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1: !(I"
HYPERSONIC AND PLANET AR Y ENTRY FLIGHT MECHANICS
Nguyen X. Vinh
Adolf Busemann
Robert D. Culp
ANN ARBOR
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS
Copyright © by The University of Michigan 1980 All rights reserved
ISBN 0472093045
Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 7957117 Published in the United States of America by The University of Michigan Press and simultaneously
in Rexdale, Canada, by John Wiley & Sons Canada, Limited Manufactured in the United States of America
rL \CbC
· t/I;'~6'
Preface
The advent of the space shuttle and the prospect of several decades of regular lowaltitude earth orbital activity have focused attention on highspeed atmospheric trajectories exemplified by the space shuttle entry. The hypersonic flight mechanics of these trajectories represents a unique field, in that a combination of orbital mechanics and atmospheric flight mechanics is required.
For more than a decade we have worked together in this field, pursuing research under the sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force, and in teaching various aspects of the subject to advanced undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Michigan and the University of Colorado. During this time, interest in this topic has grown steadily until the demand for such material led to this book.
We have endeavored to make this text valuable as a research tool and reference for current experts in the field, and also as a learning source for engineers and scientists in related fields who want to become involved in entry dynamics. Taken as a whole, this book is a comprehensive and selfcontained treatment of hypersonic flight trajectories and atmospheric entry flight mechanics, leading the reader through the classical theories and ending with our modern, unified theory. Every topic is written so as to stand alone; the reader can enter the text at any point to obtain the analysis of particular interest. Every chapter is followed by a list of references which enables a researcher to trace the roots of the subject.
As a textbook, this book is designed to be used in several ways. The first nine chapters serve as a text at the introductory level for senior students interested in orbital and entry flight mechanics. For students with a firm background in aerospace engineering, including aerodynamics, propulsion, and orbital mechanics, this book can be used as the text for a specialized course in atmospheric entry. For these advanced undergraduate and graduate students, chapter 2 and chapters 6 through 13 comprise a suitable text for such a onesemester course. Chapter 18 can be included as time permits. The entire text covers a twosemester sequence at the senior or firstyear graduate level which brings the student to a sophisticated understanding of the subject. Finally, used as a textbook for a short
vi
Preface
course on entry flight mechanics for engineers working in the space program, the following reading sequence is sufficient: chapter 2 and chapters 10 through 18.
At both the University of Michigan and the University of Colorado, parts of this book have been used as the text for several courses at both the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels. This favorable experience has enabled us to bring out the text in this final form suitable as a useful tool for both research and education. Several of our doctoral students have contributed to the development of a unified theory for planetary entry covered in the second half of the book. It is a pleasure to acknowledge here their collective research efforts. Each individual contribution is fully accounted for in the text. During the whole period of the preparation of this book, from its inception in 1972 until its completion in 1980, Professor Adolf Busemann has provided his eminent leadership, assisted by his gracious wife, Magda. To them this book is dedicated.
It is with gratitude that we acknowledge the support of the NASA Langley Research Center, sponsor of much of the research work which went into this book. Dr. John E. Duberg, at a very early stage, shared our opinion that further basic research on entry trajectories needed to be done. As technical monitors from Langley, Mr. Robert W. Rainey and Mr. Robert S. Dunning have provided enlightening comments on several technical papers and NASA contractor reports generated under NASA research grants. Professor Robert M. Howe, Chairman of the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Michigan, and also the Chairman of the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences at the University of Colorado have provided us with much encouragement for this work. It is a pleasure to acknowledge their hospitality during our frequent visits to each other's campus to carry out our teamwork .
. The excellent typing of the preliminary manuscript was done by Ms.
Shirley Iverson while the final cameraready copy was professionally prepared by Ms. Ann Gee. Their perseverance and dedication to this work are much appreciated.
We would like to express our deep appreciation to Magda Busemann, Joan Vinh, and Betty Culp for their continual love and encouragement during these years.
Contents
Preface
Chapter 1. Planetary Atmospheres and Aerodynamic Forces
1 I Introduction .
12 Fundamental Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. I
12.1 Assumption of Spherical Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2
12.2 Assumption of Nonrotating Atmosphere
3 4 5
1 2.3 Assumption of Exponential Atmosphere .
13 The Earth's Atmosphere. I 4 Hypersonic Flow .
15 Newtonian Flow .
16 The Drag Polar .
. . . . . . . . . . . .. 10
II 13 .. IS
17 The Busemann Formula .
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 17
Chapter 2. Equations for Flight Over a Spherical Planet
21 Introduction .
22 Relative Angular Motion .
19 19
2 3 Basic Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 21
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 28
Chapter 3. Performance in ExtraAtmospheric Flight
3 I Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
32 The Trajectory Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
33 Characteristic Values of a Trajectory 33
3 4 Time of Flight Along the Orbit 38
3 5 The Elements of the Orbit in Terms of the Initial Condition. . . . . . . . .. 42 3 6 MinimumEnergy Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 44 3 7 Effects of Variations of the Initial Condition in the Elements at Entry . .. 49
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 54
viii
Contents
Chapter 4. Powered Phase
41 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 55 42 The Equations of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 55 43 Ascending Trajectory at Constant Flight Path Angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 62
44 Optimum Staging , 66
4 4.1 All the Propulsion Systems are Similar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 70 44.2 The Propellant Used is the Same for All Stages. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 71 44.3 The Structural Ratios are the Same for All Stages . . . . . . . . . . .. 72
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 72
Chapter 5. Return to the Atmosphere
5 I Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 73 5  2 Descent Trajectory for Given Entry Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 75 5 3 Minimum Impulse for Entry at Given Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 81 5 4 Descent Trajectory for Given Entry Angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 84 5 5 Minimum Impulse for Entry at Given Angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 89 5 6 Descent Trajectory for a Given Entry Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 94 5  7 Minimum Impulse for Entry at Given Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 98 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 99
Chapter 6. Basic Equations for Planar Entry Trajectories
61 Introduction 100
6  2 Energy Discussion of the Trajectory in Phase Space 100
63 The Fundamental Equations 106
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Chapter 7. Analysis of FirstOrder Planetary Entry Solutions
7 I Introduction 108
7  2 Gliding Entry at Small Flight Path Angles 110
7 3 Gliding Entry at Medium and Large Flight Path Angles 113
7 4 Ballistic Entry at Large Flight Path Angles 117
7 4.1 Analysis Neglecting Gravity 117
7 4.2 Analysis Including Gravity 121
7 5 Skip Entry 123
References 126
Chapter 8. Loh's SecondOrder Theory for Entry Trajectories
81 Introduction 128
82 Unified Solution for Entry 129
8 3 SecondOrder Solution for Entry 132
84 Reduction of the SecondOrder Solution to FirstOrder Solutions 133
Contents
ix
84.1 Gliding Entry at Small Flight Path Angles 134
84.2 Gliding Entry at Medium and Large Flight Path Angles 136
84.3 Ballistic Entry at Large Flight Path Angles 136
84.4 Skip Entry at Large Flight Path Angles 137
References 138
Chapter 9. Aerodynamic Heating
91 Introduction 139
9  2 Heat Flow into the Vehicle 141
93 Dimensionless Variables 143
94 Entry of a Ballistic Vehicle 144
95 Entry of a Glide Vehicle 149
96 Entry of a Skip Vehicle 150
9  7 Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Hypervelocity Vehicles 152
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Chapter 10. Yaroshevskii's Theory for Entry into Planetary Atmospheres
101 Introduction 157
10 2 SecondOrder Nonlinear Differential Equation for Entry Trajectory 158
103 Atmospheric Entry at Constant LifttoDrag Ratio 161
104 Series Solutions of the Basic Nonlinear Differential Equations 164
104.1 Ballistic Decay from Satellite Orbits 164
104.2 Ballistic Entry With Various Initial Flight Path Angles 166
104.3 Lifting Entry from Circular Speed 172
104.4 Gliding Trajectory 174
References 177
Chapter 11. Chapman's Theory for Entry into Planetary Atmospheres
111 Introduction 178
11 2 Development of the Nonlinear Differential Equation 178
113 The Z Functions and Related Quantities 183
114 Some Approximate Analytical Solutions 187
114.1 Yaroshevskii's Solution 187
114.2 Solution for Ballistic Entry 188
114.3 Solution for Glide Entry 189
114.4 Solution for Skip Trajectory 189
115 Numerical Results 190
115.1 Entry from a Decaying Orbit for Various LifttoDrag Ratios 190
115.2 Ballistic Entry from Circular Speed with Various Initial
Fligh t Path Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 11 5.3 Lifting Entry from Circular Speed with Various Initial
Flight Path Angles 193
11 5.4 Entry from Super Circular Speed 194
x
Contents
116 Effect of Lift on Entry 196
116.1 Effect of Lift on Deceleration 197
116.2 Effect of Lift on Heating Rate 198
116.3 Effect of the Initial Flight Path Angle 200
References 204
Chapter 12. Entry Corridor
121 Introduction 205
12 2 Basic Differential Equations 208
123 The Periapsis Parameter 210
124 Chapman's Results for the Entry Corridor 214
12  5 Influence of Aerodynamic Lift on the Corridor Boundaries. . 218
125.1 Overshoot Boundary with Lift 219
125.2 Undershoot Boundary with Lift 222
References 225
Chapter 13. Unified Theory for Entry into Planetary Atmospheres
13 1 Introduction 226
132 Universal Equations for ThreeDimensional Entry Trajectories 227
13 3 Reduction to Classical Solutions 232
133.1 Keplerian Solution 232
133.2 Chapman's Equations 235
133.3 Yaroshevskii's Equation 238
133.4 Loh's SecondOrder Solution 239
134 Numerical Results 241
13  5 The Entry Corridor 244
135.1 Definition of the Entry Point 246
135.2 Trajectories with Several Passes 247
135.3 Chapman's Periapsis Parameter, Fp 248
135.4 The Entry Corridor. 251
References 253
Chapter 14. Solution of the Exact EquationsUsing Directly Matched Asymptotic Expansions
141 Introduction 254
142 The Dimensionless Equations of Motion 254
143 Integrations by Directly Matched Asymptotic Expansions 259
143.1 Outer Expansions (Keplerian Region) 259
143.2 Inner Expansions (AerodynamicPredominated Region) 260
143.3 Asymptotic Matching and Composite Expansions 261
143.4 Solution for the Planar Case 265
144 Applications 266
References 272
Contents
xi
Chapter 15. Orbit Contraction Due to Atmospheric Drag
15 1 Introduction 273
152 Forces on a Satellite in Orbit. 274
15 3 The Equations of Motion 276
15 4 The Perturbation Equations 280
15  5 Orbit Decay 283
155.1 The Averaged Equation 283
15 5.2 Integration by Poincare's Method of Small Parameters 286
155.3 Explicit Formulas for the Orbital Elements 291
15 5.4 The Contraction of Orbits 294
15 5.5 Contraction of Highly Eccentric Orbits 294
15 6 Lifetime of the Satellite 298
References 305
Chapter 16. Flight with Lift Modulation
161 Introduction 307
162 The Drag Polar 308
163 Unified Equations with Varying Lift Coefficient and Bank Angle 311
16 4 Trajectory in the Phase Space 313
164.1 Flight at Constant Flight Path Angle 314
164.2 Flight at Constant Rate of Descent 314
164.3 Flight at Constant Speed 315
164.4 Flight at Constant Dynamic Pressure 315
164.5 Flight at Constant Heating Rate 315
165 Flight Subject to Constraints on State Variables 316
References 320
Chapter 17. Lift Modulation with Constraints on Speed and Flight Path Angle
171 State and Constraint Equations 321
172 Flight at Constant Flight Path Angle 323
17  2.1 The Lift Control Law 323
17 2. 2 The Characteristic Curves 323
172.3 The Behavior of the Trajectory 327
17 2.4 The Variation of the Angle of Attack 329
172.5 The Variation of the Dynamic Pressure 334
173 Flat Earth Transformation 335
174 Flight at Constant Sinking Speed 337
174.1 The Lift Control Law 337
174.2 Domain of Flight in the ('Y, t.) Space 337
174.3 Glide at Very High Sinking Speed 341
17 4.4 Glide at High Sinking Speed 341
17 4.5 Glide at Low Sinking Speed 342
17  5 Conclusions 343
References 344
xii
Contents
Chapter 18. Lateral Maneuvers
18  1 Introduction 345
18  2 Equilibrium Glide Condition 346
183 Maximum Lateral Range 347
184 Footprint of Reentry Vehicle 355
References 356
Chapter 1
Planetary Atmospheres and Aerodynamic Forces
11. INTRODUCTION
To study the effects of aerodynamic forces on trajectories at orbital speeds, it is necessary to model the planetary atmospheres in which the flights take place. Because of the nature of the aerodynamic forces on orbiting and entry vehicles, only a very thin layer of atmosphere near the planet's surface need be considered. This is convenient, for in these lower reaches of the atmosphere the modeling is much simpler.
Many of the more complicated aspects of planetary atmospheres are of no consequence in aerodynamic calculations. For instance, though the atmosphere is composed of a mixture of a number of gases, it may be treated as a uniform gas of unvarying composition throughout the aerodynamically important altitudes.
In fact, the overriding feature of the atmosphere, as far as its effect on the spacecraft is concerned, is the density. The particular composition of the atmosphere can have an important influence on the aerodynamic heating of the vehicle because of the details of the dissociation of the gas after passing through the vehicle's bow shock wave, but the manner in which this is treated in this text accounts for this very simply. Once a particular reference value of aeroheating is determined, the other values are proportional.
The effect of composition on aerodynamic force is negligible.
Hence, the concern in modeling the atmosphere will be to conveniently and accurately represent the density.
12. FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS
There are several important assumptions which may be made with respect to any planetary atmosphere. These assumptions will be considered with the goal of providing an analytical representation which lends itself to ease of manipulation while maintaining reasonable accuracy. For high accuracy, tables of density such as in Ref. 1 and detailed models as discussed in Ref. 2 and 3 may be used for particular numerical cases.
2
A TMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
Ch. 1
12.1. Assumption of Spherical Symmetry
By far the greatest simplification in analytical atmospheric modeling is achieved by assuming that the atmospheric density is a function only of radial distance, r, from the center of the planet the assumption of spherical symmetry. Actually, a much better assumption is that the density is a function only of altitude. If the planet's surface were a sphere, then these assumptions would be identical.
But the basic figure of all the planets is an oblate spheroid, which has an elliptical crosssection along any meridian. For example, the Earth's ellipticity, the eccentricity of this crosssectional ellipse, is 0.00335, Table 11.
This oblateness of the atmosphere is the greatest deviation from spherical symmetry. However, the tremendous analytical advantages of this assumption justifies this penalty in accuracy. This shortcoming can be easily corrected when necessary. The spherically symmetric model atmosphere is presented as a function of the altitude above the planet's mean sphere. This same density variation is then used as a function of the altitude above the planet's basic oblate spheroid.
This is almost equivalent to assuming the density is constant on s u r fa c e s of spheroids with the same ellipticity as that of the planet,
and similarly aligned. For example, for Earth if the density at 300 kilometers altitude is referred in this manner to the surface spheroid, it will deviate from a similar spheroid by less than a kilometer (being high at the poles, and conversely low at the equator).
For planets with small ellipticity, the reference spheroid can be conveniently approximated with error E 2, by
r = r E (1  E sin2 4» (11)
where rE is the equatorial radius, E is the ellipticity, and 4> is the latitude.
For particular cases, the oblateness of the atmosphere can be included in this way. However, the complications introduced are severe, and general results are obscured. This approach can be seen in Ref. 4.
Another source of deviation from spherical symmetry is the reaction of the atmosphere to solar activity. At extremely high altitudes the density increases drastically in response to solar radiation. This shows up in several ways as a diurnal hump of dense atmosphere which follows the Sun as the Earth rotates, as a seasonal density increase which follows summer north and south, as a 27 day cycle responding to a particular solar flare on the rotating surface of the Sun, and as a long period variation corresponding to the eleven year sunspot cycle.
Only rarely do any of these effects descent below 250 ki lome te r s altitude. Since aerodynamic forces are of shortterm importance only below about 150 kilometers, these effects are negligible except when considering the slow decay of a high altitude satellite.
Ch. 1
A TMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
3
12.2. Assumption of Nonrotating Atmosphere
The atmosphere which the space vehicle encounters is not stationary, but rotates with the planet. For Earth and Mars the aerodynamic forces have immediate effects only at low altitudes, very near the surface. At these altitudes the atmosphere rotates with approximately the angular velocity of the planet. Venus has a denser atmosphere with a much greater effective thickness, but its angular velocity is almost nil, and the rotation of the atmosphere is minuscule. Only on Jupiter and Saturn, of the readily reachable planets, with their fantastic rotational speed, turbulent atmosphere, and lack of a welldefined surface, would the rotating atmosphere deserve special treatment. For the other planets, the speed of the atmosphere past the vehicle contributed by the rotation of the atmosphere is a small percentage of the total speed, Table 11.
For example, for Earth, the maximum rotational speed of the atmosphere, encountered at the equator, is about six percent of the circular orbital velocity at low altitude. Thus, the aerodynamic force due to atmospheric rotation has a maximum value of about twelve percent of the aerodynamic force due to the vehicle's speed. In most circumstances it would be far less than this.
H is possible to treat this effect analytically. However, just as for the oblateness of the atmosphere, the rotational effect would depend on the latitude of the vehicle at all times. In addition, it would depend heavily on the inclination of the trajectory to the equator. Inclusion of such detail in an analytical study would do more to obscure than reveal general trends and effects.
An example of such treatment is wellpresented in Ref. 4. The effects are so slight, however, that they may easily be accounted for by slight changes in the coefficients of lift and drag for a vehicle. Indeed, the errors in such coefficients probably would already exceed the error caused by neglecting the rotation of the atmosphere.
For all of these reasons, it is usual to assume a nonrotating atmosphere. The assumption is certainly justifiable.
Table 11. Relative effects of oblateness and rotation of the atmosphere on aerodynamic force.
Ellipticity of
basic spheroid, E
Venus o.
Earth 0.0034
Mars 0.0052
Jupiter 0.062
Saturn 0.096 surface rotational speed
circular orbital speed at surface
0% 6% 7%
30% 40%
4
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
Ch. 1
12.3. Assumption of Exponential Atmosphere
A powerful assumption, greatly simplifying atmospheric analyses, which is frequently made, is that the atmospheric density decreases exponentially with altitude. There are several nuances to this assumption which are worth investigating.
There are two basic equations governing the density as a function of altitude. The fh'st is the familiar equation of state for the atmosphere relating its pressure p, density p and temperature T
R':'
p = p M T
(12)
where R':' is the universal gas constant, 8.31439 x 103 joules/ kg _ oK, and M is the mean molecular weight of the atmosphere. The second basic equation expresses that the rate of change of pressure must equal the increased weight of the atmosphere supported, as the altitude changes.
dp =  p g dr
(1 3)
where g is the acceleration of the gravity.
From the equation of state comes
~
p
dp p
dT T
(14)
which, combined with Eq. (13), gives
~
p
 [
dT
dr ] dr
(15)
This equation can be rewritten as
~ =  f3 dr p
(1 6)
where f3, defined as the bracketed term in Eq. (1 5), is the reciprocal of the scale height.
At this point several specific types of density atmospheres, corresponding to different assumptions on f3, are to be considered.
a) The locally exponential atmosphere.
If the coefficient f3 can be considered constant over some small altitude interval, the integrated density function is
f3(rr)
o
(1 7)
e
from which the character of 1/ f3 as a scale height is apparent. The coefficient f3 is evaluated at the initial, or reference, point indicated by subscript zero.
b) The strictly exponential atmosphere.
If f3 can be considered constant throughout the atmosphere,
Ch.
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
5
Eq. (17) holds for all r. In this case the reference level is commonly taken to be the surface of the planet.
c) The isothermal atmosphere.
If the temperature can be considered constant through an altitude interval of the atmosphere, dT/ dr = 0, and i3 is given by
(1 8)
Since for an inverse square gravitational force field
g
(1 9)
the quantity i3 r2 is constant in an isothermal atmosphere. Again, the density is given by the exponential function, Eq. (1 7).
d) The i3 rconstant atmosphere.
In several studies of atmospheric entry (Ref. 5,6), it has been convenient to consider the dimensionless quantity i3 r as constant. For all the planets this is a large quantity, usually of the order 1000, Table 12. In this case, the difference introduced into Eq. (16) is additive, of the order of 1/ i3 r. Thus, the exponential atmosphere may be retained while considering i3 r to be constant.
For Earth, the scale height at altitudes below 120 krn , stays between about 5 km and 14 km, with a weighted mean value of about 7.1 km. The quantity i3 r varies from 750 to 1300, with a weighted average of 900.
Table 1 2. Scale heights of the planets.
Average scale height, 1/ i3
Average i3 r
Venus
6  15 km
500  900
Earth
7.1 km
900
Mars
10.6 km
350
Jupiter
25 km
?
3000 ?
13. THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE
Of course, the primary interest must be focused on the Earth's atmosphere. In order to make an analytic study of orbital trajectories encountering the Earth's atmosphere, it is necessary to have a simple, but accurate, expression for the density as a function of r , For numerical calculations for particular cases, using a high speed computer, detailed tables, such as those in Ref. I, or polynomial representations, are used. For detailed computations for a specific vehicle, such an
6
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
Ch. 1
approach is valuable. However, the intimate knowledge of the Earth I s atmosphere which such references make available can be used to generate more easily used functions. In particular, it is convenient to produce piecewise exponential functions, Ref. 7.
An accurate density function can be obtained by considering the effects on density of the variation in scale height, H == 1 / !3, and molecular scale temperature, TM·
The molecular scale temperature accounts for both temperature
and molecular weight changes with altitude.
(110)
The standard atmosphere of Ref. 1 shows that both Hand TM may be represented as piecewise linear functions between the altitudes of 54 kilometers and 300 kilometers, Fig. 11, which is the region of interest for aerodynamically affected orbital trajectories.
In each of the seven piecewise linear sections the scale height can be written as
H _ 1 !3
H. + a(r r.)
1 1
(111)
and the molecular scale temperature as
(112)
where the subscript i indicates the value at some reference point for
the section under consideration. The reference points are chosen in such a way that the density expression will give the least deviation from the 1959 ARDC Model Atmosphere, Ref. 1.
The seven sections and the constants for each are given in Tables 13 and 14. The constants a are dimensionless; the constants b have dimensions °K/ km. If the altitude above mean sea level is h , then the radial distances rand ri in Eqs. (111) and (112) can be replaced by h and hi' where hi is the reference altitude for a given section.
From the equation of state, (12), and the equation defining the scale height, (16), it is seen that
d
== !3 =   (In p)
H dr
(113)
Differentiating the logarithm of p from the equation of state, using the definitions of Hand TM ' and assuming linear behavior for H, Eq. (111), gives
dr
(114)
H. + a(rr.)
1 1
which, when integrated, gives
Ch. 1
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
7
pTM ) p.TM
1 .
1
H
In [ J 1/ a
H. + a(rr.)
1 1
In (
or, what is the same,
(115)
(116)
where the linear behavior of TM, Eg. (112), is assumed.
I...J ex
60.29 1878,
i
.
I
I I
.
I /1577
/ /1427 ,./1323
./
./'
./ (,bO.2
1165.7
(165.7 \ \280.21 8.3416 400~~~~~~~~~
 SCALE HEIGHT
 MOLECULARSCALE
TEMPERATURE
300
Fig, 11. The scale height and molecular scale temperature versus altitude. The values at the endpoints of the sections are noted.
8
A TMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMICS
Ch. 1
Table 13.
Reference values of h., p., H. and TM for
111 .
the different sections of the Earth's 1 atmosphere.
Reference Values
Altitude h· Pi Hi T (OK)
Section 1 M.
Range (Km) (Km) (Kg/m3) (Km) 1
54  80 67 1.49754 6.6597 222.8
2 80  91 85 7.7266 4.979 165. 7
3 91  107 99 4.5047 5.905 195.6
4 107  164 110 5.9308 8.731 288.2
5 164  175 170 7.93210 42.62 1381.
6 175  207 190 4.68010 46.51 1498.
7 207  300 254 1. 14910 54.78 1730.
Table 14. Values of the constants a and b for the different
sections of the Earth's atmo sphere. Section
2
3
4
5
6
7
Altitude Range Constants
(Km) a b, °K/km
54  80 0.1296385 4.044231
80  91 o. 1545455 0.0
91  107 0.1189286 3.878571
107  164 o. 592 5240 19.17964
164  175 0.3054545 9.454545
175  207 0.1596875 4.687500
207  300 0.1190323 3.236559 By introducing two dimensionless parameters, /) Hand /) T '
with the Earth's mean radius, r M
e
(117)
Ch. 1
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
9
one arrives at the basic density equation which takes into account the variation of scale height and molecular scale temperature:
(118)
Values for ° Hand 0T in the seven sections are given in Table 1 5.
M
Table 1 5. The dimensionless parameters ° Hand 0T
for the Earth's atmosphere (Ref. 7). M
Section °H °T
M
124.1549 126.0780
2 1. 9797 0.0000
3 128.4549 126.4670
4 432.8391 424.4544
5 45.7107 43.6648
6 21. 8982 19.9577
7 13.8588 11. 9322 A major simplification can be made by noting that 0H
0T are approximately equal in the seven sections. Setting
eq&'lI to 0H in Eq. (118) gives
1 j1:a
r r.
° ( __ 1) H r
e
(119)
which can be
rewritten using Eq. (111) as
[H~ ] l:a'
(120)
This is the power function density relationship of Billik, Ref. 8, and shows that it is a special case of the more general density expression, Eq. (118).
Equations (118) and (119) with the constants from Table 1 5 yield the maximum percentage deviations from the 1959 ARDC Model Atmosphere given in Table 16.
10
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
Ch. 1
Table 1 6. Maximum percentage deviation from standard atmosphere.
Section
Eq. (118), general density expression
Eq. (119), special density expression
2 3 4 5 6 7
0.07% 0.02% 0.02% 0.57% 0.11% O. 04% 0.11%
0.40% 0.20% 0.25% 1. 16% 0.25% 0.52% 1.52%
14. HYPERSONIC FLOW
In supersonic flow it is obvious that the velocity of sound is too small to carry a portion of the flow pattern ahead of the moving bodr. But with increasing Mach number even the lateral extent of the flow pattern shrinks to smaller and smaller Mach angles, until the accumulating gas masses along the surface of the body have to create local velocities of sound high enough to keep the gas density finite and the thicknes s of the layer from shrinking to zero. The flow around bodies under these conditions, at which the undisturbed Mach number loses importance and the thermodynamical characteristics of the gas at high temperatures gain weight, is called hypersonic flow. Its investigation constitutes an important discipline of gasdynamics to which one author of this text has contributed significantly in its early development. The practical interest in high performance aircraft, guided missiles, and aerodynamically maneuverable spacecraft has brought a new extension to the study of hypersonic flow in engineering because of all the specific questions to make their flights feasible and safe. Here we shall summarize only the basic characteristics of hypersonic flow to help in evaluating the aerodynamic forces on a vehicle configuration in order to analyze its motion in the very high speed range.
Most authors consider as a rough definition of the hypersonic flow regime a supersonic flow in which the Mach number exceeds approximately five. Main characteristics are the following:
1/ The shock waves originating at the leading edge of the body lie close to the body surface. This results in a strong interaction with the boundary layer caused by the surface friction.
2/ The presence of extreme temperatures in the region between the shock waves and the body invalidates the ideal gas concept. At low Mach numbers a diatomic molecule, such as N2 or O2 in air, has five active degrees of freedom: three in translation and two in rotation. As the temperatures behind a shock wave increase with increasing Mach number, the heretofore inert degrees of freedom (vibration, dis sociation, and ionization) are activated, causing serious alterations in the thermodynamic properties of the air.
Ch. 1
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
11
Such complex phenomena create challenging problems. Early reports of their investigations can be found in many specialized texts, such as Refs. 9 and 10. Here we shall be mainly concerned with the practical importance with respect to determining the forces acting on bodies at hypersonic speeds using the most simplifying assumptions.
15. NEWTONIAN FLOW
At very high Mach numbers, approaching infinity, the shock waves get very close to the body surface, at least for the front part. They would even get closer to the surface when the thermodynamical degrees of freedom are increased toward infinity, for which the ratio of the specific heats '{ is approaching the value one. It is amazing
that for such extremely modern conditions the impact forces of the gas get close to the analytical description of the wind forces on buildings 300 years ago by Sir Isaac Newton, who neglected the thermodynamic movements of the air particles and assumed the free path length to be infinite. Considering an element of the surface .0.S inclined under an angle a to the direction of the incident flow, (Fig. 12), the mass of particles which collide with the surface element in unit time is equal
to
.0.m = p.0. S V sin a
(121 )
where p is the density of the medium and V the speed of the particles. The force acting on the element .0.S as a result of the collisions depends on the nature of the interaction between the particles and the body surface.
.. ······:·:·::::::·:···:·:····::·::::·JIIJJJIIIII·::::::::.:: A M rc
:::: . :~.:~ A DOW ';\f>.
Fig. 12. Newtonian flow past doublewedge profile.
12
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
Ch. 1
For gases Newton assumed an elastic reflection of the particles on a smooth wall, reversing the normal velocity component V sin a while retaining the tangential component V cos cr. However, for what he calls a "continuous medium" (water, oil, and mercury), Newton estimated the normal force to be diminished by onehalf, because "the body does not immediately strike against all particles, but presses only the particles that lie next to it, which press the particles beyond, which press other particles and so on." This value is exactly the result for M  00 and '{  1 , when the free path is small and no thermodynamical particle movements existed before the collision with the body (M = 00) nor would be created at the collision by the energy loss according to the disappearing velocity component V sin a because of the infinite number of degrees of freedom sharing its heat equivalent ('{ = 1). Dropping simply the normal velocity component V sin cr during the collision creates a normal force on the surface element ll.S
ll.F = ll.m V sin cr
. 2
srn a
(122)
Hence we have the Newtonian formula for the pressure coefficient:
C 2· 2
= Sln cr
p
(123)
It was first observed by Lees (Ref. 11), that a substantial improvement in the agreement of the Newtonian calculations with experimental data for symmetric twodimensional and axisymmetric flow can be obtained by modifying the formula as
C P
:::<:
C P
. 2 Sln a
. 2
s i n cr o
(124)
where C"_ is the value of the pressure coefficient at the leading edge or nose gf the body, found from the theory of supersonic flow of an ideal gas, and a is the angle between the tangent to the body contour and the free str~am direction. For bodies with blunt noses, we have obviously sin cr = 1 while C~ as a function of the Mach number M and the ratio of tge constant specific heats '( can be obtained with the aid of the normal shock relations and the Bernoulli integral as
C P
_2_ [ .y.±..!.. 2 ,(/(,{l) y+l l/(,{l) J
2 (2 M) (2 ) 1
'{M 2'{M  '{ + 1
(125)
For Moo , we have
C P
(126)
If the simple Newtonian impact theory is used, where any static pressure and skin friction are neglected, the force on the element ll.S is the impact pressure force. Newton's theory implies
Ch. 1
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
13
that only those frontal surfaces exposed to the flow can contribute to the aerodynamic force, and pressure forces on rear surfaces in the aerodynamic shadow are negligible, (Fig. 12). Now if we divide the forces acting normal on every exposed surface element tJ.S into positive drag components in the direction of the free stream velocity and lifting components orthogonal to it, then using the simple pressure from Eq. (123) at the surface element inclined at an angle a with respect to the incident velocity, we have
(Cp)D sin a sin 3 (127)
C 2 a
p
and . 2
(Cp)L C cos a 2 s i n a cos a (128)
p For this simple body or, integrated over the surface of a complicated body, Eqs. (127) and (128) give the drag and lift coefficients, CD and CL, respectively.
1 6. THE DRAG POLAR
On the basis of the simple formulas derived from Newton impact theory, we can determine the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of wedges or conelike bodies when a high degree of accuracy
is not required.
As an illustrative example, we shall consider a planeconvex airfoil whose cross section has the form of an isoceles triangle (Fig. 13). Let 8 be the nose angle of the airfoil and a the angle of attack, defined as the angle between the base of the triangle and the direction of the freestream velocity. We restrict ourselves to the case of small angles 8 and a.
Consider the case in which both the lower surface and the forward half of the upper surface are exposed to the flow, (0 < a < 8 ). The angle of attack of the lower surface is a while the local angle of attack for the upper surface is clearly (8  a)
Fig. 1 3. Triangular airfoil at angle of attack.
14
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
Ch.
The lower surface is a flat plate at an incidence 0'. The lift and drag coefficients are respectively
CL 20' 2
1
20' 3
CD (129)
1 The total lift and drag coefficients for the airfoil are evaluated using the area of the lower surface as a reference area. Since the front area of the upper surface is practically equal to half of the area of the lower surface for small 9 , the contributions of the lift and drag coefficients from the upper surface, considered as a flat plate at an incidence (9  0'), are
3 (9  0')
(1 30)
The total lift and drag coefficients for the complete airfoil are found by simply adding the separate contributions of the individual surface, as long as 0 < 0' < 9
CL 20' 2  (9 0'/

(1 31)
3 3
CD = 20' + (9  0') In hypersonic flow, a useful small parameter T , called the thickness ratio of the body, is defined as the maximum value of the angle between the surface of the forward portion of the body and the free stream direction. Here, we define T= 9/2 , and write the Eq s , (131)
CL 2 2
2 (~) (2 ~)
2 T T
T (1 32)
CD 0' 3 3
3 2 () + (2 ~)
T T
T The second terms in these expressions are valid only for 0' IT < 2 . For large angles of attack, the pressure on the upper surfaces of the airfoil is zero and the airfoil behaves like a flat plate. Both expressions for CLI T2 and CDI T3 are functions only of the ratio 0' IT. The plot of CLI T2 versus CDI T3 is called the drag polar (Fig. 14).
Ch. 1
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
15
N ... <, ..J U
10 20 30
Co IT 3
Fig. 14. Drag polar for triangular airfoil in hypersonic flow.
17. THE BUSEMANN FORMULA
For the case of a flow over a wedge or axisymmetric cone, the gas particles move along straight lines in an infinitely thin layer adjacent to the surface in which the density of the gas is infinitely large. The pressure on the surface of the wedge and cone coincides with the pressure behind the shock wave and is determined by the Newtonian formula
p
V2 . 2
P 1 SIn 0'
(1 33)
with subscript 1 denoting the free stream condition. On a curved body, a particle is constrained within the continuum flow in the shock layer to follow a curved path and the forces required to curve the trajectories of the particles must be taken into consideration. The
result is a pressure difference across the shock layer equal to the momentum flow in the layer times the curvature of the layer. The inclusion of this centrifugal force was first proposed by Busemann who gave formulas for the correction (Ref. 12, pp. 276 2 77).
Based on the assumptions of inelastic collisions, '{ = 1 , and
the absence of frictional forces, we may assume that the speed of each particle remains unchanged after its collision with the surface and that the particles move along the geodesic lines of the surface. Under
this assumption, we refer to Fig. 1 5 for the evaluation of the pressure difference in the layer for twodimensional and axisymmetric flows.
Let us follow the motion of the particles along the surface of the body after collision. These particles move within an infinitely thin layer depicted in the figure by the body contour and the dashed
16
A TMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
Ch.
line. At the point x , measured along the body contour, the pressure difference dp in the infinitesimal layer composed of particles which have collided with the surface near the point x ' and which have the velocity u(x') , is equal to
dp
2
p (x,x') u (x'). dn
R(x)
(1 34)
where R(x) is the radius of curvature of the body at the point x , and
dn the thickness of the infinitesimal layer of the deviated gas particles, evaluated along the outward normal to the surface.
Let F be the crosssectional area of the body in a plane normal to the direction of the free stream flow. By consideration of the conservation of mass in the layer, we have
P 1 VdF(x')
p (x,x') u(x') R. (x) dn
(1 35)
Fig. 1 5. Curved trajectories of gas particles after collisions.
For twodimensional flow, I_ (x) = 1 , and for axisymmetric flow
I_ (x) = 2'lT r(x) where r is the radial coordinate for the body of revolution.
The radius of curvature R(x) of the body at the point x is
R
dx 1 dr
(1 36)
do sina do
Using Eqs. (1 35) and (1 36) in Eq. (1 34), we obtain
. da
dp =  P 1 V s i n a dF u(x') dF(x')
(1 37)
Since the velocity component of a particle tangential to the body surface is unaltered by the collision, u(x') = V cos [a(x')] . Hence,
dp
2
p 1 V sin a
da
dF cos a (x') dF(x')
(1 38)
Ch. 1
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
17
Integrating the equation for dp and taking into account the fact that at the oute r boundary of the layer, p = P 1 V2 sin2 a , we find the pres sure on the body surface to be
F
2 . 2 do J
p = P IV (sm a + sin a dF cos a dF)
F
o
(1 39)
This formula was first given by Busemann in Ref. 12. In recent years, it has been used by several authors in their investigations of rninimum drag bodies at hypersonic speeds (Ref. 13).
Convex surfaces have a negative value do / dF , and avoid separation only when the pressure is nowhere negative. This implies a finite positive a at the end of the nose.
References
1. Minzner, R. A. , Champion, K. S. W. , and Pond, H. L. , The ARDC Model Atmosphere, 1959, AFCRC TR 59267, 1959.
2. Goody, R.M., and Walker, J.C.G., Atmospheres, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, N. Y. , 1972.
3. Hunten, D. M. , "Lower Atmospheres of the Planets, "Chap. 6, Physics of the Solar System, ed. by S.1. Rasool, NASA SP 300, 1972.
4. KingHele, Desmond, Theory of Satellite Orbits in An Atmosphere, Butterworths, London, 1964.
5. Chapman, D. R. , "An Approximate Analytical Method for Studying Entry Into Planetary Atmospheres," NASA TR Rll, 1959.
6. Vinh, N. X. , Busemann, A. , and Culp, R. D. , "Optimum ThreeDimensional Atmospheric Entry, " Acta Astronautica, Vol. 2, pp. 593611, 1975.
7. Busemann, A. , Cu lp , R. D. , and Yang, C. Y. , "A Study of Very High Altitude Maneuvers Using Aerodynamic Forces," Vol. III, "On the Use of Aerodynamic Forces to Effect Maneuvers of Orbiting Vehicles," ARL TR 740104, Vol. III, 1974.
8. Billik, B. H. , "Survey of Current Literature on Satellite Lifetime," ARS Journal, November, pp. 16411650, 1962.
9. Hayes, W.D., and Probstein, R.F., Hypersonic Flow Theory, Academic Press, New York, 1959.
10. Chernyi, G. G. , Introduction to Hypersonic Flow, translated and edited by R. F. Probstein, Academic Press, New York, 1961.
18
ATMOSPHERES AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES
Ch. 1
11. Lees, L. , Hypersonic Flow, Proc. 5th International Aerodynamics Conference, Los Angeles. Institute of Aerospace Sciences, New York, 1955.
12. Busemann, A., FlussigkeitsundGasbewegung, Handworterbuch der Naturwissenschaften, Vol. IV, 2nd Edition, pp. 244279, Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1933.
13. Miele, A. , Editor, Theory of Optimum Aerodynamic Shapes, Academic Press, New York, 1965.
Chapter 2
Equations for Flight Over a Spherical Planet
21. INTRODUCTION
In this chapter we shall derive the equations of motion of a vehicle considered as a point mass of mass m flying inside a planetary atmosphere. The motion of the vehicle is defined by
;(t) position vector
V(t)
velocity vector
(21 )
mit) mass
At each instant, it is subject to a total forc~ F composed of the gra~itational force mg , the aerodynamic force A and a thrusting force T provided by the propulsion system.
F = T + A + mg
(2 2)
With respect to an inertial system, we have the vector equation
m
dV dt
F
(2 3)
22. RELATIVE ANGULAR MOTION
Consider a fixed system 01X Y Z , and another system Oxyz
hi h . . . h If' 1 1
w 1C 1S rotahn~ wi t respect to t e i.xe d system.
Let r, j , and £ be the unit vectors along the axes of the rotating system. Let A be any arbitrary vector with components Ax ' A and A along the rotating axes. Then
y z
A
(24)
19
20
EQUATIONS FOR FLIGHT
Ch. 2
z
y

Fig. 21. Relative angular motion.
Since Oxyz is rotating, its associated unit ve cto r s ; (r: and k are functions of time. Hence, the time derivative of A, taken with respect to the fixed system, is
_. dA dA dA d i _ k
dA x _ __:t_ .,.. z _ 1 dj + A .!_)
= (dt i + dt J + k)+{A +A
dt dt x dt y dt z dt
(2 5) Now, a point P with position vector ;, fixed in a system rotating with angular velocity;; , will have as linear velocity (Fig. 22)
v
w x r
(2 6)
If ; is taken as the vector r: j, and k respectively, we have the Poisson formulas
di dt
_ .,.. w X 1
.&
dt
dk dt
_
w x j
(27)
Using these relations, together with the definition (24), it is seen that the second term on the right hand side of Eq. (2 5) is
A di + A dj + A dk
x dt y dt z dt
_
w x A
(28)
The first term can be interpreted as the time derivative of the vector A if the vectors r: j, and k are constant unit vectors. Hence, it is
Ch. 2
EQUATIONS FOR FLIGHT
21
o
Fig. 22. Kinematics of rotation.
the time derivative of A with respect to the rotating system Oxyz. We denote it by
 dA dA dA
oA x:'" __:t_ :'" Z 
1 + dt J +k
ot dt dt
and write Eq. (2 5) as
 
dA oA 
dt ot + w x A (29)
(210)
This is the formula for transforming the time derivative of a vector from one system to another rotating system.
23. BASIC EQUATIONS OF MOTION
The inertial reference frame OX1 Y 1 Z is taken such that 0 is at the center of the gravitational field of a spherical planet and the
OXI y 1 plane is the equatorial plane. The OXYZ reference frame is fixed with respect to the planet, hence it is rotating with an angular velocity; assumed constant and directed along the Zv a xi s (Fig. 23).
The vector equation (23) is written with respect to the inertial frame. In deriving the equations of motion we shall use the planetfixed axes as the reference frame. Hence, putting A = ; in Eq. (210) and then taking its time derivative, we have the expression for the absolute acceleration dV / dt .
d;
dt
dV
dt
or since o;/ot 0 w x r
o [0;  ]
ot 6"t + w x r
[  ]
 or  
+ wx 6"t+wxr
22
EQUATIONS FOR FLIGHT
Ch. 2
o 2; _. 0 ; _. + .... 2 + 2w x  + w x (w x r)
< 6 t
ut
(211 )
The vector equation (2 3) now becomes, with the planetfixed system used as the reference frame,
F  2m; x
(212)
For convenience, we change the notation for the time derivative and write it as
m
F  2m: x V
(213)
with V being the velocity with re spect to the planet, and the time derivative taken with respect to planetfixed axes.
In this planetocentric system, the position vector ; is defined by its magnitude r, its longitude e (measured from the X axis, in the equatorial plane, positively eastward), and its latitude <I> (measured from the equatorial plane, along a meridian, and positively northward).
It is convenient to evaluate different vectors in Eq. (213) by their components in a rotating coordinate system Oxyz such that the x axis is along the position vector, the y axis in the equatorial plane po sitive toward the direction of motion and orthogonal to the x axis, and the zaxis completing a righthanded system (Fig. 23).
z
x
y
Fig. 2 3. Coordinate systems.
Ch. 2
EQUATIONS FOR FLIGHT
23
Let '{ be the angle between the local horizontal plane (that is, the plane passing through the vehicle and orthogonal to the vector ;), and the velocity V. The angle '{ is termed the flight path angle and is positive when V is above the horizontal plane. Let ljJ be the angle between the local parallel of latitude and the projection of V on the horizontal plane. The angle ljJ is termed the heading and is measured positively in the righthanded direction about the xv a xi s , Let (j, and k be the unit vectors along the axes of the rotating system Oxyz. We have
r
+
r i
(214)
and
V = (Vsin,{)i+ (V co s v co s e ) j+ (Vcos'{sinljJ)k
(215)
On the other hand, the angular velocity :; can be represented by
w = (w s i n o ] r + (w cos q,) k
(216)
Hence
 (wVcos'{cos4>cos4;) i + wV(sin'{cosq,  co s v s i n o sin4;)J
+wVcos'{sincj> cosljJk
(217)
and
2 2. 2 +
w r cos cj> 1 +w r s i n rp c o s o k
(218)
In the force F, the gravity force is simply
mg =  mg(r) i
(219)
The aerodynamic force A can be decomposed into a drag force 15 opposite to the velocity vector V and a lift force L orthogonal to it. In symmetric flight the thrust vector T is alway! in the lift drag glane. Let E be the angle between the velocity vector V and the thrust T. Then, we can decompose the thrust into a component T cos E along the velocity and a component T s in s along the lift force. It is convenient for the derivation of the equations to group the components of aerodynamic and propulsive force and define
F T T cos E  D
F N = T s in s + L
(220)
where F T is the component of the aerodynamic and propulsive forces along the velocity vector and FN is their component orthogonal to it in the liftdrag plane. In vector form, since F T is along V , we can refer to Eq. (215) to write
(221 )
24
EQUA TIONS FOR FLIGHT
Ch. 2
In planar flight, the vector FN is in the (;, V) plane, that is the vertical plane, and there is no lateral force. By control action, if we rotate the vector L, and hence also the vector FN ' about the velocity vector V, we create a lateral component of the force F N t:!;at has the effect of changlng the orbital plane. To resolve the force F N or its collinear force L into components along the rotatinIl a.!es, we refer to Fig. 24. The vertical plane considered is the (r , V) plane. Assume the vector L is rotated out of this plane through an anjle (J" • The angle (J" which is the angle between the vector L and the (r , V) plane will be referred to as the roll, or the bank, angle. The force FN is decomposei into a component ~N~ in the vertical plane and orthogonal to V and a component F N sin (J" orthogonal to the vertical plane. Let x ", v': and z ' be the axes from the position M of the vehicle, parallel to the rotating axes x, y, and z , L~l~1and
~ be the axes from the point M, along the direction of F N cos (J" ,
v and FN sin (J" respectively. The system MXl Yl zl is deduced from the system Mx'y'z' by a rotation tjJ in the ho r Izonta l plane, followed by a rotation'{ in the vertical plane. Hence, we have the transformation matrix equation
[;:] [~co~tjJ Si:tjJ] [
z ' 0 s i.n i], cos tjJ
sin '{
(222)
cos '{
o
o
or
[ ::] [
cos '{
 sin'{ cos tjJ
 sin'{ sin tjJ
sin '{ cos'{ cos tjJ cos'{ sin tjJ
o ] [Xl]
s i n d, y
co s o z~
(223)
Since the components of F N in the MXl y 1 zl system ar! xl = F N cos (J" ,
Yl = 0 , zl = F sin (J" , we deduce the components of F N along the
system Mx'y'zf'J, or what is the same, along the rotating system Oxyz
In summary, we have resolved all the vector terms in Eq. (213) into components along the rotating axes Oxyz.
In order to take the time derivative of the vectors ; and V with respect to the planetfixed system OXYZ, we need to evaluate the angular velocity vector Q of the rotating axes. The system Oxyz is obtained from the system OXYZ by a rotation e about the positive Zaxis, followed by a rotation q, about the negative yaxis. Hence the angular velocity Q of the rotating system Oxyz is
(sin q, 22..) r dt
~ + de +
(dt)j + (co s o Tt) k
(225)
Ch. 2
EQUA TIONS FOR FLIGHT
25
o~~
y
Fig. 24. Aerodynamic forces and thrust components.
We use Eqs. (27) with ~ instead of :; to deduce the time derivative of i, j, and k .
+
di ~xi de) + (~)k
(cos <\> j +
dt dt dt
+ de).,.. (. de) k
.& ~xj =  (cos <\> cit 1 + s i n o (226)
dt dt
dk + +  (~) i (sin<\> ~~ ) +
rl x k =  j
dt dt If we take the time derivative of ; , as given by Eq. (214), using the first of the Eqs. (226) for the derivative of i, we have
(227)
Identifying this equation with Eq. (215) yields three scalar equations
26
EQUA TIONS FOR FLIGHT
Ch. 2
dr V sin 'I
dt
de V cos ::J. cos tjJ
dt r cos <j>
~ V cos::J. sin ~
dt r (228)
These equations are the kinematic equations.
On the other hand, if we take the derivative of the velocity vector V , as given by Eq. (215), using Eqs. (226) for the derivatives of the unit vectors r, j, and k , and subsequently Eqs. (228) for
de / dt and dcp / dt, we have
+
dV
dt
[. dV V ~
sm'l cit + cos 'I dt
V2 2]+
; cos 'I i
[COS'lcostjJ dV _ V s in v co s ip ~_ Vcos'l s i n il, ~ ill ill ill
2
+ ~ c o s v c o s d.f s in v  c o s v s i n ip ta n e ) ] j
+ [cOS'lSintjJ ~~Vsin'lSintjJ~+VcoS'lCostjJ ~
V2 2 1 +
+  cos 'I(sin'l s i n d, + cOS'l cos tjJ tari o ) k
r (229)
+
By substituting into the basic vector equation (213), using Eqs. (217), (218), (219), (221) and (224), we obtain three scalar equations
d V V dv V2 2 1 . 1
sin" + cos'l ~ cos 'I = F s in v +  F cOS(J' cos'l g
I cit dt r rn T m N
2 2
+ 2w V co s 'I co s cp co s tjJ + w r co s <j>
2
dV V. ~ V ~ V ( . . )
cos'l cit sm'l dt  cos 'I tan tjJ dt + ;COS'l sm'l cos'l s i n il, tan<j>
1 1
 F co s v (F co s c sin'l+FNsin(J' tari d. )
m T m N
2wV ( . .. )
  sm'l cos cp  cos'l s i n o s m tjJ cos tjJ
2
dV V. ~ Vcosy ~ V [s i cosycostjJtancp)
cos'l sln'l + +cos'lsln'l+
dt dt tari ip dt r tan tjJ
1 1 F N s i.nrr V cos y sin<j>
=F cos'l(F cos(J'sin'l )2w 
m T m N tan tjJ tan tjJ
2
w r
sincp cos cp sin tjJ
(230)
Ch. 2
EQUATIONS FOR FLIGHT
27
Solving for the derivatives dV / dt , dv / dt, and dljJ / dt , we get the three scalar equations:
dV dt
V~ dt
2
+ w r co s o [c o a v co s o + s in v sin<\> s i.n d }
V dljJ dt
F N sin er
m cos \'
V2
r co s v co s ip ta n o
2
+ Zco Vf ta.n v co s o sinljJsin<\»  ~ s in e c o s o co s o cos \'
(2 31)
These three equations are the force equations. The presence of the w term is due to the rotation of the planet. If we assume that the atmosphere is at rest with respect to the planet, then it has thz same rotation as the planet. In general, w is small and the term w r can be neglected. On the other hand, the term 2w V, called the Coriolis acceleration, has an important effect in a high speed, long range flight. For an accurate analysis, especially in the problem of computing the trajectory of a ballistic missile, the term should be retained. In this book, we shall mainly be concerned with the variations of the speed and altitude of the vehicle in the main portion of the trajectory where high deceleration develops. For this purpose, we can also ignore the effect of the Coriolis, that is, we shall assume that the planet, and hence the atmosphere, is nonrotating, w = O.
Then, the equations become
dV dt
1
 F  g sin \' m T
V~ dt
m F N cos er
(2 32)
V~ dt
F N siner
rn cos\,
V2
r cos \' cos tjJ t a n o
where the force components F and F are defined in Eqs. (220) for the case of powered flight. In ~his ca~, the mas s of the vehicle is varying and we add the equation for the mass flow rate
dm dt
T
(2 33)
c
where T is the thrust and c a parameter characterizing the propellant used in the propulsion system on board the vehicle. In the case of nonthrusting flight, which is usually the case for high speed entry into planetary atmosphere, we have T = 0, F T =  D and FN = L. Hence, the three force equations for entry trajeetories are
28
EQUA TIONS FOR FLIGHT
dV D sin '{
=   g
dt m
vE:1 L cos cr V2
dt m g cos '{ +; cos '{
V~ L sin cr V2
dt m cos '{ r cos'{ cos l\J tan <j> References
1. Lass, H., Vector and Tensor Analysis, McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1950.
Ch. 2
(234)
2. Busemann, A., Vinh, N. X., and Culp, R. D., "Solution of the Exact Equations for ThreeDimensional Atmospheric Entry Using Directly Matched Asymptotic Expansions, "NASA CR2643, 1976.
3. Greenwood, D. T., Principles of Dynamics, PrenticeHall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1965.
Chapter 3
Performance in ExtraAtmospheric Flight
31. INTRODUCTION
Beginning here, we shall analyze the performance of long range hypervelocity vehicles. The flight is assumed to take place in the plane containing the great circle arc, between the takeoff point and the landing point. The flight is thought of in two phases as illustrated in Fig. 31.
a/ The powered phase, in which sufficient kinetic energy provided by the propulsion system is imparted to the vehicle to bring it, under a proper guidance, to a prescribed position and velocity in space. The trajectory followed is the arc A B in Fig. 31. The point B is referred to as the burnout position.
bl The unpowered phase, in which the vehicle travels to its destination under the influence of the gravity and aerodynamic forces. The trajectory followed is the arc BC.
Fig. 31. Trajectory of long range hypervelocity vehicle.
29
30
EXTRA A TMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch.3
The powered phase is generally short, and the corresponding longitudinal range during launch, xB ' is small compared to the radius of the Earth. Hence, the trajectory can be analyzed using the flat Earth assumption. This is done in Chapter 4. For a short range flight, the unpowered phase is performed entirely in the dense layer of the atmosphere. For long range flight, if the total energy imparted to the vehicle at the burnout position B is sufficiently high, with a proper orientation of the burnout velocity, the trajectory followed will have a portion entirely outside the dense layer of the atmosphere. This portion of the trajectory is represented by the arc BE in Fig. 31. The corresponding contribution to the range, (xE  xB), may be large. This is one of the most interesting features in hypersonic flight. For long range operation, hypervelocity vehicles may reduce the cost in fuel consumption since the range (xE  xB) can be made infinite with finite energy input. In this respect, Sanger and Bredt were among the first to recognize the favorable connection between speed and range (Ref. 1). The idea leads to the concept of presentday shuttle vehicles where, after the powered phase, the subsequent trajectory is entirely flown outside the atmosphere for several days and the required mission is accomplished without additional energy input. When it comes time
to return to the Earth a rocket may be fired to deflect the trajectory such that it intersects the atmosphere of the Earth at a certain point
E called the entry position. The subsequent trajectory is called the reentry trajectory. This portion of the trajectory is illustrated by the arc EC in Fig. 31.
In this chapter, we shall be concerned with the extra atmospheric portion of the flight trajectory, namely the arc BE . We shall assume that space is completely free of atmosphere. Hence, from classical orbital mechanics, the trajectory is a Keplerian conic. The reentry phase will be analyzed in subsequent chapters.
32. THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION
In the plane of motion, the position of the vehicle, considered as a point mass represented by the point M , is defined in polar coordinates by its radial distance r from the center of the Earth 0 , and the angle e between the vectors OB and OM (Fig. 32). With the aerodynamic force neglected, the vehicle is subject only to the gravitational attraction which, for a spherical earth, is directed toward
the center 0 with a force per unit mass
F r
m
J:... 2 r
(31 )
where m is the mass of the vehicle, and f.l. a positive constant
Gm e
(3 2)
m is the mass of the Earth and G a universal constant. This yields e
a value of f.l. for Earth:
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
31

V
398603.2
km3 2 sec
Fig. 32.
Geometry of the trajectory.
Since the force is central, its com.l'0nent F along the direction per
pendicular to the position vector r is zer~. Hence, we can write the equations of the motion in polar coordinates
.2 r  r8
L 2
(3 3)
r
o
(34)
The dot represents derivatives taken with respect to time. By integrating Eq. (34) directly, we obtain
2· r 8
h
(3 5)
where h is a constant. Since r8 is the velocity component orthogonal to the position vector, Eq. (3 5) shows that the constant h is the angular momentum per unit mass.
The equation for r , Eq. (3 3), can be integrated by the change of variable
r
(3 6)
s
32
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch. 3
Using 8 as the new independent variable to replace the time gives
.
dr d8 e~(.!.) 8 ds
r = 
d8 dt d8 s 2 d8
s
Since, from Eqs. (35) and (36)
. hs2
8
we can write Eq. (37) as
. ds
r  h 
d8
Therefore,
 h d2s d8 _ h2s 2 d2s
r 2 dt 2
d8 d8 (37)
(38)
(39)
(310)
Making these substitutions into Eq. (33) we obtain the linear equation in s
+ s
(311 )
The general solution of this equation is
s =
.J:.. + C cos (8  8 )
h2 0
(312)
where C and 8 are two constants of integration. Returning to the
variable r , we °write
r =
p
(313)
where by definition
2
P  h / fJ.
(314)
and
2
e = Ch / fJ.
(315)
Equation (313) represents a family of conic sections. The center of attraction 0 is a common focus for the family. The dimensionless parameter e is called the eccentricity of the conic, and the parameter p , which has the dimension of length, is the semilatus rectum, or the conic parameter. The polar equation involves three constants, p , e and 8 . These constants are specified by the values of the radial distan~e r B ' the speed VB and the flight path angle '{ B at the burn
Ch. 3
EXTRA A TMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
33
out position B . The flight path angle 'I along the trajectory is mea~ured positive upward from the local horizontal to the velocity vector Y.
33. CHARACTERISTIC VALUES OF A TRAJECTORY
Once the initial values rB ' Y and '{B are specified, the
trajectory followed by the vehicle is wefldetermmed. With each trajectory, there are associated a number of characteristic values which are constants of the motion. In this section, we shall define these values and interpret their physical meanings.
First, using Eq. (3 5), we rewrite Eq. (3 3) as
r
J:.... 2 r
(316)
Multiplying the equation by r , we have
rr
E 2
r
or equivalently
d .2 h2 2 dt (r + 2)
r
.2.( H:)
dt r
2 2. 2
By integrating and replacing h by (r 8) , we obtain
1.2 • 2
2" [r + (r8) ] 
H:
r
(317)
where t is a constant of integration. If Y is the radial component and Y 8 • the transverse component of the vefocity, Y r = rand
Y 8 = r8 and
y2 Y 2 + 2 .2 • 2
Y8 r + (r8)
r
Hence Eq. (317) can be written as
y2 H: = e
2 r (318)
(319)
At each point along its trajectory, the vehicle has, per unit mass, a kinetic energy equal to I I /2) y2 and a potential energy from which is derived the gravitational force. Since the gravitational force per unit mass has the magnitude fil r2 the potential energy at a distance r is  fil r , if we select the level of the potential energy such that it
34
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch. 3
has the value zero at infinity. Hence, relation (319) states that the total energy per unit mass, along the trajectory, is constant. The equation is called the energy integral or the visviva integral.
Next, by a rotation of the direction of reference, we can make eo = 0 and e .::: 0 in the polar equation (313) for the trajectory. Hence we consider
r
p
(320)
+ e cos e
In this form, the angle e is no longer measured from the position vector ~B ' but from a new reference direction which we shall determine later. Equation (3 20) is the general equation of a conic section. The radial distance r remains finite if 0 < e < 1 . This condition defines a family of closed curves, ellipses. If the trajectory does not intersect the boundary of the Earth's atmosphere, the vehicle returns
to its initial condition for each variation of 21T of the angle e. Hence, we shall refer to the trajectory as an orbit. The distance r remains the same when we change e into  e. The elliptic orbit is symmetric with respect to the polar axis (Fig. 3 3). The minimum value of
r is called the pericenter distance r. It is obtained by setting
e = 0 in Eq. (320). We have p
r p
pI + e
(321)
We see now that the reference direction is the direction toward the point P of closest distance called the pericenter. The maximum value of r , r a ' is called the apocenter distance. It is obtained by setting e = 1T in Eq. (320). We have
r a
pI  e
(322)
Vr
Fig. 3 3. Elliptic orbit .
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
35
The point of farthest distance, the point A , is called the apocenter. For the Earth, the point P and the point A are also called the perigee and the apogee, respectively. They are the apses of the elliptic orbit, and the line joining P and A is called the line of apses. The distance Za between the apses is defined as the major axis of the ellipse. Hence
Za
r + r p a
_p_ +p_ l+e le
Zp
(3Z3)
Z (1  e )
This gives the relation for the semilatus rectum
Z P = a(l  e )
(3Z4)
Therefore, in terms of a and e the expression for r and r can
be written as p a
r a(l  e) r a(l + e) (3Z5)
p a
Now, by taking the derivative of Eq. (3 ZO), we have r
pe sin 8
d8 dt
Z (l+ecos8)
Using Eqs. (35) and (3Z0) and noticing that V r
.
r , we have
V r
h
e sin 8
(3Z6)
p
On the other hand, in evaluating V 8
r8
we have
h
(l+ecos8)
(327)
p
The Eqs. (3Z6) and (327) give the expressions for the radial and transverse components of the velocity along the orbit as functions of the polar angle. The magnitude of V is given by Eq. (318) written as
Z
+ e + Ze cos 8
(3Z8)
V
Since hZ = flP by Eq. (314), using the relation (3Z4) we can rewrite this expression as
v =f:7;
Z
+ e + Ze cos 8
(3Z9)
This equation gives the magnitude of the velocity along the orbit as a
function of 8 It passes through a maximum at the pericenter,
36
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch. 3
8 = 0 , and a minimum at the apocenter, 8
1T
We have
v p
f.L(l+e) a(l  e)
V a
f.L(1  e) a(l + e)
(3 30)
The flight path angle at each point along the orbit is given by
sin '{
V r
V
cos '{
tan '{
V
r
(3 31)
Hence, using the Eqs. (326)  (328), we have
sin '{
e sin 8
cos '{
1 + e cos 8
tan '{
e sin 8
(3 32)
+ e cos 8
If we use r = rp , and V = V to evaluate the constant energy t in
the visviva integral, (319), Je have
t = _.J::_
2a
(3 33)
This shows that the total energy of the orbit is a function solely of the major axis. With this value for ~, we rewrite the energy integral
2 2 1
V =f.L()
r a
(3 34)
This very important relation expresses the speed along the elliptical orbit in terms of the radial distance r
We have defined the elliptic orbit as an orbit with an eccentricity such that 0 < e < 1 . The two limiting cases are the cases where
e = 0 , and e ... 1.
When e = 0 , the Eq. (3 20) shows that the radial distance is constant. The orbit is circular. From the Eqs. (326) and (327) with e = 0 . we see that the radial component of the velocity is zero, while the normal component of the velocity is constant. This component, which is tangential to the circular orbit, is called the circular speed. The circular speed can also be obtained from Eq. (3 34) by putting a = r . Thus,
Vcir = J1i
(3 35)
The other limiting case is obtained by making e ... 1 . From Eq. (3 23), we see that, holding the semilatus rectum p constant,
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
37
when e + 1 , the major axis of the ellipse tends to infinity. We say that in the limiting case e = 1 , the orbit is a parabola. The equation of the conic, Eq. (320), with e = 1 , becomes
p p
r 1 + cos e 2 e
2 cos 2
The closest distance is obtained for e = 0
r E
p 2 (336)
(3 37)
The farthest distance, when e = iT ,is infinite. Since the trajectory has an infinite branch, the vehicle along a parabolic flight path escapes to infinity, though it takes infinite time. For this reason, the speed along a parabolic trajectory is called the escape speed. From Eq.
(3 34) we see in the limiting case, when a + 00 ,the escape speed is
v = riir
escape iJ;
(3 38)
It is obvious that, at any distance r , the condition for a circular
orbit is that Eq. (335) holds, together with the condition that the direction of the velocity is perpendicular to the position vector. In contrast, for a parabolic orbit, condition (3 38) is necessary and sufficient.
Now Eq. (3 5) can be written
.
A
1 2· r e 2
h 2
(3 39)
.
The quantity A is called the areal velocity. It represents the rate at
which the position vector sweeps out area. We see that this rate is constant for a given orbit. For an elliptic orbit, if we integrate the equation over a full period T we obtain
~ T = iT a2p = Area of ellipse
(340)
But from the Eqs. (314) and (324)
h = F = ~fJa( 1  e 2)
(341 )
Therefore the period is
(342)
Just as is the energy e , the period, T, in elliptical motion is a function solely of the major axis.
38
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch. 3
34. TIME OF FLIGHT ALONG THE ORBIT
Consider the Eq. (3 39) written as
dt
1 2
h r d9
(343)
Using the polar equation (320) for r , we have the time of flight from the pericenter to a position M defined by the polar angle 9
2 9 d9 2
L f P S(9)
t h 2 h(l _ e2)3/2
0 (l+ecos9)
or
t =/? S(9) (344)
where the function S(9) is given by S(9)
eD sin9 1 + e cos 9
_~ 9
+ 2 arc tan (V ~e tan "2 )
(345)
Let M and M be two points along the orbit with polar angle 9
and 921. The dme of flight for the vehicle to travel the arc MIM12 is
t2tl =J?rS(92)S(91)]
(346)
Using Eq. (342) we can write
(347)
The time of flight along an elliptic orbit can also be obtained by simple geometric considerations. First we shall give some properties related to an ellipse.
An ellipse can be obtained from a circle of center wand radius
a , called the principal circle, by an affine reduction with ratio b / a (Fig. 34). From each point M' on the circle, the corresponding point M on the ellipse is obtained by reducing the ordinate of M' by the factor b/a. Hence when M' is at the point B' , the corresponding point on the ellipse is B such that wB = b . The minor axis of the ellipse is 2b . In celestial mechanics, the polar angle e defining
the point M, measured from the pericenter, is called the true anomaly. On the other hand, the angle E measured at the center w of the principal circle from the pericenter, defining the point M' on the principal circle, is called the eccentric anomaly. Using Cartesian coordinates as shown in Fig. 34, with the eccentric anomaly as the parameter, we can write the coordinates of the point M' moving along the principal circle
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
39
x ' a cos E
y'
a sin E
(348)
Fig. 34. True anorna ly and eccentric anorna ly,
Using the affinity described above, the Cartesian coordinates of the point on the ellips e are
x a cos E
y
b sin E
(349)
FroITl this, we can verify the farrri Ha r Cartesian equation of the ellipse
2 x
2 a
+
(3 50)
The point 0' , s yrrirn e t r i c to the point 0 with respect to the center w ,is called the second focus, or the vacant focus of the ellipse. A rn a i n property of the ellipse is that the SUITl of the distances fr orn any point M on the ellipse to the foci 0 and 0' r erria in s constant and equal to the rn ajo r axis, that is
MO + MO' = 2a
(3 51)
Another property is that the bisector MN of the angle OMO' is the no r rn a l at the point M to the ellipse. Hence, this bisector is orthogonal to the tangent at M .
The distance 00' = 2c is called the focal distance. F'r orn Fig. 34 we have
c = wO
wPOP
a  a(l  e)
Therefore
40
EXTRA A TMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch. 3
c = ae
(3 52)
On the other hand, since OB = a , from the triangle OBw
or
(353)
The ellipse can be considered as the projection of the principal circle, the angle a between the planes containing the circle and the ellipse, respectively, being such that cos a = b/a . We have shown that the time of flight from the pericenter P to the point M is proportional to the area POM swept by the radius vector OM . By using the notation Area POM = (POM) , we write
t = K· (POM)
where K is a coefficient of proportionality. But
(POM)
.!: (POM')
a
.!: [(PwM')  (OwM')]
a
b 2 2
2a [ a E  a e sin E]
Hence
Kab [ . E]
t = 2 E  e s i n
(3 54)
The coefficient K is obtained by taking E = 21T ,which corresponds to the time t equal to a full period of revoluation T . Hence
T
Kab1T
(3 55)
Compared with Eq. (342)
(3 56)
Hence, the time of flight from the pericenter in terms of the eccentric anomaly E is given by
M = E  e sin E
(357)
where M is a non dimensional time
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
41
M = ~t (358)
Equation (357) is the wellknown Kepler's equation. The variable M , expressed in radians, is called the mean anomaly.
Finally, it is easy to derive relations between the true anomaly a and the eccentric anomaly E . From Fig. 34, we have
OQ = Ow + wQ
or
r cos a
(3 59)
 ae + a cos E
2
Using Eq. (320) for r , with p = a(l  e) , we have
2
(l  e ) cos a
1 + e cos a
cos E  e
Hence,
cos a
cos E  e 1  e cos E
e + cos a 1 + e cos a
(3 60)
cos E
From this,
sin a
~sinE 1  e cos E
~ sina 1 + e cos a
(3 61)
sin E
Also,
2 a tan
2
(l + e) (l  cos E) (l  e) (l + cos E)
~ tan2 E (le) 2
1  cos a 1 + cos a
That is,
tan ~ =  ~ tan 2E..
2 'rl:; 2
(3 62)
Quite often, we use the expression for the radial distance r in terms of the eccentric anomaly E . Using Eq. (360) in Eq. (359), we have
r
a(l  e cos E)
(3 63)
42
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch. 3
3 5. THE ELEMENTS OF THE ORBIT IN TERMS OF THE INITIAL CONDITION
Let us now follow the trajectory, starting from the burnout position B . The quantities rB ' VB' and 'VB are known, together with the direction from the center of the Earth 0 to the position
B . We propose in this section to calculate the quantities related to the orbit followed by the vehicle in terms of the information obtained
at burnout (Fig. 3 5).

VB
Fig. 3 5. The orbit from burnout conditions.
It is convenient to define the nondimensional burnout speed uB as the ratio of the speed VB' to the circular speed at distance rB
(3 64)
We shall as sume that the orbit is elliptic, that is uB < .JZ by applying the energy integral, Eq. (3 34), at the point B have
First, we
2 1
fL(   )
rB a
From this equation, the major axis is
a
(3 65)
Since the angular momentum is constant along an orbit, it can be evaluated at the burnout position
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
43
h = rBVB cos 'VB
(3 66)
Using Eq. (341), with the majoraxis obtained from Eq. (365), we have for the eccentricity
~l 2 2 2
e = uB (2 uB) cos 'VB
or
~sin2'VB + (l_u2)2 2
e cos 'VB
B (3 67)
(3 68)
From Eqs. (365) and (368) for a and e , we have for the apocenter distance and the pericenter distance from Eq. (325)
r a
(369)
and
(370)
The condition for the orbit to intersect the Earth's atmosphere, assumed to be spherical, with a finite radius R , is that rp':::' R . Hence, in terms of the initial conditions, we have the condition for intersection
>
(371 )
The orientation of the orbit is given by the angle 8 B between the direction to the pericenter and the direction to the burnout position B .
This angle is obtained by replacing in Eq. (320) rand 8 by rB and 9 B . We have
cos 8 B
I a 2
 [  (1  e )  1 ]
e rB
or, using Eqs. (365) and (367)
(372)
cos 8 B
Therefore,
44
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch. 3
sin 8 B
2 .
uB sln"VB cos"VB
(373)
and
tan 8 B
2 .
uB sm"VB cos"VB
2 2
uB cos "VB  I
(374)
36. MINIMUMENERGY ORBIT
Let us consider the case where the vehicle, after ascending to the highest altitude, at the apocenter A , returns and intersects the Earth's atmosphere at the entry point E at a distance R from the center of attraction 0 (Fig. 3 6). This is the case where the inequality ( 371) for intersection is satisfied. The angle <l> between the positions Band E , measured at the center of attraction 0 , is called the range angle. From Fig. 3 6, it is seen that
(375)
where 8 E is the polar angle defining the entry position E . The angle 8 B is given by Eq. (372). The angle 8 E is obtained by replacing in the Eq. (20) rand 8 by Rand 8 E' We have
l [a 2 ]
cos 8 E = e R (1  e )  1
(376)
A
Fig. 3 6. The range angle.
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
45
Using Eq. (365) for the semimajor axis we have
a R
a
(377)
where
(378)
is the ratio of the radial distances to the point Band E, respectively. Hence,
cos o E
2 2
},.uB cos 'VB  1
(379)
The range angle is then
122
arc cos ; (},.uB cos 'VB  1)
1 2 2
arccos(uBcos 'V 1)
e B
(3 80)
where e is given by Eq. (3 67). We notice that when the point B is
at the top of the atmosphere, rB = R, and}" = 1 Since the point
E is beyond the apocenter, e E = 21T  e B ' and Eq. (380) becomes
1 2 2
= 2[ 1T  arc cos tuB cos 'V  1)]
e B
(3 81)
The range can be evaluated when the trajectory intersects the Earth's atmosphere. In the limiting case, where we have an equality in condition (371), the trajectory is tangent at its pericenter to the circle with center 0 and radius R representing the atmosphere in the
plane of the motion. The flight path angle at the point of tangency, which is also the limiting position of the entry point E , is zero. The trajectory is called the grazing trajectory. By simple geometric considerations, it is seen that the range angle for the grazing trajectory
is given by <j> G = 21T  e B' Hence, from Eq. (374),
2
uB sin 'VB cos 'VB
tan <j> G
(382)
This equation can be written as
(3 83)
Equation (380) for the range gives <j> as a function of two
46
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch.3
pa r arn e t e r s "s and "VB . For a given initial velocity uB ' there exists a value of the initial flight path angle "V B such that the range angle is a ITIaxiITIuITI. Conversely, for a prescribed range angle q,
Eq. (380) gives the initial velocity uB as function of the initial flight path angle "VB . There exists an angle "VB giving the ITIiniITIuITl velocity uB to achieve the prescribed range angle. Since by Eq. (3 65) the ITIiniITIuITl of uB corresponds to the ITIiniITIuITl of the s ern irn ajo r axis
a , which in turn, by Eq. (333), corresponds to the ITIiniITIuITl of the total energy 6 such an orbit is called the rn irii rriurn c e ne r gv orbit.
To calculate the m.irrirrrurn c e ne r g y orbit, it is convenient to rewrite Eq. (3 80) in the irnpl.i c it fo r m
"V ) = B
o
(384)
For this purpose, we write Eq. (375)
cos 8 E
cos (q, + 8 B)
or
cos 8 E = cos q, cos 8 B  sin q, sin 8 B
F'rorn the Eqs. (372), (373) and (379)
or
I  co s <\> z Z
uB cos "VB
+
o
(385)
Now, consider the case where the points Band E are prescribed. The Eq. (385) gives the relation between the initial speed "s and the
initial flight path angle "VB to achieve the prescribed range <p We
write the equation
(l  co s q, ) Z . '" I  co s <\> ,
z tan "VB  s m o tan"VB + Z + co s o  I\.
uB uB
o
(386)
For each initial speed uB ' this equation, considered as a quadratic equation in tan "VB ' gives two values "VB . Hence, there exist two trajectories connecting the points Band E One is called the high trajectory, and the other the low trajectory. The two trajectories coincide when the equation has a double root. In this case we have
. Z s m q,
4(1  cos<\>l Z
uB
[ (1  ~o s cp) + co s q,  >.. J
uB
o
(3 87)
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
47
We notice that if we consider Eg. (385) as an implicit equation giving uB as function of 'VB ' for a prescribed range angle <\> then by taking its derivative with respect to 'VB
+
o
The minimum of uB with respect to 'VB corresponds to duBI d'VB = 0 , that is, 8f/8'VB = 0 , which is the same condition as for Eq. (386)
to have a double root. Hence Eq. (387), when solved, provides the
minimum speed uB for a prescribed range angle <\> with an initial
distance ratio).. Solving for uB ' we have by taking the positive
root
[ cos <\>  ).. + J).. 2  2A cos <\> + 1 ]
(3 88)
The corresponding flight path angle 'VB is given by the double root of Eq. (386). We have
tan 'V B
2 tan%
(389)
In the simple case where the point B is at the top of the atmosphere,
we have ).. = I The Eqs. (388) and (389) are reduced to
2 2 sin %
uB 1 + sin %
and
cos .1.
2 tan( !. _ .1.)
tan 'V B 1 + sin % 4 4
That is,
1T .1.
'VB 
4 4 (390)
(3 91)
(3 92)
We see that, for the case of the minimumenergy orbit, when the burnout and the entry positions are at the same distance from the center of attraction, the initial speed and the initial flight path angle are given
by simple expressions in terms of the range angle <\> In this case, the other elements of the flight path can also be expressed in terms of the range angle.
For the semimajor axis, using Eq. (3 65) with rB = R , and Eq. (390) we have
48
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch.3
a
(393)
R
For the eccentricity, we write Eq. (3 67)
Z
1 ttan "VB
(394)
e
Using Eqs. (390) and (391), we have, after simplification
e
cos 1. z
z , 1  e
Z sin t 1 t sin t
(395)
1 t sin t
We notice from Eq. (391) that
e
tan '( B
(396)
The apocenter distance of the trajectory can be seen to be
r a
R
..!. (l t sin 1. t cos 1.)
Z Z Z
(397)
For the time of flight between the two points Band E , we use Kepler's equation, Eq. (357). Let E1 and EZ be the eccentric anomalies corresponding to the point Band E ,respectively. Then the time of flight is given by
Obviously, when },_ = 1 ,the points Band E are symmetric with respect to the line of apses. Hence
Therefore,
(398)
On the other hand, if 81 is the true anomaly of the point B
'IT _ .3
z
sin 8 I
sin
1.
z ' cos 81
cos
1.
Z (399)
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
49
Using Eg. (3 61) for e and Eg. (395) for e we have
DSinel 1 + e cos e 1
2 sin t 1 + sin%
and
cos 1. 2
2 sin!
1 + sin %
Upon substituting into Eg. (398) and using Eg. (393) for a , we have 2 sin t
sin
1 + sin t
+ cos t)2 sint
(3100)
37. EFFECTS OF VARIATIONS OF THE INITIAL CONDITION IN THE ELEMENTS AT ENTRY
The trajectory followed by the vehicle during reentry depends strongly on the condition at the reentry position E . Hence, it is interesting to study the resulting errors at the entry position E due to an error incurred at the burnout position B .
o
Fig. 37. Error in the range angle.
First, we consider the variation in the curvilinear range (Fig. 37)
x = Rep
(3101)
The parameters specifying the burnout condition are rB ' VB and
'VB ' and the curvilinear distance xB from the origin to the projection
50
EXTRA A TMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch. 3
of the burnout position B on the top of the atmosphere. It is apparent that, from the rotational symmetry of the force field, any error in linear range Ll.xB ' incurred at the burnout position will be translated into an equal error Ll.xE of the range
(3102)
We shall now evaluate the error Ll.x , or equivalently the error Ll.4> in the range as function of an error Ll.rB ' Ll.VB or LI.1'B incurred at the burnout position. For this purpose we rewrite Eq. (385) with
the velocity VB appearing explicitly
1 cos p
+
 l'
R 2 2
;>.. VB cos 1'B
Then, the differential of f is
Ll.f
Holding VB and l' B constant, the change in the range Ll.4> ,
a change in the ratio of the radial distance LI.>" is
~ =  afl a>..
LI.>" of I 04>
Similarly,
~ afl av B
= 
aVB afl 04>
and
~ afl 01' B
= 
LI.1'B of! 04> o
(3103)
o
due to
(3104)
(3105)
(3106)
By evaluating the partial derivatives, we have the following formulae for computing the error in the range angle
2 2
1  co s o + >.. uB cos 1'B
2(lcosp)
(3107)
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
2(1  co s o s i n v + u2 s i.n o cos'YB B B
51
(3107)
cos'YB[ s i n o u~sin(<\> +'YB)cos'YBl
Now, consider the quantity in the square brackets in the denominators of the Eqs. (3107)
(3108)
l:!. = 0 when
(3109)
This is the same as Eq. (3 83) for grazing trajectory. Hence, in general, l:!. is not vanishing and keeps the same sign which we can easily verify as the positive sign. Since 1  cos <\> > 0 , from the first two equations (3107), we see that the ratio l:!.<\> /:6:" and l:!.<\> / l:!. V Bare positive. Any increase in the initial altitude, or in the initial speed, provides an increase in the range. On the other hand, from the third equation (3107), the ratio l:!.<\> / l:!.'YB changes its sign when
2(1  co s o sin'YB
or
t a n v B
(3110)
2 tan1
This equation is the same as Eq. (389) for the minimumenergy trajectory. Along a minimumenergy trajectory, the variation of l:!.<\> is
always negative, and is of the second order in l:!.'YB We have
(3111)
By taking the derivative of the third of equations (3107) with respect to 'Y B' and using the relations for the minimum energy trajectory, we have
(3112)
2
l:!. cos 'Y B
Now, using Eq. (389) for a minimumenergy trajectory we have
52
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch. 3
1 212 .21.2
2 tan 2 [cos 2 cos 'VB t s m 2 s m 'VB
 2 sint cos t sin 'VB cos 'VB ]
or
Therefore, a perturbation 6'VB in the initial flight path angle, along a minimumenergy trajectory, corresponds to an error in the range angle given by
(3113)
In this case, using Eq. (389) in the first two of equations (3107), we have for the error in the range angle with respect to an error in the initial altitude and in the initial speed, along a minimumenergy trajectory
sinq,t},.sin2'VB 2A cos2('VB tt)
(3114)
and
sin <I>
(3115)
2 1 VB cos ('VB t 2)
In the special case where the point B is at the top of the atmosphere, rB = R , and
2 COS2('VB t t) = 1 t cos (2'VB t q,) But from Eq. (392), 2'VB t q, = !. t 1 2 2
Hence,
1 
sin 1 2
(3116)
Ch. 3
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
53
The Equations (3113)  (3115) become
(3117)
(1 + sin 1)(1 + 2 sin 1) cos .2
2
(3118)
tan 1 (1 + sin 1 )
(3119)
Now, let us consider the variations in the entry speed V E and the entry flight path angle "E . From the energy integral, Eq. (319), we have the relation connechng the elements at the burnout position B and the entry position E
.I:. R
(3120)
On the other hand, by evaluating the angular momentum at these points, we have
r B VB COS" B = RV E COS" E
(3121)
The differentials of Eqs. (3120) and (3121) give
(3122)
and
(3123)
For an error f:l VB in the burnout speed alone, the corresponding error in the entry speed is given by Eq. (3122) with f:l rB = 0
f:lVE f:lVB
(3124)
From Eq. (3123) the error in the entry angle is obtained by putting f:lrB = 0 and f:l"B = 0
54
EXTRA ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT
Ch. 3
(3125)
For an error in the initial altitude, the error in the entry speed is
In terms of }... and uB ' this is
2 uB+2(}...1))
(3126)
The corresponding error in the entry angle is
(3127)
Finally, for an error in the initial flight path angle I'B alone, there is no error in the entry speed. The error in the entry angle is given by
(3128)
We notice from Eqs. (3125), (3127) and (3128) that the entry angle is particularly sensitive for a grazing trajectory, I'E = 0 .
References
1. Sanger, E., and Bredt, J., "A Rocket Drive for Long Range Bombers," Translation No. CGD32, Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, 1944.
2. Anthony, M. L., "Free Flight Missile Trajectories, " Vistas in Astronautics, Vol. II, Pergamon Press, New York, 1959.
3. Dunning, R. S., "The Orbital Mechanics of Flight Mechanics, " NASASP325,1973.
4. Arora, K. L., and Vinh, N. X., "Maximum Range of Ballistic Missiles, "SIAM Review, Vol. 7, No.4, 1965.
Chapter 4
Powered Phase
41. INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, we shall analyze the trajectory of the vehicle from the launching pad, point A, to the burnout position, point B. During the thrusting phase, the energy provided by the propellant is transformed into potential energy through the increase in the altitude of the vehicle, and kinetic energy through its increase in speed. Also, a part of the energy provided by the propulsion system is dissipated in the form of heat by action of the aerodynamic drag. The powered phase is the phase during which it is possible to have a guidance system to control the trajectory such that at the end of the thrusting program, the vehicle reaches a prescribed position B, specified by the position vector ;; , and a prescribed velocity v; . We have seen in the preceding chapter that the trajectory required by the mission may be completely specified by these conditions at burnout.
The guidance is achieved by the following modes of control.
a/ Control of the thrusting force T . This control is performed by the direction of the vector thrust. Its magnitude can also be controlled by the variation of the mas s flow rate.
b/ Besides the main engine, the vehicle can be equipped with several small rockets providing lateral thrusting forces for its guidance. We shall assume that the resultant thrusting force of all the engines is represented by the vector thrust T .
c/ Control of the aerodynamic force A . This control is performed by varying the angle of attack of the vehicle and possibly by varying its aerodynamic configuration. In three dimensional flight, the aerodynamic force is also a function of the bank angle.
4 2. THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION
To write the equations of motion, we shall assume that the trajectory lies in the plane of the great circle containing the launch point A and the burnout position B . Hence, it is necessary that all the forces involved be contained in that plane. This leads to the assumption that the vehicle has a plane of symmetry and that the velocity vector V , the aerodynamic force A and the thrusting force Tare
55
56
POWERED PHASE
Ch. 4
all contained in that plane. The duration of the powered phase is generally short and it is convenient for a firstorder approximation to assume that the Earth is an adequate inertial reference and in this reference system the atmosphere is at rest.
The center of mas s M of the vehicle is defined by its coordinate s
x and z in a ground coordinate system Axz , where the axis Ax is the horizontal at the launching point A taken as the origin of the coordinates, with positive x in the direction of motion, and the axis Az is
the vertical at the point A, taken positively up (Fig. 41).
z

V
LOCAL HORIZONTAL
A
x
Fig. 41.
Ground inertial system.
At any point along its trajectory, the flight path angle of the vehicle is defined as the angle between the local horizontal (the plane perpendicular to the gravitational force mg), and the velocity vector V . The angle <1> between the local horizontal and the line Mx' drawn parallel to the horizontal Ax of the launch point is precisely the range angle as defined in the preceding chapter.
At each instant t , the vehicle is subject to three forces (Fig.
42).
e.] The gravitational force 1/1
mg applied at the center of
mass M
bl The aerodynamic force A applied at the aerodynamic center P . The aerodynamic force can be decomposed into a drag force D
in the opposite direction to the velocity V , and a lift force L orthogonal to it.
cl A propulsive force represented by the thrust vector T, applied at a point Q • To simplify the force diagram we shall assume that the three points M , P and Q are aligned and constitute a body axis, fixed with respect to the vehicle. Then the angle of attack cr
can be conveniently measured from this body axis to the velocity vector V. The thrust angle e is defined as the angle between the body axis and the direction of the thrust.
Ch. 4
POWERED PHASE
57
\
gQ~7\
V \ \
\ \ ~\. ~
~ ~ \
\ Ii ~\ \
\ \ \
\ \
\
\
\ \
BODY AXIS /'
LOCAL HORIZONTAL
Fig. 4 2. Forces acting on the vehicle.
Using Newton's second law, we can write the equation of motion in vector form
dV
m  dt
(41 )
where rn is the mass of the vehicle. By projecting this equation into the tangent and the normal to the trajectory of the vehicle we have
dV T cos (E a}DW sin )' (42)
rn dt
and
 mV d(y  ~} = T sin ( E a}L+Wcos), (4 3)
dt These equations are the dynamical equations. They can be obtained directly from the general equations for flight over a spherical Earth derived in Chapter 2.
The lift and the drag forces are assumed to have the form
L
D
.!. SC V2
2 P D
(44)
where p is the atmospheric mass density, and S a reference area.
58
POWERED PHASE
Ch. 4
The coefficients CL and CD are lift and drag coefficients. They are functions of the angle of attack a , the Mach number M and the Reynolds number Re
(45)
The longitudinal range x , and the altitude z are obtained from the kinematic relations
x
t
J V cos ('{  <1» dt (46)
0
t
J V sin ('{  <I> ) dt (47)
0 z
Finally we have the pitching moment equation, describing the motion of the vehicle about the center of mas s
L £ P cos a + D £ P s in a  T 1. Q sin E
M q
d( '{ + a  <j> )
 K
dt
(48)
where B is the moment of inertial of the vehicle about an axis passing through the center of mas s and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry, 1. the distance between P and M and £Q the distance between Q a~d M . The term M is the aerodynamic pitching moment, and the
q
term Kd(,{ + a  <I> )/ dt represents the moment due to the mass flow of
the gas ejected from the propulsion system.
The thrust can be written as
j3 V + (p  P ) A ;;
re e 0 e e
(49)
where j3 =:;  dm/ dt is the overall mass flow, V re the average relative velocity, Pe the average pressure and Ae the area over the
exit of the engine. It is assumed that the tangential stress over the
exit area is negligible. The unit vector n; normal to the area Ae is positively directed inward. Finally, Po is the average free stream pressure. For simplicity, we may assume that the vectors in Eq. (49) are all collinear and write the one dimensional equation as
T
j3V +(pp)A
re 0 e e
(410)
Ch. 4
POWERED PHASE
59
We define the effective exhaust velocity c as
A
c
e
(411 )
Hence, the expression for the thrust magnitude is simply
T
dm dt
(4 1 Z)
 c
This equation gives the thrust in terms of the mass flow rate and the parameter c which can be characterized as a function of the propellant used in the propulsion system on board the vehicle. In engineering
practice, we may use the specific impulse I as an alternate para
meter which specifies the thrust performanc~~ It is defined as the thrust impulse per unit mass of propellant or
I sp
Tdt dm
T (3
(413)
From the last two equations, it is seen that the specific impulse I
may be alternatively defined as the thrust obtained per unit mass ffJ'w which is precisely the same as the effective exhaust velocity. But it is
a common practice to use different units for I and c through the
sp
relationship
c =
(414)
where g is the acceleration of gravity. Therefore, while c is given
in meters per second, I is given in seconds.
Using Eqs. (411) ~gd (414) we have
I sp
V re
(p  p )
o e A
gf3 e
(415)
+
g
The mass flow rate can be computed from
CpA
(3 c c
(416)
where
Cf3 mas s flow coefficient, function of the propellant
average pressure in the combustion chamber. This pressure is also called the operating pressure.
A area of the throat of the nozzle
c
Hence
60
POWERED PHASE
Ch. 4
g
A e
I sp
V re
A c
(4 1 7)
The ratio of the areas A / A can be expressed in terms of the expane c
sion factor p / p as
c e
c
( k+ 1) kl z
kl k
(418)
A
A e
where k is the ratio of the specific heats.
From these relations, we see that the specific impulse is a function of the following four factors
1.
The nature of the propellant (C V k )
!3' re' .
2.
The operating pressure p c
3.
The expansion factor p / p . c e
4.
The altitude of flight (g and Po are functions of the altitude).
For a given type of propellant, we can evaluate its specific impulse under some reference conditions. These conditions are:
For a solid propellant, Pc For a liquid propellant, Pc
70 atm., p / p = 70/1 at sea level. c e
25 atm., p / p = 25/1 at sea level. c e
Let the specific impulse of the given propellant evaluated at these
reference conditions be denoted (I ) . Then we define the coefficient
sp 0
I
i..!£.._ (419)
sp  (I )
sp 0
This dimensionless coefficient characterizing the propellant under the actual operating condition is now a function of four parametersthe
ratio of the specific heats k , the altitude z , the pressure in the combustion chamber p and the expansion ratio p / p . If we assume that the ratio of the spe~ific heats is the same for all p~opellants, then
the function i = f(z, p ,p / p ) can be tabulated for practical refer
sp c c e
ence.
For an anlytical integration of the equations of motion, we shall assume that, under normal operational conditions, the specific impulse 1sp , or equivalently the effective exhaust velocity c , is constant.
Finally, if R is the radius of the Earth, then the range angle <\> is seen to be given by
tan <\>
x R+z
(420)
Ch. 4
POWERED PHASE
61
Now we see that, for each stage of the rocket vehicle, the dynamical equations, Eqs. (42) and (43), the kinematic equations, Eqs. (46) and (47), the moment equation, Eq. (4 8), and the mass flow program equation, Eq. (412), constitute a system of six equations for the following eight unknowns:
coordinates of the center of mass
components of the velocity vector
m
mas s of the vehicle
angle of attack
angle of the thrust
T
magnitude of the thrust
Therefore, to specify the flight trajectory, we have at our disposal two control variables. They may be taken to be the thrust magnitude T,
and the thrust direction E On the other hand, for a fully controlled
flight, the angle of attack a has to be adjusted constantly to render
the moment equation, Eq. (48), identically satisfied. Consequently, with a flight program fully controlled, the remaining equations constitute a system of five equationsthe Eqs. (42) and (43), (46) and (47),
and the Eq. (4l2)which provide the solution for the variables x, z ,
V , '{ and m as functions of the time t.
If the time history of the thrust magnitude T(t) is prescribed in advance, then by integrating the mass flow equation, Eq. (412), we have the variation of the mass as a function of the time. If we assume a constant mass flow rate, then m is a decreasing linear function of the time. In general, the mass of the vehicle is a decreasing function with respect to time as shown in Fig. 4 3.
m
Fig. 43. The variation of the mass of a multistage rocket vehicle.
62
POWERED PHASE
Ch. 4
The figure represents the variation of the mass of a multi stage rocket. The first stage of the rocket is operating between the initial time and the time tl At tl the first stage is released providing a discontinuity in the mass of the vehicle. If a lapse of time .6.tl exists before the engine in the second stage is ignited, during that time the vehicle is in coast flight with constant mass. Next m continues to decrease between the time (tl + .6.tl) and t2 and so on. In the subsequent analysis, we shall assume that all the .6.ti are zero.
The remaining control variable can be selected either as the angle of attack Q' ,or the thrust angle E or a combination of both by specifying a relation between these variables and possible other variables also. With this selection the ascending program is completely specified.
In general, in considering an ascending program, we are trying to obtain the optimum of some performance criterion. For example, for
a preprogrammed motor, we would like to select a time history for the thrust orientation such that the range achieved is a maximum. Problems like these involve the calculus of variations or the equivalent modern control theory and will not be discussed here. From an engineering standpoint, the selection of a best flight control program is severely restricted by other technical constraints. For example, for a thrusting flight giving the maximum range, it can be shown, upon using not unrealistic assumptions, that the flight must be at maximum lifttodrag ratio, with the thrust directed orthogonally to the aerodynamic force, and hence making a constant angle with the velocity vector. But the thrust angle E ,due to the technical construction of the propulsion system, cannot deviate at a large angle from the axis of the vehicle. In general E is constrained by a maximum angle E max of a few degrees from the main thrusting line.
Another factor to be considered is the normal acceleration. In general, due to structural constraints, this acceleration is severely limited. Hence, for practical purposes, we are led to adopt some simple ascending program which is satisfactory for the analysis during the preliminary stage of the design project. The simplifying hypotheses will provide an analytical solution to the problem considered. The analytical solution has the advantage that it displays explicitly the many relationships among the different variables allowing a global analysis. For example, the solution will give the approximate size of the engine, and the weight of the propellant required to launch a certain given payload (final weight of the vehicle) into a prescribed final orbit. From these approximate data, with the aid of high speed computers, we may update the numerical results to obtain the exact solution to the problem.
43. ASCENDING TRAJECTORY AT CONSTANT FLIGHT PATH ANGLE
The equations of motion derived in section 42 cannot be integrated analytically. For a prescribed initial condition, and a specified thrusting program, numerical integration using high speed computers has to
be performed in order to obtain the variables describing the dynamical system as functions of the time.
For advanced planning purposes, it is useful to adopt some simplifying assumptions in order to obtain an analytical solution of the a s c e n
Ch. 4
POWERED PHASE
63
ding powered flight. Such a solution will give explicit relationships among the different variables and permit a preliminary selection of the size of the vehicle, its aerodynamic characteristic s , the propulsion system required to perform a given mission. With these data we can then use numerical integration to readjust the different characteristic values.
There exists a simple ascending law which can be used to approximate the real powered flight trajectory. Using this program, as a first approximation, we can assume that, after liftoff, the vehicle essentially follows a straight line trajectory having a constant angle of inclination with respect to the local horizontal. In reality, if the flight path angle is constant, the trajectory will be a logarithmic spiral in the plane of the motion, but since we shall assume a flat Earth model for the gravitational field, the traj ectory with constant flight path is e s sentially a straight line.
More specifically, we shall use the following assumptions to sim
plify the equations in section 4 2:
a/ The powered flight trajectory involves short longitudinal range and a relatively small altitude compared to the radius of the Earth. Hence, from Eq. (420)
tan <l>
X R
o
Therefore, we can use <l> = 0 in the equations in section 4 2. This assumption is usually called the flat Earth assumption.
b/ For the same reason, the acceleration of gravity g can be considered constant for the altitude range considered.
c/ We shall neglect the aerodynamic force.
With these assumptions, the dynamical equations, Eqs. (42) and (4 3) become, as can be seen from the simplifying force diagram in Fig. 44
dV mdt
T cos (E  a )  W sin '{
(421 )
mV~ dt
T sin ( E  a) + W cos '{
(4 22)
v
Fig. 4 4. Simple force diagram neglecting aerodynamic force and the curvature of the Earth.
64
POWERED PHASE
Ch. 4
Since we assume that '{ = constant, then d'{/ dt = 0 . Hence, from Eq. (422) we have the relation between the thrust and the weight
T sin ( 0'  E)
W cos '{
(423)
In general, for rocket flight the thrust is large as compared to the weight. Hence from this equation we see that the angle (0' _ E) is necessarily small and we can take cos ( E  0') '" 1 in Eq. (421). Then we have the simplified equation
dV mdt
T  W sin '{
(424)
Using Eq. (412) for the thrust we rewrite this equation, using the relation W = mg
dm
dV =  c m  g sin '{ dt
(425)
To integrate this equation for a multi stage rocket vehicle, we refer to the Fig. 43 and assume that all the time intervals t:.t. between the separation of the ith stage and the engine ignition of thJ (i + I )th stage are zero. Then by integrating Eq. (425) starting from the time t. 1 of the separation of the (i  1 )th stage, we have during the operati6ii. of the ith stage
V(t)
V. Ic. log
1 1
m.(t) 1
m. 10
 g sin '{t'
(426)
where
V(t) Vi_l
C.
1
m.(t) 1 m.
10
t'
instantaneous speed at the time t
speed at the initial time of burning of the ith stage
effective exhaust velocity of the ith stage instantaneous mass at the time t
mas s at the initial time of burning of the ith stage
t  t , I ' time interval from the initial time of burn1ng of the ith stage
Now, consider the operation of one single stage. let us assume that the vehicle is a single stage rocket. time tl of this stage, the change in the speed is
mO
 g tl sin '{ ml
For example, At the burnout
clog
(427)
where c is the effective exhaust velocity of the stage considered,
mO = ml is the initial mass and ml = ml (tl) is the final mass of the
vehicle. OIf we neglect the gravitational force, we have for the change in the speed
Ch. 4
POWERED PHASE
65
(428)
We see that, in this case, t:.V can be used as a measure of the fuel consumption. This quantity is called the characteristic velocity of the maneuver. From this simple formula, we can see that t:. V must have a certain upper limit. The exhaust velocity has an upper limit which depends on the propulsion system used. For example, ordinary chemical propulsion systems currently provide exhaust velocities up to
3000 m/ sec, with a theoretical maximum in the neighborhood of
4000 m/ sec. On the other hand, the ratio of the masses mo/ m also cannot be made arbitrarily large. Let zsm = mO  m be the rJass of
the fuel spent. Then we define the fuel ratio 1
f 
1 
(429)
so that we can write Eq. (428)
t:.V
1 clog
1  f
(4 30)
It is obvious that f can never approach unity, since any amount of fuel always requires a certain provision of structure for its operation. Therefore, the characteristic velocity for a single stage is limited due to technological constraints. Some optimistic predictions advance a figure in the neighborhood of 9000 m/ sec for its ultimate value.
Equation (430) gives the performance of a single stage rocket in the hypothetical situation of gravityfree, vacuum space. If we include the gravitational force, the increase in the speed during a thrusting phase of a stage is given by Eq. (427). The term gt sin)' characterizes the losses due to the gravitational force. BecausJ of this component, the performance of a single stage rocket is further limited. Therefore, to obtain high final speed, one must use a multi stage rocket.
Let T be the total burning time for a rocket vehicle having n stages. By repeated application of Eq. (426), we have the final speed at burnout, assuming a zero initial speed.
i: ss . = [i: C.10gfl..]  gTsin),
i= 1 1 i= 1 1 1
(4 31)
where fl.i is the ratio of the masses of the ith stage, defined as
mass of the vehicle at burnout of ith stage
mass of the vehicle at initial time of ith stage
(432)
66
POWERED PHASE
Ch.4
For the range and the altitude at the end of the powered phase, we use
the Eqs. (46) and (47) with <j> = 0 , and '( = constant. We have
xB T
J V(t) dt
cos '{ 0
zB T
sin '( = J V(t) dt (433)
0 Using V(t) as given by Eq. (426) to evaluate the integral, we have, for
the case of constant rn a s s flow i3 (i3 =  dITlI dt) ,
x =cos'{j t [Vo To+coTo(1+lI0gfJ.o)]_lg/sin'{
B 1 i = 1 11 1 1 1 1  fJ.i 1 2
(434)
where To is the burning tfrn e of the ith stage. The final altitude is o I 1
S1ITlP Y
(435)
44. OPTIMUM STAGING
The final speed of a rocket vehicle, having a prescribed numbe r of stages is given by Eq. (431). This expression for VB is a function of the characteristic pa r arne te r s co and fJ.o of the different stages, of the constant flight path angle '{ and the totll burning trrne T of the powered phase. By these considerations one ITlay ask the following question:
"Is there an opti mum distribution of the rna s s e s of different stages such that, for a prescribed burnout speed VB' the ratio ITlLI ITlF of the initial m a s s at launching to the final rn a s s at the end of the powered phase is a rn i ni.rnurn? "
If such a solution exists, it therefore gives the lightest rocket for a prescribed payload (final rn a s s ITlF) for a prescribed final speed
VB
In solving this p r obl.ern , we write the ratio of the rria s s e s
ITl 1
ITl n
n
IT
i=l si
(436)
ITl 2
ITl n+l
where to ease the notation, in this section, we have used the subscripts as follows
rn , 1
 total rna s s of the vehicle at the initial burning t irn e of the ith stage. This rn a s s is also referred to as the gross rna s s of the ith stage.
Ch. 4
POWERED PHASE
67
From Eq. (436) we see that we have defined the ratio s . 1
called the
staging ratio, as
S. 1
(437)
We notice that s . is the ratio of the gross mass of the (it l)th stage to the gross mas~ of the ith stage, the masses are all evaluated at the initial burning time of the corresponding stage. Also it is seen that
ml = rri is the initial gross mass of the rocket vehicle, while
mntl = 1nF is the resulting payload of the operation.
There is a basic difference between the ratio fL. as defined by Eq. (432) and the staging ratio s . as defined by Eq.l (437). This is illustrated by Fig. 45 showing thJ mass distribution in the ith stage of a rocket vehicle
m if mis __ m i + I ;
mi .
Fig. 4 5. Distribution of the masses in the ith stage of a rocket vehicle.
The total mass shown is the gross mass rn , of the ith stage. The mass m'f denotes the mass of the fuel used durinlg the operation of the ith st~ge, while the mass rn , denotes the mass of the structural components of the propulsion sl;tem used in the operation of the ith stage. This mass is to be discarded leaving the mass rn , 1 as the initial
mass for the operation of the (it l)th stage. Henc1t, the mass of the vehicle at burnout of the ith stage is
(4 38)
Since we have used rn , = m.O to denote the mass of the rocket vehicle at the initial time of th1e ith lstage, the ratio fL. , as defined by Eq.
(432) now becomes 1
rn i  mif m
1 if (4 39)
fLi 
m , rn ,
1 1
On the other hand, the staging ratio s. as defined by Eq. (4 37) is
1 68
POW ERED PHASE
Ch. 4
(m·f+m. )
1 lS
S. 1
1 
rn,
1
(440)
We define the structural ratio operation of the ith stage as
co , for the propulsion system used in the 1
W. 1
m. lS
(441)
Using this relation in Eq. (440) we have
S. 1
1 1 
(l  w. )
1
rn, 1
(442)
By eliminating (m./ m.) between the Eqs. (439) and (442), we have
the relation 1 1
fli  wi
si = lw.
1
(443)
time
We can now formulate the optimization problem as follows. The final speed VB' the climb angle '{ and the total burning T are given. That is, we have from Eq. (431)
n
c. log fl.
1 1
VB + g r sin 'I =
i=l
where V is therefore prescribed. We write this equation as a con
t .. 0 1 ti
s r ai mng re a 10n
f(fl.)
1
n
L ci log fli + V 0 i=l
o
(444)
The number of stages n , the different propellant characteristics c. and the different structural ratios co , are also given. Find a mass 1
d'i st r ibufiori II II II. su1 ch that the fo Ilowirig func ti on
rl ' r2 ' .•.... , rn
n
IT
i=l
S,
1
n
IT
i= 1
(fli  wi) (l  w.)
1
(445)
is a maximum. This is equivalent to minimizing the product of 1/ s ..
In solving this problem, we introduce a Lagrange multiplier X to form the augmented function
Ch. 4
POWERED PHASE
69
F(fJ..) == g(fJ..) + >.f(fJ..)
1 1 1
(446)
The solution to the problem is obtained by solving the system of (n + 1) equations
o , f(fJ..)
1
(447)
o
for the (n+ 1) unknowns fJ.1 ' fJ.2 ' •.• , fJ.n and >. • Explicitly, we write the first n equations
n (fJ..  w.)
of n c.
J J + >. 1 0
ofJ.. (1  w.) j= 1 (1  w.) fJ..
1 1 J 1
jli (448)
For each of the n equations (448), we have
fJ.. 1
c.(fJ..  w.)
1 1 1
n
Dr (fJ..w.)!(lw.)]
1 1 1
i= 1
Since the righthand side is the same for all equations, it is a constant and we introduce a new constant K to replace the Lagrange multiplier >.
1 K
(449)
c.(fJ..  w.)
1 1 1
These n equations can also be put into the form
c ,cc . 1 1
c.  K 1
(450)
The problem is then to evaluate the constant K • Using this expression in the constraining relation (444), we have
n
c .co . 1 1
c.  K 1
(4 51)
c. log 1
i=l
The sum of the logarithms can be written as the logarithm of a product
log
l!(
(452)
cxc . 1 1
c.  K 1
70
POWERED PHASE
Ch. 4
That is,
v o
e
Or finally, by separating the unknown K
i=l
(Co  K) 1
Co 1
n
TT Co
(CoW 0) 1 i= III
(453)
n
IT
This equation can be solved for K , and subsequently the mass distribution !J. ,!J."",!J. is obtained from Eq. (450). Obviously the equation 14 5i) can only be solved numerically. To obtain an explicit solution, simplifying assumptions have to be made. We have the following special cases.
44.1. All the Propulsion Systems are Similar
If we as sume that all the stages use the same propellant, and regardless of the difference in size, it is possible to achieve the same structural ratio for all the stages, we have
c n
c
w n
w
(454)
Then, by Eq. (450), the mass distribution is the same for each stage. We have
"z = •••
cw c  K
(455)
The equation (4 53) for K becomes
V
nc 0 nc
(c  K) = e (cw )
Solving for K
vol nc
K=c[lwe ]
(456)
Using this solution in Eq. (455), we have for the common mass ratio  VOl nc
!J. = e
(4 57)
We notice, by Eq. (443), that the staging ratios are also the same
= s n
= s = ~ I  w
or, explicitly in terms of the given characteristics
Ch. 4
POW ERED PHASE
71
w
(458)
s
1  w
The final payload is then obtained in terms of the gros s mas s of the vehicle at launching
m = m (_w )n [ e  VOl nc _ 1] n
F L lw w
(459)
Finally, from Eq. (431), we have the final speed
V =  nc log fL  g r sin '(
B
(460)
The special case we have analyzed is highly hypothetical. Nevertheless, the solution is obtained in closed form and it provides a first estimation of the distribution of the masses for different stages.
44.2. The Propellant Used is the Same for All Stages
If we assume that the propellant used is the same for all stages, but because of technological construction, the structural ratios are all different, then we have the simplification
c = c n
(461 )
Equation (4 53) for K becomes
(462)
Solving for K ,
lin VO/nc
K = c [ 1  (w w 2' •• w) e ]
1 n
(463)
The mass distribution is given by Eq. (4 50).
IJ.. 1
w. 1
 VOl nc e
(464)
1 In (w w ••• w )
1 2 n
We notice that the ratio fl.1 w. is the same for all stages. On the other hand, by Eq. (443), \he1staging ratio is
s , 1
w. 1
[  VOl nc
e 1 In
(w w2"'w )
1 n
(465)
(1  w.)
1
72
POW ERED PHASE
Ch. 4
The final payload is
n w.
TI(_l)
1  co , 1
(466)
i= 1
Finally, we have for the final speed
n
 c
log fl.  g r sin '{ 1
(467)
i= I
It is easy to verify that the equations in this section are reduced to the equations derived in the preceding section if we put
w =w = ... =w =w.
1 2 n
44.3. The Structural Ratios are the Same for All Stages
The special case considered in the previous section is very close to the practical realization of a multi stage rocket vehicle. There exists another special case, namely when technological realization allows a common structural ratio for all the stages although different propellants are used. Then we have the simplification
w = w n
(468)
In this case the equation (453) cannot be solved explicitly for K • The mass ratio is here
fl· 1
wc. 1
(469)
c.  K 1
It is seen that fl. is a decreasing function of c. •
1 1
propellants used are such that cL < c2 ' we nave
staging ratio is given by Eq. (443) written as
Therefore, if the fLl > fL2 . The
s. 1
(1  w)
(fl.  w)
1
(470)
We see that it varies in the same direction as fl. 1
References
1. Dorleac, B., and Poggi, J., "Performances e t Structures du Missile Balistique," Lecture notes, Ecole Nationale Supe r i eu re de l'Aeronautique et de l'Espace, 1960.
2. Schurmann, E. E. H., "Optimum Staging Technique for Mu l ti s ta.g e d Rocket Vehicles," ARS Journal, Vol. 27, No.8, 1957.
Chapter 5
Return to the Atmosphere
51. INTRODUCTION
In Chapter 3, the trajectory for flight outside the atmosphere, assumed to be spherical with a finite radius R , was considered. We have seen that, if the burnout position B , (Fig. 31), is outside the atmosphere, the resulting trajectory is a Keplerian conic until the atmosphere is reencountered. In the case of an elliptic trajectory, if the periapsis distance r is less than the radius R of the atmosphere, a condition expressed byPthe inequality (371), the trajectory will intersect the atmosphere at a point E , the entry position. In the case where inequality (371) is not satisfied, the vehicle will be in an elliptic orbit around the Earth if the initial speed is less than the escape speed, that is if
(51 )
After the mission has been accomplished, to bring back the vehicle, one must perform a series of maneuvers to change the initial orbit, designated by G 1 to a final orbit, 62 intersecting the atmosphere at the entry position E (Fig. 51). From this point on, the vehicle is in the atmosphere and follows a flight path subject to thegravitational and atmospheric forces. The flight path from the entry position E to the landing point C is called the reentry flight path and its analysis is the subject of several later chapters. In this chapter, we shall be concerned with the maneuver performed to change the nonintersecting orbit C into the intersecting orbit 62 . In general, the means of accomphshing a change of orbit, or transfer, will be by firing the rocket on board the vehicle to change its velocity, thus propelling the vehicle into a new orbit. If the rocket engine provides a
high thrust, the burning time is generally short, compared to the orbital period. Hence, it can be assumed that, during a thrusting phase, the position of the vehicle remains essentially unchanged while the velocity undergoes a change impulsively. Furthermore, we shall be concerned with the last orbital change before reentry. Hence the orbit 61 is the final nonintersecting orbit resulting from a series of maneuvers. At a point D in this orbit, referred to as the deorbit position, a velocity
73
74
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
Ch. 5
impulse EV will be applied to the vehicle to change the initial velocity
V into a new velocity ~ thus injecting the vehicle into the de
sJending orbit 62 . This orbit, initiated from the point D , intersects the atrno sphe r e at the entry position E at a distance R from the center of the Earth. The speed V ,and the flight path angle "V at the point E will be referred to as ethe entry speed and the entry flight path angle.
In the subsequent analysis, we shall assume that the initial orbit E. and the deorbit position D are prescribed. Hence, we have the polar equation of the initial orbit (Fig. 51)
r =
2 al(l ell
ltelcose
(52)
where a1 is the semimajor axis, and e the eccentricity of the orbit
6 . The deorbit position D is defiried by the polar angle e melsured from the direction to the periapsis of the initial orbit 1?aken as direction of reference. The distance from the center of the Earth to the point D is denoted by "n . It is given by Eq. (52) with e = e D . In general the point D is on the second half of the orbit, that is,
e > 1T • The firing of the rocket is performed at a point of the orbit
wRer; the vehicle is on its way toward the periapsis. From the previous analyses, it is seen that, if e D is specified, V and"Vl at the point D are also known. The angle cj> between the hirections to the deorbit position D and the entry position E , measured at the center of attraction 0 , is the range angle. It is function of the descending orbit 8 2
Fig. 51. The descending trajectory.
Ch. 5
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
75
A successful recovery of the vehicle depends on the condition at entry, namely on the location of the point E , the entry speed V
and the entry flight path angle '{ . Therefore, in this chapter w~ shall consider several types of d~scending trajectory C 2 . Each family of trajectories, initiated from the deorbit position D , is such that a certain condition at the entry position E is prescribed. More specifically, we shall successively consider families of trajectories such that:
a/ the entry speed V is prescribed. b/ the entry angle '{ e is prescribed.
c/ the entry position; or equivalently (for the planar case under consideration) the range angle <j> is prescribed.
The first two problems are associated with the safe recovery of the vehicle since the heating and the deceleration during atmospheric entry depends on the entry speed and the entry angle. The last problem is as sociated with the selection of the landing point.
In each problem we shall first evaluate the impulse velocity required to achieve the entry condition specified. It will be shown that, for each problem, there exists a family of descending trajectories satisfying the prescribed entry condition. Next we shall compute the trajectory requiring the minimum f:,V • The minimum of this characteristic velocity also corresponds to the minimum fuel consumption of the maneuve r.
52. DESCENT TRAJECTORY FOR GIVEN ENTRY SPEED
In this section, we shall consider the family of descent trajectories initiated from the deorbit position D such that the resulting speed V at the entry position E is equal to a prescribed value.
e At the point D , velocity impulse EV is applied to the vehicle
to change the initial velocity V into a new velocity V; called the deorbit velocity. The re sultingl flight path 62 is the descent flight path. It intersects the atmosphere at the entry position E . Along the trajectory 6 , the total energy is constant as shown by Eq. (319). By evaluating this constant energy at the points D and E respectively, we have
~
R
(5 3)
where from Eq. (52), the radial distance "n to the deorbit position D is prescribed and is given by
2 a1(1e1)
ltel cos aD
(54)
with a D the true anomaly specifying the point D .
76
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
Ch. 5
We define the nondimensional speeds
u e
V
e
(5 5)
Note that V fJ.l_r D is the circular speed evaluat.=i at distance r D We shall use u. to denote the scaled velocity V. / VfJ./ rD . Distances are m1easured in units of R , with the n1ondimensional distances defined as
Q == I
(56)
In terms of the nondimensional quantities, Eq. (53) becomes
(57)
Then the required dimensionles s deorbit speed u2 to achieve the prescribed dimensionless entry speed u is
e
VU!+2(1},.)
(58)
It is convenient for the analysis to define a velocity axis system Dxy , the hodograph space, such that its origin is at the deorbit position D , the yaxis along the position vector ; , positive outward, and the x. axis along the perpendicular to the ~o sition vector, positive toward the direction of the motion. Note that the axis Dx represents the horizontal at the point D . In this axis system, the initial velocity u; is defined in polar coordinates by the dimensionIe s s speed ul and the flight path angle 'Y I (Fig. 5 2)
Y
x
Fig. 52. Dimensionless velocity space.
Ch. 5
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
77
Since the initial orbit is given and the deorbit position prescribed, ul and '{ 1 are known quantities. From
Z Z _1 )
VI fJ.(
rD al
comes
ul «: (59)
1 The flight path angle is given by Eq. (3 3Z).
co s '{ 1
Using Eqs. (54) and (56), we can write
co s '{ 1
a 1
Z (1  el )
sin '{ 1
+
Z Z
A(ZalA) al(lel)
A(Zal  A)
(510)
Now consider Eq. (58) for the deorbit speed u . Since u and A are prescribed, it is seen that "z is constant for all possibre d~ent trajectories. Hence, the locus of the terminus of the velocity Uz
in the hodograph space is a circle centered at D and having a given radius Uz as given by Eq. (58). For each direction o£.!.his velocity,
defined by the flight path an~ '{ Z ' we have a vector "z The
required velocity impulse t:.u is such that

+ t:.u
Its magnitude is obtained by applying the law of cosines to the velocity triangle in Fig. 5Z. Thus,
t:.u
(511 )

The direction of t:.u is defined by the angle 6 from the horizontal
Dx . Applying the law of sines to the velocity triangle in Fig. 5Z, we have
sin (6  '{ Z)
(51Z)
78
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
Ch. 5
From Eq. (511) and (51Z) it is apparent that the deorbit flight path angle" for the descending trajectory can be used as a parameter. To each ang1~ "Z corresponds an impulse velocity ~ , and hence, a
trajectory,5 . The elements of this trajectory can be obtained by
using the equa1ions derived in Section 3 5, with the subscript B re
placed by subscript Z , and rB by r .
We have for the semimajor axis oP 6 Z
a
Z
rD Z Z
 Uz
or
>. (513)
Ci'Z Z
2A.  u
e For the eccentricity of the descending trajectory, by using Eq. (367) we have
(514)
The periapsis distance is given by
• / Z Z Z
1  V 1  (Z>'  u ) [u + Z(1  >.)] cos "Z
e e
Z
(515)
 u e
Hence we have the condition for the trajectory 6 Z to intersect the atmosphere
>
Z z>.  u e
Solving for "Z
we have the condition
u e
(516)
This condition restricts the locus of the terminus of the vector Uz in the velocity space to an arc of a circle (Fig. 5Z).
The entry angle at the entry position is obtained by writing that the angular momentum is constant along the descent orbit. We have,
by evaluating this constant at the point D and at the point E , respectively
Ch. 5
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
79
Hence, in terms of the dimensionless variables
co s 'I e
u e
or
cos 'I e
, • / uZe
I\. V +Z(l>")
u e
co s 'I Z
(517)
The orientation of the descent trajectory 6 is defined by the angle w between the reference direction, which h~s been taken as the direction to the periapsis of the initial orbit, and the direction to the periapsis of the descent trajectory (Fig. 5 3). The angle w is called the longitude of periapsis of the descent trajectory.
Fig. 5 3. Geometry of the descent trajectory.
To evaluate the angle w , let us recall two important properties of the
ellipse already mentioned in section 34. Let Oz be the second
focus of the elliptic trajectory e Z ' the first focus being the center o . The line 00 is the line of apses.
First, if D Zis a point on the ellipse Ez ' then
( 518)
where "z is the semimajor axis of 6 .
Next, if DN is the normal to theZellipse at the point D , then,
DN is the bisector of the angle ODOZ Since the flight path angle
80
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
Ch. 5
'( at the point D is defined as the angle between the horizontal at D, wbich is perpendicular to the position vector 6D ,and the velocity V; , which is tangent to the ellipse at the point D , this property is expressed by the relation
= Z'( Z
(519)
Now let 'Il be the angle between the vectors OD and OOZ
(Fig. 5 3). Using the law of sines in the triangle ODOZ and the property expressed by Eq. (519) we have
DOZ sin n
OOZ
OD
sin 2'( Z
and by the property expressed by Eq. (518) Hence,
Za  r Z D
sin 'Il
(5Z0)
Therefore, the first equation (5Z0) gives
sin 'Il
or
sin 'Il
Z
[ue + Z(1 A)]sin Z'(Z
(5 Zl)
Z ./1 _ (ZA  uZ) [ uZ + Z(1  A)] 'Vee
Z
co s '( Z
Another expression for 'Il is obtained by using the second equation (5Z0). We have
tan 'Il
(Za Z  A) sin Z'(Z
A  ( Za Z  A) cos z'( Z
or
tan 'Il
[uZ+Z(l_A)] s in Zv
e Z
Z Z
(ZA  u )  [u + Z(l  A)] cos Z'(Z
e e
Z
[ u e + Z (1  A ) ] tan '( Z
Z Z
(ZA  1)  u ] + tan '(
e Z
(5 ZZ)
Ch. 5
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
81
The longitude of periapsis of the descending trajectory C 2 is then given by
w
e D  (rr + n )
(5 23)
Finally, the range angle <j> from the deorbit position to the entry position is given by Eq. (380), written as
2 2 1 2 2
arc cos (>.u2cos '121)  arc cos(u2cos '12 1)
e2 e2
(524)
53. MINIMUM IMPULSE FOR ENTRY AT GIVEN SPEED
We have seen in the preceding section that, if the entry speed alone is specified, then there exists a family of descent trajectories which is a function of the deorbit angle '12 • To each angle 'I corresponds a descent trajectory, and hence an impulsive chan~e, ~, in the velocity. The magnitude of this impulse, the characteristic velocity, is a measure of the fuel consumption for the maneuver. In this section we shall compute this particular descent trajectory such that ~u is a minimum.
Let 'lobe the limiting value of the angle '12 selected as the parameter f~r optimization. This value '10 is given by the equality sign in condition (516). Then from Fig. 5h, if 'I ~ 2S. '11 ,t~ minimize ~u , we must select 'I = 'I The velocity impulse ~u is tangential to the initial orbit, at the :aeorbit point D , to reduce the speed from ul to u . Hence, we have the condition for optimum tangential deorbit fola given entry speed
u e
> co s '11
(5 25)
>. Vu! + 2(1  >.)
Using Eq. (5 10) for cos '11 ' we can write this condition
2
u < e
2 2 2>'(>' 1) (1 ell 0'1
2 2
x (1 el) 0'1 20' 1 + >.
(526)
This condition expresses that, for a given initial orbit with a prescribed deorbit position, the prescribed entry speed u must be less than
a certain value for an optimum tangential deorbit to be possible.
For tangential optimum deorbit, we have the following results
for the descent
obtained by putting '12 = '11 in the general expressions trajectory derived in the previous section.
First,
82
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
Ch. 5
co s '( 2 = co s '( 1 = a 1
(527)
The minimum characteristic velocity is simply
(528)
where "z and "i are given by Eq. (58) and Eq. (59), respectively.
The direction of the optimum velocity impulse is given by
(529)
The major axis is the same as given by Eq. (513) but the expression for the eccentricity becomes
(5 30)
Using Eq. (527) we can rewrite this expression
1 
2 2 2 2
0'1{1 e )(lA  u )[ u +2{1 >.)]
1 e e
(5 31)
The entry angle is given by Eq. (517) written as
0'1
2 2
>'{1 el)[ ue + 2(1 >.)]
(20' 1  x )
(5 32)
co s '( e
u e
The longitude of periapsis of the descent trajectory is given by Eq. (523), where now the expression for the angle 11 is
2 .l 2 2 2
0'1 [ue+2(1>.)] V(le1)[ >.(20'1>')0'1(1el)]
tan Tl
2 2 2
>. (20' 1  >.)  a 1 (1  e 1 ) [ u e + 2 (l  >.)]
(5 33)
The range angle is given by Eq. (524). The polar equation of the entry orbit is
r =
(5 34)
1+e2 cos{8 w}
where e2 is given by Eq. {531} and
2 2 2
0'1 (1 el)[ ue +2(1 >.)]
(20' 1  x )
(5 35)
Ch. 5
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
83
The entry position E is defined by the polar angle 8 E
(5 36)
where <\> is the range angle. 8 can also be computed from Eq. (534)
with r = Rand 8 = 8. E
A tangential deortit is optimum when the entry velocity is small as constrained by the inequality (526). When this inequality is not satisfied, the minimum deorbit angle '{~ for the descent trajectory to intersect the atmosphere is larger than the initial flight path angle
'{I (Fig. 54).
o
x
Fig. 54.
o Minimum velocity impulse when '{ 2 .::: '{I'
In this case, as can be seen in Fig. 54, the minimum .6u correponds to '{ 2. = '{ Z • Since the limiting value of '{ 2 is given by the equality sign III ( 5 r6), we have
u e
(5 37)
co s '{ 2
The minimum characteristic velocity is given by Eq. (511), and its direction by Eq. (512) with the value of '{ obtained from Eq. (537).
Using Eq. (5 37) in Eq. (517) we see that 2 cos '{ e = 1 Hence, the
entry is grazing
(5 38)
The eccentricity of the descending orbit is given by Eq. (514), which by virtue of Eq. (537), becomes
2
u  },_ e
(5 39)
84
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
Ch. 5
The longitude of periapsis of the descent orbit is given by Eq. (523). To evaluate the angle TI ,we notice from Eqs. (514), (521) and (522) that
cos TI
2 2
(2X.u )[u +2(1X.)] cos2'12
e e
(540)
FromEq. (537)
cos
222
u (2  X. )  2X. (1  X.)
e
2 2
X. [u +2(1 X.)]
e
Hence, upon substituting into Eq. (540), with the aid of Eq. (539) we have
cos TI
X. 2 _}
e
(541 )
2
X. (u  X.)
e
The polar equation of the entry orbit is
r
1 + e2 c o sff)  w)
(542)
where now, by using Eqs. (513) and (539) 2 u e
2 a(1e)=
2 2
(543)
The position of entry is given by the polar angle e E . It is obtained by putting r = R , and e = e E in Eq. (542).
54. DESCENT TRAJECTORY FOR GIVEN ENTRY ANGLE
In this section we shall consider the family of descending trajectories initiated from the deorbit position D , such that the resulting flight path angle 'I at the entry position E is equal to a prescrib
ed value. e
The notation used is the same as in the previous sections. We now write the equations for the conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum, Eqs. (57) and (517), using the dimensionless variables defined by Eqs. (55) and (56).
2
u  2X. e
(544)
and
Ch. 5
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
85
u cos'{ =).. u cos '{Z (545)
e e Z
In the hodograph space Dxy as defined in section 5 Z , let x and y
be the components of the deorbit velocity "z Then
x uZcos'{Z
y Uz sin'{Z
Therefore Z Z Z
Uz x + y (546)
(547)
Using these equations, we rewrite Eqs. (544) and (545)
Z Z Z
(x + y )  Z = u  Z).. e
u e cos '{ e
(548)
By eliminating u between these two equations, we have e
Z
Z y
(549)
x
Z()"  1)
Z Z()"  1) cos '{ e
Z Z
()..  co s '{ ) e
This is the equation of a hyperbola symmetric with respect to the axes in the velocity coordinates system Dxy (Fig. 5 5).
Fig. 5 5. Locus of the terminus of the deorbit velocity for entry at given angle.
86
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
Ch. 5
The equation expresses that, for a deorbit from a prescribed position D , at a given distance ~ , in such a way that the entry angle Y is equal to a prescribed value, the terminus of the deorbit velocity
e~ must be on a branch of a hyperbola defined by Eq. (549). Each
hyplrbola corresponds to a specified entry angle Y • In particular,
when the entry is grazing, cos Y = 1 , and we h~ve the limiting
hyperbola e
(~ + 1)
Z
Z Y
(5 50)
x
Z
Z(~  1)
Figure 5 5 gives the plots of several hyperbolas, loci of the terminus of the deorbit velocity ~ , for several values of y ,and for an
initial distance ratio ~ = 1. 18. e
To each prescribed value y ,we have a branch of an hyperbola.
When the terminus of the vector e ~ moves along this hyperbola, it generates a family of descent trajeclories, all intersecting the atmosphere at a point E at a distance R , with the prescribed entry angle
y . The deorbit angle y can be used as a parameter for the
f eOl Z
arn i y.
If the entry speed is also prescribed, then the magnitude of Uz
is prescribed as given by Eq. (58). The descending orbit is obtained by finding the intersection of the circle of radius Uz and the hyperbola given by Eq. (549). We have, by using the Eqs. (58) and (546)
z x
z y
[uZ+Z(l_~)J
e
z cos yz
z
[u +Z(l~)J
e
o Z
s i n y Z
(5 51)
To simplify the notation, we rewrite Eq. (549) as
where
A
B
Z Z
Ax By
(5 5Z)
Z Z
~  cos y e
Z Z(~  1) cos y e
(5 53)
Z( ~  1)
By substituting the Eqs. (551) into Eq. (55Z) and solving for yz ' we have
cos yz
ue cosYe
(5 54)
~ ~ u! + Z(1  ~)
Ch. 5
RETURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
87
The branch of the hyperbola corresponding to the velocity Uz pointing in the same direction as the motion along the initial orbit corresponds to a solution providing two points of intersection, hence two values for
"Z . One solution "Z > 0 , gives a high descent orbit, while the other, "Z < 0 , gives a low descent orbit. The solutions are real when
< 1
(5 55)
}..) u! + z (1  x )
or, that is, when
u e
> }..
I_=Z=,,(}"~~l)~_
\j Z Z
}.. cos "e
(5 56)
For a given entry angle" there exists a lower bound for a pre
determined entry speed fo~ an entry trajectory to be physically possible. On the other hand, we can write Eq. (5 55) in terms of a condition on
"e
cos "e <
(5 57)
u e
Hence, if the entry speed is prescribed, there exists a lower bound for the entry angle" ' for an entry trajectory to be physically possible.
By prescrib1ng both" and u , for a given initial orbit, that is, for a given a land e e, we c~n also vary the deorbit position, by varying }.. , to satisfy lhe physical constraints on the entry. To study the influence of }.. on the condition for entry, we rewrite the condition (5 56)
v
z}.. (}..  1)
e
(5 58)
>
With" fixed, the right hand side of the inequality (5 58) is an increasing function of }.. . Hence its minimum corresponds to the position of deorbit at the periapsis of the initial orbit.
=a{le)
1 1
(5 59)
We conclude that, when V and" are both prescribed, for a given initial orbit, singleimpul~e deorbil is always possible if the following condition is satisfied
88
RE TURN TO THE ATMOSPHERE
Ch.5
V e
>
20' 1 (1  ell [a 1 (1  ell  1 ] 222 O'l(lel) cos 'Ie
(560)
We now return to the case where only the entry angle 'I is prescribed. Then, there exists a family of deorbit trajectori~s initiating from a prescribed deorbit position D . Using the deorbit flight path angle '12 as a parameter for this family, we can calculate the elements of the descent trajectory selected. This can be obtained by expressing the entry speed u in terms of the variables A, 'I ' and'l2 and then substituting intoethe equations obtained in section e5_ 2. For ue we have from Eq. (554)
u e
2(A  1)
cos '12
(5 61)
222
A cos '12  cos 'Ie
The deorbit speed "z is given by Eq. (545).
2 2 2 co s 'I e
A cos '12  cos 'Ie
2(A 1)
(562)
The magnitude of the velocity impulse ~ and its direction 0
are given by the Eqs. (511) and (512) respectively, with the initial speed given by Eq. (59) and the initial flight path angle by Eq. (510). The dimensionless semimajor axis of the descending trajectory is given by Eq. (513), written with the value of u given by Eq. (561)
e
as
0'2
2 2 2
A cos '12  cos 'Ie
Z 2
2(ACOS '12cos 'Ie)
(563)
The eccentricity of the descending trajectory is given by Eq. (514). In terms of A , 'Ie and '12 ' this is
1 
2 2 2 2
4A(A  l)(A cos '12  cos 'Ie) cos 'Ie cos '12
2 2 2 2
(A cos '12 cos 'Ie)
(564)
The longitude of periapsis of the descent trajectory is given by Eq. (523), where now the angle T1 is given in terms of the selected variables as
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