occupy. with a few other trees. should all enter into its composition. to the cheapest degree consistent with the manner of its construction. and ministered to the comfort of as many generations of travelers. Yet. planted immediately around it. The road passed between two of the trees. ENDICOTT. without prejudice to the prevailing sober sentiment of their neighbors. to look upon an estate which has been long in an individual family. about twenty miles west of Boston. and.acrobatplanet. but that his dwelling be of like character with himself: plain. and several great elms standing about it. If so. as a matter of course. we were struck with the stability of a family who for many consecutive generations had occupied. It is a happy feature in the composition of our republican institutions. it was a good old Puritan name." 1749. this house would still show with fine effect. and of frequent attempts at agricultural life. such wings may add to its dignity." ENDICOTT. but it is equally sure that no child of his will occupy it after him. as we were driving through one of the old farming towns in Massachusetts. indeed. practically. we do not write. than the size of this house can afford. substance. there is a fitness in it which no one can dispute. on each side. but. however—in this wise: "JOHN "JOHN "JOHN "JOHN "JOHN ENDICOTT. both in society and in public affairs. if built in a fine natural park or lawn of oaks. such as we have named. occupy a dwelling somewhat indicating the position which he holds. Still. altogether respectable. and without these elements. still maintaining its primitive character and respectability. and consequence. by the same name. He may riot within it. ENDICOTT. of any desirable length. should. 1652. we may be treading on questionable ground. without prejudice to its character or effect. and from a crossbeam. But there is something exceedingly grateful to the feelings of one of stable views in life. with a tavern-house upon the high road. in such particulars.spire-like top through a group of the other trees. we approached a comfortable. even if his own changeable fancy or circumstances permit him to retain it for his natural life. that venerable spot. that we can afford to let the flashy men of the day—not of time—flaunter in all their purchased fancy in house-building." and squander his tens of thousands upon it. lodged across their branches. drove 69 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. By this remark.

went in. and for several years a counsellor of this commonwealth. and indefatigable in his endeavors to bring forward the cultivation of his lands. in the 170 State of Massachusetts. but none the less gratifying to the contemplation of those who respect a deep love of home. can be found agricultural estates now containing families. "The prospect from this seat is extensive and grand. ('Honorable' meant something in those days. James Winthrop. by his own active industry. The land on which these buildings stand is elevated between twelve hundred and thirteen hundred feet above the level of the sea. 70 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. of Roxbury. and astonishment. of American stability of residence. Peter Whitney. surrounded with a fine family of children. informs me. Moses Gill. the out-houses. of great and essential service. and many an equal estate. 50 feet by 36. not only from individuals. then in the prime of life. of seventy miles. to whose immeasurable accommodations our good New England ancestors are so prone to refer—but in one of her early successors. The farm house is 40 feet by 36: In a line with this stand the coach and chaise-house.our horse under the shed. good-tempered host. who long made the farm his summer residence. I may add. the late Dr. Judge Gill is a gentleman of singular vivacity and activity. and such the man who founded and enjoyed it sixty years ago. When we view this seat. "The History of the County of Worcester. and took a quiet family dinner with the civil. Boylston. The mansion house is large. taking in a horizon to the east. in front of the . from the windows of this superb edifice. Esq. Esq. and erected by the successor of the original occupant. from their first emigration from England— not in the Mayflower. The description is from an old work. and in his acts of private munificence. and public generosity. 1793:" "Many of the houses (in Princeton. at least. had him fed. The buildings stand upon the highest land of the whole farm. so extensive. at certain seasons of the year. and then there is a very gradual descent. these buildings. This is joined to the barn by a shed 70 feet in length—the barn is 200 feet by 32.) who has been from the year 1775 one of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas for the county of Worcester. For the moral of our episode on this subject.acrobatplanet. with four stacks of chimnies. that in this town is the country seat of the Hon. Very elegant fences are erected around the mansion house. The blue hills in Milton are discernible with 171 the naked eye." Such was the estate. The farm contains upwards of three thousand acres. distant not less than sixty miles. now under a high degree of profitable cultivation. minus now the buildings which then existed. All over the old thirteen states. we are struck with wonder. wherever it may be found. His noble and elegant seat is about one mile and a quarter from the meeting-house. and. as also the waters in the harbor of Boston. in the employment he finds for so many persons. admiration. we cannot refrain from a description of a fine old estate which we have frequently seen. made under his direction. which faces to the west.) are large and elegant. from Maine to Georgia. The county road from Princeton to Worcester passes through it. This leads to a particular mention. by the Rev. the descendants of those who founded them—exceptions to the general rule. to the south. and long since supplanted by others equally respectable and commodious. being 50×50 feet. and this farm of so many hundred acres. The honorable proprietor thereof must have great satisfaction in contemplating these improvements. by his example. and the garden. and are told that in the year 1766 it was a perfect wilderness.. and the equally kind-mannered hostess. and heard from his own lips the history of his ancestors. but it is level round about them for many rods. and especially by the ways in which he makes use of that vast estate wherewith a kind Providence has blessed him. but from the town and country he has so greatly benefited. and in all his attempts to serve the interests of the place where he dwells. as the Hon. we admit. and deserves great respect and esteem.

and hardly worth repairing. A PLANTATION HOUSE. 71 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. we saw but a short time before it was pulled down—then old. will ever exist in every state of our union. or to enjoy the scenery upon which it may open. which is so graphically described. but equally becoming it. The mansion house. thoroughly sheltering the walls. also shades the remaining rear part of the main dwelling. and a chimney in 176 the center.—Another southern house is here presented. under which is a railed gallery for summer repose or recreation. comfortable look. then existed. depending upon the material of which it is constructed. 10 feet wide in front. with a shed roof. bating the extent of veranda. with shed roof. The main servants' building is 30×20 feet. Design VII. one and a half stories high. A narrow porch. the hall of which opens upon a low veranda on its front. and the locality where it is built. and if our private and public virtues are preserved. This house stands 46×44 feet on the ground. and the estimates should be made by practical and experienced builders. are forcible illustrations of the morals of correct building on the ample estates of many of our American 172 planters and farmers. or spreading plain in the more showy luxury of its character.founded and occupied by equally valuable men. too. unpretending. All these circumstances are to be considered. In rear of this is attached a wood-house. with a roof in keeping with the main dwelling.acrobatplanet. 16 feet wide. plain. quiet air from that point of view. opening on to the approach in rear. and a half length one above it. Covering half the rear is a lean-to. FARM HOUSE. thus sloping off. as well as less expensive in construction. the degree of finish given to it. with a full length veranda. Such pictures. in a hilly. wooded country of rougher surface. and still exist in all our older states. and leading to the minor conveniences of the establishment. and of style something like this design of our own. less ornate in its finish. The cost of this house may be from $5000 to $8000. who are competent judges in whatever appertains to it. connecting with the main roof by an open gable. and giving it a reposed. The roof is broad and overhanging. two stories high. as the other would more fitly grace the level prairie. communicating with the servants' offices in the wing. 23 feet long and 8 feet wide. It may occupy a different site. quite different in architectural design from the . being built of wood. and giving it a most protected.

with a flight of stairs. 18×15 feet in size. the next. into which is a door. This passage is six feet wide and 34 feet long. by an error. lighted by three windows. On the right of the entrance hall is a library. 10 feet square each. On the rear of the nursery is a flight of back stairs opening from it. and from its rear side into three small rooms. a partition separates it from the rear hall.acrobatplanet. Under the cross flight of stairs in the hall. another door on the further side of the room opens into the rear hall of the house. On the left of this opens a parlor or dining-room. which is 18×16 feet. the outer one of which may be a business room for the proprietor of the estate. opening at its left end on to the veranda. gives only one. and on the right. and by the side of it a small entry leading into the nursery or family bedroom. to the servants' porch. At the farther end is a closet. and the other a kitchen closet. and connecting with the dining-room beyond. Under these stairs. A door also leads out from the nursery into the rear passage. and another into the passage to the rear offices. with two small dining closets between. From this rear hall a door opens on the rear veranda. to the offices. a door opens to another flight leading into the cellar below. 18×18 feet. but 177 the drawing. lighted by two windows in front and one on the side. 22×18 feet. The front door opens into a hall 34 feet long and 10 feet wide. Each of these is 72 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. at the other end. a store-room for family supplies. The dining-room has two windows opening on to the rear veranda.GROUND PLAN INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. The nursery should have two . which also has a corresponding closet with the library.

to the corresponding corner of the rear offices. opens into the bath-room. be continued round the two ends of the house. A door also leads from the 178 rear passage into the kitchen. and add strikingly to its effect. and will be readily comprehended. CHAMBER PLAN The chamber plan is simple. &c. which may be termed its business front. &c. with a window looking out in front and two others on the side and rear. yielding both pleasure and profit.acrobatplanet. quite as convenient in its arrangement as the other. in the position where this establishment is supposed to 180 be erected. Still beyond this is the entrance to the water-closets. Their conical. and no pinched or parsimonious spirit should detract from giving it the fullest effect in an allowance of ground. however. In this is placed a large chimney for the cooking establishment. where the leisure hours of the family may be passed in view of the scenery which the house may command. which is 14×14 feet. The 179 main hall of the chambers. and cutting them off from too sightly an exposure from the lawn in front. to which a future chapter 73 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. in connection with the upper veranda. or low evergreens may be planted in a circular form from the front righthand corner of the dwelling. evergreens may come in for a share of attraction. land is plenty. and a water-closet is in the far corner. although. and it is a cheaper and less pains-taking establishment throughout. As. or belt of privet. otherwise the remarks already given on the subject of park and lawn plantation will suffice. into which the water is drawn from the kitchen boilers in the adjoining chimney. and be treated as convenience may determine. they can be cut off from the larger ones. 6×5 feet. may be made a delightful resort for the summer. We have given less veranda to this house than to the . may open to the every-day approach to the house. For the tree decoration of this establishment. however.. A flight of garret stairs may also be put in the rear chamber hall. enclosing a clothes drying yard. and a door into the wood-house. tapering points will correspond well with its general architecture. A flight of stairs and partition divides this from the wash-room. if required. The small veranda. 9×6 feet. A screen. because its style does not require it. Nor need the ground devoted to such purposes be at all lost. ample area should be appropriated to its convenience. or unappropriated. MISCELLANEOUS. The veranda may. 20×16 feet in area. oven. fronting the kitchen apartments. This wood-house is open on two sides. with two windows in the side. and thus made one of its most attractive features.lighted by a window on the rear. If more rooms are desirable. The opposite end of the house. various uses can be made of it. perhaps. and a door into the wood-house. which is six feet wide.

will refer; and it is one of the chief pleasures of retired residence to cultivate, in the right place, such incidental objects of interest as tend to gratify, as well as to instruct, in whatever appertains to the elevation of our thoughts, and the improvement of our condition. All these, in their place, should be drawn about our dwellings, to render them as agreeable and attractive as our ingenuity and labor may command.

LAWNS, GROUNDS, PARKS, AND WOODS. Having essayed to instruct our agricultural friends in the proper modes of erecting their houses, and providing for their convenient accommodation within them, a few remarks may be pardoned touching such collateral subjects of embellishment as may be connected with the farm residence in the way of plantations and grounds in their immediate vicinity. We are well aware that small farms do not permit any considerable appropriation of ground to waste purposes, as such spots are usually called which are occupied with wood, or the shade of open trees, near the dwelling. But no dwelling can be complete in all its appointments without trees in its immediate vicinity. This subject has perhaps been sufficiently discussed in preceding chapters; yet, as a closing course of remark upon what a farm house, greater or less in extent, should be in the amount of shade given to it, a further suggestion or two may be permitted. There are, in almost all places, in the vicinity of the dwelling, portions of ground which can be appropriated to forest trees without detriment to other economical uses, if applied in the proper way. Any one who passes along 182 a high road and discovers the farm house, seated on the margin or in the immediate vicinity of a pleasant grove, is immediately struck with the peculiarly rural and picturesque air which it presents, and thinks to himself that he should love such a spot for his own home, without reflecting that he might equally as well create one of the same character. Sites already occupied, where different dispositions are made of contiguous ground, may not admit of like advantages; and such are to be continued in their present arrangement, with such course of improvement as their circumstances will admit. But to such as are about to select the sites of their future homes, it is important to study what can best embellish them in the most effective shade and ornament. In the immediate vicinity of our large towns and cities it is seldom possible to appropriate any considerable breadth of land to ornamental purposes, excepting rough and unsightly waste ground, more or less occupied with rock or swamp; or plainer tracts, so sterile as to be comparatively worthless for cultivation. Such grounds, too, often lie bare of wood, and require planting, and a course of years to cover them with trees, even if the proprietor is willing, or desirous to devote them to such purpose. Still, there are vast sections of our country where to economize land is not important, and a mixed occupation of it to both ornament and profit may be indulged to the extent of the owner's disposition. All over the United States there are grand and beautiful sweeps and belts of cultivated country, interspersed with finely-wooded tracts, which 183 offer the most attractive sites for the erection of dwellings on the farms which embrace them, and that require only the eye and hand of taste to convert them, with slight labor, into the finest-wooded lawns and forested parks imaginable. No country whatever produces finer trees than North America. The evergreens of the north luxuriate in a grandeur scarcely known elsewhere, and shoot their cones into the sky to an extent that the stripling pines and firs, and larches of England in vain may strive to imitate. The elm of New England towers up, and spreads out its sweeping arms with a majesty unwonted in the ancient parks or forests of Europe; while its maples, and birches, and beeches, and ashes, and oaks, and the great white-armed buttonwood, make up a variety of intervening growth, luxuriant in the extreme. Pass on through the Middle States, and 74 Free PDF Ebook at

into the far west, and there they still flourish with additional kinds—the tulip and poplar—the nut-trees, in all their wide variety, with a host of others equally grand and imposing, interspersed; and shrub-trees innumerable, are seen every where as they sweep along your path. Beyond the Alleghanies, and south of the great lakes, are vast natural parks, many of them enclosed, and dotted with herds of cattle ranging over them, which will show single trees, and clumps of forest that William the Conqueror would have given a whole fiefdom in his Hampshire spoliations to possess; while, stretching away toward the Gulf of Mexico, new varieties of tree are found, equally imposing, grand, and beautiful, throughout the whole vast range, and in almost every 184 locality, susceptible of the finest possible appropriation to ornament and use. Many a one of these noble forests, and open, natural parks have been appropriated already to embellish the comfortable family establishment which has been built either on its margin, or within it; and thousands more are standing, as yet unimproved, but equally inviting the future occupant to their ample protection. The moral influences, too, of lawns and parks around or in the vicinity of our dwellings, are worthy of consideration. Secluded as many a country dweller may be, away from the throng of society, there is a sympathy in trees which invites our thoughts, and draws our presence among them with unwonted interest, and in frequent cases, assist materially in stamping the feelings and courses of our future lives—always with pure and ennobling sentiments— "The groves were God's first temples." The thoughtful man, as he passes under their sheltering boughs, in the heat of summer, with uncovered brow, silently worships the Hand that formed them there, scarcely conscious that their presence thus elevates his mind to holy aspirations. Among them, the speculative man "Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, Sermons in stones." Even children, born and educated among groves of trees, drink in early impressions, which follow them for good all their days; and, when the toils of their 185 after life are passed, they love to return to these grateful coverts, and spend their remaining days amid the tranquillity of their presence. Men habituated to the wildest life, too, enjoy the woods, the hills, and the mountains, beyond all the captivation and excitement of society, and are nowhere at rest, but when in their communion. The love of forest scenery is a thing to be cultivated as a high accomplishment, in those whose early associations have not been among them. Indeed, country life is tame, and intolerable, without a taste, either natural or acquired, for fine landscape scenery; and in a land like this, where the country gives occupation to so great a proportion of its people, and a large share of those engaged in the active and exciting pursuits of populous towns, sigh and look forward to its enjoyment, every inducement should be offered to cultivate a taste for those things which make one of its chief attractions. Nor should seclusion from general society, and a residence apart from the bustling activity of the world, present a bar to the due cultivation of the taste in many subjects supposed to belong only to the throng of association. It is one of the advantages of rural life, that it gives us time to think; and the greatest minds of whose labors in the old world we have had the benefit, and of later times, in our own land, have been reared chiefly in the solitude of the country. Patrick Henry loved to range among the woods, admiring the leafy magnificence of nature, and to follow the meandering courses of the brooks, with his hook and line. Washington, 186 when treading the vast solitudes of central Virginia, with his surveyor's instruments on his back, conceived the wonderful resources of the great empire of which he will ever be styled the "father." The dwelling of the late John C. Calhoun, sheltered by noble trees, stands on an elevated swell of a grand range of mountain land, and it was there that his prolific genius 75 Free PDF Ebook at

ripened for those burning displays of thought which drew to him the affections of admiring thousands. Henry Clay undoubtedly felt the germ of his future greatness while sauntering, in his boyhood days, through the wild and picturesque slashes of Hanover. Webster, born amid the rugged hills of New Hampshire, drew the delightful relish of rural life, for which he is so celebrated, from the landscapes which surrounded his early home, and laid the foundation of his mighty intellect in the midst of lone and striking scenery. Bryant could never have written his "Thanatopsis," his "Rivulet," and his "Green River," but from the inspiration drawn from his secluded youthful home in the mountains of Massachusetts. Nor, to touch a more sacred subject, could Jonathan Edwards ever have composed his masterly "Treatise on the Will," in a pent-up city; but owes his enduring fame to the thought and leisure which he found, while ministering, among the sublime mountains of the Housatonic, to a feeble tribe of Stockbridge Indians. And these random names are but a few of those whose love of nature early imbibed, and in later life enjoyed in their own calm and retired homes, amid the serene beauty of woods and waters, which might 187 be named, as illustrations of the influence which fine scenery may exercise upon the mind, to assist in moulding it to greatness. The following anecdote was told us many years ago, by a venerable man in Connecticut, a friend of the elder Hillhouse, of New Haven, to whom that city is much indebted for the magnificent trees by which it has become renowned as "the City of the Elms:" While a member of the General Assembly of that state, when Hillhouse was in Congress, learning that he had just returned home from the annual session, our informant, with a friend, went to the residence of the statesman, to pay him a visit. He had returned only that morning, and on their way there, they met him near his house, with a stout young tree on his shoulder, just taken from a neighboring piece of forest, which he was about to transplant in the place of one which had died during his absence. After the usual salutations, our friend expressed his surprise that he was so soon engaged in tree-planting, before he had even had time to look to his private and more pressing affairs. "Another day may be too late," replied the senator; "my tree well planted, it will grow at its leisure, and I can then look to my own concerns at my ease. So, gentlemen, if you will just wait till the tree is set, we'll walk into the house, and settle the affairs of state in our own way." Walter Scott, whose deep love of park and forest scenery has stamped with his masterly descriptions, his native land as the home of all things beautiful and useful in trees and plantations, spent a great share of his leisure time in planting, and has written a most 188 instructive essay on its practice and benefits. He puts into the mouth of "the Laird of Dumbiedikes," the advice, "Be aye sticking in a tree, Jock; it will be growing while you are sleeping." But Walter Scott had no American soil to plant his trees upon; nor do the grandest forest parks of Scotland show a tithe of the luxuriance and majesty of our American forests. Could he but have seen the variety, the symmetry, and the vast size of our oaks, and elms, and evergreens, a new element of descriptive power would have grown out of the admiration they had created within him; and he would have envied a people the possession of such exhaustless resources as we enjoy, to embellish their homes in the best imaginable manner, with such enduring monuments of grace and beauty. To the miscellaneous, or casual reader, such course of remark may appear merely sublimated nonsense. No matter; we are not upon stilts, talking down to a class of inferior men, in a condescending tone, on a subject above their comprehension; but we are addressing men, and the sons of men, who are our equals—although, like ourself, upon their farms, taking their share in its daily toils, as well as pleasures—and can perfectly well understand our language, and sympathize with our thoughts. They are the thoughts of rural life everywhere. It was old Sam Johnson, the great lexicographer, who lumbered his unwieldy gait through the streets of cities for a whole life, and with all his vast learning and wisdom, had no appreciation of the charms of the country, that said, "Who feeds fat cattle should himself be fat;" as if the dweller on 189 the farm should not possess an idea above the brutes around him. We wonder if he ever supposed a merchant should have any more brain than the parcel that he handled, or the bale which he rolled, or directed others to roll for him! But, loving the 76 Free PDF Ebook at

and finding a thousand objects of interest and beauty scattered in profusion." And the thought that such "beauty" has been of our own creation. be he a practical farmer or not. trees properly distributed. if for nothing more than to show that he has left some living thing to perpetuate his memory. more or less. that the farm house is the chief nursery on which our broad country must rely for that healthy infusion of stamina and spirit into those men who. We believe it was Keats. There is no pleasanter sight of labor than to see a father. or the memory of the man who placed them there. is a most agreeable pastime to a reflecting mind. Boys should early be made planters.acrobatplanet. stamp their future character. know the serene pleasure of watching their growth. and anticipating their future beauty and grandeur. It is a happy feature in the improving rural character of our country. It is. in a pecuniary light. merely for the trees which embellished them. of high consequence. Every man who lives in the country. and their cultivation is only a demonstration of the utter want of good taste in those who apply them. "A thing of Beauty is a joy for ever. either in public or private capacity.solitude of the farm. for the benefit of his children. in the great majority of their numbers. guide its destiny and direct its councils. with his young lads about him. or that our own hands have assisted in its perpetuation. therefore. for ornament. trees are a source of profitable investment. who said. vulgar and common-place. and early scenes of those who are to be the future actors in the prominent walks of life. planting a tree. and those chiefly in collections. under our institutions. as curiosities. that tree-planting and tree preservation for some years past have attracted much more attention than formerly. It may be ranked among the pleasures. and use. It becomes a landmark of their industry and good taste. Aside from all this. and plant them. we commend most heartily all who dwell in the pure air and bright sunshine of the open land to their study and cultivation. that good taste. We have always so found it. and no one can so exquisitely enjoy their grateful shade. They. The father of a family should plant. Planting. None but those who love trees. We have gained but little in the introduction of many of the foreign trees among us. to say nothing of the pleasure and luxury they confer. Innumerable farms and places have been sold at high prices. or for arboretums—in which latter the farmer cannot often indulge. and is to constitute the nursery of those who succeed them. to them. and with this attention a better taste is prevailing in their selection. the trees of no country can equal our own. instead of the toils of life. and on the influences which may. Some of them are absolutely barbarous in comparison with our American forest trees. as he whose hand has planted and cared for them. where those educated among artificial objects would see nothing beyond things. The bachelor and the childless man should plant. and which no other equal amount of labor and expense upon it can confer. and for all the main purposes of shade. We have remarked. too. which may add to their pleasure and contentment. we cannot forbear such suggestions. in conversing with our rural friends upon what concerns their daily comfort. should certainly be a deep "joy" of our life. should enter into 190 all that surrounds the birth-place. give a value to an estate far beyond the cost of planting. and correct judgment. intelligence. are natives of the retired homestead. Thus. in a degree. For ordinary purposes. 77 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and no thinking man passes a plantation of fine trees but inwardly blesses the man. 191 and tending their growth. should plant trees. over those of perhaps greater producing value. as may induce them to cultivate all those accessories around . as well as for his own. connected with the family Home. but few exotics should be tolerated. and as the love of trees is one of the leading elements of enjoyment amid the outward scenes of country-life. and ornament.

a few remarks as to their locality and distribution may be appropriate. where subject to extreme droughts. All this must be taken into the account. can best make the selections most fitted to his use. its margin. or prospect. but a little thought and observation to guide every one in the selection which he should make. as they are termed. as the currant. adjoin the kitchen garden. when not injurious to a building by its too dense shade. on the exposed side. till they are out of harm's way. like the woodland pastures of Kentucky. the peach. it may be supposed that we should discuss their position in the grounds to which they should be appropriated. than a whole forest of stinted things. and the only true course is to strive to make his grounds look as much like nature herself as 193 possible—for nature seldom makes mistakes in her designs. an important item in the daily consumption of every family where it can be grown and afforded. Giving the importance we have.Varied as our country is. as to the best disposition of his trees. may also contain the smaller fruits. cherry. proper. and whatever other shrub-fruits are grown. or a scorching sun. when not devoted to more useful objects of the farm. indeed. if possible. are most to be commended. and free from bad habits in throwing up 192 suckers. or should be. of early. and for its due protection from the encroachments of those not entitled to its treasures. and those what trees should be. or if not. not liable to the attacks of insects. The fruit garden. Bald. and well established in a vigorous growth. or shutting out its light. gooseberry. and surface of the ground sought to be improved. 194 FRUIT GARDEN—ORCHARDS. writhing and pining through a course of sickly existence. A chapter might also be written upon the proper mode of taking up and planting trees. the taller and more hardy growth of each 78 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. the apricot. when of fine symmetry. If the planter feels disposed to consult authorities. position. unsightly spots should be covered by them. nectarine. in soils and climates.acrobatplanet. but these can give only general hints. which the plain farmer. works on Landscape Gardening may be studied. Rapid-growing trees. plum. and should be well considered before they be planted. raspberry. either in pasturage or cultivation. and long-continued foliage. A sheltered spot. both for convenience in gathering its fruits. To conclude a course of remark. and their planting. A good tree can scarcely stand in a wrong place. and apple may. we would not recommend any one to plant trees who is not willing to spend the necessary time to nurse and tend them afterward. pear. The first should always be near the house. the proper disposition of trees is a study. cultivating his land for its yearly profit alone. the proper authorities on that head must be consulted. while the quince. to produce the best effect of which the tree itself is capable. to trees. no particular directions can be given as to the individual varieties of tree which are to be preferred for planting. should be devoted to this object. It requires. A partial shading of the soil by trees may add to its value for grazing purposes. but as this would lead us to a subject more directly belonging to another department. It should. if to be had. dense. Still. while their opposites in character should be avoided in all well-kept grounds. All this branch of the subject must be left to the . and he who is to plant. in the order they are named. may consider as foreign to the subject of our work. But no specific directions can be given at large. As the fruit garden and orchards are usually near appendages to the dwelling and out-buildings. for convenience of access. Each locality has its own most appropriate kinds. for it is better to have even but a few trees. stand in succession behind them. as fruit is. should be set with the hardiest trees to which it is appropriated—as the apple.

or south-west. of consequence. and the highest quality of their fruits. we refer the reader. and Barry. nectarine. necessary that it be so located and planned as to be ready of access. which adjoin them. the tree sickens. and gladly would we have a set chat with our readers upon it. The ground. than the cultivation of good fruits. and fruit-bearing shrub should be so placed that the summer sun can shine on every part of its surface at some hour of the day. should be rich. every fruit tree. and as locality and plan have much 79 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. As this is a subject intended to be but incidentally touched in these pages. color. and if sufficient breathing room be not allowed them. and flavor to its fruit. inhaling and respiring the gases. and perfection. and many otherwise fine fruit gardens are utterly ruined by the compact manner in which they are planted. size. front the south. raspberries. south-east. as well as most profitable portions of the farm. too. the fruit garden should stand on the weather-side of the dwelling. Trees are great consumers of the atmosphere. to let in the requisite degree of sun and air to ripen as well as give growth. to the several treatises of Downing. only. with which the public are fortunately in possession. that there may be abundant room to cultivate them with the plow. no crops should be grown among the trees. and the rows six feet distant from each other. while the apple should always be 30 to 36 feet apart. In such position. to have the 196 greatest benefit of the soil. and Thomas. In the Middle and Southern States the exposure is of less . and. &c. although protected. The tendency of almost all planters of fruit trees is to set them too close.. The quince. as affecting the appearance of the homestead. when not altogether sheltered by some superior natural barrier. peach. and pines for the want of it. and only then as immediately connected in its general character with the dwelling house and its attachments. therefore. and true enjoyment. for their most productive bearing. after they have arrived at their full maturity of bearing. and our remarks will only be directed to their proper distribution. that there is no one item of rural economy to which our attention can be given. and yield the greatest possible quantity of products for the labor bestowed upon it. should. and if on its own stock. Currants. in the rows. would be in many points arbitrary.acrobatplanet. by itself. and kept clean of weeds and grass. health. The aspect for the fruit garden should. may be 12 feet apart. the fruit will reach its maximum of flavor. It is also a subject to which we are strongly attached. and nursed. but as the discussion for so broad a field as we should have to survey. with good selections of varieties. observing. it should appear to shelter both the dwelling and kitchen gardens. so as. in its several varieties. both to the body and the mind. It is. if possible. In point of position. both the fruit garden and the orchard become one of the most ornamental. gooseberries. if on quince stock. than any other piece of ground on the premises. which yields more of luxury. apricot.successive variety rising higher. be set at least four feet apart. The kitchen garden yields more necessaries and comforts to the family. in a northerly climate. we refrain from going into any particulars of detail concerning it. on this interesting topic. every leaf is a lung. The pear. 20 to 24 feet. with great pleasure. Thus planted. and particular cultivation. The soil for all these varieties of tree is supposed to be 195 congenial. and protecting its less hardy and aspiring neighbor. 197 HOW TO LAY OUT A KITCHEN GARDEN. and plum should be 16 feet apart each way. and unfitting to local information as to varieties.

If the soil be a clay. or make prolific harbors for weeds. through which a cart and horse. and the draining so planned as to lead off to a lower spot outside. should come within it. or any other larger tree than a currant or raspberry. that this is a place allotted. this shape will better allow the use of the plow to turn up the soil. for it will be recollected. apricot. as well as to receive the cultivation they need. yet. or carry out the vegetables. if a particular quarter be not set apart for them. after laying out a kitchen garden. a portion of these main borders may be appropriated to the more common flowers and small shrubbery. properly fenced. If it be necessary. or clayey loam. and. One or more walks. opens it for filtration. to draw in manure. the sea kales.acrobatplanet. if a close. the kitchen garden should lie in the warmest and most sheltered spot which may be convenient to the kitchen of the house. thoroughly manured. but not a peach. They need only cutting off close with the hand-hook. to turn the cart upon. and as late before the setting in of winter as you dare risk it. except by the hoe and rake. This draining warms the soil. which. and left rough—no matter how rough—in the fall of the year. at least eight feet wide. the various herbs. and become the resort of vermin. rather than within it. right lines are easier made with the spade than curved ones. as well as the currant and gooseberry bushes. leading from a broad gate. where they can have all the benefits of the sun and rain to ripen the fruit to perfection. may enter. to keep down the weeds and grass. If the garden be large. after being laid out and graded. let it be outside the fence. a better mode 198 than to spade it. both these subjects should be . if in a large one. instead of being placed under fences around the sides of the garden. No tree larger than a currant or gooseberry bush should ever stand in a vegetable garden. which. it is perhaps the cheapest and most cleanly way of keeping the walks. to have them in high perfection. Then. supposing that vegetables will grow quite as well with them as without. if it be important. down to the size of a hen's egg—and the surface made as level as possible. fill it up with fruit trees. when properly done. and small in size. the stones should be taken out clean. They not only shade the small plants. a sufficient area should be thrown out at the farther extremity. do not extend around the garden. and. is a much cheaper. and if small. and stony. If the soil be free. or bars. where they are too frequently neglected. it should be underdrained two and a half feet. that part of the preparation is accomplished. 199 We have known a great many people. may be permitted. These fruits being partially used in the cooking department. as of fruits. and if such walk. the borders for perennial plants. and prevent the circulation of air —than which nothing needs all 200 these more than garden vegetables. This is a wide mistake. but for profit. in a large garden. but if within. Here may stand the rhubarbs. and keep off the sun. or alleys. or walks. to be perfect. for a loose soil will need no draining. should never be plowed nor disturbed. as their roots will extend under the vegetables. in summer. but suck up and rob them of their food and moisture. let there be a broad walk between such shrubbery and the garden do with the labor bestowed upon it and the productions it may yield. they should do. Along the main walks. and not at right angles with them. should be made—for the plow should run parallel to. to have a close plantation of shrubbery to screen the garden. as much in the way of vegetables. The shape. by means of a cold exposure on the one side. and well-shorn grass turf be kept upon them. and plowed deep. or oxen. or even the asparagus beds. not for a show or pleasure ground. either a parallelogram or a square. As to locality. and makes it friable. contrary to the usual practice. should always stand in open ground. and rob them of their food. when large—and if small. The size may be such as your necessities or your convenience may demand. be convenient of access to the dung-yards of the stables. The permanent or wide walks of the garden. in connection with that. and they. if desired to cultivate them in a plain way. and it be worked with the spade. and preparing it for use. It should. 80 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. should be made.

otherwise. and kept there. it is usually the most desirable and convenient soil for the kitchen garden. so bountifully along our paths. on the sides of the garden. generally preferred where either kind may be a matter simply of choice. have devoted a portion of their time and thoughts to the development of their peculiar properties. A word upon plowing gardens. but we desire to have a short familiar conversation about what is all around you. nor even a bush is permitted to stand near the growing crop. and the mightiest monarch. should be. gentle reader! We are not about to inflict upon you a dissertation on Pelargoniums. The humblest cottager. But let that pass. as it is usually shaded for a portion of the day. just before the setting in of the winter frosts. and pronounced "good. is saved by fall plowing. Still. and give us all that we desire to embellish our homes. Among the wild flowers. Japonicas. and may be better afforded for such waste purposes than the open. Flowers have their objects. A world of pounding and hammering of lumps. is 201 all that becomes necessary to put it in the finest condition for seeds. Thrown up deeply and roughly with the plow or spade.acrobatplanet. and such like unmentionable terms. there are enough of sufficient variety all around us. and all the train of expense and vexation attending them. with very little pains or labor on your part. FLOWERS. On these accounts. men who always strive to make the most profit from their land and labor. and were made for our use and pleasure. and where one is not stinted in the area of his domain. Not a tree. A light sandy loam is better to lie compact in winter. and make it perhaps the very best and most productive of all garden soils whatever. It will be observed that market gardeners.A walk. in spring. just hand this part of our book over to your excellent wife. than to fill that space with anything else. if you dislike the subject. God would never have strewed them. or sisters. or clayey loams. and we will talk to them about this matter. Like all else beautiful. and filled the world with their fragrance and beauty. in their decoration. and slack and pulverise it so thoroughly that a heavy raking in early spring. Its friable nature leaves it always open and light. as well as freezing out and destroying the eggs of worms and insects which infest it. and obtain the best vegetables. as he has. if they can prevent it. sunny ground within. the frosts act mechanically upon the soil. or daughters. and on the whole. have equally admired their beauty and their odor. to make them fine. should always be manured and plowed in the fall. and their cultivation has ever been a type of civilization and refinement among all people who have left written 203 records behind them. Flowers equally become the cottage and the palace. to engage our attention. their example should be followed. where 81 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. on the margin of their hidden brooks. and forcing-house. Clays. alley. and at all times in the absence of frost. Plain country people as we are. accessible to the spade or the hoe. or if not around you. Start not. cultivate them in open fields. and the whole train of mortals between. is always better next to the fence. as the case may be. besides incorporating the manure more thoroughly with the soil. which He made. that bring to your mind the green-house. in the mountains and hills of the farthest . or cartway. Calla-Ethiopias. and engage the time which we have to devote to them. and manured and turned up in early spring." flowers have been objects of admiration and love since man's creation.

which in variety and profusion of shape. They are consumers of the fertilizing gases. grow up the magnificent dogwood. which the waters of the Nile in the days of Cleopatra never equaled. The position of the flower-bed. and 82 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. spangling mile upon mile of their huge sides and tops with white. and the tulip-tree. outvie all the lilies of the gardens of Solomon. with unwonted beauty. and rhododendron. when their hardier companions have composed themselves for a winter's rest. not for profit. and covering crags and precipices of untold space with their blushing splendor. and in the deep woods. nor crowded. and are surrounded by a host of summer plants. blush out in all their summer garniture. and oak openings. the jonquil. and the flowering shrubs. as well as to the growth of their stems. float immense water-lilies. They should not be huddled up. the tiny violet and the laurel bloom. all over the land. and the hardy bulbous. Further south. while the fibrous-rooted perennials. bloom on from year to year. equally with other plants. may be various. particularly the earlier flowering plants. On. and will carry their rich flowers far into the frosts of autumn."Floats the scarce-rooted watercress. the lesser flowers of early spring throw out a thousand brilliant dyes. produce a fine effect. and the magnolia. upon the surface. their due supply of manures—which also adds to the brilliance and size of their bloom. kalmia. sloping down on to the plains beneath. and snowdrop are among (if not quite) the earliest in bloom. and in view of the windows of the most frequented rooms. will set all the little flower-beds in order. And these are nature's wild productions only. and daffodil. and color. 204 and of the Mississippi valley. The crocus. we need scarcely recommend what may 206 be most desirable. laying their great broad leaves. where they are ever objects of interest and attraction. and expanded white and yellow flowers. the wild rose and the honeysuckle. Their seeds must be planted and gathered every year. shoot up. and space for the spread of their roots. and. and odor. The ground which flowering plants occupy should be devoted to them alone. they must be weeded and nursed with more care than the others. As a matter of taste. on the prairies. and such spots can usually be set apart for them. with the earliest grass. If not in the way of more important things. through the Middle States. Further west. they should be near the house. Even the simplest of their kind. a succession of flowers. too. each in their season. as it gives them an early and rapid start in the spring. another class of flowers burst out from their natural coverts in equal glory. through all their vast range. and require. of the great lakes. On the .acrobatplanet. In the deep lagoons of the southern rivers. or borders. however. and tuberous-rooted plants require but slight aid in producing the highest perfection of their bloom. Their roots should be protected in winter by coarse litter thrown over them. They thus give more enjoyment in their sight. given at such hours when it can be best spared. need not intrude upon the time which is required to the more important labors of the farm. yet they richly repay all this trouble in their fresh bloom when the others are gone. but stand well apart. too. they should always be thus placed. 205 The annuals require the most attention. and so they continue till the autumnal frosts cut down both grass and flower alike. when carefully disposed. In variety. and the wild orange throw a perfume along the air. like the odors of Palestine. along the piney coast. and have plenty of breathing-room for their branches and leaves. and keep the required shrubbery of the place in trim—and should not be denied in any family who enjoy a taste for them. and to these follow the hyacinth." and on their barren sides. and the soil be made deep and rich. than when but occasionally seen in special visits. A little time. but for show and amusement. almost uncared for and untouched. vieing with each other in the exuberance of their tints. back through the hills and over the vast reach of cotton and sugar lands. Flowers being cultivated.

and. whose delicious clusters hang over your chamber window. well cared-for. and. in all their endless variety of shade and tint. and more fidelity in its application. till Christmas. to hold the little fellow up to try to smell of another. Altogether too little attention has been paid in our country to these most useful appendages to the farm. porch. and along with them. than the snug-built laborers' cottage upon it. while every considerate employer knows that cheerfulness and contentment of disposition. To these follow the great peonies. dashing colors of crimson. and home expression in the farm. gracing the columns of your veranda. relieved and set off by its attendant cottages. which may carry you a month further into the season. or guelder-rose. Thus ends the blooming year. and built in their proper character. up to the hardy climber. from the height of little Tommy. the various Iris family. if you would enjoy a pleasure perfectly pure.acrobatplanet. always cheerful. running up the kitchen windows. will stay with us. and a rickety. and the tree-like snow-ball. to close our floral season. open tenement. white and pink. This is quite as much to the interest of such employer as it is beneficial to the health and happiness of the laborer. is hardly to be taken into . with them. or pansy. and another or two flowering shrubs.many-varied family of Narcissus. which. and in stature. up to the top of his father's hat. learn first to love. which has no alloy. in the house. running far into the autumnal frosts. and make home interesting beyond all other places. and the early phloxes. which are perhaps more promoted by good home accommodations for the workingman than by any other influence. as compared with the higher health. or convolvulus. Building is so cheap in America. or window. Then blush out. from the purest white to the deepest purple. and perennial plants and shrubs—scores of which have not been noticed. and fringed. both in their construction and appearance. 209 A landed estate. and next to cultivate flowers. The cottage also gives the farm an air of respectability and dignity. the lilac.—the great sun-flower. too. that the difference in cost between a snuglyfinished cottage. Nothing adds more to the feeling of comfort. and tubers. and a month of fragrance and beauty of these completes the succession of bulbs. leaves nothing wanting to fill the picture upon which one loves to gaze in the contemplation of country life. carefully taken up and boxed. which throws his broad disk high over the garden fence. comes the floweringalmond. when the flaunting dahlia of every hue. save an occasional disappointment by casualty. or remote. with its white and pink flowers. from the humblest twig that leans its frail stem upon the ground. and budding from its plant of every size. which. blooms out in the open air. FARM COTTAGES. either contiguous. and without these last in due keeping with the chief structures of the estate. Then follow the tulips. and increased enjoyment of the laborer and his family. the chrysanthemum. or fleurde-lis. convenience. with its respectable farm house. as he stands quite six feet. Now. then to get. like all the rest. reminding one of France and the Bourbons. rich. and beautiful. and the large Siberian honeysuckle. varied. in their full. the Prussian lilac. By the side of these hangs out the monthly-trumpet-honeysuckle. after a long retinue of different things—among which we always count the morning-glory. are strong incentives to increased labor on his part. in all their gorgeous and splendid variety of single. The laborer should. who is just toddling out with his mother to watch the first 207 opening flower. has no sign of odor. if not so sumptuously. of whatever extent. Now commence the annuals. Then come. the whole vast family of roses. in its own expressive style of construction. be as comfortably housed and sheltered as his employer. the low-headed hearts-ease. and always glowing—the brilliant tribe of asters. double. a blank is left in 83 Free PDF Ebook at http://www.

due attention has been paid to the comfort of those who inhabit them. in guarding it from improper intrusion. or have business within it. or grooved and 84 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and respectability are thus given to the estate. with a slight frame composed of sills and plates only. give a charm to the humblest abode. 210 On all estates where the principal dwelling is located at any considerable distance from the public road. as well as to receive and conduct into the premises those who either reside upon. This cottage is 10 feet high. and to those who inhabit the cottages upon it. or laborer's tenement. The little embellishments which may be given. The position of cottages on a farm should be controlled by considerations of convenience to the place of labor. appreciated by those who occupy . from the sill to the plates. while the trifling decorations which may be added in the way of shrubbery. costing little or nothing in their planting and keeping. It is thus a sort of sentry-box. as well as to picturesque effect in the cottage itself. Decency. by way of lodge. and flowering plants. or where approached by a side road shut off from the highway by a gate. and have an influence upon their character and conduct. order. ELEVATION COTTAGE Design I. are. but gives character to the place.acrobatplanet.its completeness and finish. Such appendage is not only ornamental in itself. and planked up and down (vertically) and battened. as well as to those whose more fortunate position in life has given the enjoyment of a higher luxury in the occupancy of its chief mansion. and may be built of wood. or the conveniences in accommodation. as well as a laborer's residence. a small cottage. trees. and security to the enclosure. should be located at or near the entrance. and a proper economy in their construction. by way of architectural arrangement. in almost all cases. In the plans which are submitted. and hardly a site can be inappropriate which ensures these requirements.

and divided into a passage. and jointed. in the center longitudinally. to receive the stovepipe and guard against fire. 8 feet wide. This lean-to may be 8 or 9 inches lower. the passage end may be left open at the side. A hop vine or honeysuckle 85 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and covered with rough boards. Such position 214 will not interfere with the location of the stove.acrobatplanet. and matched close together. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. and shingled in the usual mode. 14 to 16 inches square. with the planks. which should pass immediately up through the ridge of the roof. on the floor.tongued. leaving the entrance only. and 2 to 4 inches thick. for a wood . with the porch opened—the planks taken out and laid overhead. or it may be framed throughout with posts and studs.) a large closet. On the second plan of building. in the side of which. The extra cost of such preparation. which should be 1¼ or 1½ inches thick. should be inserted an earthen or iron thimble. or. as a place to sit. While in its summer dress. which may be placed in any part of the room. it will cost near or quite double the amount of the first. and lathed and plastered inside. The porch in front will give additional convenience in summer. for effect. and its posts so fitted with grooves as to let in rough planks for winter enclosure in front and at one end. This would make an admirable wood-house for the winter. the foundation of the chimney. or stormy side. if neatly painted. A small brick chimney should rest upon the floor overhead. with a pipe-hole—which is the better plan—should rest on the floor immediately over the pipe. and a bedroom. as well as over the front and rear—say 18 inches. The first mode would be the cheapest. with a lean-to. and a perfect snuggery for a small family. also. yet quite comfortable when warmed by a stove. This stone should be. across the beams connecting the porch with the house—it would present an object of quiet comfort and beauty. and. although not so warm and durable as the other. with a shed roof. or eat under. PLAN The main body of this cottage is 18×12 feet. would not exceed ten or fifteen dollars. boarded. at the least windy. 10×12 feet. the pipe reaching the chimney by one or more elbows. (leading to an open wood-house in rear. as may be required. of the house. running its whole length in rear. is well spread over the gables. and over these clapboards. at least a foot above the chamber floor. which is raftered. unless a flat stone. than the main room. The roof. or other useful purpose.

acrobatplanet. where the adjoining enclosures are of stone. this cottage may be built of stone.) porch shelters the front door. and has also a hipped roof of the same pitch as the main one. This would save the expense of paint. The cottage has a square or hipped roof. and give it all the shade required. and a low chamber or garret is afforded above it. 5×4 feet in area. well-framed of sills. half-open (or it may be closed. or clapboarded. of course. plates. it might cost $150 to $200. On the second plan. to the roof. studs. &c. It is 20×16 feet on the ground. vertically boarded and battened. would add but little. the cost would be small. or wash of any kind. This cottage is a grade beyond the one just described. it could be built for $100. which spreads full two feet over the walls and bracketed beneath. without paint. On the plan first named. into which a swing-step ladder ascends. Trees. or brick. This being designed as the humblest and cheapest kind of cottage. and well painted in oil. and any little out-buildings that may be required should be nestled under a screen of vines and shrubbery near by. it may be hung to the ceiling overhead by a common hook and staples. and when not in .. posts. Stone. The ceiling of the main floor is 8 feet high. &c. also. should shelter it. with eight-feet 86 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. In a stony country. The rear wing retreats two feet from the wall line of the main building. where the family occupy only a single room. at about double the cost of wood. covered with vertical boarding and battens.215 might be trained outside the posts. A snug. as convenience may require. with a rear wing 26×8 feet in area. ELEVATION COTTAGE Design II. of a 30° pitch from a horizontal line. stained with a coarse wash. besides the greater character of durability and substance it would add to the establishment. if anything in cost over the last sum. The main body is 10 feet high. both in appearance and accommodation.

lighted by a side-window. The construction of this cottage is shown as of wood. 20×16 feet. entered by a swing step ladder.acrobatplanet. or it may serve as a storage and lumber-room. 10×8 feet. at a not much increased cost. A bed may be located in this chamber. and may be sufficiently well done and painted complete for $300. which can be reached by a trap-door from the living room. The open end of the wing advances 6 feet toward the front of the main part for wood-house and storage. two-sashed. a small closet. may be used. 8×12 glass in front. I. The expense of this building may be. 3 feet square. either brick or stone. A cellar may be made under this cottage. in which is a stovechimney running up from the main floor next the partition. which is 16×8 feet. over the shed or lean-to. also. and over them is a chamber. 14 feet. and 8×10 in the rear. with two windows. or placed over it in the chamber. higher than that of No. 87 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. or with its advance L. Other material. thus. On one side of the living room is a bedroom. The construction of this is in the same style as Design I. according to the style of finish and the taste of the builder. A door passes from this small kitchen into the wood-house. Next to this bedroom is a large closet. as in Design No. and running 219 up through the center of the roof. with one window. I. It may contain. and having a small chimney in the rear wall. opening to a flight of steps below. giving accommodation to a family of five or six persons. The wing contains a small kitchen. 8×6 feet. or garret. and shelves. say fifty per cent. 10×8 feet. 5×3 feet. PLAN The front door opens into a common living . These rooms are 9 feet high. in the extreme outer corner of which is a water-closet. altogether. The windows are plain. and tight cupboard within. which may be reduced or increased. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT.posts. with two windows. in case the living room be not occupied for that purpose. This garret is lighted by a small dormer window in the rear roof. as most convenient. 16×12 feet. of six lights each. according to the finish.

but will serve for a small farmer himself. with a roof in same style as the main house. and posts. project 3 feet over the walls.acrobatplanet. the roof has a pitch of 50° from a horizontal line. which supports the main building. II. together with the gables. standing on the ground. and half-terraced .ELEVATION COTTAGE Design III. which. It is in the French style of roof. with twelve-feet posts. The body of the cottage is 22×20 feet. open at the house end. 8 feet high. and in front. 18×16 feet in area. and gables. On the rear is a wood-house. and allied to the Italian in its brackets. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. in style and arrangement. and may accommodate not only the farm laborer or gardener. or a village mechanic. The terrace in front is 5 feet wide. 88 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. 2 feet below the surface of the cellar wall. in its straight dimensions. This cottage is still in advance of No. curving horizontally toward the eaves.

quite as agreeable in appearance. 9×6 feet. The windows are in casement form. the broad 224 eaves and gables give it a well-sheltered appearance. The framing of this roof is no way different. a pipe from the stove in the hall. lighted by a window in front. as shown in the design. and evergreen country. quite agreeable to the eye. 5×3 feet. A door leads into the wood-house.acrobatplanet. in pleasant weather. 3 feet wide. next the hall. It takes 89 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. which is 12×16 feet. which is mostly sheltered by the overhanging roof. On one side of this hall is a bedroom 223 8×10 feet. to give them a heavy and substantial appearance. which should be cut from two to three-inch plank. 12×8 feet. as it does. or stove. or pantry. The chamber has two feet of perpendicular wall. nor veranda. which is. opening. brick. on to the terrace. and cupboard for kitchen wares. On one side of this is a bedroom. as altogether more convenient and economical in building. It will be observed. in addition to its own fireplace. and part of the hooded double window on the side. 18×12 feet. A door from the kitchen leads into a closet. from those made on straight lines.PLAN The front door opens. The construction of this cottage may be of either stone. and apparently supported by the brackets below. at the upper end. is a passage leading beneath them into the cellar. The rooms in this cottage are 9 feet high. usually the better way. simple in repairing. but the curve and projection is given by planks cut into proper shape. from which leads a close closet. a door leads from the hall into the living room or kitchen. in the center of the front wall. and the hooded windows on the sides throw an air of protection over them. each lighted by a window in the gables. as may be most desirable. in the rafters. mountainous. On the inner side. as those out-of-the-way shapes frequently adopted to give a more picturesque effect. In a hilly. and spiked into the . if preferred. which may contain a sink. and produce a fine effect. with a flight of stairs on one side. which may receive. that we have in all cases adopted the usual square-sided form of glass for windows. if one is placed there. in this country. we think. A chimney leads up from the floor of the living room. leading to the chamber above. Although it has neither porch. under the stairs. 3 feet square. for the passage leading into them. and a dormer one in the roof. The hall may serve as a pleasant sitting or dining-room. into a hall. and. but may be changed into the ordinary sash form. and the sharp roof gives opportunity for two good lodging rooms. The living room is lighted by a part of the double hooded window on one side. and another on the rear. which may be partitioned off as convenience may require. this style of cottage is peculiarly appropriate. in the extreme corner of which is the water-closet. or wood. This bedroom has a window on one side.

given to any other style of building of like accommodation. with which it is in harmony. or hemlock. 225 In a snowy country. (227) (228) ELEVATION COTTAGE Design IV. plantations such as have been named. giving it a bold and rather dashing appearance. and give agreeable effect to its bold. while it will afford a sufficient amount of expenditure to gratify a liberal outlay. spruce. receive the same amount of outer decoration. in light rural-Gothic style. while the sharp arched double window in the front gable adds character to the design. and ampler conveniences than are allowed by the hitherto described structures. one and a half stories high. and.additional character from bold and picturesque scenery. each with the other. sharp roof and projecting eaves. Even where hill or mountain scenery is wanting. an occasional Lombardy poplar. while among deciduous trees and shrubs. and deeply sheltering the walls. who requires wider room. as comporting with that strong and solid air which the rustic appearance of stone alone can give. planted around or near it. uniformly. The side gables give variety to the roof. the posts 14 feet in elevation. on which it can find no protracted lodgment. It may.acrobatplanet. passing out through the roof on each side of the ridge. and with an equally agreeable effect. may be adapted to a variety of occupation. It is a first class dwelling. would render it a pleasing style of cottage. The pine. It has two chimneys. The ground plan of this cottage is 30×22 feet. or the more liberal cottager. to him who chooses to indulge his taste in a moderate extent of decoration and embellishment. will give it increased effect. or the evergreen laurel. of its kind. 90 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. too. in its shrubbery and plantations. Where massive stone walls enclose the estate. This cottage is still in advance of the last. cedar. The roof has a pitch of 45° from a horizontal line. and light to the chambers. in its details and finish. in its accommodation. and larch. the plan of roof here presented is well adapted to the shedding of heavy snows. and is suitable for the small farmer. will harmonize with the boldness of its outline. this style of cottage will be in character. and add to the finish of its .

with spacious shelves.acrobatplanet. from the plainest to a high degree of embellishment.The deep veranda in front covers three-quarters of its surface in length. lighted by a window opening into the 91 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. with their light braces. and under the flight of stairs adjoining opens a china closet. and in harmony with the purposes to which it is designed. a door opens into a hall. for the safe-keeping of household comforts. two of which present an agreeable view of an adjacent stream and its opposite shores. with a flight of stairs leading. and if creeping vines or climbing shrubs be trained upon them. Or. to the chambers above. At the line of partition from the hall. if desirable. or parlor. 229 give it a style of completeness. or for a stove. 10×13 feet. to render it cheaper in construction. PLAN From the veranda in the center of the front. as the ability or fancy of the builder may suggest. and in the symmetry of its roof. the effect may still be imposing. to accommodate both this room and the hall with a like convenience. a door leads into a bedroom. if a rustic style of finish be adopted. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. In fact. stands a chimney. this model will admit of a variety of choice in finish. with a fireplace. 17×7 feet. and airiness of its columns. lighted by three windows. will produce an effect altogether rural and beautiful. From this . in three different angles. 17×15 feet. Opposite the front door is the passage into the living room.

with a seeming humility. bitter-sweet. roomy pantry. and climbing shrubs about the windows and porch. but may have a door passage into the principal chamber. the clematis. In this is a flight of 230 back chamber and cellar stairs. asters. and roof pitched like the house. 92 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. 15×12 feet. giving three good sleeping-rooms. with nine-feet posts. where may be inserted an open fireplace. A large tree or two. and creeping vines. need not have a separate passage into the upper hall. such fancies are contagious. 12×13 feet. Still. and for the farmer's own family occupation. being a back chamber. unless occupied by the professional gardener. and near the kitchen garden. another in the rear. the farm cottage has little to do with it. in the gable of which is the hay-door. with each a separate entrance. and a few other of the thousand-andone simple and charming annuals.) 16×12 feet. The hop. well-tended kitchen garden—fill up the picture. But as such cases are more among villagers. oak. the substantial reality of the whole establishment. They denote expense. while marigolds. should be the fruit trees. Rare and costly plants are not required. COTTAGE OUTSIDE DECORATION. too. which the laboring cottager cannot afford. also accommodated by a stove. morning-glory. if wanted. accommodation is given to quite a numerous family. and hickory. and a roof in same style as the others—with convenience for a cow and a pig. accommodated with a chimney. and perennials. The elm. than truth of either design or purpose will admit. with ten-feet posts. 232 the phloxes. This room is lighted by two windows—one in the side. biennials. In the choice of what varieties should compose these ornaments. and lighted by a window. is a small building. but everything around it. that over the kitchen. and those temporarily retiring from the city for summer residence. with some people who. The door to the front bedroom leads direct from the upper hall. Nothing so perfectly sets off a cottage. flaunting in its broad glory. running beans—all useful and ornamental as summer climbers. The chamber plan is the same as the lower floor. as large trees. inside. with its covert expression of humility.veranda. a small. as well as commodious arrangement. 5×3 feet. by giving an air of protection. one can hardly be at a loss.acrobatplanet. A flight of stairs leads to the hay-loft above the stables. Next to this bedroom is the kitchen. in external appearance. is always in place. maples. near by. Next to this is a passage. in all their varieties. really aim at higher flights of style in living within them. There is an affectation of cottage building. should express. together with some simple and hardy annual and other flowers—to which should always be added. syringa. any of the climbing roses. black-walnut. they detract from the simplicity of the life and purpose which not only the cottage itself. and to these may be added. or a stove. and besides that. butternut—the last all the better for its rich kernel—are every one appropriate for shade. insinuating itself on to the farm. are hardly in place in the grounds of an ordinary cottage. snow-ball. Flanking the cottage. mainly. and under the stairs is the granary. while a few low-headed trees. will fill up the catalogue. of various kinds. to the eye. and we have occasionally seen the ambitious cottage. and indeed. peonies. pinks. situated in the wing. with now and then a gorgeous sunflower. and the entire establishment made a most snug and compact. in the extreme corner of which is a water-closet. 3 feet in width. Cornering upon the wood-house beyond. ivy. are in true character. Closets may be placed in each of these chambers. A door leads from its rear into a large. 8 feet square. and the standard roses. as the presence of plants and shrubbery around it. a small accommodation for a choice stock of poultry. which leads into a chimney at its inner partition. Thus. (in which the pantry just named is included. the lilac. leading to the wood-house. as . which at once spoiled.

and the fox. rather than to mar the domain on which they may be lodged. whose recreations are occasionally 234 with their hounds. simple. in addition." Another class of cottage may come within the farm enclosures. in his dogs. From betwixt two aged oaks. Thousands of kind and liberal hearts among our farming and planting brethren. and in their pursuit spend weeks of the fall and winter months. Such should be the farm house proper. although unpretending. in style. yet it may be very substantial and well finished—something showing that he means either to be content in it. both in construction and finish. honest people. at a future day. now and then. an eye may be kept to the producing of an agreeable effect in locating their habitations. 233 The cottage should never occupy a principal. and guns. or upon their premises. be required on the farm. whose impulses are— "Open as the day to melting charity. as boon companions for the time. because they cannot work every day of the year—of which all long-settled families of good estate have. in its wild structure. just what it is intended for—a tenement for economical purposes. economizing utilitarian would call it. and in their accommodation. in chase of the deer. and to rudely embellish. 93 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. it should be a plain one. This may be indulged in. landlords may build such. that a cottage was near. poetically too—for almost any thinking man has a spice of poetry in his composition—vagabondism. and assisted." are familiar with the wants of those who are thus made their dependents. such as Milton describes: "Hard by a cottage chimney smokes. the dwellers in which. A cottage cannot. in which they are accompanied. and should not aspire to be chief in either position or character. these pages will probably never reach. and rude locality. There is another kind of cottage. that expresses. One may as well indulge his taste in this cheap sort of charitable expenditure. They do not belong to the farm. The name matters not. half poetical. a strict. by the rude tenants of the cottages we have described: "A cheerful. at the west and south." Yet.A farmer should discard all such things as ornamental cottages. and add indirectly to their own convenience and interest in so doing. and if the latter. still. it should so appear.acrobatplanet." and occupied by a family pensioner and his infirm old wife—we don't think all "poor old folks" ought to go to the alms-house. the idea of Moore's pretty song— "I knew by the smoke that so gracefully curled Above the green elms. It should take a subordinate position of ground. one near to. among the lesser farm . as another may indulge. to build something better—when this may serve for the habitation of one of his laborers. his horses and equipages—and the first is far the cheapest. or prominent site on the farm. for the accommodation of tenants. in some parts of our country. in its character of plainness. and half economical. which they may make useful on the outskirts of their estates. or that he intends. If he live in a cottage himself. This adds to its expression as subordinate in rank. above the cottage. They. understand this.

and be kept uncomfortable all the time. HOUSE AND COTTAGE FURNITURE. when. after a . and pretty much from the same source. Fashions in furniture change about as often as the cut of a lady's dress. from the apparent respectability of a family 237 to find nothing old about them—as if they themselves were of yesterday. if he will. and detract from your comfort. which absorb your money in their cost. once. and unfitness for use. and looking with anxiety to the next change of fashion which shall introduce something new into the house. Paris. to which we have long been accustomed. as you sit in it. We are not about to dictate. and let it stand in its own humble. and foreign to its purpose. like contented. every year of his life. and then a catalogue of what shall comprise the luxurious part of their furnishings. with a few exceptions. that anything which may here be said." "out of date. and commodious fashion. What so useless as the modern French chairs. of what fashion household furniture should be. in good old English. instead of adding to it. attached to nothing. or the increasing wants of their family may require. and pass for—what they now do not—men possessing a taste for truth and propriety in their endeavors. that.acrobatplanet. It is a kind of dissipation in which some otherwise worthy people are prone to indulge. is more the fashion than anything else. familiar things. in taking down old. as that of any other structure."—for wonderfully modern notions in room-furnishing have crept into the farm house. and newly dusted out of a modern shop-keeper's stock in trade. make up a round share of our actual enjoyment. Indeed. inasmuch as our opinions might be looked upon as "old-fashioned. "modern degeneracy" has reached the utmost stretch of absurdity. substantial. also. garote-ing your back like a rheumatism. and frail as the legs of a spider beneath you." It is pleasant to see a young couple setting out in their housekeeping life. and use it. well provided with convenient and properly-selected furniture. in house-furnishing. they will fixedly make up their mind to keep. that in these times the extreme of absurdity. the capital city of France. cottage architecture. we confess to altogether ancient opinions in regard to household furniture. of late. But we are free to say. appropriate to all the uses of the family. may be made as effective. which. A family addicted to constant change in their household furniture. let their circumstances be ever so affluent. can take no sort of comfort. to which the ingenuity of man can arrive. may spend half his annual income. good-tempered talk with his better-half.In short. so far as those requirements in it will admit. and leave off that perpetual aspiration after something unnatural. sensible people. A farmer. or the shape of her bonnet. adding to it. 236 too—the fancy shops of Paré. they will remain entirely free from one great source of "the ills which flesh is heir to. and be content with. rich or poor. or so low as to scarcely keep you above the 94 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. This is a subject so thoroughly discussed in the books. with the approved modes of the day. 235 and if those who have occasion for the cottage will only be content to build and maintain it as it should be." and "of no account whatever. in all the ornament which it should give to the farm. as its wear. and putting up new furniture. It detracts. and habituated. and then to keep. and contend. when provided. any further than that of a plain. now and then. The furniture of a house ought to look as though the family within it once had a grandfather—and as if old things had some veneration from those who had long enjoyed their service. which so many cottage builders of the day attempt. in its proper character. when selected. secluded character. or a bedstead so high that you must have a ladder to climb into it. Old. and that it should comport. when you have got them. but altogether pernicious in the indulgence. and a tribe of equally worthless incumbrances. they will save themselves a world of trouble. standing on legs like pipe-stems. would avail but little. and enjoy it. content with nothing. as well as into town houses. agree with her upon the list of necessary articles to make them really comfortable.

We have frequently been into a country house. is fatal to everything like domestic enjoyment. poor things! The hearth-rug should be in keeping with the carpet. If a large room be required. and most innocent pleasure of their lives. inviting. also. in mind and attainments. the free. perhaps. let the single room itself be large. leave all this vanity to town-folk. of comfort. they require a world of care. Look into the houses of those people who are the really substantial.level of the floor. or the sensible retirement of the country. This "parlor" 240 may be better furnished—and so it should be—than any other room in the house. thus absolutely sinking the best rooms in the house. when lying on it. and everything about it looked so gingerly and inhospitable. should be too good for occupation by the family themselves—not every-day. and the dancing master. This is nothing but a bastard taste. and no floor-cloth should be necessary to cover it. mark the well-ordered arrangement of their rooms. Nor do these flashy furnishings add to one's rank in society. and common-place—but occupation at any and all times. not money—and see how they live. No room. and is out of character for the farm. on being introduced into the "parlor. and content ourself with the single remark. useful in everything." actually found everything in the furniture line so dainty and "prinked up. for fear of soiling. at least. Its carpet should be not too good to tread. There will be found little of such frippery with them. think they have—to amuse themselves with. have been more fittingly made when discussing that subject. and give an air of quietude. 238 Old furniture. as heir-looms of affection and parental regard. the easy. comfortably ensconced in a good old easy. to keep them in condition. in any house. split-bottomed chair—there was positive comfort in that. the most joyous. give us the substantial. in a country house. and the rest may go to tickle the fancy of those who have a taste for them. which must always be opened into each other. Some people have a marvellous propensity for introducing into their houses a suite of rooms. and all men who. All this kind of frippery smacks of the boarding school. in corners. not sacrifice an extra room to the occasional extension of the choicer one. of the most worthless kind. be strong. for fear of breaking them. when in the "parlor" there was nothing but restraint and discomfort. or stand upon. when their mother or elder sisters are with them—for it may be. as in the use of folding-doors must be done. but everything free and easy. and. They are costly. in the designs of our houses. Children cling to such objects in after life. to their heart's content. highbacked. Although we decline to give specific directions about what varieties of furniture should constitute the furnishings of a house. with all this care. whatever. plain. No. We speak not of statesmen and politicians alone. great mechanics. and of hospitality to their apartments. great divines. nor ostentation about it—and such as is made for use: mere trinkets stuck about the room. it has no fitness for a country dwelling. but great merchants. need not here be discussed. on center tables. who have nothing better—or 239 who. Let the happy little fellows roll and tumble on it. perhaps. and take a place by the wide old fireplace. or to the good opinion of those whose consideration is most . introduced from the city—the propriety of which. and enjoyable articles. in all cases. and always followed by great expense and inconvenience. connected by wide folding-doors. provided their shoes and clothes be clean. great scholars. and devoted to extraordinary occasions. and then. or to illustrate its style or fashion by drawings. and at the sacrifice of the every-day comfort of the family. and worthy of the land. hospitable look about it. which might. in any sensible use. Go into the houses of our great men—such as live in the country—whom God made great. or on the mantelpiece. they are good for nothing. or for the children to roll and tumble upon. when convenience or pleasure demand it. with a comfortable. for display half a dozen times in the year. that it should. a remark may be made on the room arrangement of the house." that we were afraid to sit down on the frail things stuck around by way of seats. that we felt an absolute relief when we could fairly get out of it. well-preserved. the pirouette.acrobatplanet. furnished just alike. for city life. The presence of such arrangement. where we anticipated better things. in the common living room. are head and shoulder above their class 95 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. No. and durable—no sham. are the foolishest things imaginable. In connection with the subject of furniture.

in the plainest. at her family sewing. Let thoughtless people do as they choose. was sitting among them. His father had been a statesman of 241 distinguished ability and station at home. and a diplomatist abroad. should the farmer ape the fashion. for a while. or flummery about them. my wife and I determined we would try the country. and such as he had added to it. yet altogether appropriate garb. as according entirely with our own views. glowing fireplace. perhaps. He had a large. will be to their lasting benefit in future. But. and himself educated in the highest circles of business. paintings. and his poultry. his pigs. so as to have it faithfully done. cheerful. in regard to buildings." too." we exclaimed. for that matter—of a distinguished banker of one of our great cities. and their worthy mother. or she. and land. and you find no starch. with a piazza running on three sides of it. the old family plate. amid the starch and the gimcracks of —— 242 street. or permit his family to do it? It is the sheerest possible folly in him to do so. as they get "established" in the like kind of life. saving. He was an educated man. and the children are healthy and happy. and see how they come out in their fashionable career. He who keeps aloof from such temptation. that we give it a place. a letter from a person at the west. never cost him three thousand." And this is but a specimen of thousands of families in the enjoyment of country life. and taught his sons and daughters that a due attention to their own comfort. and which. but watch them for a dozen years. will ultimately lead to great discomfort to themselves. in conclusion: 96 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. merely for the sake of appearance." was the reply. had we not written a word about it—go and select such as may strike their own fancy. and kindly welcomed us as we took our seats in front of the open. plain two-story cottage house. he had several—we found happy. whose ideas so entirely correspond with our own. Every room in it was a plain one. where he kept his horses and cows. We kept our town-house. into which we returned for a winter or two. from which a beautiful view of the neighboring city. "Why. He had a small farm attached to his dwelling. quite his equal in all the accomplishments of life. then. we all enjoy ourselves. was seen in nearly all directions. rubbing our hands in the comfortable glow of warmth which the fire had given—for it was a cold December day—"you are quite plain. after standing it as long as we could. Yet. but gave it up for a permanent residence here. will then have no cause to regret that he has maintained his own steady course of living. with economical habits in everything 243 relating to housekeeping. with all this claim to pretension. not more highly finished than many a farmer's house can afford. too. if not reformed. "we stood it as long as we could. with which we are perfectly content. healthy. it is a folly into which many are imperceptibly gliding. Pay no attention to their extravagance. younger and older. The furniture of every kind was plain. and see what we could make of it. We received. was the daughter of a distinguished city merchant. We once went out to the country house—he lived there all the time. aside from library.acrobatplanet. and spend the day with him. and of . no doubt. and the children could never go into the streets but they must be tagged and tasselled. and water. His wife. as well as wonderfully comfortable. and the furniture in it. would have done. a day or two since. So. and which we trust he will pardon us for publishing. sir. Yet. and his station in society was of the highest. in their dress. and statuary. which was all substantial. His own wealth was competent. and made for use. including the families of men in the highest any of the walks of life. where we rarely had a day to ourselves. and frolicking on the carpets. and house-furnishings. and ruin to their families. we have said enough to convey the ideas in house-furnishing we would wish to impart. and observe the fate of their families. Why. in your country house—quite different from your former city residence!" "To be sure we are. and the reader will do as he. his house did not cost him eight thousand dollars—and he built it by "days-work. he was the manager of millions of the wealth of others. and the frivolity of the butterflies of town life. entirely unknown to us. into all sorts of discomfort. to dine. We see here all the friends we want to see. and possessed of sufficient wealth. as showing that a proper taste does prevail among many people in this country. The younger children—and of these.

——. 245 Having completed the series of Designs for dwelling houses. accommodation.")—are necessary appendages of the farm house. and partially described in the late works on those subjects. we now pass on to the second part of our subject: the out-buildings of the farm. will be best suited to their . and granary. you may be able to furnish something better suited to the necessities and means of our plain farmers. that such plans as will conveniently include the greatest number of these under the same roof.acrobatplanet. I hope. not merely for show.. As to out-houses—the barn. for the sake of the first cost. ILL. piggery. which seems fully to meet the wants of our country people in the matter of furniture. The furniture should be designed for use. in the above matters. ——. entitled "Rural Architecture. 97 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. in which are to be accommodated the domestic animals which make up a large item of its economy and management. tool-house. we should pay no regard to the appearance. poultry-house. After having built their houses. stable. they need showing how to furnish them in the cheapest. it seems to me. a copy of the first number of a periodical called the "Plough. Now. and followed them out with such remarks as were thought fitting to attend them. 18. and substantial manner. or suit the taste of the plain American farmer." Although a perfect stranger to you. as cheapness is one great desideratum with nearly all our new beginners in this western region. convenient.—I received. I do not mean to be understood that. but not coarse—just 244 enough for the utmost convenience. Dec. There is too much nabobery about them to meet the wants. most respectfully yours. carriage and wagon-house. are mostly of too elaborate and expensive a cast to be generally introduced into our country houses. 1851. but nothing superfluous.. and in economy. The articles of furniture figured. than has been done by any of your predecessors. or suffer it to be constructed of flimsy or perishable materials: we should not only have an eye to taste and durability. purporting to be from a forthcoming work of yours. ——. a few days since. you will perhaps allow me to make one or two suggestions. or that we should slight our work. &c. most neat. and the wants of the farmer may demand. I would have it plain. comfortable. which we had proposed for this work. but put in practice the most strict economy. corn-crib. and extent. (to say nothing of the "rabbit-warren" and "dovecote. be serviceable to those for whose benefit they are designed. together with other buildings which are necessary to complete its requirements. I remain." into which is copied the elevation of a design for a farm house. DEAR SIR. ——. I have seen no work yet. We trust that they will be found to be such as the occasion.

they are as wild and untamed as when buzzing and collecting their sweets in the vineyard of Timnath. although provided with the choicest comforts to invite its entrance. when it emerges in a swarm from the parent hive.APIARY. in another. GROUND PLAN. Every farmer should keep bees—provided he have pasturage for them. and sometimes a troublesome appendage to the domestic stock of the farm. Although kept in partial bondage for six thousand years. and skill. enter a hollow and dilapidated tree. or if a proper range for their food and stores lie in his immediate vicinity. without these. not understood by every one who attempts to rear them. We call them domestic. beyond any other domestic stock. Yet. on his own land. ate "locusts and wild honey" in the arid wastes of Palestine. to their owners. AN APIARY. or kindness of treatment. in their management. they require no assistance. and with that they are entirely content. or. they are a contingent.acrobatplanet. in gathering their daily stores. beyond that of proper housing in the cheapest description of tenement. OR BEE-HOUSE. as when John the Baptist. will induce it willingly to migrate from its nursery habitation to another by its side. and that of no inconsiderable kind. It will soon fly to the woods. Bees are. the ruling propensity of the bee is to seek a 247 home and shelter in the forest. and carve out for itself its future 98 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. They ask no food. where the mighty Sampson took their honey from the carcass of the dead lion. economical in their keeping. clothed with camel's hair. Still they require care. In one sense they are . and no amount of domestic accommodation.

with efforts at style. The front posts should be 9 feet high. back and forth from their hives. Nine posts. pretentious affair. The bee. in their busy order. they should be associated with every farmer's home. and loves nothing so much as the wild beauty of nature itself. and sides. and profitable. from each one of these middle posts. but ingenuity. who spins his worthless web. It should be near the ground. and virtue. are set into the ground sufficiently deep to hold them firm. The distance of these posts apart may be according to the size of the building. from bottom to top. or other absurdity. the very appearance of which frightens the simple bee from its propriety. with . and with all our vivid nursery remembrance of good Doctor Watts' charming little hymn— "How doth the little busy bee. a pagoda. The insect is. should be laid from the two intermediate posts at the ends. and in a wonderful degree. And as their due accommodation is to be the object of our present writing. is an arrant thief—robbing its nearest neighbors. got up in an ambitious way. and on a line to accommodate the pitch of the roof from the front to the rear. according to its extent. It has been extolled for its ingenuity. The rear 99 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. may stand upright under them—and 6 feet from the front line. it has none. together with comfortable room for its stores. It rejects all cultivated appearances. with his hat on. should cover the whole. and the ear. and mercilessly slaughtering its weaker brethren. in a summer's afternoon. or the wasp. The two end posts directly in the rear of the front corner posts.acrobatplanet. beyond a doubt. of boards. amid a world of labor and apparent discomfort. industry. as we have observed. and with every laborer's cottage. pleasant. the bee-house. its perseverance. or apiary. tightly laid. A shed roof. in a clean and quiet spot. above the ground. it has nothing. we have long ago set it down as incorrigible to kind treatment. or crutches. in the semblance of a temple. to the post in rear of all. and not exceeding 12 feet apart.fortunes. more than the spider. but of kind feeling. is an expensive. and to secure them from heaving out by the frost. and as a luxury to the sight. A light plate is to be fitted on the top line of the front posts. and the increase of its kind. wild and untamable—a savage in its habits. when practicable. its industry. The plan here presented 250 is of the plainest and least expensive kind. or rafter. to meet the plate which surmounts this rear line of posts. rear. &c. the more rustic and simple its habitation. and for a central support to the roof. to connect them. when standing in the way of its rapacity. Intermediate central posts should also be placed opposite those in front. and to give it strength enough to resist the action of the wind. its patience. like all animals." &c. as they fly. The bee-house should front upon a sheltered and sunny aspect. who stings you when disturbing his labors. and looked upon it simply as a thing to be treated kindly for the sake of its labors. when the strongest. as may be desirable. by way of ornament. barring its industry. and rude in its temper. The ends should be tightly boarded up against 251 the weather. Patience. and undisturbed by noisome smells. either human or profane. and perseverance it has. sufficiently projecting over the front. in a bright May or June morning. are among the most delightful associations of rural life.. A corner board should drop two feet below the plate. and seeks only its own temporary convenience. a plate at each end should run back to the posts in rear. and as composing one of that delightful family of domestic objects which make our homes attractive. and gratitude. and therefore. 248 The active labors of the bee. or charitable sympathy. or shingles. patience. the better is it pleased with its position. too. and a parallel plate. the rear posts should be 7 feet—that a man. a plan is presented for that object. with such finish. and make it architecturally agreeable to the eye—say 12 to 18 inches. and then another cross-plate. the bee has. Instinct. and in which we never yet knew a colony of them to become. and uncouth sounds—for it loathes all these instinctively. should be 3 feet back from them. or the soothing hum of their playful hours. or girt. and remain successful. to give the house abundant shelter. and sweetened labors. free from the intrusion of other creatures. to support the central plate. and its virtue. In many of the modern structures held out for imitation.

I have made. on which they are to sit. and secured by heavy nails. or two-inch plank as you have hives to set upon them. I believe. as the size of the house may determine. the benefits claimed for them.acrobatplanet. unsatisfactory. equidistant. is a mode not at all according to our notions of economy. and close to it. and put together perfectly tight at the joints. First. The inside arrangement for the hives. not carrying out in full. its accommodations should be of the simplest and securest form. (I have never used a patent hive which would exclude the bee-moth. This process is given in the report of a committee of gentlemen appointed by the New York State Agricultural Society. with white lead ground in oil. of which there are probably thirty invented. Therefore. with the following note attached. as we have for many years adopted the plan now described. Then. say 18 to 24 inches. suspend perpendicularly a line of stout pieces of two-inch plank. with entire success. From each bottom end of these suspended strips. and the process for obtaining the surplus honey. containing a cube of one foot square inside—made of one and a quarter inch sound pine plank. The most usual is the stand method. Now for the hives. and secured with hooks. and the stores for their increasing family. 3×2 inches. with a door for the bees in front. in 1848: 253 "I have seen. We say surplus. and used several different plans of patent hive. that there may be a thin surface to come in contact with the shelf on which they rest. lengthwise the building. hung from the upper boarding. as the choice of the apiarian may govern in the mode in which his hives are secured. and lives. secure another piece of like thickness and width. from the rear side and ends of the building—as shown in the ground plan—and opposite to each rear and end post. of four inches long by three-eighths of an inch high. and we prefer to take that honey only which the swarm may make. I have found all which I have ever seen. set edgewise—one in front. and the inside of the hive at the bottom champered off to three-eighths of an inch . examined. Let these pieces of plank be well and smoothly planed. To succeed well. not less than four inches apart from each other—if a less number of hives be in the building than it will accommodate at four inches apart. instead of adopting the complicated plans of many of the patent hives. "The bee works. and from 15 to 18 inches above that to the roof. or buttons. having never been troubled with that scourge since I used this tight 100 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. inside. The outside of the structure is thus completed. for the hives. be cut long enough to reach from the boarding on the rear and ends of the building. may be made in two different ways. inside each post and suspended strip. a brief description is given of our mode of hive. or mercy. I do not consider it an inventive.should also be tightly boarded. and resting on these horizontal pieces just described. no matter how far apart they may be—these pieces of plank are the ferms for the hives. well spiked on to the rafters above. This forms the hanging frame-work for the planks or boards on which the hives are to rest. and projecting over the front of the outer strip last described. so that there shall be a double line of these 252 strips on a level. well jointed and planed on all sides. to one inch beyond. extending from one post to the other. at the side and ends. horizontally back to the post in rear of it. reaching down within two feet of the ground—which is to hold up the bottom of the stand on which the hives are to rest. extending entirely around the interior. thus preventing a harbor for the beemoth. should be a light. I do this. which may be made thus: At each angle. from the front at each end. swing door. and used a simple box. though substantial. made in sections. for destroying the bees to obtain their honey. and turning the angles at the ends. and another in rear. and laid lengthwise across the aforesaid strips. or very ingenious insect. And. Fitted into the space thus left in the rear. from the bottom up to a level with the stand inside. 4 inches wide. nor any one which would so well do it as this. solely by instinct. lay other strips. after supplying their own wants. let as many pieces of sound one and a half. on a hive which we exhibited on that occasion. at their show at Buffalo. as may be convenient. more or less. like that now before you. and used.

The pail will hold about twenty pounds of honey. This is simple. At such time. "Such. and hung with wire hooks and staples to the sides. a soft and agreeable color. of an inch wide. as here described. in keeping with the other 101 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. The pails we adopted as an article of greater convenience for transporting the honey. and six to eight inches long. But. when . seem to hold these patent-right habitations in quite as sovereign contempt as ourself. about the size of a common window button. of different kinds. say two-thirds the way up from the bottom. and expeditious. also. The other plan of arranging the hives alluded to. the strips running lengthwise the house must be brought near enough together to receive the hives as hung by the cleats. when the hive is to receive the swarm. our hives are painted white. on the outside. and as a further security against the bee-moth. Weeks. and up into the hive—Weeks' plan. and it may be painted outside. Weeks having written an ingenious and excellent treatise on the treatment of the bee. have tried several of great pretension to sundry virtues—such as excluding moths. or market. which infests and destroys so many carelessly-made hives. about half-way between the bottom and top. and always in place. or a nail. so as to make a rough surface. or forms. must be much smaller than those already described. we must. the pail costing not exceeding twentyfive cents.acrobatplanet. cheap. We have seen scores of them. and taken again to a common-sense method of keeping our bees. in short. and Miner. in fact. we have no confidence in patent hives. and kept clean of cobwebs. is the best "patent" we have seen. an inch or two from the front. such as chambers to receive the boxes for the deposit of surplus honey. and Mr. with the bail turned over. I have kept bees about twenty years. is suspending them between the strips before described. and with a like notch in it. with a button on the rear. and getting out of them at the first safe opportunity. by shingle nails. for which he has a patent. the under-side of the top is scratched with the tines of a table fork. is my method. which will hold twenty-five to thirty pounds of honey. (my bees made two pails-full in succession this year. have thrown aside the gimcracks. on each end. like the sample before you. we sometimes use a flat box. to which the new comb can be fastened. and the honey ready for transportation. If there is time for more honey to be made. a small piece of half-inch board. to protect them from warping. as to discourage the efforts of equally careless people in keeping them. is taken off in a moment. on which.) For obtaining the honey. by the way. wasp's nests. and the bottom boards. on so prolific a subject. In such case. is made a passage for the bees. commend the inquirer on that subject to some of the valuable treatises extant. and six or seven inches high inside. This. The bees themselves. together with some other fancied improvements. after becoming the victim of bee 256 empirics to the tune of many a dollar. from falling in hot weather. but stationary. In addition to the pails 255 on the top of the hives. among which we name those of Bevan. we freely recommend his book to the attention of every apiarian who wishes to succeed in their management. and other marvelous benefits—and. a stick is laid across. inverted. As a rule. the bail replaced. for further information. (which passage is covered. as a treatise on beekeeping is not a part of this present work. to receive the surplus honey. or let them down a sufficient distance to admit the air to pass freely across them. and used for the first time. we feel bound to say. gentlemen. to admit the bees into an upper hive for surplus honey. the size of the hive in diameter. The bee-house should be thoroughly whitewashed inside every spring.) On the top of the hive. reluctantly going into them. to support the comb as it is built. in which the bees deposit their surplus. Inside the hive. I use a common ten or twelve-quart water 254 pail. we fasten. to close up. set upward.) another pail can be put on at once. or other light color. and vermin." In addition to this.hive. when no vessel for that purpose is on the top. by means of cleats secured on to the front and rear sides of the hive. or miller. I succeed better on this plan than with any other.

be within sight and . and to the invalid.buildings of the farm. with its busy tenantry. The cost of a bee-house. for want of such settling places. 102 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. also. and the amount of labor expended upon it. should stand within a few yards of it. as its purpose does not warrant it. that. for the purposes of ornament. Its premises should be clean. on the plan given. if convenient. that the new swarms may light upon them when coming out. according to the price of material. The apiary is a beautiful object. It should not be an expensive structure. The grass around should be kept mowed close. it may while away many an agreeable 257 hour. may be from ten to fifty dollars. Low trees. or shrubbery. If a gimcrack affair be wanted. and not. in watching their labors— thus adding pleasure to profit. It should. or one who loves to look upon God's tiny creatures. they may be secured as they leave the parent hive. and sweet. ICE-HOUSE. in any event. or expense. in their swarming season. and at no great distance from a continually-frequented room in the dwelling— perhaps the kitchen. be liable to loss from flying away. any sum of money may be squandered upon it which the fancy of its builder may choose to spare.acrobatplanet.

dig. they are to show a square form. a double set of holes. but it should be so constructed that sunshine will not affect the ice within it. and four to six inches deep. opposite each other. It may be added. and as it has. Cut out. by the ice-merchants of our eastern cities. so as to appear decent—and the insides facing each other as they stand up. and of home consumption. the building which contains it should stand above-ground. or skeleton of what the building is to be when completed. we shall present no other mode of construction than this. or spike on to each line of posts a plate. plank. is the ice-house. as rafters. to guard the ice. a foot thick. or board up closely the inside of each line of posts. well packed from the ground up to the plates. which should be of oak. been proved to be altogether the better plan to build the ice-house entirely above ground. and stay the two plates together strongly. Different from the general opinion which prevailed in our country before ice became so important an article of commerce. that the space between them shall be a fair surface. even if it stand unsheltered. The posts should be full eight feet high above the ground.acrobatplanet. that five years' experience with one of our own 259 building. it will so far be relieved from the influence of the sun. to carry the roof at least four feet over the outside of the plates. and six and a half feet high. chestnut. If the posts are sawed. so as to form a door-casing on each side. one foot deep. so that when the posts stand up they will present a double set. in place of them. The design here presented is of the most economical kind. and pack the earth firmly around them. in a pitch of full 35° from a horizontal line. Now lay down. instead of below it. If it can be placed beneath the shade of trees. If not sawed. For the roof. Then set in your posts. they may be round sticks cut from the woods. two and a half or three feet wide. inside the building. who furnish ice in quantity for home consumption. Now. The position of the ice-house may be that which is most convenient to the dwelling. or some lasting wood. or to the wants of those who use it. When this is done. and built thus: Mark out your ground the size you require for the house. and board up the inner partition sides of this opening. or leave out a space for a door in the center of the side where you want it. to where the plate of the roof is attached. take common 3×4 joists. and two and a half feet apart. say six inches 261 . And the plainer and more simple it can be constructed. Of course. who put up large quantities for exportation abroad. when the posts are set in the ground. for a floor. then frame. and air-proof.GROUND PLAN. or. and it is ready to receive the ice. The idea here given is simply the principle of construction. sun-proof. so that they be level—and on them lay loose planks or boards. Then fill up this space between the posts with moist tan-bark. square off the top of each post to a level. one and a half feet apart. and 103 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. or split from the body of a tree. that the space between the two lines of posts may be a continuous box all around. the better. AN ICE-HOUSE. then. say three feet equidistant. some sticks—not much matter what. has confirmed our opinion of the superiority of this over any other plan which may be adopted. The size may be 12 feet square—less than that would be too small for keeping ice well—and from that up to any required extent. they may be 4×6 inches in size. on each side of the intended building. commencing at one corner. so as to form a double frame. all round. quartered —but sizable. set edgeways toward each other. Among the useful and convenient appendages to the farm and country family establishment. yet sufficiently ornamental to make it an agreeable appendage to any family establishment. Cover this floor with a coating of straw. poles from the woods. and others in the interior. or saw-dust. and the body of the house is inclosed. long enough. lined to a surface to receive the planking.

It will be seen. should be quite as thorough as we have described. and a considerable degree of ornament. Then set in. or saw-dust—straw will do. as an appendage to the main buildings. so that this floor can be removed when putting in ice. as is shown in the elevation. a side hill. of the house. to say nothing of the cooling draughts. say two feet high—as in the design—throw a little four-sided. leaving a small aperture at the top. and various etceteras for the table. to match the rough posts of the same kind. by an error in the cut of the ground plan. If you want to ornament the under side of 262 the the rafters well. 4 little posts. and the other on the outer side. to which it adds—when not taken to extremes—such positive luxury. and that covered five or six inches deep with tan.acrobatplanet. to an American. through which run a small pipe. in hot weather. however. to them. which they should do. and can devise no shape to the building more appropriate than this. and as the ice is removed. a close floor of boards should be laid on joists. The drainage under the floor. Then board over and shingle it. nor is the outside door inserted. as. if standing there. economy. rough limbs of trees from the woods. fruits. The roof. will be rectified by the builder. so as to keep the air from it as much as possible. for the body of the house. pointed cap on to the top of these posts. say eight inches in diameter—a stove-crock will do—for a ventilator. and the roof is done. saw-dust. understand its utility well. if the other can not be had—and the inside arrangement is complete. most heartily. otherwise. and fasten them to the posts and the under side of the roof. to pass off the water which melts from the ice. and the degree of finish given to it. It is hardly worth while to expatiate upon the convenience and economy of an ice-house. nor one cheaper in construction. that. Tan. be of little ornament in the way of appearance. We have given considerable thought to this subject. and the door for putting in and taking out the ice may be in the gable. and melt the ice with great rapidity. and. and the manner of building should be mainly like this. as shown in the design. an item of little cost. If an under-ground ice-house be preferred to the plan here shown. which rest on the plates. When the ice is put into the house. to every good country housekeeper. 104 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and of course. We commend the ice-house. it will settle down upon. with a northerly exposure. by way of brackets. well-filled. It 263 may be built for fifty to a hundred dollars. by pins or spikes. or bank. adding next to nothing to the living expenses. Two doors should be attached to the opening. injure its keeping. in a rude way—and we would advise it—take some pieces of 3×4 scantling. both opening out. and still preserve it. is the best location for it. butter. as a matter of convenience. as in the outer . in the way of drinks. however. but little more than the roof will show. such as were used for the roof. milk. and luxury. Care must be taken to have a drain under the floor of the house. the earth surrounding it on three sides. If the under-ground plan is adopted. These defects. if the posts are of sawed stuff—if not. at least. should be only two-sided. and precautions for keeping the ice. Those who love well-kept meats. when put in. where the ice is put in and taken out. according to the cost of material and labor. one on the inner side of the lining. on the ground level. will be a ready conductor of warmth. as it would. or straw should also be placed on the top of the ice. the inside line of posts does not show. loosely.

These two objects may. and a plain. The building is an exceedingly simple structure. for sustaining the meats to be smoked. be well combined under one roof. and of such size as may be desirable. A stove. in which the various girts and hooks may be placed. The building should be tied together by joists at the plates. GROUND PLAN. or pans. the body 10 feet high. or not. and we have thus placed them in connection. with a simple roof. can be placed inside. that further explanation is unnecessary. to prevent their spreading. 105 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. as required. 266 and so easily understood. and overhead. as the method of keeping the smoke alive may govern.ASH HOUSE AND SMOKE HOUSE. both for convenience and economy. or neither. or stone partition—which may extend to such height as may be necessary to contain the bulk of ashes required for storage within it—on one side of the building. to which a door gives access. The whole process is so simple. In the ground plan will be seen a brick. THE ASH-HOUSE AND SMOKE-HOUSE. hooded chimney. or brick. made of stone.acrobatplanet. The opposite side. properly anchored into the walls. to which the chimney in the roof may serve as a partial . is devoted to the smoke-house.

the poultry-house is equally indispensable. to drive out the flies. in all cases. and for the most profitable management of the fowls themselves. by the door at which they are thrown in. and of doubtful profit. without well-arranged quarters for the fowls of the farm.A great advantage that a house of this construction has. THE POULTRY-HOUSE. POULTRY LAWN. even through the whole season. The ashes can. they are exceedingly troublesome. As poultry is an indispensable appendage to the farm. but with the proper buildings devoted to them exclusively. for their accommodation. is the convenience of storing the smoked meats for an indefinite time. a smoke to be made. dry. keeping them dark. of course. they become one of the most interesting and agreeable objects with which either the farm or the country house is associated. at any time. and permitting. Indeed. 106 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and most convenient for the production of their eggs and young. and . if they find their way into it. be removed at any time.acrobatplanet.

but. only remarking. Its length. Their merits and virtues are written in the hearts of all provident housekeepers. Otherwise. in the center. Doors of sufficient size can be made on the yard sides of the house. then. which. or sandy. or passage-board. If the ground be gravelly. one foot wide. and their beauty and goodness are familiar to every son and daughter of the rural homestead. It is hardly worth while to eulogize poultry. for hens. We shall. but we prefer an enclosure to keep the hens in.GROUND PLAN. ten inches high. on the whole. it should be under-drained. that if we were building the house on our own account. are tiers of boxes. the first. sheltered. and the rafters 270 rest on the plates. At each end. or sown. and trees in the rear—both of which are necessary to a complete establishment. on the farm. and sunny place. which will effectually dry it. The wooden floor is dispensed with. and deriving much enjoyment to themselves. The front door opens into the main living room. or range over its surface. in all seasons. and may be used either for laying purposes by the fowls. into which our draughtsman has put the diamond-paned glass. and with them most of the other varieties 268 can be associated—should be located in a warm. and its height 10 feet. to secure the poultry in the contiguous yards. they may range at will. yet thoroughly.acrobatplanet. Some people—indeed. which the circumstances of the proprietor may devote to it. and hung with butts on the upper side. as the subject may require. as in the case of the ice-house previously described. with a hole at one corner of each. and snugly partitioned between. with abundant grounds about it. We here present the elevation of a poultry-house in perspective. when seeds are planted. made of posts set into the ground—for we do not like sills. though not double. or yard-room. The front windows are large. If a heavy or damp soil be used. to keep rid of the vermin. it will be sufficiently dry. The chamber floor is 9 feet high. with glass windows. above the ground. and one and a half feet high—the lowest tier elevated two feet above the ground—and built one tier above the other. doing good in their destruction of insects. we mean) are the first and chief stock. is 20 feet. proceed at once to discuss their proper accommodation. is a ventilator. and eight inches wide. to connect them firmly together. to shelter it. and which may be extended to any required length. of the kind. at all seasons when they are troublesome. of a most rustic appearance. and even roostingplaces. no doubt. or stone. at pleasure. and be better for the fowls than a floor of either wood. are happy things. and through the point of the roof. if they prefer such lodgings in warm weather—for which we consider them eminently wholesome. to be closed when necessary. and floors of wood. and a shelf." we let it pass. either inside or outside. its breadth 16. to be provided for. and grain and vegetables are ripening. and built as cheaply. as will be seen. The roof is broadly drawn over the body of the building. to attract the warmth of the winter's sun. and a vane significant of its purpose. to show the principle which we would adopt in its construction. nine inches 107 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. to keep hens out. in the cheapest and most familiar method with which we are acquainted. and enjoy themselves to their heart's content. we will say. as . where they can graze—hens eat grass—and scratch. and to which may be added any given area of ground. for the poultry to enter either the living or roosting apartments. brick. as he had. an eye to the "picturesque. or reserved as a storage-room for their feed. because rats are apt to burrow under them. a good many people—picket in their gardens. one and a half feet long. Plates are laid on these posts. with a covered top. A section of picket fence is also attached. near the ground. and in the rear. is only during short seasons of the year. after all. It is also sufficiently lighted. which are their worst enemies—and boarded up. as was remarked. when the ground is open and they can scratch into. The hen-house—for hens (barn-door fowls. contrary to our notions. and the trees to give them shade. It is. there should be no such nonsense about it. for passing in to them.

in front. is just as good as the most complicated invention. ducks. when not in use. that. for that purpose. hung by one end. A hen will lay but about a given number of eggs in a year. for warming the living apartment. also. through which is a passage to the back side of the building. only that they require larger entrances into them. and are wonderfully pleased with the opportunity to hide away. cut from the woods. and let them pick it up at their pleasure—when spread on a clean surface. or hay orts. with hinges. as of little account. a tier of boxes may be made on the ground. in common feeding. and a door opposite. For winter quarters. and a trap door. which. There is usually little difficulty in keeping hens. two to three inches in diameter—small trees. if possible. 273 there is no better mode than to scatter abroad their corn. but all these we put aside. as they are—should never be allowed within a common poultry yard. 18 inches apart. is. If turkeys be kept in the premises. or two. and. Hens love secrecy in their domestic economy. or. keep the fowls with less food. will accommodate the entrance. turkies. 108 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and to have pure air. be kept constantly by them. may be hooked up to the under side of the floor above. Burns says— "The best laid schemes of mice and men Gang aft agley. Water should. the females can also be accommodated in these boxes. if preferred. stated hours of feeding are best for the birds themselves. as it is well known that a hen can stop laying. shutting into the chamber floor. than if cold. however. that will hold their food. and that they be fed only such quantity as they will pick up clean. that this winter-laying of hens is usually a forcing business. and in this way they may all be approached. all the better. and they should be secured through augur holes in board slats suspended from the floor joists overhead. a Yankee patent. except for fattening poultry. on the roosts in the . For the roosts. in the same inclosure. low shelters may be made for the water-fowls in the yards. Guinea-hens—cruel. and the turkies will 274 frequently prefer to share the shelter of the hens. or the supposition of it. and the highest six feet. to catch the fowls. when disturbed in her regular habits and settled plans of life. that they may easily fly from one to the other. with the bark on. and properly protected by a grating around it. before the grass grows. say a hundred—we believe this is about the number which the most observant of poultry-keepers allow them—and what she lays in winter must be subtracted from the number she would otherwise lay in the spring. 272 A door leads from the rear of this room into the roosting apartment. such concealment. but a swing ladder. or autumn. when required. for such purpose. For feeding troughs. Indeed. and should have it. and in greater comfort. or any other cast-off thing. If it be desirable to have fresh eggs during winter—and that is certainly a convenience—a box stove may be set in the living room. and if a small running stream could pass through the yard. both for convenience to themselves and profit to their owners. slender poles. a more cleanly mode of access. leading out into the yard. during winter and early spring. as they are fond of laying in company with the hens. and also hung on hinges. and conceal themselves while laying. and left to their own natural warmth. A flight of stairs may be made in one corner of the front room. vindictive things. Yet a warm house will. On each side of this passage are roosts." and why not hen's? We think so. and should be kept supplied with short. and frequently in the same nests. we have seen many ingenious contrivances.acrobatplanet. and geese together. Always quarrelsome. laying.wide. But geese and turkies require greater range during the warm season than the others. A common segar box. These are the nesting boxes. and among them. It may be remarked. summer. The lowest roosts may be three feet from the ground. to go into the chamber. possibly. to the joists above. We think. almost at pleasure. for their convenience. are the best—may be used. each behind and above the other. both for cleanliness and health—for fowls like to be clean. soft straw. rising. aside. This apartment should be cleaned out as often as once a fortnight. we have no doubt promotes fecundity.

Neither should peacocks be allowed to come into the poultry inclosures. and nailed to the weather-boarding of the house. they are general favorites with the juveniles of the family. THE DOVECOTE. or to take the birds. they should take to the farmyard. where they may range at will. after thus providing for their accommodation. say 18 inches apart. A foot above the top of these. should then be placed one inch below the bottom of these holes. during the breeding season. so arrest the attention of many of our good country people. warring apparently upon mere punctilio. another line may be made. with the cattle. with an amplitude and particularity in the discussion of the different breeds and varieties. Our present object is. and partitioned equidistant 109 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and firmly braced beneath. and no building can be especially devoted to their use. add to the variety and interest of the poultry department. Inside. With the care and management of the poultry department. not common among the farm buildings. a range of box should be made. with doors for admission to those who have to do with them. have given such a fund of information on the subject. that the domestic pigeon. and we will leave so important a subject to the meditations of the "New England Poultry Society. when needed. they are the filthiest housekeepers imaginable. when kept in any considerable numbers. doubtless. be it known. to embrace 277 every entrance from the outside. Pigeons. 18 inches wide. for the distance of room they are to occupy in the building. even if she be the very incarnation of "rejected addresses. they are anything but amiable in their manners to other birds. they are oft-times a most serious annoyance to many crops of the farm. in due time. six to eight inches wide. and take their amusement in fisticuffs with each other.and never quiet. if not often swept and cleaned. which shuts all suspicions of self-interest into the corner. Wherever the pigeon accommodations are designed to be. Although graceful and beautiful . generally clean and tidy in their personal habits 276 out of doors. and four inches wide—the top of the hole slightly arched—should be made. to require further remark." On all these accounts. and other tribes under their special cognizance. tiering them up to the height intended to devote to them. not to propose any distinct building for pigeon accommodation.acrobatplanet. A line of holes. probably. A line of shelves. but to give them a location in other buildings. five inches high. in cleaning their premises. of corresponding length with the line of holes. or house-dove. we would locate—unless a small and select family of fancy birds. it is not our province to interfere. Nor need we discuss the many varieties of poultry which. illumine the world with various knowledge in this department of rural economy. and least annoying by their presence—for." who have taken the gallinaceous. and will. and as there are many different breeds of them. in the United States. The common pigeon is a pugnacious cavalier. in itself. be turned over to their pages. however. is usually kept more for amusement than for profit —there being little actual profit about them—and is readily accommodated in the spare lofts of sheds and out-buildings devoted to other purposes. that is a subject too generally understood. not yet "dreamt of in our philosophy. This is a department. or lighting-boards. and in the lofts of the cattle sheds. and so on. and the ground immediately around the premises a dirty place. at the present time. where they will be conveniently provided with room. in the distant strut-andcoo of a stranger bird to his mate. that any further inquiry may. as we have often seen. at pleasure. and not much better without. as well as in the waste and havoc they make in the stores of the barns and granaries. a close partition should separate their quarters from the room occupied for other purposes. too." The recently published poultry books. with entire good will. and for the reason. but what will soon become an intolerable nuisance within. perhaps—the pigeon stock at the principal farm-yard. or the chambers of the stable.

to the annoyance of their neighbors below. just feathered out. at farthest—and to secure the birds as they may be wanted for the table. soft straw is the best—which should be freely 278 supplied at every new incubation.acrobatplanet. at any time. from the top. and each distinct in their appearance. at the bottom. be the top of the boxes below. As pigeons are prolific breeders. although hardy birds when grown. to clean them out—which should be done as often as once a week. hung with butts. in letters. It will be understood. and in their flight they cleave the air with a rapidity which no other variety—indeed. The back of these boxes should have a line of swing doors. now. they are a pleasant bird. and other insects. so as to give a square box of 18 inches to each pair of birds. when they can be conveniently kept. are considered a delicious dish. and least troublesome kind of pigeon to be kept. in carrying tidings from one country to another. The boxes. to keep them pure in blood. History is full of examples of their usefulness. are within a partitioned room. They are the very perfection of grace. too. of almost any kind. and perhaps another variety or two—all pretty birds. or hooks. which they pick up in the field. and are worth the trifling cost that their proper housing may demand. in their rear. with the common pigeon. and beauty. and the selection of whatever kind is wanted to be kept. or fortnight. or other purposes—for it will be recollected that squabs. they require a good supply of litter—short cut. and in warm climates oftener. should be in a warm place. Their colors are always brilliant and changing. but which. is the Carrier. But there are many fancy breeds—such as the fan-tail. or hinges. must be left to those who are willing to bestow the pains which their necessary care may demand. we should . The common food of the pigeon is grain. or examination. and is sought for by the morocco tanners. the ruffler. and in some of their domestic habits. at a high price—frequently at twentyfive cents a bushel. at the most sumptuous tables. and to hold the baskets. The most beautiful of the pigeon kind. for pigeons. as a highly stimulating manure. as they will all mix. more or less. If our opinion were asked. 110 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. to those who have the care of them. This offal is valuable. or tokens. to allow admission. should be well protected while young. This plan of door is indispensable. with sufficient space for the person in charge of them to pass along. and worms. of course. the tumbler. The bottom board of each ascending tier of boxes will. 279 All these fancy breeds require great care in their management. as it is taken out. as they come in contact with them. or whatever is to receive the offal of their boxes. to prevent the offal of the upper ones from falling through. and these must be made perfectly tight. which scarce any other bird. fastened to their necks or legs. the finest and most hardy of the common kind. of any kind. the well known telegraph wire has nearly superseded. snugly made. and symmetry. can equal. laying and hatching six or seven times a year. however. with a floor. the powter. and fastened with buttons. as to the best. that these boxes above described.between each entrance. and well sheltered from the wind and driving storms. and the old litter removed. which are usually found in the collections throughout the country. On the whole. for which they are trained by those who have thus used them.

and his production and proper treatment is a valuable study to all who rear him as a creature either of profit or convenience. we affect not the Jew. particularly when feeding for pork. be he either a tender suckling. and kept at a moment's call. Not only this. with regard to his training and destiny.acrobatplanet. 111 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. In the western and southern states. that his proper place is in the sty. to such as agree with us in opinion. The hog is an animal for which we have no especial liking. such as may be economical in . A PIGGERY. in all places the hog is an unruly. nosing and tugging at the well-filled udder of his dam. he requires care and covering during winter. and convenient in its arrangement.PIGGERY. and him who has charge of him. as tastes and customs differ essentially. while in the north. mischievous creature. in the use of his flesh. a mild climate permits him to be easily reared and fed off for market. albeit. both for the swine itself. a plan of piggery is given. and has no business really in any other 280 place than where he can he controlled. as a substantial and savory article of diet. Still. the hog is an important item of our agricultural economy. in its various preparations. But. or a well-proportioned porker. basking in all the plenitude of swinish luxury. with little heed to shelter or protection. but liking it moderately well.

(b.) and sleeping partitions. as may be desired. by the side of which is the furnace-chimney. The design here given. in the gable. or boilers. these are secured with broad wooden covers. and a storage chamber above. 36 feet long. A ventilator passes up through this chamber and the roof. the valve may stand in a perpendicular position. On three sides of this room are feeding pens.) with a furnace to receive the fuel for cooking the food. if both kettles be heated at the same time. or a large one for the entire family. (c. and it can be conveniently . and a floor over the whole area receives it. or spring. with a short spout to slide the food into them. if the extent of food demands them. (f. A window is in each gable end.) for the swine. These several apartments are accommodated with doors. and a pump inserted at a convenient place. with wooden vats. is for a building. An iron valve is placed in the back flue of the furnace. giving it.) leading to the chamber above. 9 feet high. on the whole. A door from this leads into the main room. (e. a well may be sunk under this room. as the most economical mode is to cook one kettle while the other is in process of feeding out. But. spreading over the sides and gables at least 20 inches. with twelve-feet posts. at will. around which the fire may revolve. to shut off the fire from either of the kettles. (d. which may fall upon either side. which open into separate yards on the sides and in rear. on the top. and coarsely bracketed. and vice versa. to let off the steam from the cooking vats below.) where stands a chimney. a pipe may bring the water in from a neighboring stream. or living room for the swine. to take in the grain. The roof has a pitch of 40° from a horizontal line. and 24 feet wide. or. If necessary.GROUND PLAN. scarcely more than one at a time will be required in use. Over each kettle is a sliding door. the lower. as respectable an appearance as a pigsty need pretend to.acrobatplanet. by 12 feet in length. and the foul air emitted by the swine.) with a window to light it. for which are two kettles. for the grain and other food required for his keeping. The entrance front projects 6 feet from the main building. is a door with a hoisting beam and tackle above it. when wanted. (a. or if equally convenient. to keep in the steam when cooking. At the left of the entrance is a flight of stairs. Over its main door. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 112 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. On the right is a small area.

by no creditable history. and the inner projection of the main posts left to serve as rubbing posts for them—for no creature so loves to rub his sides. but it should stand there. but no one. destructive creature. by mistake. or enlarged in size. in a small way. One. and bound along the bottom by a strip of hoop-iron. 286 113 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. as a hog. the hardest of 284 white oak plank. and the apartment may then be called hog-proof—for a more unquiet. as is this practice. with a ring in his nose. as necessity may direct. that they may not be rooted out. These planks. gentlemanly sort of animal. The sills should be 8 inches square. and stout for its size. and in the sides of the partitions. and the affair is complete. and the slimy ooze of a mud-puddle reeking and dripping from their sides? See the daubs of mud marking every fence-post. be of hard wood. nothing need be said. than the hog. the corner posts of the same size. or obscene—a living curse to all that is decent about them. when fatting. along the highway. or rubbed off by the hogs. An Ishmaelite among the farm stock. in relation to the too universal practice of permitting swine to prowl along the highways. What so revolting to one. particularly the lower ones. and shut out the weather. we cannot say. with a steep slant the whole length of the trough. out of the grooves inside. be made of cast iron. put the creature in his pen. for in all the pages of our reading. to a building in which he is confined. and let in from the level of the chamber by a flush cutting for that purpose. we can devise no better method of accommodation than this here described. far and near. if possible. if of a civilized breed. and comfortably fed. which should be 2 inches thick. Inside posts at the corners.CONSTRUCTION. strongly spiked on to the floor and sides. they are shunned and hated by every living thing. and that by no means an agreeable one. The center post in the floor plan of the engraving is omitted. 285 A word may be pardoned. But. a year. a nuisance at every corner you turn. will regret the expense of building a convenient appurtenance of this kind to his establishment. then. should be inserted through the partition planks. that the feed may be readily thrown into any or all parts of it. but all should be well jointed. or where-ever they run! A burrow is rooted up at every shady point. he is entitled to our toleration—regard. inoffensive—indeed.acrobatplanet. and destructive to one's thrift. and holding the planks tight in their place. we learn. and so demoralizing. will build this piggery. grooves should be made. of any virtuous sympathies in a hog. Of the separate uses to which the various apartments may be put. and in the yards and lawns of the farm house. thinner planks may be used. The troughs should then. with six to twenty porkers in his fatting pens. and the intermediate posts 8×6 inches in diameter. In the center of these posts. in default of that. and deep. The frame of this building is of strong timber. that they may not be eaten off. with a litter of filthy pigs at her heels. firmly spiked down to the partition planks. The slide. With what experience we have had with the hog. Above the chamber floor. and then. four and a half feet high. besides fitting it up with furnace and boilers. to the adjoining studs. of the least tidy nature whatever. to three hundred dollars. But the timber and lumber used must be sound and strong. should be also placed and grooved to receive the planking. and it certainly is the cheapest. like the others. that they may lie snug. to prevent the pigs from eating it off—a habit they are prone to. as the circumstances of every farmer will best govern them. thus using no nails or spikes. to receive the plank sides. it may defy their most destructive ingenuity. or. as a villainous brute. like the posts. like the outside ones. wasteful. and their upper ends be secured by tenons into mortices in the beams . properly put together. and this very natural and praiseworthy propensity should be indulged. and their abominable snouts into everything that is filthy. It may be contracted. according to price of material and labor. and as such. This slide should be of two-inch white-oak plank. 2 inches wide. and through the ends. is a quiet. when at large. or spout to conduct the swill and other feed from the feeding-room into the trough. your pig. if permitted to go into the adjoining yard. does not live. There is nothing so slovenly. should.

They are large. Then. are altogether unfit for the use and treatment they usually get from those who have the daily care of the stock which they are intended for. as much as without good household appointments —and without them. where less used. possibly. have gone through. Its value is. and stables for its cattle. The hay cut upon it is worth fifteen dollars a ton. or 114 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. which will work to a charm. and. Yet. and the labor expended in feeding and taking care of them. sheds.acrobatplanet. and a very plausible arrangement of stabling. perhaps. without a good barn accommodation. to remark. have come to the conclusion that the simplest plan of construction. perhaps more costly than required. which are so complicated that when constructed. commonsense farmer will not use them. and for the rough usage they receive from the animals themselves. a hundred dollars an acre. and straw. and coarse grains in proportion. untried. and other out-buildings for the accommodation of farm stock. It may not be out of place here. as they sometimes are. in the Northern and Middle States. or a plantation appears incomplete. perhaps. and hired labor ten or twelve dollars a month. like the great grazing states west of the . Indeed. by the aid of cutting-boxes. and after many years experience. may well be an example for imitation. at the barn. is the most important structure of the farm itself. while a stock farm requires a barn with extensive hay storage. much will depend upon the branches of 287 agriculture to which the farm is devoted. to our own eyes. requires but little room for stabling purposes. and in its interior accommodation. is the comparative value of the stock. the manager of this farm should use all the economy in his power. and other machinery. in all climates not admitting such stock to live through the winter in the field. and. and expensive in their construction. and to supply the exigencies of each. The most thorough barn structures. there is a substance and durability in them. in our practice. consistent with an economical expenditure of the material of food for the consumption of stock. to make the least amount of forage supply the wants of his stock. and all the etceteras of a barn establishment. for any contrivance to work up his forage the closest—by way of machinery. in the learning required in their use. we shall present such plans as may be appropriate. and sheep. and granaries. Consequently. have indulged in fanciful arrangements for the convenience and comfort of animals. may be thus got up by an ingenious theorist at the fireside. We will illustrate: Suppose a farm to lie in the vicinity of a large town. by a slight variation. will require its room. in a strictly economical view. when subjected to experiment will be utterly worthless for practical use. or city. because labor is his cheapest item. In the structure of the barn. and that may. the forage fed to them. and feeding. to be seen in the United States. horses. that is exceedingly satisfactory.FARM BARNS. or all of their requirements. where the pecuniary ability of the farmer will permit. and the internal economy of his barn arranged accordingly. and even at the south and southwest. the practical. The farm barn. are those of the state of Pennsylvania. but. be equally adapted to either. Another item to be considered in this connection. that many designers of barns. and food the dearest. a farm. as he dilates upon its good 288 qualities. Again. is by far the most preferable. A farm cultivated in grain chiefly. Storage for grain in the sheaf. All this we. built by the German farmers of the lower and central counties. A very pretty. which require barns and out-buildings accommodating both. no agricultural establishment can be complete in all its proper economy. there are wide districts of country where a mixed husbandry of grain and stock is pursued. next to the farm house. they are of more importance in the economy of farm management than is generally supposed. and.

giving. and a stone-walled basement on three sides. with a line of posts standing open on the yard front. in the construction of his outbuildings. above the sills. and a wall. The sides are covered with boards laid vertically. and the stock may eat what they choose. or truncated. or put into small barns built for hay storage alone. as they are fed from either of them. The main roof spreads 3 to 4 feet over the body of the barn. and the gables hooded. in their interior arrangement. His buildings. on each side. we shall submit such plans of barn structures as may be adapted for general use. and which may. a subject of deliberate study with the farmer. or one-half the labor to do this. The hay may be stacked in the fields. and the cattle turned to it. to pick what they like of it. and runs from the side eaves in a straight line. and saving of manures is an item of the first importance. Again. a different practice will prevail. where shelters for the farm crops. If. by way of wings. is true economy.acrobatplanet. retreating 12 feet under the building. what plans he shall adopt in regard to them. that the other mode requires. be fitted for almost any locality of our country. This is a design of barn partially on the Pennsylvania plan. 3 inches wide. Design I. The straw will be either stacked out. he will throw it into racks. and make their beds on the remainder. be constructed in accordance with his practice. and battened with narrow strips. are run out to any desired length. if it is housed. as the judgment and the wants of the builder may require. so as to cover the large doors at the ends. and their arrangements throughout. different from what is shown in the engraving. on the other hand. or harrowed and bushed over the ground. and their fitting up and arrangement. The large 115 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. a shelter for stock. and labor comparatively dear. and the making. 14 feet wide at the verge. With these considerations before us. It is. The winters may be mild. the posts 18 feet high. is 60×46 feet. scattered over the fields by the cattle. such practice will be more economical than any other which can be adopted. which appears of a gambrel or hipped fashion. and perhaps more than makes up for the increased quantity of forage consumed. and the saving in this makes up. The body of this barn. on these accounts. and farm stock. may be knocked to pieces with the dung-beetle. with under-ground . climate may equally affect the mode of winter feeding the stock. are required. therefore. pierced by doors and windows. It is but one-third. without cutting. the roof is elevated at an angle of 40° from a horizontal line. above the basement. in front. which is built of wood. when gathered. Two sheds. lands are cheap and productive. or. and with the very small quantity of labor required in all this. and the manure. in the spring. 289 He will feed his hay from the mow.manual labor—by which it will serve the purposes of keeping his stock. should.

to be sure. cutting-box. or other machinery. &c. either hay or grain may be deposited. cutting box. on a line of girts framed into the main posts. but it is much better than stacking out. root . 26×16 feet. are the large doors. over which. 12 feet wide. is here cut up into stables. may be laid across the floor. 10 feet above it. on the side of the cart or wagon. on the sides. and a door. A main floor. Over this passage.doors in the ends are 14 feet wide. a storage room for fanning mill.. E. A. for ventilation. when crowded for room for increased crops. and the vehicle. MAIN FLOOR PLAN. and on each side are double stalls. after the sides and over the floor is thus filled. through which to throw out litter. and thus afford large storage. a part of it. and the granary. to great advantage. leading from the main floor to the yard door. 16 feet wide. l. Underneath the body of the barn are the stables. when unloaded. C. H. A slatted blind window is in each gable. F. is the principal bay for hay storage. The main floor will accommodate the thrashingmachine. to let hay or straw down to the alleys of the stables beneath. for that purpose. up to the ridge of the roof. and 14 feet high. horse-power. and store-room. H. is a passage. 116 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. It requires somewhat more labor. be used for packing away either hay or grain. when at work. is the bay. and passing them out by a retreating process. but. and a well-filled barn is a good sight to look upon. D. when the sides of the 294 barn are full. backed out by hand. calf houses. by taking off the team after the load is in. or hay. for the men who attend to them.acrobatplanet. are passages for the stock to go into their stalls. 8 feet wide. and runs up to the roof. is a granary. for the most economical objects. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. The main passage through the center double line of stalls is 8 feet wide. 13×16 feet. or any other accommodation which the farm stock may require. And if the demands of the crops require it.. or poles. may be stored grain in the sheaf. We have occasionally adopted this method. the floor itself may. for the grain mow. of same size and height as the granary. or implements. B. At the ends. &c. S. l. on the yard side. are trap doors. if required for that purpose. and also. 9×6 feet. A line of movable sleepers. S. and 8 feet high. runs the whole length through the center of the barn.

take up less room. enclosing the animal by the neck. (the wooden stanchion. besides. or. should be a foot above 296 the floor.acrobatplanet. which makes it deep enough to hold their food. and wagons of the place. In front of these stables. for grown cattle. This prevents the cattle in the same stall from interfering with each other. or. just at the top of the manger. next the feeding alleys. sound. when kept in any considerable numbers. the expense of fitting them up being much less—an experience of many years has convinced us on this point. UNDER-GROUND PLAN AND YARD. 3 feet wide. of 2½ or 3 inches in diameter. and hay. that they may not be broken down. and still give them sufficient room for putting their heads between that and the top of the manger. j. should be full 3½ feet high. and over the mangers—say 4½ feet above the floor. we do not like. should be made of two-inch. should be secured across the front of the stall. The bottom of the mangers. may be used for the carts. at that distance from the walls. by taking an additional six inches out of the rear passage. or may be 2½ feet. j. under which may be placed a line of racks. Cattle thus secured in double stalls. of 12 feet in width. or leavings of hay rejected by the in-door stock. and if the cattle are large. 117 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. to keep them out of the manger. or mangers for outside cattle. and support the outer sill of the barn. to receive the hay from the trap doors in the floor above. as connected with the construction of stables. or stanchel. the feet of which rest on large flat stones. for room in tying cattle in their stalls. should be five feet wide. and form a recess. The most economical plan. as it is called. both sides and bottom. to consume the orts. The back sides of the stalls. to open and shut. The passage is. as they sometimes do. are 2 feet wide. From the two end walls. from 5 feet high at the mangers to the floor. is a line of posts. and lie much warmer. or other food stored in them for the stock. and floored overhead. The doors for the passage of the cattle in and out of the . and disposed to climb into their mangers with their fore-feet. or chain. or. which is removed from the stables by wheel-barrows. The low line of sheds which extend from the barn on each side of the yard. the manure may be housed under it. perhaps. next the cattle. and the whole. than when in single stalls. racks and mangers may be 297 fitted up in them. strong plank.) into a ring. and the top two and a half feet. they may be carried higher than in our plan. to make a remark or two on the subject of managing stock in stables of any kind. while the partition effectually prevents any contact from the animals on each side of it. in the separate stalls. is to fasten the rope. The mangers. for outside cattle to consume the straw and coarse forage. on the outside. the partition between the stalls running back in a slant. before named. There may be no more fitting occasion than this. between the mangers. which is secured by a strong staple into the post which sustains the partition. to get their food. the cattle passages are 5 feet wide. whichever is used. on each side of the stall. and a word may not be impertinent to the subject in hand. They are so placed merely to give the idea. a pole. that they may have plenty of room.6½ feet wide.

which are here amended. and not allowed to range about with the outside cattle. They become habituated to their own quarters. which will admit of its cellar stables without much excavation of the earth. The habit of many people. hooking and thorning each other—is of no possible benefit. For the farmer who needs one of but half the size. No estimate is given of its cost. which every one may know who tries it. or less. The outside cattle. The principle of the structure is what is intended to be shown. about sixteen years since. and are every way more comfortable. as every one will find. The size is not arbitrary. and in such a position it may be economically built.There is no greater benefit to cattle. this need not be expensive. as the others do to their's. that. it may be remarked that the extent of this need be no hindrance to the building of one of any size—as the general design may be adopted. and standing on the farm we own and occupy. and in no other. 118 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. according to the requirements of the builder. It will be seen that a driving way is built up to the barn doors at the ends. in turning their cattle out of the stables in the morning. They are more quiet and contented in their stables than elsewhere. and carried out. nor exchange it for one of any description whatever. or greater. in all weathers—letting them range about in a cold yard. when they may be permitted to lie out an hour or two. save in one or two small particulars. unless to rid themselves of the trouble of cleaning the stables. and all are better for being each in their own proper place. Design II. after coming into winter quarters. Here is presented the design of a barn built by ourself. which must depend upon the price of materials.acrobatplanet. but may be either contracted or extended. but it is a subject of . we would not. The cattle should be fed and watered at certain hours of the day. where it should always be kept. It is needless to remark. which occupy the yard. which 298 pays twice its cost in the saving of manure. It may appear a small matter to notice this. and which has proved so satisfactory in its use. than if permitted to run out. they should be immediately put back. as near as may be. and the convenience of stone on the farm. are all the better. and eat less food. if properly bedded and attended to. When let out of the stables for water. on trying it. and will add greatly to the ease and convenience of its approach. Every animal should have its own particular stall in the stable. unless the weather is very pleasant. alter it in any degree. that this barn is designed to stand on a shelving piece of ground. and the economy of its accommodation preserved throughout. that the stabled ones do not interfere with them. for a stock barn. according to his wants. or on a slope. than a straight-forward regularity in everything appertaining to them. either in whole or in part.

100×50 feet. to let a terrier dog under the floors. and the outside is finished. to make a break in the roof of one foot. nearly—high enough. and across the rear gable end. with eighteen-feet posts. 119 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. FLOOR PLAN. level with the loft floor—as seen in the plate. The manner of building the whole structure would be. as a rest for the upper ends of the lean-to rafters. and of 12 feet at the junction with the barn. and to show the lean-to line of roof as distinct from the other. The sills stand 4 feet above the ground. that they may pass under. as shown in the design. one foot wide. is then nailed on. and on the rear end—for the opposite gable end to that. which is put in by side windows.acrobatplanet. 303 to pass out the wagons and carts which have discharged their loads in the barn. to shut up the . and allow a line of eave gutters under it. end lean-to. by girts. and the rear gable end boarded down to the roof of the lean-to attached to it. corresponding with the front entrance to the barn. sheltering roof. Then frame. of 40° pitch from a horizontal line. and put on the roof. however. The front end. and a foot below the lower ends of the main roof rafters. thus giving a loft of 4 feet in height at the eaves. and 12½ feet apart. and a broad. and truncated at the gables to the width of the main doors below. and 14 feet wide. and raise adjoining it. The outer posts of the leanto's should be 12 feet high. and bedding for the cattle. and board up the gable ends.The main body of this barn stands on the ground. which connect them with the main line of barn posts. attaching it to the posts of the barn. One foot below the roof-plates of the main building. 12 feet high. from center to center. strongly. and coarse forage. and the stables on them vertically boarded. A line of board. These ranges of lean-to stand on the ground level. The stables are 7 feet high. a line of girts should be framed into the posts. and battened. having entered at the main front door. if needed. from the lower floor to the girts overhead. the proper doors and windows inserted. on the long sides. as directed in the last design. between the line of the main and lean-to roofs. is the entrance front to the barn—a continuous lean-to. In this loft is large storage for hay. to frame and put up the 302 main building as if it was to have no attachment whatever. In the center of the rear. is a large door. and a raised driving way to the doors admits the loads of grain and forage into it. which would be 16 feet. except at the extreme corners. to keep out the rats—but quite 3 feet below the sills of the barn. 16 feet wide.

306 The chief advantages in a barn of this plan are. to keep it from the ground. (f. Entering the large door. with rooms for twenty to thirty calves in the end stables. The hay in the bays may drop three feet below the level of the main floor. in the five-foot alley adjoining them. If a larger stock is kept. with storage for hay overhead.. or grain.) 10×18 feet. to go into the further stables. The passages at the ends of the bays. so far as feeding is concerned. and so at the rear end stables. may be occupied as a hospital for invalid cattle. A calving house for the cows which come in during the winter. for the storage of hay. young cattle may be tied up. and still be large enough for the cattle that may want to use them. and a trapdoor lead to it.) 18×70 feet. The manure is taken out on a wheel-barrow. and door. thrown into them from the bays. e. and the yards outside may be divided into five separate inclosures.) at the front end. as it is too closely packed for them to draw it out any farther. which we practice. On the left of the entrance is a recess. of 5 feet wide. Even sheep may be accommodated in it with convenience. and one of these may be used for such purpose. j. and racks and troughs beneath.) of 20×18 feet.acrobatplanet. and rear lean-to. (b. if thoroughly packed. A passage in each of the two long side lean-to's. and no injury done to the floor. But low. &c. (e.) corresponding with the one just described on the opposite side. For a milk dairy. and do no injury beyond that to the hay in the bays. Beyond this is a bay. the main floor (g. cut a well down to the alley way in front of the mangers. or partitioned off for calves.) passes through the entire length of the barn.) The two apartments in the extreme end lean-to. The stable doors. This will hold forty young cattle.) 3 feet wide. with but little expense. and the lofts over the stables. of assorted ages. and feeding is first commenced. the sides of the main barn being open to them. On the right of the main door is a granary. (b. and from them is thrown into the mangers. If a root cellar be required. or for stall-feeding. it is convenient for all alike. (a. (j. the exceeding convenience of getting the forage to the stock. on the main floor. with a hay knife. This opens a passage for the hay to be thrown into the alleys. in this barn. The stalls. which is left open up to the stable roof. They will soon eat out a place where their forage can be put. 120 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. this arrangement is an admirable one—we so used it for four years. and in a short time it is so fed out on each side. and for machinery. We have often stored one hundred and fifty tons of hay in this barn. In this way we can accommodate more than a hundred head of cattle. (d. &c. the hay can be thrown along their whole distance. and many tons of additional storage be thus provided. and for throwing out the manure. beyond the thrashing floor.INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. i.) are the same as described in Design I. (e. and fed to the cattle as wanted. by the line of outside posts of the barn. we commence on each side next the stables. on the top of the bays. This bay is bounded on the extreme left.—5 feet next the end being cut off for a passage to the stable. (e. Beyond this is another bay. with sliding board shutters. e. to be used as a thrashing floor. than two can do in one of almost any other arrangement. When the barn is full. and 14 feet . for ventilation. with their heads to the bays.) are six in number. This completes the barn accommodation—giving twenty-eight double stalls. are better for them. One man will do more work. by placing a tier of rough timbers and poles across them.) 34×16 feet each.) of that appendage. or any other 305 purpose. should be cut in the rear of the stalls. receives the hay forage for cattle. and it will hold even more. (a. that. inclosed by a yard. and a flight of steps leading from the lower into the upper room.) have steps of 3 304 feet descent. (i. cutting feed. h. leaving a passage at the further end. f. open sheds. is always convenient. as marked. as they pass in and out of their stalls. to bring them down on to a level with the stable floors of the lean-to. and back of them is the passage for the cattle. it is equally convenient. it may be made under the front part of the main floor. It matters not what kind of stock may be kept in this barn. as described in Design I. and the movable girts over the main floor be used. 14 feet wide. (h. 116 feet—the last 16 feet through the lean-to—and sloping 3 feet to the outer sill. two stories high. where fifty-six grown cattle may be tied up. or other stock. Small windows.

a due regard to their architectural appearance should be studied. any more than an extravagant expenditure on the dwelling and its attachments. and the stables. &c. and if the stable sills and sleepers decay. or rusticity. implements. the stables have no attachment to the sills. where their objects are apparent. as this. of any kind. and that in quantity. at an expense of $200 to $300. Extravagant expenditure on these. and other durable barn timbers below. The chief objection to stabling cattle in the body of the barn is. of any size. than ambitious structures intended only for the stock. a like convenience to get out manures upon those fields. might not be suited to the purposes of a single individual. with stone underpinning. in a productive capacity. the continual decay of the most important timbers. It may be well constructed. are a part of the considerations which are to govern their position. for $1. sleepers. and no style of architecture. except as a matter of "fancy. This can not be done. should make his proposed buildings a 121 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. by reason of the particular location where they would be situated. for stock uses. so good.acrobatplanet. and every good manager will exercise his best judgment to obtain it. &c. are other considerations to be taken into the account. and whatever else may demand accommodation. Utility should be their chief point of expression. is too well understood to require remark. and manure of the cattle on to them. or they may be built as mere sheds. where this expression is duly consulted. can easily be secured. or locality. or finish. and the accommodation which the buildings might require. Taking it altogether.This barn is built of wood. showing their relative positions and accommodation. in the various avocations at the barn. or lean-to's may only attach to one side or end. in as much convenience as the circumstances of the case will admit. and the subject of leading water by pipes into different premises. BARN ATTACHMENTS. with no storage room over the cattle. as every farm has its own particular accommodations. however. can be really bad.500.. and should be one of the items considered in placing them. nor to its economical management. Economy in labor. As before observed. We deem it unnecessary to discuss the subject of water to cattle yards. that in treating so fully as we have of the several kinds of farm building. a barn may be built on this principle. and in their construction. and its necessary attachments. and crops. nor. wells and pumps must be provided. and carried out. does not add to the selling value of the farm. perhaps. By the plan described. a full cluster of out-buildings should be drawn and exhibited. grains. Such appearance. by the leakage of the stale. Where these can not be had. all to have a bearing upon them. Water is absolutely necessary. when not obtained at a sacrifice of 309 some greater advantage. 307 And if the collection of the water from the roofs be an object. next to the arrangement of them in the most convenient possible manner for their various objects.000 to $1. for hay and grain. such as . from the fields where the crops are grown. and the housing of the various stock." and if attempted. We have heretofore sufficiently remarked on the folly of unnecessary pretension in the farm buildings. without mortar. and springs or streams are not at hand. and so cheap a plan for a stock barn. It may be expected. as we think. and the greatest convenience in storage. and he who is about to build. cheap gutters to carry it into one or more cisterns may be added. Convenience of access to the barns. or inconveniences in that regard. and the loss of so much valuable storage as they would occupy. as the price of materials may govern. even in the humblest way of cheapness. and a ready communication with the dwelling house.. and really be more out of place. they are easily and cheaply replaced with others. we can recommend no better. Compactness is always an object in such buildings. and nothing can appear.

while we. and bees. generally. might be turned to profitable account. They will burrow into the ground. when fit for farm pasturage or tillage. Scotland. briars. in its connection with farm husbandry. and noxious weeds. or rather no supply at all. to themselves. and now. Mistakes in their design. a few years ago. and let the remainder go barren and uncared for. in all their different requirements and conveniences.. Rocky. and in the fall and winter seasons. Things unthought of. to see the quantities of game which abound at certain seasons of the year in the London and other markets of that country. and rearing chickens. The reason for such difference is. Lands appropriated to the rearing of for months. and gnawing down all kinds of bushes. are good for them. is unprofitable. which he has to dispose of. existing in the markets of American cities. and it is better to wait even two or three years. than by hurrying. Wales. either hill. in . according to climate and soils. every acre of the soil is appropriated to some profitable use. in contrast with the scanty supply. RABBITS. The common domestic rabbits are probably the best for market purposes. also. and labor. Some may think this a small business. and Ireland. and the demands of the farm for animal and composted manures. the amount of waste litter. and the erection of a few rude hutches inside. to fully mature the best plans of building. with us. before he commences their erection. by thus appropriating them. to enclose the ground with a high and nearly close paling fence. But. It may appear that we are extending our "Rural Architecture" to an undue length. 310 A word might also be added about barn-yards. and the New York and New England highlands could be made available for this object. select only the best for agricultural purposes. There are different methods of constructing barn-yards. It is a matter of surprise to an American first visiting England.acrobatplanet. now find 313 a large consumption in our large cities and towns. the most successful examples about him. and to all who were about them. and the publications which treat of that subject. when our cities and large towns are so readily reached by railroads from all parts of the country. this may create a new source of interest and attachment to country life. immense tracts of mountain land in New Jersey. Pennsylvania. The rabbit is a gross feeder. &c. wherever the soils are dry and friable. that in England. why this production and traffic should not continue to an indefinite extent. So is making pins. for winter shelter and the storage of their food. and which. living well on what many grazing animals reject. But there are an abundance of people. and location. All the preparation required is. patience. to which last subject this item more properly belongs. such as straw. they will be fat for market with the food they gather from the otherwise worthless soil over which they run. The planning and management of these. in different parts of the country. mis-arrange. or plain. depends much upon the course the farmer has to pursue in the keeping of his stock. and evergreen grounds. and we know of no good reason. by the aid of railroads. to mis-locate. but there are thousands of acres barren for other purposes. the very best application in their structure of which such buildings are capable. have cost men a whole after life of wear-and-tear of temper. and miss. which may be found at many of the 122 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. When the breeding of rabbits is commenced. whose age and capacity are just fitted for it. and breed with great rapidity. and the farmer must best consult his own experience. get a good treatise on the breeding and rearing of them. our farmers should study to apply their land to the production of everything that will find a profitable market. and for want of other employment are a charge upon their friends or the public. as with other small matters which we have noticed. and were they to be made an object of attention. we conclude to give it a place. in noticing a subject so little attended to in this country as Rabbit accommodations. that might be devoted to the breeding 312 and pasturage of rabbits. from the abundance of land in America. bushy. dale.

bookstores. for their meat is as delicate as a chicken's. "Rabbits kept for profit in the vicinity of a city. at the shows of the New York State Agricultural Society.. This objection does not hold good against the rabbit. and when once known as an article of food. and as offering a home amusement. of Morris.acrobatplanet. but not easily indulged without more room than is often to be found in city residences. by Mr. as a source of amusement. Esq. New York." Drawn from life. of Dedham. He thus answers: "I now forward you the promised plan from Mr. and . who is probably the most accomplished rabbit "fancier" in the United States. in contradistinction to street associations. Fowls. Otsego county. Rotch continues: "I have just finished the enclosed drawing of a 'fancy rabbit. Alfred Rodman. and are a frequent cause of trouble. a natural fondness for animals. which. English children are encouraged in their fondness for animals. His beautiful and high-bred animals have won the highest premiums. I think. I think. Mr. "There is. and their necessary accommodation. and for the purposes of experiment. trespass on our neighbors. as tending to good morals and good feelings. in many. is not a subject to which we have given much personal attention. with which he has kindly furnished us. "I am surprised they are not more generally kept.' which I hope will answer your 123 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and their fat mild. FRANCIS ROTCH. and where there are mills. that where there is an outhouse there may be a rabbitry. for information. Massachusetts. will give you the information you wish upon these subjects. As the rearing of rabbits. may be raised at a very small cost. we applied to Francis Rotch. will be liberally paid for by the epicure. and very rich. which occupies so small a space.

full.'" It will be observed that Mr. containing about 1. and many other counties. at which premiums are awarded. wanting in constitution. side. the 'silver-skins' were shipped to China. of a soft.' "The most esteemed colors are black and white. They were. blue and white. this distribution has a singular effect. but breaking into spots and patches on the shoulder. broken with white on the forehead and cheeks. the shoulders wide and full. a large. the cost 124 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. the chest broad and deep. and taxes were paid from its increase and sale. The White Angola. rates. on the score of 'fancy. spreading itself over the back. however. unmixed masses on the body. and tail. and of course. Since then. and the loin large. on the most correct principles of general breeding. it is a pretty little creature. It was in the occupation of an eminent flock-master and agriculturist. who are its greatest admirers and patrons. Lincolnshire. miller's waste. the rabbit formerly held the rank of 'farm stock!' and thousands of acres were exclusively devoted to its production. with dark ears. and were dressed as furs. is a combination of form and color very difficult to obtain—based. and in shape somewhat resembling a butterfly. originally. with clover and roots. Thus far. the marking over the bridge of the nose and down on both sides into the lips. delicate texture. these are the 317 characteristics of all really good and improved animals. but much of fancy and beauty is added to complete the requisites of a prize rabbit. rangy animal. dropping nearly perpendicularly by the side of the head—this is termed its 'carriage. in many parts of the European continent: "In Holland.' The head must be full of color. conventional. Rotch here describes a beautiful "fancy" variety of "lop-eared" rabbits. yellow and white. and pendant. The food used was chiefly brewer's grains. is also a great favorite in France. from which this mark takes its name. the head must be small and clean. according to the decisions of the various societies in and out of London. families were supported. and gray and white. These are called 'broken colors. no attention is paid to color. and large prizes paid for such specimens as come up to their standard of excellence. of great apparent size. in Surrey. marking. which must be a pure white. in all its varieties. an ear long. natives of Madagascar. and carriage.400 acres. it is bred with reference to color . it is true. broad. to which are to be added. however.' an eye round. I remember visiting a farm of Lord Onslow's. who kept some hundreds of hutched rabbits for the sake of their manure. and the rotation of crops.' while that on the back is known as the 'saddle. notwithstanding the care of them required an old man and boy. tortoise-shell and white. full dewlap. which he applied to his turnep crop. with a donkey and cart. feet. added to this. as might be expected. The 'gray-skins' went to the hatter. For instance. He continues: "The domestic rabbit. and still is. which he brought from England a few years since. the ear.' The color must be in rich. while the flesh was a favorite dish at home. legs. but.' while those of one uniform color are called 'selfs. and you will have a rabbit fit to 'go in and win. of course. This was the course pursued in Yorkshire. withal. as an illustration of what the little animal should be in form. with their light sandy soils. color. has always been. with its beautiful long fur and red eyes.acrobatplanet. must be uniform in color. a great favorite. bran 319 and hay. and rents. This standard is. should be dark. "In England. and bright. Add to all this. called the 'chain.purpose. and haunch. and its marking is matter of accident. The French breed a long. before the more general introduction of root culture. These amateurs hold frequent meetings for its exhibition. their skins and carcasses were quite an item of profit. the back wide. and. gave an increased value to such land. but deficient in depth and breadth.

6d. Were I in a town. and but too seldom 125 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. occupies but little space. that wins the prize from its competitor of the mahogany hutch or ornamental rabbitry. or near mills. All edges should be tinned. or twelve weeks old. and the various weeds known as plantain. and are a very acceptable addition to the country larder. to save them from being gnawed. and an opening is left behind for cleaning. with a small apartment partitioned off from one end. know and care very little. a healthy animal. and to be cautiously fed with succulent food. thistles. when it becomes necessary to take them up. to suit the apartment. lest he should destroy the young ones. miller's waste. and is withal.' and its general management. Indeed. purslain. or what are termed 'fancy pets. to prevent their fighting and destroying each other. ten. with a medium-sized cabbage leaf. and form a source of amusement or profit to all classes. I feed a handfull of cut hay or clover 320 chaff. which should be capable of thorough ventilation. or even four at once—the fewer. The male is not allowed to remain with the doe. from twelve weeks to twelve months old. condition. The doe at that age is ready to breed. including grain of all kinds. allow me to remark on the striking difference observable between Americans and the people of many other countries. The cost to me is about three cents per week. two feet deep. I was told that the manure was much valued by the market gardeners round London. pea-chaff. A wire door forms the front. open on all sides.. "Having now given the leading characteristics and qualities which constitute a good 'fancy lopeared rabbit. The hutches stood under a long shed. I give what they will eat of both green and dry food. as a breeding place for the doe. her period of gestation is about thirty-one or two days. the larger and finer the produce. who readily paid 2s. for the rabbit in confinement must be. per head. when taken from the doe.' My own course of feeding is. which must always be free from dew or rain—water is unnecessary to them when fed with 'greens. one gill of oats in the morning. say at eight. dandelion. and in the evening the same as in the morning.' of and for which we. to be kept clean. and circumstances of its owner. "The rabbit thus easily conforms itself to the means. when suckling. requiring however. mallow.of keeping not exceeding two pence a week. These rabbitries are very numerous in all the towns and cities of England. but it happens to suit my convenience. &c. comes early to maturity. from the man of fortune to the day laborer. cautiously fed with what is succulent. The best size is about three feet long. or in stacks. as already stated. It is not well to let her raise more than six. "The food of the rabbit embraces great variety. At noon. Nor is it unfrequent that this latter produces a rabbit from an old tea-chest. "Hutches are made singly. bran. as a people. I should make use of other and cheaper substitutes. brewer's grains. we scarcely admit more than a selfish fellowship with the dog. or what I may consider its equivalent in any other vegetable food. and she produces from three or four to a dozen young at a 'litter'. for the greater convenience of cleaning and feeding. To does. clover and other hay. the floor should have a descent to the back of the 321 hutch of two inches. as to a fondness for animals. My young rabbits. or the most economical mode of feeding. "I by no means recommend this as the best. nearly a foot wide. dock. are turned out together till about six months old. &c. a bushel at the rabbitries. breeds often. "Young rabbits are killed for the table at any age. or dry-goods box. and fourteen inches high. and put them in separate .

acrobatplanet. and laborers. and floor plan of Mr. seem to have a perfect passion for such .does our attachment even for this faithful companion. as supplying the place of other and much more questionable pursuits and tastes. Here. mechanics. and take the greatest interest and pride in breeding and perfecting the lesser animals. 126 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. home influences are perceived to be good. though often obliged to toil for the very food they feed to them. I. and are encouraged by the employer. Rodman's rabbitry. together with the front and rear views of the hutches within them: NO. in other countries. place him beyond the reach of the omnipotent dollar. "The operatives." We here present the elevation.—ELEVATION. too.

—MAIN FLOOR PLAN. trap opening into manure cellar. 3. at the back of the floor. leading into the manure cellar beneath. with sloping bottoms. may be acceptable to the reader. and sloping covers. we conclude. or living room for the rabbits. F. B. with which we have been furnished. with movable partitions for the young rabbits. The floors of the hutches have a slope of two inches back. through this into manure cellar. with hinged trapdoor overhead.NO II. the two lower hutches are used for the stock bucks. hutches three feet long. The hutches are 16 inches high. The hutches are furnished. but as a complete arrangement of all the rooms which may be conveniently appropriated to this object. 3. and cellar apartments. the doe's hutches. a tier of grain boxes on the floor for feeding the rabbits—the covers sloping out toward the . it will turn up against the wall. with a door and window. large trapdoor leading into root cellar. K. wooden trunk leading from chamber above No. hoping that our youthful friends will set themselves about the construction of a branch of rural employment so home-attaching in its associations. and leave a passage to clear out the hutches. with pieces of zinc. EXPLANATION. and 2 feet deep. to keep them free from the drippings from above. I.acrobatplanet. A. stairs leading into loft No. C. even at the risk of prolixity. to insert the upper loft. The foregoing plans and explanations might perhaps be sufficient for the guidance of such as wish to construct a rabbitry for their own use. small trapdoor.—The grain boxes are one foot high in front. with nest boxes attached. No. D. troughs for leading off urine from rear of hutches into the manure cellar at K. 127 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. to make it a complete 324 thing. and fifteen inches at the back. 2 is the main-floor plan. No. when open. 3 feet long. H. E. 1 is the gable end elevation of the building. NOTE. G.

IV. in summer. place for storing hay. E. No. A. next above the main floor.—LOFT OR GARRET. were the partition carried all the way up.NO. 4 is the cellar under the rabbitry. No. room for young . partition four feet high. stairs leading from below. C. which would be cut off. NO. This allows of ventilation between the two windows. B.acrobatplanet. D.—CELLAR. 3 is the loft or chamber story. 128 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. EXPLANATION. trapdoor into trunk leading to manure cellar. III.

B. as seen in No. A. is the door to lift up.acrobatplanet. hinges. B. same as in No. eight in number. the grain trough. one above another. for cleaning out the floors. falling. four tiers high. stairs leading to first. is at the bottom. D. as before mentioned. A. 7 is a rear section of hutches. before described in No. No. (326) No. . No.EXPLANATION. window —lighting both rooms of cellar. 6 is the floor section of the hutches. E. 129 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. to carry off the urine and running 327 wash of the floors. through the trunk. and buttons for fastening. 8. manure cellar. 5. root cellar. is the trough for carrying off this offal into the manure cellars. with wire-screened doors. 2. 5 is a front section of rabbit hutches. with the cross section. C. two in a line. stairs leading outside. No. or main floor. A. two inches from front to rear. is the zinc plate. with the waste trough at the bottom leading into the trench before described. C.

where fast men. hearty spirit. who.A. his neighborhood. when properly encouraged. And boys pay too. usefulness. But those who have been well. with a curse and a kick. and for want of which they imagine more attractive objects abroad. and conventionally vulgar this sentiment may be now considered. may be considered by the plain. and the country cottage. are apt to be smart. is the fault of the parents themselves. a grated door at the back of the hutch. under this door is a space of one inch. This matter of the rabbitry. as well as methodically trained. So their parents think. We may leave the quiet roof of our childhood. for ventilation in summer. its honors. the young colt of a favorite mare. even. we may gain its treasures. and quietude. the rabbitry.—anything. and covered with a thin board in winter. known only to those who have been its recipients. 329 may look back and see the influence which all such little things had upon their early thoughts and inclinations. or a fruit tree which they have planted. if kept in curb. never to return. and want of interest in objects to attract them there. and in a life of frugality. B. and its various explanations. The dovecote. and its applause. as below the dignity of people pursuing the useful and money-making business of life. D. and harnessed down by a hard parent. and indulgently. We admit it. Many a joyous. such is. to stay at home. comes out a whole man at one-and-twenty. This. Very possible. a comfortable 130 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. or some like trifling matter. and too smart they prove. as well as small business. whether in weal or in woe. and comparative ease. than a thousand other places where boys want to go. as well as fast horses congregate. we may enjoy its greatness. although all out of date. and thus realize the importance of providing for the amusements and pleasures of children in their early years. And. It is better. which they can call theirs—are so many objects to bind boys to their homes. leave it for something more congenial to their feelings and tastes. unsophisticated feeling of all natives of the farm house. as they go along. in many cases. if properly treated. discontented at home. This may appear to be small morals. But many boys—for whose benefit they are chiefly introduced—and men. or the fruit it bears. in comparison with the peace. although in the search they often fail in finding them. the beautiful creation of John Howard Payne. a flap-door. matter-of-fact . It is better than going to a horse-race. grown out of his youthful indulgence in the possession of a rabbit-warren. who. the sheep-fold. and possibly the world. to her native cottage in the mountains of Switzerland. or in its immediate vicinity. because they neglect those little objects of interest to which the minds and tastes of their sons are inclined. are buttons for fastening the doors. Heaven's blessings be on the family homestead! "Be it ever so humble. and hallow it with a thousand nameless blessings and associations. It is better even than going to a trotting match. One half of the farmer's boys. the piggery. but there are times when they will all fade into nothing. when they have nothing to interest them at home. without any passage out on back side. determined. and keep them contented. in 328 America at least. perhaps. we may mix in the bustling contentions of the open world. their own. leaves the homestead. and follow the beaten track of their fathers. as their continual migration from the paternal roof too plainly testifies. may do worse than to spend their time in such apparent trifles. when returning from the glare and pomp of the world. the yoke of yearling steers. the calf-pen. for passing out the urine of the rabbits. there's no place like home!" sung the imaginary maid of Milan. he would have fixed his home either at his birthplace. too. and called it. We are a progressive people. at all events. blessed his parents. four inches wide. in fact. not servants. They should be made companions. do so simply because of the excessive dullness. and parents must yield a little to "the spirit of the age" in which they live. Boys. the poultry-yard. C. Our children are not always content to be what their fathers are. Under a different course of treatment. with a useful example—all. the backs of the bedrooms.acrobatplanet. or should be the subdued. and tranquil happiness of a few acres of land. and nursed. which is raised for cleaning out the floor.

roof. and requires as much conveniences in its own peculiar line. We commence with the Cheese Dairy House. or the piggery. with a broad. and either for cheese. and the posts 16 feet . This building is supposed to be erected near the milking sheds of the farm. and a wood-shed at the opposite end. Wherever the dairy is made an important branch of farm production. the ground plan is 10 feet between joists. and in contiguity to the feeding troughs of the cows. as both. and to which it may be conveyed in spouts from the dairy-room. and contentment therewith! DAIRY BUILDINGS. buildings for its distinct accommodation are indispensable. 131 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and adapted to the convenience of feeding the whey to 333 whichever of these animals the dairyman may select. or either are required to consume it. We therefore set apart a building. is at one end. The dairy is as much a manufactory as a cotton mill. on purpose for its objects. separate conveniences are alike required.acrobatplanet. spreading roof of 45° pitch. made on the plan already described. of the same size. or butter. An ice-house. This building is one and a half stories high.

we think will be generally approved. over which is hung a tackle. The cheese presses. will best arrange all these for the particular convenience which he requires. (c. and in the fitting up of the dairy-house. admits the cheese from below. A flight of stairs. When the milk is kept over night. as soon as sufficiently prepared on the temporary table below.acrobatplanet. leads into the ice-house. and is 3 feet wide. (d.) on the extreme right. be discharged into vats. and water should be so near as to be easily pumped. when prosecuted as the chief object on a farm. may be carried on in the lower parts of the same building. and for setting the milk. for making the different kinds of cheese which our varied markets demand. be placed on a sloping bank. (b. and pumped out as wanted. A cellar is convenient—indeed. The Ground Plan was printed upside-down. which should be fitted up specially for that purpose. THE BUTTER DAIRY. (h. In the loft are placed the shelves for storing the cheese.GROUND PLAN. it is more convenient to pass it to them on a lower level. A door. or for washing the utensils used in the work. and even when it is fed to cows.) occupy the left end of the room. between which a passage leads through a door. It may.) with a whey and water boiler. is in the rear. when it is designed to feed the whey to pigs. If the dairy be of such extent as to require larger accommodation than the plan here suggested. if pursued on the same farm with the cheese dairy. a room or two may be partitioned off from the main milk and pressing-room.) There are four windows to the room— two on each side. no positive plan of arrangement can be laid down. for washing the vessels and other articles employed. Different accommodations are required. however. through the floors. to hold the pans or tubs in which it may be set. and style of building however. (e. into the vats and kettles used in running up the curd. if possible. and at different seasons of the year. The front door is protected by a light porch. almost indispensable—under the cheese dairy. for the next morning's curd. (l. when prepared for market. c. in a cellar below. The cheese house should. The dairyman. it should have accommodations of its own kind.) into the wood-shed. suited alike to all the work which may be demanded. or drawn. than to 334 carry it out in buckets. (a. 132 Free PDF Ebook at http://www.) the main dairy room. A trapdoor. and of convenient construction and shape for the objects intended. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. with its roof resting on four posts set in the ground. or passes it down. (f. front and rear. This loft is thoroughly ventilated by windows.) leading into the storage room . In the center of the room is a chimney. temporary tables may be placed near the ice-room. But as it is usually a distinct branch of business. and the heat of the sun upon it ripens the cheese rapidly for market. therefore. as being in an agreeable architectural style. The large cheese-table. and the ice used to temper the milk to the proper degree for raising the cream. This. The main plan. if on level ground. (g. and vats on each side.) entering by a door. (b. Every facility should be made for neatness in all the operations connected with the work.) open on all sides.) stands on the opposite end.

from a higher level. only that there is no necessity for the upper story. is indispensable to the various demands of the farm. and the posts of the main building should not stand more than nine feet above the sills. Such a mode of applying water and ice. where the butter is worked. in the plan he may finally adopt. which. and streams from higher grounds. and much will be left to the demands and the skill of the dairyman himself. As water. suggest a better model of a building for the butter dairy. THE WATER RAM. and the churns. and everything kept sweet and clean. 133 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. buckets. where the necessary kettles are set. In a hilly country. and introduced into the building by belt. keeping it cool and sweet —as much like a spring-house as possible.acrobatplanet. and the heating of water. in the cheese dairy. shaft. springs. that the water may pass among them all before it escapes from the room. into it. and kept from contact with the cool atmosphere of the lower room. and at the most convenient points for use. and in abundant quantity. is indispensable. The latter apartment should have a well-laid stone or brick floor. should have curbs two or three inches high on their sides. to keep the milk at the proper temperature—about 55° Fahrenheit—for raising the cream. it is worth some pains to provide it in the most economical manner. the shelves can be so arranged. under its own head. or crank. which should not be far distant. by the aid of water and ice. Here. wherever it may be wanted. where all the water may pass off by a drain. renders the entire process of cream-rising almost certain in all weathers. it is hardly possible to give any one system of detail which is applicable to an uniform mode of structure. and the water drawn up by buckets or pumps. among the pans. to be driven by hand. should all be done in the room above. The washing and drying of pans. walled cellar. may be brought in by the aid of pipes. too. in its operation. As all this process of arrangement. and the facilities at hand where it may be constructed. In level grounds. as a room for setting the milk. The low temperature of the room. with a broad. like steps.We cannot. be passed off in spouts to the pigsty. the 337 locality. A good. as the two latter may be provided. filled and covered with a strong cement of water lime. by placing each tier of shelf lower than the last. and is highly approved wherever it has been practiced. or animal power. open flight of steps. and that of a good quality. perhaps. should stand the stone slabs. away from its natural . from a receiving vat. or water. from the main floor above. however. for this purpose. The buttermilk may. the water flowing naturally. well lighted. is also beneficial to the butter packed in kegs. as in the case of the whey. in which ice is deposited. must conform somewhat to the shape of the ground. and sloping gradually to the outer side. it can flow in a constant gentle current over them. If running water can be brought on 336 to the milk-shelves. churns. wells are generally dug. and if the quantity of milk be large. than the one just submitted for the cheese-house.

barnyards. The quantity raised varying in proportion to the height to which it is conveyed. G. C. with running water. and the more the power consumed in the operation. villages. the greater the fall applied. and consequent length of pipe. at our request. of New York—who keep them of all sizes for sale. of anything within our knowledge. for the purposes of irrigating lands. as. I.. or current. proportionate to the fall obtained. yet. A.. gardens.But. also. B. yet.acrobatplanet. and the elevation to which it is required to be raised. to a higher level. & B. Douglass. E. B. spring or brook. A. or supply-pipe. and perfect in its construction. and very apparent durability. it is common to apply the ram for conveying the water distances of one and two hundred . with a given fall. together with its effectiveness. &c.. given by W. railroad stations. ALLEN & CO. Connecticut. renders it decidedly the most important and 339 valuable apparatus yet developed in hydraulics. by its own action. viz. conveying water to house or other point required for use. the longer the pipe through which the water has to be forced by the machine. No's. the greater the friction to be overcome. J. or 134 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. It is perfectly applicable where no more than eighteen inches fall can be had. the Ram. Messrs. and wasted. the plank or other foundation to which the machine is secured for use. 338 189 and 191. is dependent entirely upon the relative height of the spring or source of supply above the ram. and up elevations of one and two hundred feet. "The simplicity of the operation of this machine. and supplying dwellings. at their agricultural warehouse. factories. the distance which the water has to be conveyed. "The various uses of the ram are at once obvious. from brook to ram. the more powerful the operation of the machine. of all contrivances to elevate water from a lower fountain. drive. And as it may not be generally known to our readers. has some bearing on the quantity of water raised and discharged by the ram. Water-street—have kindly furnished us with the following description of the machine. and the higher the water may be conveyed. discharge pipe. D. The relative proportions between the water raised. of Middletown. engines. for forcing a portion of a running stream of water to any elevation. Ten feet fall from the spring. the Water Ram is the most complete in its operation. manufacturers of the article: "H.

5. When a sufficient quantity of water is raised with a given fall. would dictate that no greater fall should be applied. of every seven gallons drawn from the spring. The fall from the surface of the water in the spring is four feet. or other places where water is required. as the fall or rise is varied. 9. which they may wish to overcome in raising water from springs or brooks to their premises. and the same ten feet fall will raise the water to a much higher point than above last named. to the ram. in proportion as the height is increased. one gallon may be raised to the height of one hundred feet above the machine. is three and a quarter gallons. we have the pleasure of copying the following article. at my house. as to the head or fall to apply to the ram for a given rise and distance.acrobatplanet.brook. or one-fourteenth part can be raised and discharged. 2. Or with ten feet fall applied to the machine. 6. and that discharged at the ram twenty-five gallons. 7. 135 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. of every fourteen gallons drawn from the spring. as in so doing the 340 force with which the ram works is increased. To enable any person to make the calculation. The perpendicular height of the place of delivery above the ram is nineteen feet—say fifteen feet above the surface of the spring. The ram is of Douglass' make. . and so in like proportion. will be sufficient for all practical purposes. in the expense of keeping the ram in repair. The length of the pipe leading from the ram to the house is one hundred and ninety feet. say ten times as high as the fall applied. or half a gallon fifty feet. of say fifty or sixty rods. although in a diminished quantity. one may be raised twenty-five feet. to raise a sufficient supply of water to his premises. M. The depth of water in the spring. if the ram be placed under a head or fall of five feet. Thus. 3. as to what fall would be sufficient to apply to the ram. of a small size. with a sufficient 341 degree of nicety. we would say. it may be safely calculated that about one-seventh part of the water can be raised and discharged at an elevation above the ram five times as high as the fall which is applied to the ram. and the amount of labor which it has to perform greatly augmented. to enable purchasers of the article to determine. "'I consider it very essential that the drive or supply-pipe should be laid as straight as possible. Saxton. rounded by curves. Yet. 152 Fulton-street. Thus. conducting the water from the ram to the house.' a very valuable journal published by C. "It is presumed that the above illustrations of what the machine will do under certain heads and rise. and the durability of the same lessened. as the fall or rise is increased or diminished. that in conveying it any ordinary distance. The inner diameter of the pipe. nearly one-seventh part of the water is saved. which may serve to corroborate our statements as to what our ram will accomplish under given circumstances: "'The following is a correct statement of a water ram I have had in successful operation for the last six months: "'1. for propelling the ram. it is not advisable to increase said fall. The length of the drive or supply-pipe is sixty feet. Its inner diameter one inch. the wear and tear of the machine proportionably increased. over the drive pipe. is three-eighths of an inch. The pipe leading from the ram to the house has three right angles. 4. is abundantly sufficient for forcing up the water to any elevation under say one hundred and fifty feet in height. The quantity of water delivered per ten minutes. above the level of the point where the ram is located. than is sufficient to raise a requisite supply of water to the place of use. which we find in the 'American Agriculturist. as in the motion of the water in this pipe consists the power of the ram. New York. is six inches. and so in that proportion. so that economy.

as well as into the various buildings." We can recommend no plan of a better kind for the objects required. the projecting edge of which may be serrated. water can be thrown into every room in the dwelling house. April 2d. 343 RAT-PROOF GRANARY. We heartily commend it to all who need a thing of the kind. NORTH-EAST . if procurable. one foot square. or rubble stone and lime grouting. six inches deep. H. It is an old-fashioned structure. at least. across. The posts should be stone. we take from an agricultural periodical published in New York—"The Plow. as a further preventive against the depredating rascals creeping around. The steps are hinged to the door-sill.'" We have seen several of these rams at work. that it is improved in some of its details. with sufficient water to supply the demand. and at a distance from the point of its flow. and have at hand the facilities in the way of a stream for its use. The illustration above needs but little description. 1849. and yards.Y.acrobatplanet. by which to throw it to a higher level. set one-third in the ground. and set them in a hole previously filled. six inches wide. This plan. and two feet. GRANARY. and description. make them sixteen inches square. HALLOCK. nail on a flange of tin or sheet iron. N.. Four inches from the top. wherever it may be required. and fill around the posts with the same. and in any place where the required amount of fall can be had. with charcoal. If wooden posts are used.V. that by the aid of the ram. It is hardly worth while to add. and capped with smooth flat stones. four to six inches 344 thick. and fields of the farm. and should have a cord and weight attached to the door. we are entirely satisfied that no plan so cheap and efficient can be adopted. which many of our readers will recognize—only. so that 136 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. and four feet long.

nor into their modes of treatment. and the inferiority of the last will only become more conspicuous and contemptible. than the inferior things which are called the common. both to the professional farmer in his vocation. in addition to these. Of what avail will be the best provision for the conveniences of a family. over 347 the common stock of the country. Still. in their dwellings. somewhat dilated upon objects of embellishment. pleasant grounds. we have surmounted necessity. If you intend to have sweet grain. the steps should be up also. in the way of grounds to surround them. and the advantages of keeping them. and others who dwell in the country and occupy land. with large cracks between. and the floor under the corn-crib. without inviting the attention of our farmers. and to such as.acrobatplanet. Yet. are comparatively a young people. and the labors of the farm. We have endeavored to impress upon them the importance of providing all the conveniences and comforts to themselves. and we trust they have been shown that it is proper economy so to do. We have known many people who had a fine perception in many things: an eye for a fine house. and as a subject of interest and satisfaction to themselves in the embellishment of their grounds. find them an object of convenience. we are hardly content to send it out to the public. a taste for good stock. We have arrived at the period when we enjoy the fruits of competence—some of us. or native stock of the country. and trees to beautify them. half our object would be lost. this would prevent the possibility of carelessness in leaving them down for the rats to walk up. and more profitable than poor stock. with numerous open joints. comprise the most stable class of our population. Without this last lesson. beyond this. in contrast with the superior condition of the first. We now want them to introduce into those grounds such domestic animals as shall add to their ornament. and a worthless or inferior stock be kept upon it? The work is but half done at best. We. and you may see by the vane on the top of it. will more than pay for all you will lose through the floor. as an item of increased profit in their farm management. IMPROVED DOMESTIC ANIMALS. any more than other faculties which require the aid of education to develope. and add greatly to the pleasure 346 and interest of their occupation. and all the surroundings which such a place 137 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. the circulation of the air through the pile of corn. the luxuries of wealth. The sides should be made of slats. It has been thoroughly demonstrated. It is not altogether a thing of nature. Having completed the series of subjects which we had designed for this work.whenever it is shut. We have addressed ourselves through these pages to the good sense of men who. is not generally understood. if the farm be badly cultivated. which their circumstances will admit. beautiful trees. It is not intended to go into an examination of the farm-stock of our country at large. in their general character and pursuits. a portion of our farmers and country people understand somewhat of the subject. that good farm stock is better. A taste for superior domestic animals has been increasing. and spreading over the United States for many years past. to the importance of surrounding themselves with the best breeds of domestic animals. and that taste has to be cultivated. no matter if shattered corn falls through. in the rougher farm buildings. how the wind will always blow favorably for you. to recommend such varieties of animals as are profitable in their breeding and keeping. We have. so that now. or of pleasure. be sure to have a ventilator in the roof. as well as the due provision for their animals and crops. let the pigs and chickens have . and be far more profitable to themselves. which will in no way interfere with a just economy. in America. but.

or sheep. by his unthinking associates. and which will also embellish his grounds. or a sheep. is finished. on the whole. and selects a picture of mean or inferior quality. beef. and when these were complete. and yielding him no return. to hang up in his house by way of ornament. who lives at his country-house in summer. and that too thin. can be complete in its appointments. and it creates no remark. and arrest the attention of those who visit him. mutton. and create an interest in his family for their care. the other stock on his farm may be the meanest trash in existence. that no farm.acrobatplanet.might command. the one is quite as much out of place as the other. in the shape of a cow. and that he should be well kept. The man. for cutting. should have something to graze it—for he cannot afford to let it lie idle. is increasing. grass will grow under the trees. will keep and drive a miserable horse. let their superiority be ever so apparent. or a park adjoining. of course. and short. is the ridicule of his neighbors. or their increase. without good stock upon it. to be mowing the grass in it every fortnight during the summer. in such things. 348 Now. or wool? Of course not. plebeian looks. The resident of the city. too. to make it sightly. which will give him a profitable return. And such. is still the case in too many sections of our country. or his place. in the way of domestic animals. or pass by his grounds. He will rather go and obtain the best stock he can get. be pastured. will he go and get a parcel of mean scrubs of cattle. even if he can afford it. in good circumstances. or country place. yet he may drive into his grounds the meanest possible creature. imaginable. On the contrary. about his house. 138 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. Besides this. yet. of breeds suited to the climate. and it is useless for any one to suppose that his farm. Now. we shall now discourse. who. a pig. Of the proper selection of this branch of his stock. or a provident man. for his outlay. and disgracing him by their vulgar. because everybody knows what a good horse is. would place about it the veriest brutes. we are sorry to . or flesh. and our intelligence. But. if he be a wise. would be laughed at by his friends. without it. nor is it worth while. of any extent. surrounding his very door. we hold it to be a practical fact. This ground must. either in milk. to graze it. or one who has any true taste in such matters. The man who has a fine lawn. has often been the subject of ribaldry. and it is all very well—for neither he nor they know any better. both our public spirit. in either milk. one who at any extra cost has supplied himself with stock of the choicer kinds. Yet. and soil.

or in groups. and well developed short-horn cow. light horn. full in the qualities which belong to her character. singly. and in the fertile corn regions of Kentucky. prominent. are fed every . is the very perfection of her kind. with its silky covering of hair. the Miami. and clean. As a family cow. also. and in the profit she will yield to her owner. and broad chest. and lower Ohio. taper. on every place where she can be supplied with abundance of food. and wide-spread grazing regions of central. or either of them alone. stamina. large. nothing can excel the short-horn. the short-horns are steadily working their way all over the vast cattle-breeding regions of the 139 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. the prairies of Indiana. such. in all the majesty of her style and character! We add. where their worth has become established. broad hips. added to this. and the feeder. spring those magnificent fat oxen and steers." in appearance. Her large. They are "the head and front. are the very perfection of a cattle picture. deep thigh. of beauty. projecting brisket. grazing in the open field. and taken to the New York and Philadelphia markets. just now beginning to receive them. A well-bred. Here stands a short-horn cow. of less or higher grade in blood. her brilliant and ever-varying colors of all. the sweet. and carry off the prizes. and well-spread udder. or quietly resting upon the grass. which exhibits. the rich. size. small. at our great cattle shows. and your grass abundant. and of profit. wide-standing teats. and now and then. and every-intermingling shades of red. and the other great feeding valleys of the west. and excellence of his kind. Go into the luxuriant blue-grass pastures of Kentucky. and. As a profitable beast to the grazier. the short-horns are the stock for them. deep. and give a grace and beauty to the grounds which no living thing can equal. level back. in a high degree. russet. and twist. giving twenty to thirty quarts of rich milk in a day. are we at all mistaken. a short-horn bull. a finely-cultivated farm in other sections 354 of the United States. or nut-colored muzzle. in the abundance and richness of her milk. thin ears. and combination of good qualities—the very aristocracy 353 of all neat cattle. or on the Hudson river. which attract so much admiration. in the Scioto. nothing can equal them in early maturity and excellence. standing quietly under the shade of trees. light tail. and white.In cattle. small. expressive eye. Nor. and they present pictures of thrift. bright. that no other neat cattle can pretend to equal. and succulent pastures of central and western New York. of excellence. fine orange. From the short-horns. she stands without a rival.acrobatplanet. and Illinois. in this laudation of the short-horns. if your grounds be rich. clean neck. Thousands of them. and. yet mild. For this purpose. and loin. the vigor. short legs. square form.

DEVON BULL.west. than those just . another race of cattle may be kept. and milkproducing sections of the other states. or on hilly and stony grounds. and claimed there as an aboriginal race in England. They are the Devons—also an English breed.acrobatplanet. where she will finally take rank. with shorter pastures. and. and maintain her superiority over all others. DEVON COW. for the richness and abundance of her milk. better adapted to such localities. on rich and productive soils. 357 and if any variety of cattle. On lighter soils. exhibiting the blood-like 140 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. the cow is eagerly introduced into the dairy.

We present. In the quality of their beef. they are unrivaled by any breed of cattle in the United States. until now. the superiors to which. when in good condition. and improved by frequent importations since. a deep mahogany-red in color. Several beautiful herds of Devons are to be found in New York.acrobatplanet. but with the remark. The Devon cow is usually a good milker. a quick feeder. From the Devons. the Devons can make such claim. in kindness. and beauty in figure excelled by no other breed whatever. in Maryland. These are the Southdown. which has created a corresponding spirit in those who breed them. and fineness of limb. a fleece of valuable wool. where they can be obtained by those who wish to purchase. and like them. and some few in other states. or other improved breeds of long-wooled sheep. and in Massachusetts. than she ought to do. to give the cut room on the page. with a like fine expression of countenance. so much admired in our eastern states. or in the paddock of a farm. can claim a remote ancestry. withal. yet finer in limb. but in their early maturity for that purpose. about the same time with the short-horns. to learn that both the breeds we have named are increasing in demand. and stands higher on the leg. that she presents a deficiency of bag. docility. and the Cotswold. and the gazelle-like brilliancy of their eye. they will be briefly noticed. and honesty of more agile in form. Unlike the short-horn. They were introduced—save now and then an isolated animal at an earlier day—into the United States some thirty-two or three years ago. And it is a gratifying incident. an elevated horn. 141 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. spring those beautifully matched red working-oxen. and of a grace. also. than these. the deep. in Connecticut. beyond almost any other. This figure does not do him full justice. We here present a cut of a Devon cow. docile in her habits. as well as to improve the quality of their mutton—obtaining. or beautiful small animal to be seen. no country can produce. or pleasure ground. of quiet temper. and as they have been of late much sought after. There is no more peaceful. and 358 her leanness in flesh gives her a less graceful appearance than is her wont. Another branch of domestic stock should also excite the attention of those who wish to embellish their grounds. are not equal to the short-horns. and bone. to bestow their best attention in perfecting their good qualities. in an open park. probably our country will show some specimens equal in quality to their high general character in the land of their nativity. for her size. and a pure descent. the cut of a Devon bull. quickness. have been added to. and a most satisfactory animal in all particulars. Leicester. uniformity of . endurance. the head being drawn in. the Devon is a much lighter animal.

when well fatted. SOUTHDOWN EWE. They are exceedingly 142 Free PDF Ebook at . and solid sheep.SOUTHDOWN RAM.acrobatplanet. weighing. a hundred to a hundred and twenty pounds. and a good nurse. The Southdown. with dark face and legs. and medium weight of fleece. 363 is large. in the estimation of many. quiet in its habits. mild in disposition. to the finest venison. is a fine. The carcass of a Southdown wether. at two to three years old. a cut of which we present. compact. and yielding a kind of mutton unsurpassed in flavor and delicacy—equal. The ewe is a prolific breeder. of a medium quality.

hardy, and will thrive equally well in all climates, and on all our soils, where they can live. There is no other variety of sheep which has been bred to that high degree of perfection, in England. The great Southdown breeder, Mr. Webb, of Batraham, has often received as high as fifty, to one hundred guineas, in a season, for the use of a single ram. Such prices show the estimation in which the best Southdowns are held there, as well as their great popularity among the English farmers. They are extensively kept in the parks, and pleasure grounds of the wealthy people, where things of profit are usually connected with those devoted to luxury. For this cut of the Southdown ewe, we are indebted to the kindness of Luther Tucker, Esq., of the Albany "Cultivator."


143 Free PDF Ebook at

LONG-WOOLED EWE. The Cotswold, New Oxford, and Leicester sheep, of the long-wooled variety, are also highly esteemed, in the same capacity as the Southdowns. They are large; not so compactly built as the Southdowns; producing a heavy fleece of long wool, mostly used for combing, and making into worsted stuffs. They are scarcely so hardy, either, as the Southdowns; nor are they so prolific. Still, they have many excellent qualities; and although their mutton has not the fine grain, nor delicacy, of the other, it is of enormous weight, when well fattened, and a most profitable carcass. It has sometimes reached a weight of two 364 hundred pounds, when dressed. They are gentle, and quiet in their habits; white in the face and legs; and show a fine and stately contrast to the Southdowns, in their increased size, and breadth of figure. They require, also, a somewhat richer pasture; but will thrive on any good soil, yielding sweet grasses. For the cut of the Cotswold ewe, we are also indebted to Mr. Tucker, of "The Cultivator." To show the contrast between the common native sheep, and the improved breeds, of which we have spoken, a true portrait of the former is inserted, which will be readily recognized as the creature which embellishes, in so high a degree, many of the wild nooks, and rugged farms of the country!

A COMMON SHEEP. That the keeping of choice breeds of animals, and the cultivation of a high taste for them, is no vulgar 365 matter, with even the most exalted intellects, and of men occupying the most honorable stations in the state, and in society; and that they concern the retired gentleman, as well as the practical farmer, it is only necessary to refer to the many prominent examples in Great Britain, and our own country, within the last fifty years. The most distinguished noblemen of England, and Scotland, have long bred the finest of cattle, and embellished their home parks with them. The late Earl Spencer, one of the great patrons of agricultural improvement in England, at his death owned a herd of two hundred of the highest bred short-horns, which he kept on his home farm, at Wiseton. The Dukes of Bedford, for the last century and a half, have made extraordinary exertions to improve their several breeds of cattle. The late Earl of Leicester, better known, perhaps, as Mr. Coke, of Holkham, and the most celebrated farmer of his time, has been long identified with his large and select herds of Devons, and his flocks of Southdowns. The Duke of Richmond has his great park at Goodwood stocked with the finest Southdowns, Short-horns, and Devons. Prince Albert, even, has caught the infection of such liberal and useful example, and the royal park at Windsor is tenanted with the 144 Free PDF Ebook at

finest farm stock, of many kinds; and he is a constant competitor at the great Smithfield cattle shows, annually held in London. Besides these, hundreds of the nobility, and wealthy country gentlemen of Great Britain, every year compete with the intelligent farmers, in their exhibitions of cattle, at the 366 royal and provincial shows, in England, Scotland, and Ireland. In the United States, Washington was a great promoter of improvement in farm stock, and introduced on to his broad estate, at Mount Vernon, many foreign animals, which he had sent out to him at great expense; and it was his pride to show his numerous and distinguished guests, his horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. Henry Clay, of Kentucky, was among the first promoters of the improvement of domestic animals in the fertile region, of which his own favorite Ashland is the center; and to his continued efforts in the breeding of the finest short-horns, and mules, is the state of Kentucky greatly indebted for its reputation in these descriptions of stock. Daniel Webster has introduced on to his estate, at Marshfield, the finest cattle, and sheep suited to its soil and climate, and takes much pride in showing their good qualities. Indeed, we have never heard either of these two last remarkable men more eloquent, than when discoursing of their cattle, and of their pleasure in ranging over their pastures, and examining their herds and flocks. They have both been importers of stock, and liberal in their dissemination among their agricultural friends and neighbors. Public-spirited, patriotic men, in almost every one of our states, have either imported from Europe, or drawn from a distance in their own country, choice animals, to stock their own estates, and bred them for the improvement of their several neighborhoods. Merchants, and generous men of other professions, have shown great liberality, and the finest 367 taste, in importing, rearing, and distributing over the country the best breeds of horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. Their own beautiful home grounds are embellished with them, in a style that all the dumb statuary in existence can not equal in interest—models of grace, and beauty, and utility, which are in vain sought among the sculpture, or paintings of ancient time. And many a plain and unpretending farmer of our country, emulating such laudable examples, now shows in his luxuriant pastures, and well-filled barns and stables, the choicest specimens of imported stock; and their prizes, won at the cattle shows, are the laudable pride of themselves, and their families. Nor is this laudable taste, confined to men alone. Females of the highest worth, and domestic example, both abroad and at home, cultivate a love for such objects, and take much interest in the welfare of their farm stock. We were at the annual state cattle show, in one of our large states, but a short time since, and in loitering about the cattle quarter of the grounds, met a lady of our acquaintance, with a party of her female friends, on a tour of inspection among the beautiful short-horns, and Devons, and the select varieties of sheep. She was the daughter of a distinguished statesman, who was also a large farmer, and a patron of great liberality, in the promotion of fine stock in his own state. She was bred upon the farm, and, to rare accomplishments in education, was possessed of a deep love for all rural objects; and in the stock of the farm she took a peculiar interest. Her husband was an extensive farmer, and a noted breeder of fine animals. 368 She had her own farm, too, and cattle upon it, equally as choice as his, in her own right; and they were both competitors at the annual exhibitions. Introduced to her friends, at her request, we accompanied them in their round of inspection. There were the beautiful cows, and the younger cattle, and the sheep—all noticed, criticised, and remarked upon; and with a judgment, too, in their various properties, which convinced us of her sound knowledge of their physiology, and good qualities, which she explained to her associates with all the familiarity that she would a tambouring frame, or a piece of embroidery. There was no squeamish fastidiousness; no affectation of prudery, in this; but all natural as the pure flow of admiration in a well-bred lady could be. At her most comfortable, and hospitable residence, afterward, she showed us, with pride, the several cups, and other articles of plate, which her family had won as prizes, at the agricultural exhibitions; and which she intended to preserve, as heir-looms to her children. This is not a solitary example; yet, a too rare one, among our fair countrywomen. Such a spirit is contagious, and we witness with real satisfaction, their growing taste in such laudable sources of enjoyment: contrary to the parvenue affectation of a vast 145 Free PDF Ebook at

character. and not prolific in the production of their young. with the natural and easy grace of purity itself. and artistical 369 merits of the works before them. and descant with entire freedom. and beautifully arched. The African goose will attain a weight of twenty to twenty-five pounds. but nearly double in size. mincing delicacy. which is long. too—who can saunter among the not over select. equally graceful in the water. social. or gaze with apparent admiration upon the brazen pirouettes of a public dancing girl. in the promotion of a taste. If a stream flow through the grounds. or . particularly at a little distance. although silent. adding much to the interest and amusement of the family. of the stern and earnest men. and not only a taste. unsocial habits. It is a more beautiful bird in its plumage. and yet. the under part of the head and neck. in the vicinity of the house. and equivocal representations. breeding with facility. and of shy. whose delicacy is shocked at the exhibitions of a cattle show! Such females as we have noticed. a 371 dark hazel eye. and the back of its neck. and the wives. is a preferable substitute in this country. They are esteemed a bird of much grace and beauty. we trust that a reformation is at work among our American women. 146 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. Its body is finely formed. the novelist. in their labors. and agreeable in its voice. Its legs and feet are orange-colored. at its junction with the head. and the prude—mere "leather and prunella. with a high protuberance. with the mothers. For such purposes as they are kept in England. but a genuine love of things connected with country life. its bill black. Many of the English nobility. amid all the equivoque of a crowded theater. and gentle in its habits. a noble and majestic bird. among the paintings and statuary of our public galleries.acrobatplanet." Such remarks may be thought to lie beyond the line of our immediate labor. moving beauty of animal life. It was not so. WATER-FOWLS. and drop such incidental remark as may tend to promote the enjoyment. and its flesh is of delicate flavor. on the various attitudes. or a small lake be near. who grappled with the realities of life. as well as instruction. resembling the China. of those whose sphere of action. who laid the foundations of their country's freedom and greatness. a soft ash-color. and enjoyed its pleasures with truth and honesty. we incline to make a clean breast of it. or a pond. and stamina. keep swans for such purpose. a few varieties of choice water-fowls may be kept. and sentimentality. and its belly white. But in the discussion of the collateral subjects which have a bearing upon country life and residence. and a heavy dewlap at the throat.many otherwise sensible and accomplished females of our cities and towns—comprising even the wives and daughters of farmers. the great African goose. and gentry. and whose choice in life is amid the pure atmosphere. is but the off-throw of the boardingschool. high. From the bottom of our heart. can admire the living. in which their grand-daughters indulge. This over-nice. heavily feathered. Taken altogether. and without the slightest suspicion of a stain of vulgarity. is a dark brown. They were women of soul. with a golden ring around it. The top of the head. and the pure pleasures of the country.

and to their families. and. but without the dewlap under the throat. in its full extent. The small brown China goose is another variety which may be introduced. Herds and flocks upon the farm are a matter of course. frequently weigh twenty pounds. It is too much a fault of our farming population. and furnish them for their . and high protuberance on it. at nine months old. arched neck. far more agreeable. but perfectly white. and the poultry of all kinds. an equally high. and perhaps the rabbit warren. or even 373 others more common. in size and shape like the last. Still. and the pigs. and of his occupation. The neck of the goose in the cut should be one-third longer. All these birds are more domestic. in all the qualities of such a bird. they should encourage their children in the love of them. and is quite as graceful in the water. alive. most certainly. to be an accurate likeness. The pigeons. if they would only think so. and speak out the character of the country. in its habits and docility. They are equally prolific as the common goose. which is of the same pure. and domestic enjoyment. but. and. should consider our grounds as incomplete. The Bremen goose is still another variety. and without their presence. but in shape and appearance. convenience. We have long kept them. as a thing of ornament. except in color. is a more prolific layer. not unlike the common goose. The very soul of a farmer's home is to cluster every thing about it which shall make it attractive. clean plumage. if possible. and for the table.acrobatplanet. If parents have no taste for such objects as we have recommended. She is nearly the color of the African. and an acquisition to any grounds where water-fowls are a subject of interest. and has black legs and feet. which is pure white. equally a favorite with the others we have described. But there are other things. with an orange colored bill and legs. and we have found them less troublesome.—frequently laying three or four clutches of eggs in a year. We have had them of that weight. none can be finer.CHINA GOOSE. and so are the horses. and her daughters. has the same black bill. not inclined to wander abroad. both to themselves. quite as indicative of household abundance. they are a stately bird. has the same character of voice. 147 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. no swan can be more beautiful than this. which are chiefly in charge of the good housewife. Indeed. of about the same size as the African. but darker. and the younger boys. that they do not pay sufficient attention to many little things which would render their homes more interesting. than the common goose. or profit. She is only half the size of the other. in one of the most attractive features of animated life. 372 The White China is another variety. Young geese of this breed. are far behind the African and the China.

Perhaps in this we are to be pitied. There 375 is probably no other civilized country so dog-ridden as this. John. and intend to give them the benefit of our own experience in this line. and hound. We always loved a dog. running. and after a whole life. And curs of low degree. We never go out shooting. or the different breeds of dogs for sporting purposes. also. Tom. of dog companionship. not a home—where no attention is paid to such minor attractions. and they too often indulge in their companionship.—and fathers. kind man that he was. so that it be a out the domestic feeling and benevolence of character in the . if for nothing else. at least. How different a home like this from one—which is. A WORD ABOUT DOGS. Therefore we shall let the hounds. not to be mistaken. to make their rude nests. We say that we love dogs: not all dogs. and the land and the water spaniels. We want to mix in a little usefulness. and bring out half a clutch of young. and pointers. and it almost broke our little heart.acrobatplanet. of domestic contentment. for many 148 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. We are now among the boys. must have been a capital judge of dogs. into the nearest wood. and. too. puppy. Ours is a "free country"—for dogs. and Harry. the springers. when but a trudging schoolboy. down to the squeaking little whiffet. that will lead to something higher. both in "Mongrel.—if they do not turn up their noses in contempt of our instruction. as well as amusement. much to the annoyance of good neighborhood. nor do we take a hunt—having no taste that way. and then dogged down in the winter. to engage their leisure hours and promote their happiness. our kind mother made us take back the young puppy that had hardly got its eyes open. and the trial of 376 pretty much every thing in the line of a dog—from the great Newfoundland. and setters. as well as to say a few words to the elder brothers. other men than poets are sometimes good judges. however. which we one day brought home. of six—we have. and common justice. in the spring. indeed. if the house has one. of the utter hopelessness of progress for good. which the foxes. It is a sign of enjoyment. to be kept until it was fit to be taken from its natural nurse. have spared. in such a family. a stray turkey. we shall leave to those who like them. and more valuable in after life. in the way of a dog. good morals. to provide a half got-up Christmasdinner. all alone. and of mental cultivation. to provide them with all these little objects. to within an inch of their lives. even. by way of geese. The poodle. we shall turn over to the kindness of those who—we are sorry for them. mope about the dirty premises. like many other poetical gentlemen. really. on a subject so much beneath their notice. thrift. or other vermin. Still. committing their nuisances in every possible way! There need be no surer indication than this. but we are content as it is. where a few starveling things. Nor shall we discuss the various qualities. and the little lap-dog of other kinds. Of all these we have nothing to say—here. or two. even. picked half a dozen times a year. 374 and creeping about the fields through the summer with a chicken or two. perhaps. thus far. and great lovers of dogs. and the bull dogs. in our first jacket-and-trowsers. and the hens about the open buildings all the year." Goldsmith. and it is in such light that it becomes an absolute duty of the farmer who seeks the improvement and education of his children. The mastiffs. from fear of the untutored dogs. of a hundred pounds weight. whelp. But we love some dogs—of the right breeds. but the mass of people are quite as well satisfied with one kind of dog as with another. in having nothing better to interest themselves about—take a pleasure in keeping and tending them. of propriety. making their nightly sittings in the door yard.

and in general usefulness. and no ingenuity of the defence could avoid the conviction of the culprit. settled down into the practical belief that the small ratting terrier is the only one. in hardihood. used to tell this story:—When a young man. still. They are of all colors. the Jedburgh assizes. as an advocate. and of these. which might. and before he left for his imprisonment. long.acrobatplanet. are the small rat-terriers. whiskered muzzle. THE SMOOTH TERRIER. no dog can compare with him. of the same sizes as the last. but concluding to hear what he had to say. and unamiable in his deportment. "You are a housekeeper. whatever it be. but are generally uniform in their color. The matter was settled beyond redemption. For security to your doors. rough-haired. still useful as a watch-dog. with a kinder disposition to mankind. chiefly. with some regret at losing his fee. a notorious burglar engaged Sir Walter to defend him on his trial for housebreaking in the neighborhood. He would gladly reward Sir Walter for his services. The case was a hard one. equal. but he had 378 no money. and a determined enemy to all vermin. The fidelity of the terrier to his master is wonderful. except the shepherd dog. not a kindly. of less size. and feats of daring. There is the bull-terrier. he has hardly an equal. weighing from a dozen to twenty pounds. Another kind. Sir Walter heard him. kind in temper. and watchful to the premises which they inhabit. we care to keep. perhaps. whatever. use nothing but a common lock—if rusty and old. is the smooth terrier.years past. In courage and perseverance. On meeting. Mr. and could only give him a piece of advice. no 149 Free PDF Ebook at . of prodigious strength for their size. the fellow frankly told his counsel that he felt very grateful to him for his efforts to clear him. no doubt. or of whatever else is put under their charge. first attending. the thief requested Sir Walter to come into his cell. we shall speak. bating a lack of beauty in appearance. wonderful instinct and sagacity. a fierce. as they are termed. Scott. the proof direct and conclusive. some with rough. There are many varieties of the Terrier. that he had done the best he could. Sir Walter Scott. again. but irascibly inclined. weighing forty or fifty pounds. Some are large. be serviceable hereafter. Then. yet equally destructive to vermin. if not superior to any other dog whatever. who was a great friend to dogs. wiry hair. a very pretty dog indeed. and savage looking. well-disposed creature to strangers. as well as a nice and critical judge of their qualities. and possessing valuable qualities. but the proof was too palpable against him. or transportation.

before going to bed. He will follow the first into the water. and weasels. the men who tended the horses. as much as other vermin. They gnawed into the granaries. and. and share their sports as joyfully as a dumb creature can do. 150 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. as readily as the best of sporting dogs. with their clubs. and point them with the sagacity of a pointer at a bird. and where there are several rats found together. They entered the meat barrels." and to show that in spite of all precaution. Then commenced such a slaughter as we seldom see. than the rough-haired kind. kind. The dogs. a terrier will catch hundreds of field-mice in a day. till he exhausts him with diving. English terriers—a dog. They got into the grain-mows. Arsenic was innocuous—they wouldn't touch it. and devoured. A single bite 379 settles the matter. He will lie for hours by their places of passage. or by anything else left in his charge. A dog of our own has killed that number. a dog will frequently dispatch half a dozen of them. killed. and overtakes him in swimming. A year or two ago. and the rats. too. Oh! the rats were intolerable! Traps were no use." Sir Walter heeded the advice. He will lie down on your garment. He takes to rats and mice as naturally as a cat. a raccoon. We prefer the high-bred." The terrier has a perfect. the buildings soon swarmed with rats. The night is no bar to his vigils. or in a large dog of any breed. and seldom addicted to tricks of any kind. are his aversion. during the day. There is no safety in a mastiff. Planks were removed. The rats had got bold. He will catch. Was Walter Scott's first Jedburgh fee. as before. every evening. confirmed the good qualities of the terrier. thorough. and brought forth with a fecundity second only to the frogs of Egypt. in the dark. as related to him by the burglar. Minks. in the barns and stables. smooth. young and old. unappeasable instinct for. to any other variety. pointed out their holes. honest. and hatred to all kinds of vermin. their holes were watched. and keep him in your house at night. they are quite as hard to pick as any others. they will harbor wherever there is a thing to eat. They can always be appeased and quieted.matter. afterward. They were in. He will tree a squirrel. He is cleanly. and nothing remaining on the place but our shepherd dog. nor do we attempt to break in where one is known to be kept. when in sight. having accidentally lost our farm terrier. before they can get twenty feet from him. and chickens. Hundreds on hundreds were slaughtered. and every morning dead rats were found about the premises. which many dogs avoid—he engages. smooth. and gentle among them. We have kept them for . and very much handsomer in appearance. with the same readiness that he will a rat. Opportunity favored us. and a possible place of covert for them to burrow. They carried off the eggs from the hen-nests. and nothing can be more affectionate. the place was mostly rid of them. he is equally destructive. as they came out from their haunts. or bull-dog. They are rather more gentle in temper.acrobatplanet. fearless of evil. They dug into the dairy. He has the sight of an owl. or anything not too large or heavy for him. With a woodchuck. and about everything. in pouncing upon them. and burglars understand them. the young ducks. would kill. and we got two high-bred. (Neither Chubbs' nor Hobbs' non-pickable locks were then invented. and no reasonable inducement would 380 let us part with them. As they grew more shy. in his housekeeping experience. three or four. They stole away. before they could get across the stable floor. He is a hunter.) Then provide yourself with a small rat terrier. and hold a pig. at their nightly rounds of inspection. in the first few weeks. English terrier. He is as quick as lightning. instanter. but perhaps no better in their useful qualities. or anything of their size— even a skunk. or. But still the rats increased. He will play with the children. and watch it for hours. In the grain field. He will scent out their haunts and burrows. nests were found. and they became unendurable. and in a short time. with the harvesters. in the hay field. or a raccoon. and cattle. but a terrier can neither be terrified nor silenced. They literally came into the "kneading troughs" of the kitchen. He also commemorated the conversation by the following not exceedingly poetical couplet: "A terrier dog and a rusty key. During the winter. The dogs caught them daily by dozens. and a slut. and rarely misses them when he springs. where they burrowed. 381 until enough only are left to keep the dogs "in play. we keep them now.

and a strict. and observation. but he has neither the instinct. but a little care will provide us. with a good education. for farm use. We had a remarkably good dog. until an idle boy or two. he became worthless. His intelligence will be equal to all your wants in the dog-line. in this particular. decoyed him out in "cooning. at least. and the mastiff. in driving and gathering the flocks together. as a cattle dog.acrobatplanet. of this kind. for his own peculiar work. and a watch-dog. in that duty. he requires training. barking at birds. in this country. are enormously large dogs. And. and after that. The shepherd dog is another useful—almost indispensable—creature. He was always rummaging around among the trees. in bringing up the cattle. it is important that the breed be pure. when young. and in many cases. that it is sometimes difficult to get anything exactly as it should be.To have the terrier in full perfection. To keep him 382 in his best estate. to another. a few years since. or place. A shepherd dog should never go a-hunting. We speak from long experience. by those who know how to do it. To the sheep-drover. also. and sheep. thorough education. or any live thing that he could find. We are so prone to mix up everything we get. nor sagacity of the terrier. To the flock-master. 151 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. or dairy farm. His instincts are sure. in the neighborhood. We would not be understood as condemning everything else. too. every year. squirrels. good for little else than driving. quiet creature. and no man could coax 383 him back to the dull routine of his duty. This cut is an accurate representation of the finest of the breed. The Newfoundland. the terrier will prove all you need in a farm. as it distracts his attention from his peculiar duties. also. THE SHEPHERD DOG. He is a peaceable. He should be properly trained. That is. He is a reasonably good watch-dog. he is worth a man. to mind what is said to him. but he should not be fooled with. he saves a world of . on the sheep. But for this labor. or from one field. can do with a flock what a man can not do." a few nights during one autumn—in which he proved a most capital hunter. excepting the dogs we have named. and on a stock farm will save fifty times his cost and keeping. and possessed of some noble qualities. He was worth the services of a stout boy. he should not be troubled with other labors.

for slaughtering! 152 Free PDF Ebook at http://www. good qualities. or sheep. they will kill every sheep upon it. and sold three hundred hogs every year. we asked him whether the dogs did not kill his sheep? "To be sure they do.acrobatplanet.They have performed feats of sagacity and fidelity which have attracted universal admiration. and some wool for the women to make into stockings!" This is a mere matter of taste. in the country. and such as we consider the best for useful service. There are some kinds of cur dog that are useful. and their watchfulness is no greater than that of the shepherd dog. some time ago. a year. they will do for a make-shift. and who also kept a dozen hounds. and which prove only a nuisance to the neighborhood." was his reply. annually. They are of no breed at all. and when nothing better can be got. and foxes. for they give us great sport in hunting deer. and the sheep only give us a little mutton. There are altogether too many dogs kept. and a destruction to the goods of others. who had a flock of perhaps a hundred sheep running in one of his pastures. by reason of their destruction by worthless dogs. and the conversation on that subject dropped. In a western state. if you have them on your . now and then. Yet. but have. as we would in the breed of our cattle. thought we. for 384 hunting. we would be equally particular in the breed of our dog. "but the dogs are worth more than the sheep. Thousands of useful sheep are annually destroyed by them. fed off a hundred head of cattle. which are owned by the disorderly people about them. this man had a thousand acres of the richest land in the world. We have spoken of such as we have entire confidence in. to be sure. But as a rule. and most usually by a class of people who have no need of them. now and then. but. three to one. in conversing with a large farmer. or the terrier. raised three or four hundred acres of corn. and in some regions of the country. they can not be kept.

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