Chapter 27

I ± FLATWORMS  Phylum Platyhelminthes  Characteristics: soft, flattened worms that have tissues and internal organ systems; have bilateral symmetry; and cephalization  They are acoelomates (do not have a coelum). A coelum is a fluid-filled cavity that is lined with tissue)  Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion- they rely on diffusion.  Feeding: free-living flatworms can be carnivores or scavengers; parasitic worms feed on blood, tissue fluids or pieces of cells within a host¶s body. Ex: tapeworms.  Response: Free-living flatworms have ganglia (a group of nerve cells that control the nervous system); also have an eyespot that detects changes in the amount of light.  Movement: Use (1) cilia and (2) muscle cells  Reproduction: most are hermaphrodites that reproduce sexually by exchanging sperm. (Hermaphrodites have both male and female reproductive organs); some reproduce asexually by fission where the organism splits in two and each half grows new parts to become a complete organism.  Groups of Flatworms: (1) Turbellaria ± free-living ± most live in marine or fresh water. (2) Flukes ± Class Tremetoda ± parasitic- infect the internal organs of their host. (3) Tapeworms- Class Cestoda ± long, flat, parasitic- live inside of intestines of the host.

Tapeworm life cycle II²ROUNDWORMS  Phylum Nematoda  Characteristics: slender, un-segmented with tapered ends, most are free-living, some are parasitic, and live in plants and animals; have pseudocoelum (false coelum).  Digestive Tract: Two openings ± Mouth and anus (A) Free-living roundworms  Free-living roundworms are more complex than parasitic roundworms.  Feeding: Free-living are predators that use grasping mouth parts and spines to catch and eat other small animals.  Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion: They exchange gases and excrete metabolic waste through their body walls. They have no internal transport system and therefore depend on diffusion to carry nutrients and waste through their bodies.  Response: have a simple nervous system  Movement: have muscles that extend the length of their body  Reproduction: sexually ± there are separate sexes and fertilization take place internally in the female.

(4) Hookworms ± can enter unprotected feet and burrow into the skin and then enter the bloodstream. (3) Ascarid worms.cause malnutrition because they live in the small intestine and absorb the host¶s food. Excretion: Produce two kinds of waste: (1) Digestive waste passes through the anus (2) Cellular waste is eliminated by nephridia (excretory organ that filters fluid in the coelum) Response: have a well developed nervous system ± includes a brain and several nerve cords. Movement: 2 major body muscles that function as part of a hydrostatic skeleton. (2) Filarial worms ± found in tropical regions of Asia. land-dwelling annelids take in Oxygen and give off Carbon dioxide through their moist skin.(B) Parasitic roundworms (1) Trichinosis-causing worms are in the intestines of their hosts (rats and pigs). live in blood and lymph vessels of birds and mammals.     . Roundworm III. have bristles called setae and have a true coelum Digestive Tract: two openings ± mouth and anus Feeding: range from filter feeders to predators Circulation: have a closed circulatory system in which the blood is contained within a network of blood vessels. (1) longitudinal muscles ± from front to rear (2) circular muscles ± wrap around each segment Reproduction: most reproduce sexually ± some have separate sexes while some are hermaphrodites. they do not fertilize their own eggs (they exchange sperm) Groups of Annelids: (1) Class Oligochaeta ± earthworms and relatives (2) Leeches ± Class Hirdinea ± parasites that suck blood and body fluids (3) Class Polychaeta ± marine annelids that have paired paddle-like appendages tipped with setae.ANNELIDS (EARTHWORMS)        Phylum Annelida Characteristics: Body is divided into segments. spread by eating vegetables that have not been properly washed. humans get them by eating raw or incompletely cooked pork. transmitted through mosquitoes and other biting insects. Respiration: Aquatic annelids breathe through gills. they make their way through the lungs and into the intestines where they cause weakness and poor growth.

Slow moving mollusks (snails and clams) have open circulatory system. (1) Foot ± fro crawling. or parasites. Groups of Mollusks: (1) Gastropods (class Gastropoda) a. filter-feeders. detrivores. burrowing and tentacles for capturing prey (2) Mantle ± thin layer of tissue that covers most of the mollusk¶s body (3) Shell ± made by glands in the mantle that secretes calcium carbonate.   Feeding: can be herbivores. Land snails and slugs do not have gills and breathe using a mantel cavity that ha a large surface area lined with blood vessels. o Octopi and their relatives are active intelligent predators that have the most highly developed nervous system of all invertebrates. squid and octopi. Pond snails. Shell-less or single shelled mollusks that move by using a muscular foot located on the ventral side (2) Bivalves (class Bivalvia) a. Movement: many different ways²Snails secrete mucus ± Octopi use a form of jet propulsion. Examples: snails. sea hares b. *A closed circulatory system if much more efficient and quicker Response: Vary through out mollusks o Clams and other two-shelled mollusks have a simple nervous system. (4) Visceral mass ± consists of the internal organs. sea butterflies. slugs.      . Faster-moving octopi and squid have a closed circulatory system.  Body Plan: Four body parts: (1) foot (2) mantle (3) shell and (4) visceral mass. clams. Reproduction: Many snails and two-shelled mollusks reproduce sexually by external fertilization ± Tentacled mollusks and certain snails reproduce sexually by internal fertilization ± Some mollusks are hermaphrodites. *Circulation: Mollusks have open or closed circulatory systems.  Many aquatic mollusks have a free-swimming larval stage called a trocophore. Respiration: Aquatic mollusks use gills inside their mantle cavity. Have two shells that are held together by one or two powerful muscles.Earthworm body IV ± MOLLUSKS  Phylum Mollusca  Characteristics: soft-bodied animals that usually have an internal or external shell. carnivores. land slugs.

Soft-bodied mollusks in which the head is attached to a single foot. Scallops. oysters.b. cuttlefishes. Octopi. The foot is divided into tentacles or arms. clams. squid. Gastropod (Snail) Bivalve (Clam) Cephalopod (Squid) . nautiluses c. mussels (3) Cephalopods (class Cephalopoda) a. Most active mollusks b.

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