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TECHNICAL

GUIDELINES
Prepared by the International Concrete Repair Institute June 2013

Guideline No. 510.1-2013


Copyright ©2013 International Concrete Repair Institute

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques


to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for
Reinforced Concrete Structures
TECHNICAL
GUIDELINES
Prepared by the International Concrete Repair Institute June 2013

Guide for Electrochemical


Techniques to Mitigate
the Corrosion of
Steel for Reinforced
Concrete Structures
Guideline No. 510.1-2013

Copyright © 2013 International Concrete Repair Institute


All rights reserved.
International Concrete Repair Institute
10600 West Higgins Road, Suite 607, Rosemont, IL 60018
Phone: 847-827-0830 Fax: 847-827-0832
Web: www.icri.org
E-mail: info@icri.org
About ICRI Guidelines Producers of this Guideline
The International Concrete Repair Institute (ICRI) was
founded to improve the durability of concrete repair ICRI Committee 510, Corrosion
and enhance its value for structure owners. The iden- Matt Sherman, Chair
tification, development, and promotion of the most Peter DeNicola, Secretary
promising methods and materials are primary vehicles Randal M. Beard
for accelerating advances in repair technology. Working Jorge Costa
through a variety of forums, ICRI members have the
Timothy Gillespie
opportunity to address these issues and to directly
contribute to improving the practice of concrete repair. Fred Goodwin
Graeme Jones
A principal component of this effort is to make carefully Richard R. McGuire
selected information on important repair subjects Jessi Meyer
readily accessible to decision makers. During the past Brian J. Stratman
several decades, much has been reported in the liter­ Paul G. Tourney
ature on concrete repair methods and materials as they
Gerard J. Vaerewyck
have been developed and refined. Nevertheless, it has
been difficult to find critically reviewed information on Frank Verano
the state of the art condensed into easy-to-use formats. Robert Walde
David Whitmore, Subcommittee Chair
To that end, ICRI guidelines are prepared by sanctioned
task groups and approved by the ICRI Technical
Activities Committee. Each guideline is designed Acknowledgments
to address a specific area of practice recognized as The members of the committee thank the many
essential to the achievement of durable repairs. All ICRI members who, through their review of the
ICRI guideline documents are subject to continual guideline, offered many insightful and mean-
review by the membership and may be revised as ingful suggestions.
approved by the Technical Activities Committee.

Synopsis
Technical Activities Committee This guideline is intended to provide information
Kevin A. Michols, Chair on electrochemical techniques used to mitigate
James E. McDonald, RC the corrosion of steel in atmospherically exposed
Mark Hughes, Secretary concrete structures. The information presented is
Frank Apicella based on testing and the experience of owners,
Jorge Costa engineers, contractors, and suppliers. This guide-
Andrew S. Fulkerson line includes information on impressed current
Fred Goodwin and galvanic cathodic protection, electrochemical
Gabriel A. Jimenez chloride extraction, and realkalization.
Ralph C. Jones
Peter R. Kolf
David Rodler
Lee Sizemore
Keywords
cathodic protection; concrete; corrosion; corrosion
Aamer Syed
control; corrosion prevention; electro­chemical
David Whitmore
chloride extraction; electrochemical treatment;
galvanic; impressed current; realkalization

This document is intended as a voluntary guideline for the owner, design professional, and
concrete repair contractor. It is not intended to relieve the professional engineer or designer
of any responsibility for the specification of concrete repair methods, materials, or practices.
While we believe the information contained herein represents the proper means to achieve
quality results, the International Concrete Repair Institute must disclaim any liability or
responsi­bility to those who may choose to rely on all or any part of this guideline.

510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
Contents

1.0 Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Purpose........................................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 The Economic Case for Using Electrochemical Corrosion Mitigation Systems................................ 1
1.3 History......................................................................................................................................... 2
2.0 Safety Considerations........................................................................................................................ 3
3.0 Developing a Corrosion Management Plan....................................................................................... 3
3.1 Project Document Review............................................................................................................. 3
3.1.1 Original Design and Contract Documents............................................................................ 3
3.1.2 Original Construction Submittals......................................................................................... 4
3.1.3 Other Construction Documentation...................................................................................... 4
3.1.4 Repair and Maintenance Documentation............................................................................. 4
3.1.5 Historic Standards............................................................................................................... 4
3.2 Condition Surveys........................................................................................................................ 4
4.0 Corrosion of Steel in Concrete........................................................................................................... 5
4.1 Corrosion Process of Steel in Concrete......................................................................................... 5
4.2 Environmental Conditions............................................................................................................. 6
4.2.1 Exterior Exposure................................................................................................................ 6
4.2.2 Interior Exposure................................................................................................................. 6
4.2.3 Industrial Exposure.............................................................................................................. 6
4.2.4 Urban and Rural Exposure................................................................................................... 6
4.2.5 Coastal Exposure................................................................................................................ 6
4.3 Service-Life Expectations............................................................................................................. 6
4.4 Economics that Affect Decision Making........................................................................................ 7
5.0 Corrosion Mitigation Techniques: Cathodic Protection (CP) and Electrochemical Treatments....... 7
5.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 7
5.2 General Mechanism and Common Requirements.......................................................................... 8
5.2.1 Electrical Continuity............................................................................................................. 8
5.2.2 Electrical Connections to the Reinforcing Steel.................................................................... 8
5.2.3 Electrical Connections to Anodes......................................................................................... 8
5.2.4 Short Circuits...................................................................................................................... 8
5.2.5 Hydrogen Embrittlement...................................................................................................... 8
5.3 Cathodic Protection...................................................................................................................... 9
5.3.1 Mechanism of Protection (ICCP).......................................................................................... 9
5.3.2 Mechanism of Protection (GCP)........................................................................................... 9
5.3.3 Additional Components...................................................................................................... 10
5.3.4 Design Process................................................................................................................. 10
5.3.5 Distributed Anode Systems for ICCP.................................................................................. 11
5.3.5.1 Conductive Coatings............................................................................................. 11
5.3.5.2 Conductive Overlays.............................................................................................. 11
5.3.5.3 MMO Titanium Anode Systems.............................................................................. 11
5.3.6 Discrete Anode Systems for ICCP...................................................................................... 12
5.3.7 Localized Galvanic Systems.............................................................................................. 12
5.3.8 Distributed Galvanic Systems............................................................................................ 13
5.3.8.1 Zinc Installed Inside Protective Jackets in Marine Environments............................ 14
5.3.8.2 Spray-Applied Galvanic Anodes............................................................................. 14
5.3.8.3 Embedded Galvanic Strip Anodes.......................................................................... 15
5.3.8.4 Self-Adherent Galvanic Sheet Anodes.................................................................... 15

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013
Contents

5.4 Electrochemical Treatments........................................................................................................ 15


5.4.1 Mechanism....................................................................................................................... 15
5.4.2 Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE).......................................................................... 15
5.4.3 Electrochemical Realkalization (ERA)................................................................................. 16
6.0 Performance and Longevity of Mitigation Systems........................................................................ 16
6.1 Performance Management......................................................................................................... 16
6.2 Post-Installation Considerations.................................................................................................. 17
7.0 Summary........................................................................................................................................... 17
8.0 References and Standards............................................................................................................... 18
8.1 Referenced Standards and Reports............................................................................................. 18
8.2 Cited References........................................................................................................................ 20

510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
1.0 Introduction intended to supersede sound judgment exercised
by engineers or other qualified licensed designers
1.1 Purpose in the selection and implementation of appropriate
The primary purpose of this guideline is to pro- corrosion mitigation countermeasures for affected
vide information on electrochemical techniques concrete structures. Furthermore, corrosion
used to mitigate the corrosion of reinforcing steel evaluation and design of electrochemical mitiga-
in atmospherically exposed concrete structures. tion techniques requires specialized knowledge
This document is not intended to limit the cor- and experience, and the procedures discussed
rosion mitigation techniques to those mentioned vary considerably in their features, benefits,
herein, but rather to provide basic information limitations, service life, and disruption to the
about those that are commercially available at normal activities of the structure. In addition,
the time of this document’s publication. This site-specific conditions may require variations
guideline is not intended to validate or confirm and/or modifications of the techniques described
performance for any of the systems described. herein for adequate corrosion protection. As such,
The information presented is based on testing the ultimate selection of the most appropriate
and experience performed and acquired by countermeasure should follow a thorough assess-
owners, engineers, contractors, and vendors ment of the root causes that have resulted in
engaged in the rehabilitation and protection of corrosion of the reinforcement and should be done
reinforced concrete structures affected by corro- by qualified personnel with established creden-
sion of the reinforcement. tials and experience in this field. Typical qual­
This guideline includes information on ifications include Professional Engineering
impressed current and galvanic cathodic protec- Registration, National Association of Corrosion
tion, electrochemical chloride extraction, and Engineers (NACE), Cathodic Protection Spe-
realkalization. The guideline does not include cialist Certification, and other qualifications by
information on coatings, overlays, and other virtue of education and experience as may be
strategies to waterproof and protect that may also acceptable to owners and end-users of these
provide corrosion protection benefits. This docu- technologies. In the drafting of this guideline, the
ment also does not include information on authors have attempted to avoid undue repetition
electro-osmotic pulse, which is an electrochem- of information available from other sources such
ical technique primarily intended as a concrete as ASTM International, NACE, and European
drying method that also provides benefits in standards. Guidance is provided such that the
mitigating corrosion. This document also does reader can readily source these complementary
not include information on electrokinetic nano­ documents and, where relevant, an explanation
particle treatment, which is an electrochemical is provided of the issues arising with the use of
technique that is primarily intended as a method corrosion mitigation solutions for reinforced
to improve the physical properties of concrete, concrete and masonry structures. Also, this
nor does it include information on electrochem- document does not attempt to duplicate or super-
ical lithium impregnation, which is primarily sede previous publications and refers to other
intended as a treatment for alkali-silica reaction. documents from NACE, the UK Concrete
These electrochemical techniques also provide Society, and the Comité européen de normalisa-
benefits in mitigating corrosion. tion (CEN) standards, where applicable.
For the purpose of this guideline, the word
“structures” includes buildings, bridges, tunnels, 1.2 The Economic Case
piers, parking garages, and similar types of
construction. Corrosion mitigation is taken to
for Using Electrochemical
mean the reduction or stoppage of corrosion in Corrosion Mitigation Systems
the structure. Corrosion is a multi-billion-dollar problem in the
This guideline is intended to help familiarize United States and other countries (FHWA-
owners, engineers, contractors, suppliers, and RD-01-156). Corrosion cost studies carried out
other interested parties with the procedures, in the U.S. (NACE), the UK, and Japan have
equipment, materials, and other aspects of the shown that a cost figure of 3 to 4% of their gross
evaluation and selection of corrosion mitigation national product can be attributed to the direct
techniques for reinforced concrete structures. and indirect cost of overall corrosion, including
None of the information presented herein is reinforced concrete structures. In 2002, the

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013 - 1
outlined in this guideline mainly evolved from
that method. CP dates from the 1800s, when Sir
Humphrey Davy used a form of galvanic cathodic
protection (GCP) in seawater environments to
protect the hulls of Royal Navy ships.
Impressed current cathodic protection
(ICCP) has been widely used to protect under-
ground structures such as pipelines and storage
tanks since the 1950s. The earliest aboveground
reinforced concrete ICCP systems were reported
in the late 1950s for the protection of bridge
decks. They used high-silicon cast-iron anodes
with a conductive backfill of coke breeze.
Many such systems were installed between
Fig. 1-1: Bridge beam corrosion 1973 and 1980.
Some of the ICCP systems installed on rein-
forced concrete bridge decks in the 1980s used
a design consisting of a series of platinum-clad
niobium wires embedded in conductive polymer
mounds. This type of CP system was installed
prior to the installation of a concrete overlay.
These systems are no longer used due to perfor-
mance issues.
Many of these systems predated the use of
conductive coating and mixed metal oxide
(MMO) titanium anodes that entered the market
and have been used for parking and bridge struc-
tures from circa 1980. MMO-coated titanium
anodes for use in ICCP systems for reinforced
concrete structures were introduced around 1985.
Fig. 1-2: Reinforcing steel corrosion in a parking These systems are available in ribbon, tubular,
garage slab and expanded mesh-type anode formats and are
embedded in slots in the concrete, overlaid with
FHWA/NACE Cost of Corrosion Report sug- mortar, or cast directly into the concrete (SHRP-
gested a figure of $1 to $3 trillion as the cost to S-372; SHRP-C/UWP-92-618).
rehabilitate all reinforced concrete structures in It was not until the mid-1990s that the discrete
the U.S. suffering from corrosion-related distress anode form of ICCP was developed with options
(FHWA-RD-01-156). Examples of reinforce­ existing with activated titanium (tubular and
ment corrosion damage to a bridge support beam mesh forms) and conductive ceramic-type
and the soffit of a parking garage are shown in anodes. Discrete anodes have been used to pro-
Fig. 1-1 and 1-2. vide specialized targeted protection (to bridge
Because of the magnitude of this problem, and parking structure joints, for example) or used
both the public and private sectors have ongoing holistically for the protection of bridge support
activities aimed at reducing or eliminating cor- beams, thick concrete sections, and historic
rosion damage to concrete structures. Many steel-frame buildings (ETL 1110-9-10(FR)).
technologies and materials have been developed Electrochemical treatments were developed
for prevention and repair of corrosion-induced in the mid-1980s to treat corroding structures by
damage. The challenge is to select durable, cost- removing contaminants and changing the chem-
effective technologies and materials from the istry of the concrete around the reinforced steel.
numerous choices available. There are two principal electrochemical treat-
ments: electrochemical chloride extraction and
1.3 History electrochemical realkalization. The first com-
The technique with the most traceable history is mercial application of realkalization was in 1987
cathodic protection (CP). The other technologies to increase the pH of carbonated concrete in the

2 - 510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
façades of a building in Tromso, Northern Recommendations for Safety in the Concrete
Norway (Kennedy et. al. 1993; Whitmore 1996). Repair Industry,” for guidance on safe work
The first commercial applications of electro- practices in the concrete repair industry.
chemical chloride extraction were in 1988 in the
Norwegian towns of Trondheim and Stavanger,
where chloride-contaminated concrete was
3.0 Developing
treated (Miller 1989). a Corrosion
In 1988, field and laboratory trials of electro-
chemical chloride extraction were instigated as
Management Plan
Prior to starting an investigation or repair project,
part of the Strategic Highway Research Program
a plan should be developed to align the expecta-
in Ontario, Canada (SHRP C-620) and in Ohio,
tions of all parties and to guide the work in an
USA (SHRP S-669). Since then, over 5,000,000 ft2
efficient and orderly manner. This plan should
(460,000 m2) of concrete surface area have been
include a review of available documents, docu-
treated on hundreds of structures using these
mentation of the environmental conditions, and
methods. Treated structures can be found in
a definition of service-life expectations, as
Europe, North America, the Middle East, Aus-
described in the following.
tralia, and Asia. Over time, the use of electro-
chemical mitigation methods to protect concrete
has seen a variety of structures protected,
3.1 Project Document Review
including apartment and office buildings, bridges, The first step in developing a corrosion manage-
parking structures, retaining walls, and industrial ment plan is a review of available project docu-
buildings (Kennedy et. al. 1993; Velivasakis et. ments, including the following:
al. 1998; NACE 01101; NACE 01104). 1. Original design and contract documents;
2. Original construction submittals;

2.0 Safety 3. Other construction documentation;


4. Repair and maintenance documentation; and
Considerations 5. Historic standards.
Reinforced concrete construction consists of steel The primary purpose of the document review
reinforcement (uncoated or coated) placed in a is to gather background information on the
mixture of cement, aggregate, and water of var- original construction, performance, and repair of
ious formulations. The concrete cover can the structure to aid in the thorough understanding
weather, crack, spall, and deteriorate due to a of its materials, configuration, and behavior.
combination of forces such as environmental The process of specifying a mitigation option
conditions over time, internal stresses, and should include interviews with the owner, prop-
external loading. Damage may be in the form of erty manager, structural engineer, or other indi-
broken pieces of concrete, cracks, corrosion, viduals who have been actively involved with the
efflorescence, staining, delamination, or spalling construction and maintenance of the structure
of areas of concrete cover. Given the threat of over a period of time or who are intimately
falling objects before and during the evaluation familiar with the focus of the project. Such con-
and repair of the structure, these conditions pose tacts can provide a living history of the structure
a potential safety hazard. that might only be discovered otherwise through
Repair work may require access to the exte- time-consuming review of existing written docu-
rior of the structure via ground-supported frame mentation and drawings.
or system scaffold, mast climbers, or suspended
scaffolding. The design, erection, and usage of 3.1.1 Original Design and
the designated access equipment must be care- Contract Documents
fully planned and executed. During construction These documents include drawings and specifica-
activities, all personnel engaged in the work tions for the original construction of the structure.
should be outfitted with the appropriate personal Structural drawings will often show loads, per-
protective equipment and fall protection equip- formance criteria, and the strength of the materials
ment as required. All safety equipment must specified for use in the construction. Architectural
meet applicable Occupational Safety & Health drawings may also show materials and the rela-
Association (OSHA) standards. Refer to ICRI tionships among structural components. Mechan-
Technical Guideline 120.1, “Guidelines and ical and electrical drawings sometimes show

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013 - 3
openings and embedded items that could be nance provided by these professionals are docu-
important. Documents identified with the latest mented on as-build drawings and field reports.
issue date will generally provide the most accu- These documents should be reviewed because
rate information and criteria for the structure’s they may provide vital information regarding the
original construction. Ideally, “as built” or history and construction of the structure.
“record set” drawings, if available, should be
reviewed. However, these documents are not 3.1.5 Historic Standards
always comprehensive or accurate in their rep- Sources for building specific documents can
resentation of the actual built structure. They include the owners, design professionals, permit-
should be carefully compared with other docu- ting authorities, contractors, key subcontractors,
mentation and observed conditions. testing agencies, and building managers. Docu-
mentation for historic structures may also reside
3.1.2 Original Construction in preservation societies, local libraries, and uni­
Submittals versities. Professional societies, building trade
The submittals include shop drawings, product organizations, and publishers catering to the
literature, material data sheets, test reports, construction industry have numerous documents
installation instructions, mockup reports, and on current and historic construction details and
warranties. While not generally retained by materials. The building codes in effect at the time
owners or easily obtained, these documents of the construction also describe key standards
supplement the original design and contract in effect at the time of the construction. Condi-
documents and may contain detailed information tions that are of particular interest may include:
about the fabrication, installation, and warrant- • Prestressed/post-tensioned elements and duct
able performance of components: types;
• Shop drawings: Shop drawings may contain • Isolated metal details;
specific details of construction, including • Anchorage details;
element shapes, support components, struc- • Structural steel details;
tural steel, penetrations and embedded items, • Reinforcement type, especially the presence
or anchorage systems; and and type of coatings on reinforcing steel; and
• Material submittals: Material submittals can • Stray electrical currents.
be useful to determine or confirm the strengths,
sizes, and standard details of the materials 3.2 Condition Surveys
used in the construction. Additionally, know­ The term “condition survey” describes assess-
ledge of proprietary products can assist in ment of the deterioration mechanisms and causes
obtaining in-kind replacement materials. of the associated damage that is designed to lead
to the selection of the appropriate corrosion
3.1.3 Other Construction mitigation technique(s). To provide future low
Documentation maintenance and long-term protection, specific
These documents include change orders, bulle- information on the condition of the structure is
tins, directives, meeting minutes, correspon- needed. The survey documents that are useful to
dence, test reports, photographs, and other review include property reports; engineering
documentation during construction of the struc- evaluations; occupant surveys; post-construction
ture. These documents often clarify or modify inspection reports; bridge inspections; and other
the design documents, but they are usually not reports providing historical information on the
available after usage of the structure has begun. condition, problems, and performance of the
structure. Comparison of observed conditions
3.1.4 Repair and Maintenance with previously reported conditions can be used
Documentation to develop a service history and determine causes
Repair and maintenance are sometimes performed and rates of deterioration.
by the facility personnel without creating any Technology and scientific methods are avail-
technical documents or contract. Sometimes, these able to evaluate corrosion of reinforcing steel
repairs or maintenance can alter the original func- (and other embedded metals) and the associated
tion of the construction. There are other mainte- damage. These techniques are designed to deter-
nance and repairs that are performed during the mine the extent of damage, define the corrosion
life of the structure by a professional consultant state of steel in undamaged areas, evaluate the
or contractor. Typically, the repairs and mainte- cause(s) of corrosion, and determine the prob-

4 - 510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
ability of the steel to corrode in the future. After of the issues normally encountered with rein-
this information is obtained, a suitable repair and forced concrete structures. For additional infor-
corrosion protection strategy can be developed. mation on the corrosion of steel in concrete, refer
It is important to point out that concrete itself to ACI 222.2R.
can deteriorate regardless of the condition of The high pH normally present in the concrete
embedded reinforcement. Examples of this surrounding the reinforcing steel naturally pas-
include freezing-and-thawing deterioration and sivates the steel surface to provide a durable and
alkali-silica reactions. Although these damage versatile material. The passivated surface can be
mechanisms are not caused by corrosion, they compromised by several factors, such as chloride
can result in accelerated corrosion by compro- or carbonation, which allows initiation of corro-
mising the passive protective environment pro- sion. To initiate corrosion on the steel surface,
vided by the concrete. oxygen and water need to be present to provide
The most important reason for investing in a cathodic reaction.
such a survey is to provide valuable data to ensure It is important to note there are two distinctly
the correct technical solution(s) are devised and separate reactions: anodic (where corrosion actu-
the owner can anticipate the best value for the ally happens) and cathodic (where corrosion is
money for achieving the service-life extension of prevented). Steel can and often does corrode in
the structure. The assistance of a professional oxygen-deficient areas as long as oxygen is
engineer or corrosion specialist is recommended present in other (cathodic) areas. The typical
to conduct the condition survey. In addition, it is reactions occurring at anodic and cathodic areas
common to undertake a physical condition survey of steel in concrete are as follows:
for reinforced concrete structures by assessing
At the anode, iron dissolves to form iron ions.
and quantifying the nature of the problem with:
• Visual inspection (ACI 201.1R); (Anode) Fe Fe 2+ + 2e– (oxidation/corrosion reaction)
• Acoustic sounding (ASTM D4580);
At the cathode, oxygen combines with water and
• Concrete cover (ACI 228.2R);
electrons to form hydroxyl ions (Lowenstein 1995).
• Corrosion potential (ASTM C876);
• Chloride content (ASTM C1152/C1152M, (Cathode) 1/2 O2 + H2O + 2e– 20H– (reduction reaction)
C1218/C1218M); and
The corrosion process is facilitated by depas-
• Carbonation (EN 14630).
sivating agents, such as chloride, other corrosive
Other advanced techniques that can be used
ions, and reduced pH. Chloride and other cor-
include corrosion rate assessment (normally
rosive ions disrupt the formation of the passive
using linear polarization resistance or galvano-
iron oxide layer that is generally stable under
static pulse), petrographic analysis (ASTM
alkaline conditions. This situation can lead to
C856), thermography (ASTM D4788), and
corrosion that, under normal oxygen availability,
concrete resistivity (ASTM G57).
forms corrosion products that occupy up to eight
The survey data are essential to determine
to 10 times the volume of the original steel. This
quantities for repair cost estimation purposes to
volume change causes expansive forces that
evaluate the root cause of the problem and to
exceed the tensile strength of the concrete
develop a corrosion-management strategy that
resulting in spalling, delamination, and cracking
offers the correct mitigation options. It is not
of the concrete cover.
uncommon to adopt more than one mitigation
Concrete quality is arguably a main factor in
option to develop a holistic approach to protect
the corrosion process, as poor-quality concrete
a structure.
can reduce the timeline to corrosion initiation
and may provide little or no protection once the
4.0 Corrosion of Steel corrosion process has begun. Formation of cracks

in Concrete due to restrained shrinkage, loading, or other


factors can also reduce the time to initiation of
corrosion by providing pathways for corrosive
4.1 Corrosion Process of Steel agents to reach reinforcing steel. Successful cor-
in Concrete rosion mitigation methods address at least one
It is not the intent of this guideline to provide a of the processes that cause depassivation of the
detailed description of the science of the corro- steel reinforcement and hence mitigate the prop­
sion process but instead to provide an overview agation of corrosion.

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013 - 5
4.2 Environmental Conditions 4.2.4 Urban and Rural Exposure
The external and internal environments are Urban and rural environments are typically less
important factors affecting the performance of aggressive than industrial environments. As a
reinforced concrete structures. Structural deteri­ result, corrosion mitigation systems typically can
oration is much more likely in an environment be designed to minimize the current density
with excessive moisture, elevated temperatures, requirements for impressed current cathodic
aggressive chemicals, or excessive loading. Any protection (ICCP) and galvanic cathodic protec-
of these factors can contribute to deterioration and tion (GCP) systems to provide longevity and a
requirements for rehabilitation with or without suitably optimized economic solution.
corrosion mitigation techniques being used. When
analyzing the cause of the deteri­oration of a 4.2.5 Coastal Exposure
structure, it is critical to include an examination Coastal environments are generally highly cor-
and evaluation of the environmental conditions rosive. Coastal environments are subject to wind
surrounding the structure. For a successful reha- and rain, along with direct exposure to saltwater
bilitation and for defining future performance and salt-laden mist. The combination of moisture
expectations, envi­ronmental influences on the and salt can cause severe corrosion of the rein-
deterioration must be considered. forcing steel. Therefore, evaluation of structures
in coastal regions should consider the highly
4.2.1 Exterior Exposure corrosive nature of the coastal environment.
Exterior climate, especially exposure to mois-
ture, wide temperature variances, chloride ions, 4.3 Service-Life Expectations
and aggressive chemicals, must be considered. Many structures exposed to a corrosive environ-
Freezing of critically saturated concrete can lead ment have been deteriorating for years; there-
to freezing-and-thawing damage. High tempera- fore, the service life remaining is one of the key
tures and moisture can lead to the acceleration factors to assess. To choose the most important
of corrosion, and the resultant expansion could techniques or a combination of techniques to
result in premature cracking. Exposure to acid best suit the remediation of the structure, the
rain and carbon dioxide can lead to carbonation owner needs to agree with the service-life exten-
and corrosion. sion period. The ability of each mitigation
technique to achieve the agreed upon service-life
4.2.2 Interior Exposure extension should be assessed by the corrosion
A controlled interior climate is typically less
specialist for the project and be justified during
aggressive than an exterior, non-climate controlled
the detailed design.
environment. However, humidity and condensa-
A schematic derived from Tuuti’s model
tion may result in premature corrosion and dete-
(Fig. 4-1) illustrates the effect of intervention
rioration of steel reinforcing, resulting in loss of
on phases of corrosion development with
structural integrity of the structure. Additionally,
respect to service life and theoretical level of
the differential pressure between exterior and
maximum permissible corrosion. Corrosion
interior envelopes of buildings can result in water
progresses over a structure’s service life, as
infiltration. Typically, thorough investigation,
shown in Fig. 4-1. Initially, no corrosion takes
including exploratory openings in the structure,
place until ingress of chlorides, carbonation, or
may be required to determine potential structural
other aggressive species cause corrosion initia-
and serviceability issues in these exposures.
tion. Proactive intervention during the corrosion
4.2.3 Industrial Exposure initiation phase is very cost-effective and results
Industrial environments may cause premature in both a delay of corrosion propagation and an
deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. extension of service life. With early interven-
Aggressive chemicals, high humidity, and high tion, it is likely that the time to reach maximum
carbon-dioxide levels can lead to premature permissible corrosion will be extended; thus,
deterioration of the concrete and the reinforcing the service-life extension is increased. It is also
steel. Corrosion mitigation of structures in an likely that the longer the propagation phase has
industrial environment requires a thorough progressed, the more robust the corrosion
understanding of the processes and chemicals mitigation technique must be to sufficiently
and their potential to cause premature deteriora- reduce the corrosion rate to achieve a service-
tion of the structure components. life extension.

6 - 510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
Corrosion of Steel Maximum Permissible Corrosion
Reinforcement
Intervention Point
(Reactive maintenance)

Intervention Point
(Proactive maintenance)

Time

Corrosion Initiation Phase Corrosion Propagation Phase

Ingress of aggressive species


through cover concrete
e.g. chlorides, carbonation
Accelerated degradation of
steel reinforcement

Extended
Service Life without Maintenance
Service Life

Fig. 4-1: Impact of various intervention stages on service-life extension

4.4 Economics that Affect used to protect steel reinforcement from corro-
sion. These include:
Decision Making • Impressed current cathodic protection
The economic constraints on any project can (ICCP);
dictate the choice of mitigation techniques. How- • Galvanic cathodic protection (GCP);
ever, even low-cost solutions must be technically • Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE);
justified or there is a risk that the desired service- and
life extension will not or cannot be met. In addi- • Electrochemical realkalization (ERA).
tion, it should be recognized that it is possible for This guideline outlines the mechanisms of
lower-cost interventions to result in higher life- protection and does not advocate any particular
cycle costs if the resulting corrosion mitigation technique. As stated previously, the mecha-
is less effective or the service life is shortened. nisms used will be dictated by the technical
Value engineering can be advantageous if a more and economic merits as they relate to the spe-
economical approach is devised that still meets cific problem with a specific structure. In addi-
the technical requirements of the project. tion, a coating system may be a beneficial
component of a mitigation technique as either
5.0 Corrosion a technical requirement of the system or as an
aesthetic consideration. Selection of a coating
Mitigation Techniques: should be made carefully to ensure compati-
bility with the electrochemical technique and
Cathodic Protection (CP) and durability of the entire system. A typical system
Electrochemical Treatments selection flowchart is outlined in Fig. 5-1. This
chapter also provides guidance on the perfor-
5.1 Introduction mance characteristics of each technique and
The following section describes the various the management requirements following
electrochemical techniques that are commonly their use.

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013 - 7
5.2.2 Electrical Connections to the
Reinforcing Steel
The electrochemical system must be electrically
connected to the reinforcing steel to be protected.
The electrical connections to the reinforcing steel
must be durable and should be confirmed by field
testing. The number and location of electrical
connections to the reinforcing steel should meet
or exceed manufacturer’s recommendations.

5.2.3 Electrical Connections


to Anodes
The electrochemical system must be electrically
connected to the installed anode(s). These elec-
trical connections have an increased risk of
corrosion compared to reinforcing steel connec-
tions; therefore, additional care must be taken to
specify and install durable electrical connections
to the anodes. For impressed current anode con-
nections, there is a risk the connection wire may
corrode if it is not completely sealed from the
Fig. 5-1: System selection flowchart environment or if it is not made from a corrosion-
resistant material. For galvanic system anode
connections, the anode is corroding over time so
5.2 General Mechanism and care must be taken with the anode connection
Common Requirements detail to ensure the connection between the anode
and the connection wire is not lost due to corro-
Cathodic protection and electrochemical treat-
sion of the anode material itself. The use of
ments involve passing direct current from an
multiple connections is recommended to ensure
anode to the reinforcing steel within the concrete.
redundancy in the installed system.
The amount of current and the duration the
current is applied to the structure will vary 5.2.4 Short Circuits
depending on the type of system. There are a In the case of ICCP and electrochemical treat-
num­­­­ber of general requirements that apply to all ments, it is important that there are no electrical
electrochemical techniques used to mitigate the short circuits between the anode and the reinforcing
corrosion of steel in concrete. Some of the gen- steel to be protected. If a short circuit is present,
eral requirements are outlined in the following. it will not be possible to energize the system and
the reinforcing steel will not be protected.
5.2.1 Electrical Continuity
For steel to be protected, it must be electrically 5.2.5 Hydrogen Embrittlement
connected to the electrochemical system. Uncon- Some electrochemical techniques that apply
nected (discontinuous) metallic elements will higher potentials can result in the hydrolysis
not receive any protection from the installed (decomposition) of water. If this occurs,
system. In addition, discontinuous metal sections hydrogen may be generated at the steel/concrete
may inadvertently be forced to corrode by the interface. Electrochemical techniques that are
operating system if they are located within the likely to operate above this potential include
area of influence of the system. This is sometimes ECE, ERA, and ICCP.
referred to as “stray current corrosion” and Certain types of steel, including some high-
should be avoided. Generally, it is desirable to tensile, high-carbon steels used for post-ten-
confirm that all embedded metallic (steel) con- sioning and prestressed tendons in concrete, are
ductors within the area of influence of the elec- sensitive to the presence of hydrogen such that
trochemical technique are electrically inter­ they may lose ductility and become brittle. For
connected. Any unconnected (discontinuous) this reason, the use of electrochemical tech-
metal should be electrically connected to the rest niques, which may result in the generation of
of the steel to be protected. hydrogen, is generally not recommended on

8 - 510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
portions of structures that may contain high-
carbon steel, such as prestresssing or post-ten-
sioning steel, which may be adversely affected
by hydrogen embrittlement (Enos et. al. 1996).
Conventional reinforcing steel is not adversely
affected by the presence of hydrogen and does
not experience embrittlement.

5.3 Cathodic Protection


Cathodic protection refers to the process of
delivering a direct current using an anode to
counteract the corrosion current of steel within
a conductive electrolyte (Pedeferri 1996; Scan- Fig. 5-2: Impressed current cathodic protection system
nell and Sohnghpurwala 1993). For the purposes
of this document, the electrolyte is generally the
water and ionically conductive materials within
concrete. This method in effect moves the anodic
reaction from the steel to another artificial anode
where the passage of current can occur without
damage to the concrete. CP systems can be
grouped into two basic types: impressed current
(that requires an external power supply) and
galvanic or sacrificial systems (that generate
their own current via the bimetallic coupling of
dissimilar metals). In both cases, the current
polarizes and protects the reinforcing steel,
making it function as a cathode—hence, the
name cathodic protection.
The prerequisite for a material to be regarded Fig. 5-3: Galvanic (sacrificial) anode protection
as a durable ICCP anode is that it must be con-
ductive and stable. Testing ICCP anode materials current is supplied from an external source, most
in accordance with NACE TM 0294 will verify often an AC/DC (transformer) rectifier (NACE
their durability and functionality. The following SP 0290).
sections describe the generic anode materials on
the market at time of printing that have a sig- 5.3.2 Mechanism of Protection (GCP)
nificant track record for protecting steel in con- Galvanic (or sacrificial) anode cathodic protec-
crete by the ICCP and GCP methods. It is noted tion of steel in concrete requires the steel to be
that over-polarization of tensioned (prestressed connected to a more electronegative (more
or post-tensioned) steel by cathodic protection active/less noble) metal such as zinc. Because of
may present a risk of hydrogen embrittlement. their different electrochemical potentials, elec-
While this may not be as significant a risk with trons flow from the anode to the cathode. Electron
galvanic systems, if an ICCP system is used, it loss at the anodes causes the anodes to cor­rode
is essential for the designer to ensure that polar- (oxidize). The electrons provided by the galvanic
ization controls are available within the manage- anode protect the steel (cathode) from corroding.
ment system to prevent over-polarization. GCP is similar to ICCP in that a current of
sufficient density is required to protect the target
5.3.1 Mechanism of Protection (ICCP) steel. This can be provided either locally or in a
Impressed current cathodic protection forces a distributed manner (see Performance and Lon-
direct current from an external power supply to gevity of Mitigation Techniques, Section 6).
flow from an anode through the concrete to the There is no external power supply required as
reinforcing steel, as shown in Fig. 5-2. A current the galvanic cell set up between the steel and the
of sufficient magnitude and direction is necessary more base metal (for example, zinc) drives the
to overcome the natural flow of electrons current naturally, as shown in Fig. 5-3 (UFGS-26
resulting from the corrosion process. The direct 42 13.00 20).

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013 - 9
5.3.3 Additional Components corroding or are in less aggressive environments.
In addition to the anode system, there is a require- Suitability and future maintenance issues should
ment for other components to make up the full be considered within the design phase.
CP system. For ICCP systems, these include: With all electrochemical techniques that pass
• Cathode (steel) connections; a current into a structure, the layout of the steel
• DC cabling (positive [anode] and negative reinforcement should be known and the electrical
[steel] circuits); continuity of the steel should be confirmed. The
• Junction boxes; effectiveness and design of a CP system will
• Monitoring devices (reference electrodes and depend on environmental conditions such as
corrosion rate probes) with wiring; moisture and chloride content of the concrete;
• Power and control units (transformer-rectifier) environmental exposure conditions; and the
with environmentally protected boxes; presence of coatings, sealers, and other high-
• Monitoring measurement electronics (optional); resistance layers.
and The localized use of galvanic anodes within
• Network and central control unit (optional). the repair is a possible exception to the need for
For GCP systems, these include: (a) cathode electrical continuity. In this case, the target steel
(steel) connections; and (b) monitoring measure- is typically the reinforcing steel that extends from
ment electronics (optional). within the repair to the area directly adjacent to
Cabling for DC and monitoring circuits is the perimeter as a method of controlling ring (or
detailed in the standards documentation and incipient) anodes. In this instance, the electrical
should also comply with national building codes. continuity of the reinforcing steel should still be
These are normally color-coded for ease of tested, but the risk of isolated steel within the
identification and labeled according to the design local area is limited. However, for distributed
requirements. If networks are used for distributed galvanic systems, distributed and discrete ICCP
management systems, then typically these should systems, and electrochemical treatments, it is
comply with protocols such as the American important that the steel is electrically continuous
National Standards Institute (ANSI) EIA709.1 to avoid the risk of stray current corrosion.
for open network communication. Junction The design process requires knowledge of the
boxes and zonal electronic enclosures for following features of the structure in question:
housing external connections and components • Steel configurations and dimensions;
should be environmentally protected for the • Construction layout and geometric features;
conditions prevalent to that site, which may • Site layout; and
include dust and water protection, such as • Code compliance.
National Electrical Manufacturers Association This should lead to development of a detailed
(NEMA) 4x or IP65. design document that may include the following
sections:
5.3.4 Design Process • Design life expectancy;
After all information is gathered, the next step • Steel surface area calculations;
is designing a plan for repair and mitigation • Anode details;
(NACE SP 0187). A formal repair design is • Cathode (steel) connections and circuit
helpful in estimating costs and the effects of the details;
work on the structure. A formal design is neces- • Electrical wiring/circuit diagrams (especially
sary for ICCP systems due to their complexity. ICCP);
A formal design may not be required with the • Monitoring instrumentation details;
localized use of galvanic anodes within the • Method to ensure all embedded metal is
repair, where the target steel is typically the steel electrically connected;
that extends from within the repair to the area • Power, control, and management systems
directly adjacent to the perimeter as a method of (with or without remote capability); and
controlling ring (or incipient) anodes. • Future maintenance requirements.
In some cases, electrochemical techniques The design documentation may be a docu-
may be avoided; and the use of techniques such ment that evolves to an installation and commis-
as the application of coatings, sealers, and water- sioning document (archive of the installation
proofing membranes may provide sufficient including as-built information and drawings or
longevity for structures that are not currently proof of correct design implementation) and to

10 - 510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
an operations and maintenance document that
details the future management of the corrosion Cementitious
conductive
mitigation to that structure (NACE SP 0390). overlay
5.3.5 Distributed Anode Systems
for ICCP
Three main types of distributed anode ICCP
systems are typically used. These are: 1) con­
ductive coatings; 2) conductive overlays; and
3) mixed metal oxide (activated) titanium mesh.
5.3.5.1 Conductive Coatings
One type of conductive coating anode system
consists of carbon as the main anode component
within an organic vehicle, such as polyurethane
or acrylic or an inorganic vehicle such as silicate.
These systems can be applied using normal
methods of spray, brush, or roller to cover a
prepared (typically grit-blasted) concrete sur-
face. Because carbon is not as inert as some other
anode materials, it is consumed over time, has a
lower anodic current density capability (max-
imum of 20 mA/m2), and is generally not suitable Fig. 5-4: Cementitious conductive overlay on
for structures with higher steel densities. Gener- a concrete-paneled college building
ally, these systems have been installed on balco-
nies and the soffits of parking garage slabs.
Another type of conductive coating is surface-
applied, arc-sprayed zinc metalizing. Zinc is also
not an inert anode material and will be consumed
over time as the system operates. When con-
nected to an AC/DC transformer rectifier, arc-
sprayed zinc or carbon-filled conductive coatings
can be used as an ICCP anode.
5.3.5.2 Conductive Overlays
Conductive overlays, as shown in Fig. 5-4, are
similar to conductive coatings in that they gener-
ally depend on carbon as the anode but, in this
Fig. 5-5: MMO titanium anode mesh installation
case, within a cementitious or asphaltic vehicle.
The anode is spray-applied, poured, or otherwise
and walls. MMO titanium anode mesh being
applied to the surface of the concrete that has
installed on the grit-blasted concrete surface of
been prepared typically by grit-blasting to
a reinforced concrete support beam beneath a
improve the bond of the overlay. Electrical con-
marine jetty is shown in Fig. 5-5.
nection is made between insulated cable and a
MMO-coated titanium anode mesh can tol-
titanium or cast iron plate that acts as the primary
erate higher current outputs than carbon-based
anode. Current passes from the primary anode
anodes with a maximum normal operating cur-
to the conductive overlay where it is distributed
rent density of 110 mA/m2. Anode connection is
over the treated surface of the structure.
made by crimping an insulated cable to a tita-
5.3.5.3 MMO Titanium Anode Systems nium rod and spot-welding to the mesh or ribbon
These anodes typically consist of titanium coated (Fig. 5-6). In North America, a titanium con-
with a mixed (precious) metal oxide (MMO) ductor bar is generally used and is welded to the
film. These anodes come in many forms suitable titanium anode. The titanium conductor bar
for varied applications, such as mesh, ribbon, extends out of the concrete and all connections
and tapes. Mesh and ribbon are generally used to copper wire and cabling are made in junction
for aboveground installation to decks, soffits, boxes (external to the concrete).

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013 - 11
Anode mesh is embedded within a cementi-
tious overlay and used for protecting large
surface areas such as bridge or parking decks.
A ribbon anode is also available for grouting
into slots cut into the concrete (Fig. 5-7).
Cementitious materials used for overlays or
filling slots should have a documented track
history or should be tested to ensure compati-
bility and long-term performance. These anodes
are generally expected to have a life expectancy
of over 40 years.

Fig. 5-6: Anode mesh installed to beam with positive 5.3.6 Discrete Anode Systems for ICCP
DC feed connection spot welded in position Discrete anode systems tend to be either MMO
titanium ribbons “rolled” to form a rod shape, a
coated solid rod, or conductive titanium sub-
oxide ceramic. Discrete anodes vary consider-
ably with regard to their current outputs. MMO
titanium anodes are typically designed based on
a maximum current density of 110 mA/m2. Con-
ductive ceramic discrete anodes (Fig. 5-8) can
be operated at higher current densities (up to
900 mA/m2) (Sergi et al. 2008) or they may be
operated at lower current densities similar to
MMO titanium anodes.
All forms of discrete anodes are drilled into
the structure and installed in a designed array.
For reinforced concrete structures, the spacing
between the anodes is typically between 8 and
20 in. (200 and 500 mm), depending on the steel
configurations and concrete resistivity, which
affect the ability of the anode to “throw” current
in three dimensions (Whitmore 2002). The
discrete anode array is interconnected with
titanium wire (often insulated to ensure no
contact with any steel reinforcement) by
Fig. 5-7: Anode ribbon mesh installed into crimping a titanium crimp to an anode lead wire
parking deck within slots in the concrete by spot welding or by a screw-thread arrange-
ment within a titanium casing, depending on
the anode type.
Discrete anodes installed within a bridge joint
arrangement to protect the prestressed anchor
positions at the ends of the beams are shown in
Fig. 5-9. A historic bridge suffering from chlo-
ride-induced corrosion accelerated by runoff
from the road above is shown in Fig. 5-10. The
reinforced concrete half-joints and support
beams for suspended and cantilevered sections
were protected with a discrete anode system.

5.3.7 Localized Galvanic Systems


Localized galvanic systems are typically tar-
geted toward protecting a newly repaired area
Fig. 5-8: Cylindrical and fluted type conductive of concrete with the aim of delaying the onset
ceramic anodes of ring (incipient) anode formation around the

12 - 510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
perimeter of the repair. Ring anodes can form
as a result of the newly formed repair acting as
a macro-cathode relative to the original con- Discrete
anode
crete around it due to differences in alkali­ locations
nity or chloride content. The natural processes
arise where an anode is formed locally that
balances the reduction reaction by forming an
oxidation, or corrosion site. The severity of the
ring anode formation will be dictated by the
level of chloride, degree of carbonation, and
moisture condition that prevails in the neigh-
boring parent concrete. The more corrosive the
environment, the greater the demand will be on
the galvanic anode.
Localized galvanic anodes are usually in the
Fig. 5-9: Discrete anodes installed to protect pre-
form of zinc encased in a mortar shell that is stressed anchor positions
admixed with an activator to ensure continual
activation of the anode surface. Activators
should be used in such a manner as to provide Discrete anodes
long-term protection to the structure and should installed to protect
leaking half joints
not be detrimental to the structure. The anode
assembly is strapped to the reinforcement steel
using integral steel tie wires in an array around
the perimeter of the repair (Fig. 5-11) (ACI RAP
Bulletin 8; Whitmore and Abbott 2000). Anodes
may also be supplied in rod form and cored into
the concrete on a grid pattern and connected to
the reinforcing steel at a designed spacing
similar to discrete ICCP anode systems (Whit-
more 2002).
Localized (discrete) galvanic anodes have a
maximum current capacity based on their size
and efficiency. Manufacturers supply guidance Fig. 5-10: Discrete anode system installed for protec-
on anode spacing and required density for dif- tion of a historic bridge structure
ferent applications. These systems do not require
any external power supply and are not typically
monitored, as discussed in Section 6.

5.3.8 Distributed Galvanic Systems


Distributed galvanic systems use the same con-
cept of dissimilar metals, but they distribute the
galvanic metal over the entire repair area rather
than using discrete anodes (NACE 01105). Dis-
tributed galvanic systems are found in various
forms, such as:
• Zinc installed inside protective jackets in
marine environments;
• Spray applied to the concrete surface;
• Strips embedded in concrete encasements or
concrete overlays; and Fig. 5-11: Localized (discrete) anode installation in a
• Self-adherent sheet applied to the concrete localized repair
surface.
Preparation of the element being protected is nated concrete, repair of cracks, cleaning steel,
important and usually involves typical concrete and placement of repair material prior to the
repair procedures, including removal of delami- installation of the mitigation system.

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013 - 13
5.3.8.1 Zinc Installed Inside Protective are electrically connected to the steel reinforce-
Jackets in Marine Environments ment using multiple connections for redundancy
For galvanic jacket systems, the anode is nor- and installed around the structural element,
mally a zinc mesh or activated zinc strips, which typically a marine concrete pile. A protective
fiberglass casing or jacket is then installed
(Fig. 5-12), and the annular space between the
external jacket and concrete pile is filled with
mortar to provide an electrolytic path for current.
A completed repair is shown in Fig. 5-13. The
natural bimetallic coupling forms the driving
voltage and electrons pass to the steel to protect
it from corrosion. In turn, the zinc is consumed
(NACE 01105; Whitmore 2004).
5.3.8.2 Spray-Applied Galvanic Anodes
During the arc-spray application method, wires
of the desired material are melted together and
sprayed onto the prepared concrete surface, as
shown in Fig. 5-14. High-purity zinc is the most
common galvanic alloy used on concrete struc-
tures. Other zinc or aluminum alloys are used in
some cases. Arc-sprayed coatings have been used
Fig. 5-12: Jacket system positioning prior to connection as anodes in both galvanic and ICCP systems.
and grouting The majority of arc-sprayed coatings are
installed as galvanic anodes. In marine environ-
ments, pure zinc functions well as a galvanic
anode (SHRP-S-405; Sagues and Powers 1996).
In non-marine environments, zinc alone may
not provide sufficient current to protect the
reinforcing steel. There are two options available
for applications in these environments. One
option is to apply a humectant to the arc-sprayed
coating to promote corrosion of the arc-sprayed
galvanic coating, as shown in Fig. 5-15 (Bennett
1998; Covino et al. 1999). Another option is to
change the composition of the coating to an
alloy, which remains active in less humid condi-
Fig. 5-13: Typical view of completed galvanic tions. Monitoring of these anode systems is
jacket system discussed in Section 6.

Fig. 5-15: Humectant activated arc-sprayed zinc anode


being installed on the substructure of the Garden City
Fig. 5-14: Application of arc-sprayed coating Skyway, ON, Canada

14 - 510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
5.3.8.3 Embedded Galvanic
Strip Anodes
For large-area CP applications, activated galvanic
strip anodes can be designed and installed on the
concrete surface and embedded in a concrete
overlay or encasement, as shown in Fig. 5-16.
These systems are effective for structures with
significant concrete damage, where it may not be
practical to remove all of the chloride-contami-
nated concrete, and it is more practical to form
and recast the concrete surface. Embedded gal-
vanic strip anodes may be used in marine and
non-marine applications and contain activators to
keep them active over time. Due to their larger
size and distributed nature, these systems can be
designed to provide CP current densities (Ball and
Whitmore 2005).
5.3.8.4 Self-Adherent Galvanic
Sheet Anodes
Self-adherent galvanic sheet anodes are surface- Fig. 5-16: Distributed galvanic strip anodes are
applied systems installed using discrete connec- embedded in a concrete encasement of a chloride
tions to the reinforcing steel in the area of the contaminated bridge pier cap, Montreal, QC, Canada
anode installation. They comprise a zinc sheet
combined with an ionically conductive adhesive
(NACE 01105). The adhesive contains activators
to keep the zinc surface active. Typical applica-
tions include the soffit of concrete balconies and
concrete decks, as shown in Fig. 5-17.

5.4 Electrochemical Treatments


Electrochemical treatments (electrochemical
chloride extraction and realkalization) use the
passage of current for a short period of time from
a temporary anode to the reinforcing steel to
move ionic species (such as chloride, hydroxide,
and alkali) within the concrete with the intent of
changing the chemistry of the concrete sur- Fig. 5-17: Self-adherent galvanic sheet anodes being
rounding the reinforcing steel. installed on the soffit of a parking garage slab, Oklahoma

5.4.1 Mechanism quantity of chloride ions in contaminated con-


Both processes increase the alkalinity at the crete by attracting negatively charged chloride
concrete/reinforcing steel interface and aid in ions to a positively charged temporary anode
restoration of the passive oxide film that is nor- applied to the surface of the concrete (NACE
mally found on the surface of the reinforcing 01101). An electric field is applied between a
steel when embedded in concrete. This restores temporary external anode and the embedded
the natural protection offered by the concrete to reinforcement, which temporarily becomes a
the steel, protecting it from corrosion and future cathode during treatment. In the case of chloride
chloride attack or carbonation. extraction, the application of the electric field
results in the migration of chloride ions away
5.4.2 Electrochemical Chloride from the embedded reinforcing steel and toward
Extraction (ECE) the externally mounted anode where they collect
ECE (sometimes referred to as desalination) in the electrolyte (usually tap water) and are
increases the alkalinity of the concrete sur- removed, as shown in Fig. 5-18 (Allies and
rounding the reinforcing steel and reduces the Whitmore 1999; Buenfeld et al. 1998).

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013 - 15
Fig. 5-18: Schematic diagram depicting components Fig. 5-20: ERA schematic illustrating components and
used with ECE and the mechanism of operation operation mechanism

Fig. 5-19: ECE installation of a cellulose fiber overlay Fig. 5-21: Realkalization of concrete façade, Ronald
on the temporary anode system Reagan National Airport

Chloride extraction is most effective at solution as the electrolyte. The alkaline electro-
removing chlorides present in the concrete cover lyte is drawn into the concrete because of the
(Hassanein et al. 1998; Said-Shawqi et al. 1998). applied electric field (as well as capillary absorp-
In a typical reinforced concrete structure, tion, diffusion, ion migration, and hydroxyl gen­
approximately three times as much chloride will ­­eration), thus raising the concrete pH (Fig. 5-20).
be removed from the concrete cover compared Realkalization is a process that generally takes
to the concrete between the first and second mats 3 to 7 days to complete for typical concrete cover
of reinforcing steel. When the chloride extraction depth and is effective to the depth of reinforcing
process is completed, the reinforcing steel will steel that is used as the cathode. Installation of
repassivate, as it will be in a low-chloride, high- the steel anode for realkalization of a concrete
pH concrete environment (NACE SP 0107; Glass façade at Ronald Reagan National Airport,
et al. 2003; Harrington-Hughes 1993). Washington, DC, is shown in Fig. 5-21.
Figure 5-19 shows the installation of an ECE
system consisting of a sprayed cellulose fiber
with a temporary anode on a bridge pier cap in 6.0 Performance
Virginia, USA (SHRP S-2033). This arrangement
is very similar for the realkalization process.
and Longevity of
Mitigation Systems
5.4.3 Electrochemical Realkalization
(ERA) 6.1 Performance Management
Realkalization is used to restore the alkalinity Only ICCP typically requires monitoring of per-
(pH) of concrete structures suffering from formance to be conducted as it is described within
carbonation (NACE 01104). Realkalization is the U.S. and European standards (NACE SP
similar to chloride extraction, but it uses an 0290). If desired, however, other electrochemical
alkaline solution, usually a potassium carbonate techniques outlined within this document can be

16 - 510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
monitored for electrochemical changes to the circumstances, such as changes in concrete
steel within the structure in the same manner as moisture content, can require adjustment to
ICCP systems. However, these would require maintain current density and because anodes will
different acceptance criteria, depending on the eventually be consumed (SHRP-S-670). Finally,
technique and the desired level of protection. changes in building management and operations
For example, GCP systems are required to personnel creates the potential for lost knowl-
polarize the steel in the negative direction in a edge on the system’s operation and monitoring,
similar manner to ICCP systems. As such, a and even its existence. Some monitoring is also
significant measure of polarization (that is, needed for GCP systems because of their finite
>100 mV if required to meet NACE cathodic life until the anodes are consumed and can no
protection guidelines [NACE SP 0290; Whit- longer provide protection.
more 2004]) would signify CP is being The design document formulated prior to
achieved. The measurement of output current implementation may be supplemented to create
can confirm the current density being provided an as-built Installation and Commissioning
and that the anode has not been consumed Report complete with record drawings of the
(NACE 01105). Similarly, galvanic corrosion installation. Archived management facilities
prevention or corrosion control can be moni- provide electronic storage and ready access to
tored using the available acceptance criteria the reports, plans, and specifications.
such as a current density of 0.2 to 2.0 mA/m2 A monitoring schedule with the Owner should
for corrosion prevention (EN 12696; Ball and be agreed on during the design phase such that
Whitmore 2005). the specialist costs for the on-going performance
ECE and ERA treatments rely on the ability evaluation have been established. It should be
of the process to re-establish corrosion passiv- noted that an ICCP system, once installed, tends
ation to the steel reinforcement and, therefore, to require evaluation over the lifetime of the
should affect both a change in corrosion potential building (in a similar manner to management of
and the corrosion rate as a consequence of com- fire alarm systems).
pleting the treatment (NACE SP 0107; NACE
01101; NACE 01104).
If required, all electrochemical techniques for 7.0 Summary
mitigating corrosion can be monitored for per- There is a strong economic case for including
formance. Typical monitoring includes half-cell some form of corrosion mitigation technique
and corrosion rate testing. These can be accom- with concrete repair projects to ensure the con-
plished using either temporary field equipment dition of the structure in question is controlled
or permanently installed equipment. The selec- and assured. Several electrochemical techniques
tion of manual or permanently installed equip- are available and the appropriate method may
ment will depend on access, location, size of the be selected depending on the problems that
protected area, and other factors. prevail and the desired objectives of the owner
Typical acceptance criteria for corrosion and designer.
management systems are shown in Table 1. All systems should be considered in con-
junction with the structural design of the repair
6.2 Post-Installation scheme with ICCP systems requiring careful
Considerations design and arrangement of components.
ICCP requires on-going evaluation and moni- Management of the systems at present is
toring because it depends on electronics and required mainly on ICCP projects but all electro-
wiring for power and control (UFC 3-570-06). chemical techniques may be monitored if desired
Furthermore, monitoring is necessary because to verify the performance of the installed system.

Table 1: Typical Acceptance Criteria for Corrosion Management Systems


Steel polarization of 100 mV or greater if corrosion potentials
Cathodic protection
≤ -200 mV cse
Corrosion control Current density to steel of 1-7 mA/m2
Corrosion prevention Current density to steel of 0.2 to 2.0 mA/m2
Corrosion passivation Passive corrosion potentials (≤ -200 mV cse)

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013 - 17
8.0 References International Concrete
Repair Institute
and Standards ICRI Technical Guideline No. 120.1, “Guide-
8.1 Referenced Standards lines and Recommendations for Safety in the
Concrete Repair Industry”
and Reports
The standards and reports listed as follows were NACE International
the latest editions at the time this document was 01101, “Electrochemical Chloride Extraction
prepared. Because these documents are revised from Steel Reinforced Concrete—A State-of-
frequently, the reader is advised to contact the the-Art Report”
proper sponsoring group if it is desired to refer 01104, “Electrochemical Realkalization of Steel
to the latest version. Reinforced Concrete—A State-of-the-Art Report”
01105, “Sacrificial Cathodic Protection of
American Concrete Institute Reinforced Concrete Elements—A State-of-the-
201.1R, “Guide for Conducting a Visual Art Report”
Inspection of Concrete in Service” SP 0107, “Electrochemical Realkalization and
222.2R, “Corrosion of Prestressing Steels” Chloride Extraction for Reinforced Concrete”
228.2R, “Nondestructive Test Methods for SP 0187, “Design Considerations for Corro-
Evaluation of Concrete in Structures” sion Control of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete”
RAP Bulletin 8, “Installation of Embedded SP 0290, “Impressed Current Cathodic Pro-
Galvanic Anodes” tection of Reinforcing Steel in Atmospherically
Exposed Concrete Structures”
American National Standards Institute SP 0390, “Maintenance and Rehabilitation
EIA709.1, “Control Network Protocol Considerations for Corrosion Control of Existing
Specifications” Steel-Reinforced Concrete Structures”
TM 0294, “Testing of Embeddable Anodes
ASTM International for Use in Cathodic Protection of Atmospheri-
ASTM C856, “Standard Practice for Petro- cally Exposed Steel-Reinforced Concrete”
graphic Examination of Hardened Concrete”
ASTM C876, “Standard Test Method for Transportation Research Board
Corrosion Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing SHRP-C/UWP-92-618, “Cathodic Protection
Steel in Concrete” of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Components”
ASTM C1152/C1152M, “Standard Test SHRP-C-620, “Evaluation of NORCURE
Method for Acid Soluble Chloride in Mortar Process for Electrochemical Chloride Removal,”
and  Concrete” http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/shrp/
ASTM C1218/C1218M, “Standard Test SHRP-C-620.pdf
Method for Water Soluble Chloride in Mortar SHRP-S-372, “Cathodic Protection of Concrete
and Concrete” Bridges: A Manual of Practice,” http://online-
ASTM D4580, “Standard Practice for Mea- pubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/shrp/SHRP-S-372.pdf
suring Delaminations in Concrete Bridge Decks SHRP-S-405, “Sprayed Zinc Galvanic
by Sounding” Anodes for Concrete Marine Bridge Substruc-
ASTM D4788, “Standard Test Method for tures,” http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/shrp/
Detecting Delamination in Bridge Decks Using SHRP-S-405.pdf
Infrared Thermography” SHRP-S-669, “Electrochemical Chloride
ASTM G57, “Standard Test Method for Field Removal and Protection of Concrete Bridge
Measurement of Soil Resistivity Using the Components—Field Trials,” http://onlinepubs.
Wenner Four Electrode Method” trb.org/onlinepubs/shrp/SHRP-S-669.pdf
SHRP-S-670, “Control Criteria and Materials
European Standards Performance Studies for Cathodic Protection of
EN 12696, “Cathodic Protection of Steel in Reinforced Concrete,” http://onlinepubs.trb.org/
Concrete” onlinepubs/shrp/SHRP-S-670.pdf
EN 14630, “Carbonation Depth in Hardened SHRP-S-2033, “Guideline for Performing
Concrete by the Phenolphthalein Method” Electrochemical Chloride Extraction to Concrete
Structures,” http://leadstates.transportation.org/
car/SHRP_products/2033.stm

18 - 510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 8.2 Cited References
ETL 1110-9-10(FR), “Cathodic Protection Allies, J., and Whitmore, D., “Halting Corrosion
System Using Ceramic Anodes” Using Electrochemical Methods,” ASCE, 1999.
UFC 3-570-06, “Operation and Maintenance: Ball, C., and Whitmore, D., “Innovative Cor-
Cathodic Protection Systems,” http://www. rosion Mitigation Solutions for Existing Con-
wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFC/ufc_3_570_06.pdf crete Structures,” V. 23, No. 3-4, International
UFGS-26 42 13.00 20, “Cathodic Protection Journal of Materials and Product Technology,
By Galvanic Anodes,” http://www.wbdg.org/ 2005, pp. 219-239.
ccb/DOD/UFGS/UFGS 26 42 13.00 20.pdf Bennett, J. E., “Chemical Enhancement of
Metallized Zinc Anode Performance,” Corrosion
These publications may be obtained 98, Paper 640, NACE International, 1998.
from these organizations: Buenfeld, N.; Glass, G.; Hassanein, A.; and
Zhang, J., “Chloride Transport in Concrete Sub-
American Concrete Institute jected to Electric Field,” Journal of Materials in
38800 Country Club Drive Civil Engineering, Nov. 1998, pp. 220-228.
Farmington Hills, MI 48331 Covino, B.; Holcomb, G.; Russell, J.; Cramer,
www.concrete.org S.; Bennett, J.; and Laylor, H., “Electrochemical
Aging of Humectant-Treated Thermal-Sprayed
American National Standards Institute Zinc Anodes for Cathodic Protection,” Corrosion
11th Fl., 1899 L Street NW 99, Paper 548, NACE International, 1999.
Washington, DC 20036 Enos, D. G.; Williams, A. J.; and Scully, J. R.,
www.ansi.org “Understanding the Long-Term Effects of
Cathodic Protection on Pre-Stressed Concrete
ASTM International Structures: Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pre-
100 Barr Harbor Drive Stressing Steel,” Corrosion 96, NACE Interna-
West Conshohocken, PA 19428 tional Annual Conference, Houston, TX, 1996.
www.astm.org FHWA/NACE Cost of Corrosion Report
FHWA-RD-01-156, 2002.
International Concrete Repair Institute Glass, G.; Taylor, J.; Roberts, A.; and
10600 West Higgins Road, Suite 607 Davison, N., “The Protective Effects of Electro-
Rosemont, IL 60018 chemical Treatment in Reinforced Concrete,”
www.icri.org Corrosion 2003, Paper 03291, NACE Interna-
tional, 2003.
NACE International Harrington-Hughes, K., “Treatment Halts
1440 South Creek Drive Corrosion in Concrete,” Road and Bridge,
Houston, TX 77084-4906 Nov. 1993.
www.nace.org Hassanein, A. M.; Glass, G. K.; and Buenfeld,
N. R., “A Mathematic Model for Electrochemical
Transportation Research Board Removal of Chloride from Concrete Structures,”
500 Fifth Street NW Corrosion, V. 54, No. 4, 1998.
Washington, D.C. 20001 Hoar Report, Department of Trade and
http://www.trb.org Industry, UK Government, 1971.
Kennedy, D.; Miller, J. B.; and Nustad, G. E.,
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers “Review of Chloride Extraction and Re-alkali-
Engineering and Support Center sation of Reinforced Concrete,” UK Corrosion
Huntsville, AL 35816 Society, 1993.
http://www.hnd.usace.army.mil/techinfo/ Lowenstein, F., “Electroless Copper Plating,”
Modern Electroplating, third edition, 1995,
index/aspx
pp. 734-739.
Miller, J. B., “Chloride Removal and Corro-
sion Protection of Reinforced Concrete,”
Swedish Road and Traffic Institute, Sept. 1989.
Pedeferri, P., “Cathodic Protection and Cath­
odic Preventation,” Construction and Building
Materials, V. 10, No. 5, 1996, pp. 391-402.

Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures 510.1–2013 - 19
Sagues, A., and Powers, R. G., “Sprayed-Zinc PWTB 420-49-37, 2001, “Cathodic Protec-
Sacrificial Anodes for Reinforced Concrete in tion Anode Selection,” U.S. Army Corps of
Marine Service,” Corrosion, July 1996. Engineers, Washington, DC, http://www.wbdg.
Said-Shawqi, Q.; Arya, C.; and Vassie, P. R., org/ccb/ARMYCOE/PWTB/pwtb_420_49_37.
“Numerical Modeling of Electrochemical Chlo- pdf, 36 pp.
ride Removal from Concrete,” Cement and SHRP-S-347, 1993, “Chloride Removal
Concrete Research, 1998. Implementation Guide,” Strategic Highway
Scannell, W., and Sohanghpurwala, A., Research Program, Washington, DC, http://
“Cathodic Protection as a Corrosion Control onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/shrp/SHRP-S-
Alternate,” Concrete Repair Bulletin, V. 6, 347.pdf, 49 pp.
No. 4, July/August 1993. SHRP-S-359, 1994, “Technical Alert: Criteria
Sergi, D.; Simpson, D.; and Hayfield, P., for the Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Con-
“Long-Term Behavior of Ceramic Tubular- crete Bridge Elements,” Strategic Highway
Shaped Anodes for Cathodic Protection Applica- Research Program, Washington, DC, http://
tions,” Corrosion 2008, Paper 08305, NACE onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/shrp/SHRP-S-
International. 359.pdf, 18 pp.
Velivasakis, E.; Henriksen, S.; and Whitmore, SHRP-S-657, 1993, “Electrochemical Chlo-
D., “Chloride Extraction and Realkalization of ride Removal and Protection of Concrete Bridge
Reinforced Concrete Stop Steel Corrosion,” Components: Laboratory Studies,” Strategic
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facili- Highway Research Program, Washington, DC,
ties, V. 12, No. 2, 1998, pp. 77-84. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/shrp/
Whitmore, D., “Electrochemical Chloride SHRP-S-657.pdf, 382 pp.
Extraction from Concrete Bridge Elements: SHRP-S-671, 1993, “New Cathodic Protec-
Some Case Studies,” Corrosion 1996, Paper 299, tion Installations,” Strategic Highway Research
NACE International, 1996. Program, Washington, DC, http://onlinepubs.trb.
Whitmore, D., “Impressed Current and Galvanic org/onlinepubs/shrp/SHRP-S-671.pdf, 128 pp.
Discrete Anode Cathodic Protection for Corrosion TI 800-01, 1998, “Design Criteria,” U.S.
Protection of Concrete Structures,” Corrosion Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC,
2002, Paper 02263, NACE International, 2002. http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/ARMYCOE/COETI/
Whitmore, D., “New Developments in the ti800_01.pdf, 459 pp.
Galvanic Cathodic Protection of Concrete Struc- UFC 3-570-02A, 2005, “Cathodic Protec-
tures,” Corrosion 2004, Paper 04333, NACE tion,” U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Wash-
International, 2004. ington, DC, http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/
Whitmore, D., and Abbott, S., “Galvanic UFC/ufc_3_570_02a.pdf, 62 pp.
Protection Focused on Concrete Repairs,” Con- UFC 3-570-02N, 2004, “Electrical Engi-
crete Repair Bulletin, V. 13, No. 4, July/August neering, Cathodic Protection,” U.S. Army Corps
2000, pp. 12-15. of Engineers, Washington, DC, http://www.
wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFC/ufc_3_570_02n.pdf,
8.3 Additional Information 319 pp.
ACI Committee 546, 2004, “Concrete Repair UFGS-26 42 14.00 10, 2008, “Cathodic Pro-
Guide (ACI 546R-04),” American Concrete tection System (Sacrificial Anode),” U.S. Army
Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 53 pp. Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC, http://
EM 1110-2-2704, 2004, “Cath­odic Protection www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFGS/UFGS-26 42
Systems for Civil Works Structures,” U.S. Army 14.00 10.pdf, 30 pp.
Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC, http:// UFGS-26 42 19.00 20, 2006, “Cathodic Pro-
140.194.76.129/publications/eng-manuals/ tection by Impressed Current,” U.S. Army Corps
em1110-2-2704/entire.pdf, 106 pp. of Engineers, Washington, DC, http://www.
ETL 1110-3-474, 1995, “Cathodic Protection,” wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFGS/UFGS-26 42 19.00
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC. 20.pdf, 34 pp.
PWTB 420-49-29, 1999, “Operation and
Maintenance of Cath­­­­odic Protection Systems,”
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC,
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/ARMYCOE/PWTB/
pwtb_420_49_29.pdf, 131 pp.

20 - 510.1–2013 Guide for Electrochemical Techniques to Mitigate the Corrosion of Steel for Reinforced Concrete Structures
10600 West Higgins Road, Suite 607
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