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- Wikipedia
Coordinates: 37.3947057°N 122.1503251°W

Tesla, Inc.
Tesla, Inc. (formerly Tesla Motors, Inc.) is an American automotive and energy Tesla, Inc.
company based in Palo Alto, California. The company specializes in electric car
manufacturing and, through its SolarCity subsidiary, in solar panel manufacturing. It
operates multiple production and assembly plants, notably Gigafactory 1 near Reno,
Nevada, and its main vehicle manufacturing facility at Tesla Factory in Fremont,
California. As of June 2018, Tesla sells the Model S, Model X and Model 3 vehicles,
Powerwall and Powerpack batteries, solar panels, solar roof tiles, and related
products.

Tesla was founded in July 2003, by businessmen Martin Eberhard and Marc
Tarpenning, under the name Tesla Motors. The company's name was derived from
physicist Nikola Tesla. In early Series A funding, Tesla Motors was joined by Elon
Musk, J. B. Straubel and Ian Wright, all of whom are retrospectively considered co-
founders of the company. Musk, who serves as chairman and chief executive officer,
said that he envisioned Tesla Motors as technology company and independent
automaker, aimed at eventually offering electric cars at prices affordable to the
average consumer. Tesla Motors shortened their name to Tesla in February 2017.

Tesla's headquarters in Palo Alto


Contents Formerly Tesla Motors, Inc.
History (2003–2017)
Original roadster and private funding Type Public
IPO, Model S, and Model X
Traded as NASDAQ: TSLA (https://
SolarCity acquisition
www.nasdaq.com/symbo
Model 3 rollout
l/tsla)
2018 consideration of taking Tesla private
Production and sales NASDAQ-100
component
Strategy
Russell 1000 component
Sales
US dealership disputes ISIN US88160R1014
Used vehicles Industry Automotive
Technology Energy storage
Batteries
Motors Founded July 1, 2003[1]
Autopilot Founders Martin Eberhard
Glass
Marc Tarpenning
Vehicle models
Headquarters Palo Alto, California,
Model S
U.S.
Model X
Model 3 Area served Worldwide
Planned models Key people Elon Musk
Tesla Semi
(Chairman and CEO)[2]
2020 Roadster
J. B. Straubel
Battery products
(CTO)
Charging
Deepak Ahuja
Supercharger network
Destination charging location network (CFO)

Facilities Jerome Guillen


United States (President of
Factories automotive)
Gigafactory 1
Products Electric vehicles
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Gigafactory 2 Tesla Energy


Canada
Production 101,312
Europe output vehicles (2017)
Asia
Australia Revenue
US$11.759 billion (2017)
Partners
Daimler AG Operating
Mercedes-Benz A-Class income US$-1.632 billion (2017)
Mercedes-Benz B-Class ED Net income
Smart cars US$−1.961 billion (2017)
Toyota Total assets
Toyota RAV4 EV
US$28.655 billion (2017)
Freightliner Electric Van
Total equity
Panasonic
US$4.237 billion (2017)
Airbnb
Liberty Mutual Number of 37,543 (2017)
employees
Lawsuits and controversies
Fisker Automotive Subsidiaries SolarCity
Founder dispute Tesla Grohmann
Ecotricity Automation
Top Gear review
Website tesla.com (https://www.t
New York Times test drive
esla.com/)
Singapore tax surcharge
SEC investigations
Footnotes / references
[3][4]
SolarCity acquisition shareholder litigation
Autopilot 2 class-action lawsuit
Labor practices
Working conditions and injury policies
Illegal workers suit
Ludicrous limited power output
Software copyright infringement
Lawsuit alleging sabotage
Musk Twitter investigation
Product issues Tesla's financial performance
Recalls
Crashes and fires
Maintenance costs, crash rates, and insurance costs
Delays
Hacking
Servicing
Lobbying activity
Board of directors
See also
References Tesla's paid-in capital makes up the
Further reading accumulated deficit to maintain its
External links operation

History

Original roadster and private funding


The company was founded in 2003 by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning, who also financed the company until the Series A
round of funding. Following a lawsuit and resolution, the company now lists Series A round investors[5] Elon Musk, J. B. Straubel, and
Ian Wright as co-founders.[6] The founders were influenced to start the company after GM recalled and destroyed its EV1 electric cars
in 2003.[7]

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Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning conceived and founded the company, also funding the company
until the Series A round.[8] Musk led the Series A in February 2004, joining the board of directors
as its chairman as well as in operational roles. Musk was then the controlling investor in Tesla,
providing the large majority of the US$7.5 million round with personal funds. Co-founder Martin
Eberhard was the original CEO of Tesla until he was asked to resign in August 2007 by the board of
directors.[8][9] Eberhard then took the title of "President of Technology" before ultimately leaving
the company in January 2008 along with co-founder Marc Tarpenning, who served as the CFO and
subsequently the Vice-President of Electrical Engineering of the company until 2008. [8][9]

Eberhard later filed suit against the company allegedly that current CEO Elon Musk sought to
"rewrite history".[6]

Tesla began with a sports car aimed at early adopters followed by mainstream and mass market
vehicles,[10][11] all serving "as a catalyst to accelerate the day of electric vehicles".[12]
The insignia of Tesla as
Tesla signed a Roadster production contract on July 11, 2005, with Group Lotus to produce
seen on a Tesla Roadster
"gliders" (complete cars but without powertrain).[13] The Roadster used an AC motor descended (2008) Sport
directly from Nikola Tesla's original 1882 design.[14]

The Tesla Roadster (2008) was the first production automobile to use lithium-ion battery cells and the first production EV with a
range greater than 200 mi (320 km) per charge.[15] Between 2008 and March 2012, Tesla sold more than 2,250 Roadsters in 31
countries.[16][17][18] Tesla stopped taking orders for the Roadster in the U.S. market in August 2011.[19]

In December 2012, Tesla employed almost 3,000 full-time employees.[20][21] As of late 2016, Tesla employed more than 30,000
(25,000 in the US) after acquiring Grohmann and SolarCity.[22]

Musk also led Tesla's Series B US$13 million investment round and co-led the third, US$40 million round in May 2006. Tesla's third
round included investment from prominent entrepreneurs including Google co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page.[23] The fourth
round in May 2007 added another US$45 million.

In late 2007, Tesla brought on Michael Marks,[24] and later Ze'ev Drori, to replace Eberhard as CEO.[25] Drori temporarily returned
the company to profitability, reducing the company's workforce by about 10%.[26] In October 2008, Musk became CEO and laid off an
additional 25% of Tesla's workforce.[25] In December, a fifth round added another US$40 million, avoiding bankruptcy.[27][28]

By January 2009, Tesla had raised US$187 million and delivered 147 cars. Musk himself had invested US$70 million.[26][29] In May
2009, Daimler AG acquired an equity stake of less than 10% of Tesla for a reported US$50 million,[30][31] again saving Tesla.[32] Toyota
provided a similar amount in 2010.[31]

In June 2009, Tesla was approved to receive US$465 million in low-interest loans from the 2007
US$8 billion Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program by the United States
Department of Energy.[33] The funding came in 2010 and supported engineering and production of
the Model S, as well as the development of commercial powertrain technology.[33]

IPO, Model S, and Model X


On June 29, 2010, Tesla launched its initial public offering (IPO) on NASDAQ. 13,300,000 shares
of common stock were issued to the public at a price of US$17.00 per share.[34] The IPO raised
US$226 million.[35]

Tesla began shipping its Model S sedan in June 2012.[36] In May 2013, Tesla raised $1.02 billion
($660m from bonds) partially to repay the DOE loans (early[37]) after their first profitable
quarter.[38][39] In February 2014 the company sold $2 billion in bonds (to build GigaFactory 1).[39] The Tesla obelisk is used to
In August 2015 Tesla sold $738 million in stock (for the Model X)[40] and in May 2016, $1.46 billion identify the Supercharger
in stock ($1.26 billion for the Model 3).[41] As of January 29, 2016, Musk owned about 28.9 million network sites in California.
Tesla shares, or about 22% of the total.[42][43]

Tesla began shipping the Model X crossover SUV in September 2015.[44] Global sales of the Model S reached 100,000 in December
2015.[45]

Tesla's vehicles and operations are eligible for various forms of federal and state subsidy, which it was estimated in 2015 amounted to
at least $30,000 for each vehicle sold, or cumulatively $4.9 billion.[46][47]

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Tesla stated that its automotive branch had a gross margin of 23.1% as of 2Q 2016, and has generally been above 20%.[48] However,
expenditures for expanding future production are bigger than product profit, resulting in a net loss.[49]

SolarCity acquisition Notable known owners of Tesla

On August 1, 2016, Tesla agreed to acquire SolarCity Corp. for Percentage Owner

$2.6 billion in stock. SolarCity was then the largest installer of ~20% Elon Musk Foundation[50]
rooftop solar systems in the United States.[57] More than 85% of
10.2% T. Rowe Price[50][51][52]
unaffiliated Tesla and SolarCity shareholders voted to approve the
acquisition,[58][59] which closed on November 21, 2016.[60]
7.7% Baillie Gifford[50][51][52]

Fidelity Investments OTC Portfolio mutual fund[51]


After it acquired SolarCity, Tesla stopped using door to door sales
tactics for solar systems; instead, it markets and sells its products ~5% Tencent[50]
at stores. It also does not provide a leasing option for solar panels, ~5% Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia[53][54]
and consumers must purchase them.[61]
The Vanguard Group[50][51]

BlackRock[51]
Model 3 rollout
Capital Group Companies[51]
Model 3 was unveiled in March 2016. A week after the unveiling,
Jennison Associates[51]
global reservations totaled 325,000 units.[62][63] As a result of the
demand for Model 3, in May 2016, Tesla advanced its 500,000 Harris myCFO[51]
annual unit build plan (for all models) by two years to 2018.[64][65] ~1% Baron Capital[55]

On February 1, 2017 the company changed its name from Tesla 0.48% Government Pension Fund of Norway[56]
Motors to Tesla.[66][67] In late March 2017, Tesla Inc. announced ~0.1% Kimbal Musk
that Tencent Holdings Ltd., at the time China's "most valuable
company," had purchased a 5% stake in Tesla for $1.8 billion.[68] In 2017, Tesla briefly
surpassed Ford Motor Company and General Motors in market capitalization for a couple
of months, making it the most valuable American automaker.[69][70] In June 2017, Tesla
appeared for the first time in the Fortune 500 list.[69]

In the week preceding the debut on July 7, 2017, of the Model 3 sedan, Tesla's stock-
market value declined by more than $12 billion from a previous value of $63 billion. The
loss was a result of a combination of factors that disappointed investors. Demand for
Tesla’s luxurious existing models, Model S and Model X, did not grow in the second
quarter.[71] Brian Johnson of Barclays said that customer deposits for the Model S and The Tesla Model 3 first deliveries
event took place on July 28, 2017.
Model X fell by $50 million, potentially indicating that Tesla's introduction of the Model 3
could be adversely affecting their sales. Tesla predicted that luxury sales would reach
100,000 per year, below some analysts' expectations.[72]

Investors expressed concern about Tesla's plans for execution and competitive risk, as Volvo Cars committed to introduce only electric
and electric-assisted vehicles by 2019.[73][71] Johnson claimed that "Tesla will face intense competition by the next decade."[74]

Morningstar analyst David Whiston foresaw a revised, slower timetable for the Model 3 and a company acknowledgement of problems
with building battery packs for its cars. In 2016 Musk predicted 100,000 Model 3 units would be sold in 2017, but that production
may reach only 20,000 by December. Axel Schmidt, a managing director at consulting firm Accenture, said that Tesla’s problems with
Gigafactory 1 prove that increasing Model 3 production "remains a huge challenge".[74] In October 2017, Tesla reported delivery of 220
Model 3s, acknowledging this was "less than anticipated due to production bottlenecks".[75]

In early November 2017, Musk advised investors of a production delay that was primarily due to difficulties with the new battery that
would allow Tesla to significantly reduce the manufacturing cost of the Model 3. The company was having difficulties with robots on
the assembly line[76] but the most serious issue was with one of the four zones in the battery manufacturing, caused by a "systems
integration subcontractor", according to Musk.[77] "We had to rewrite all of the software from scratch for the battery module", he
reported.[78] He assured investors that Tesla had "reallocated" top engineers to work on achieving a solution. By that time, Jon
Wagner, director of battery engineering, had left the company.[79] Also in November, Musk postponed the target date for
manufacturing 5000 of the vehicles per week from December 2017 to "sometime in March" 2018;[76] about which an analyst with

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Cowan and Company commented that "Elon Musk needs to stop over promising and under delivering".[80] On November 21, 2017,
Bloomberg stated that "over the past 12 months, the electric-car maker has been burning money at a clip of about $8,000 a minute (or
$480,000 an hour)" preparing for Model 3.[81]

In April 2018, Musk increased the 5000 per week number by 20%; forecasting Tesla could achieve 6,000 units per week by the end of
June 2018.[82] When asked when the company would reach a production level of 10,000 units per week, he declined to speculate.[78]

For Q2 2018, Tesla reported delivery of 28,578 Model 3 vehicles, which exceeded combined Model S and X production (24,761),
almost three times the amount of Model 3's than in Q1.[83]

2018 consideration of taking Tesla private


There was a public announcement of shareholders proposing to take the company private during August 2018, but by the end of the
month, the idea was withdrawn and Tesla will stay public.[84]

More specifically, in a August 7, 2018 tweet, major Tesla stockholder and Tesla CEO Elon Musk stated: "Am considering taking Tesla
private at $420. Funding secured."[85][86] On Tesla's blog Musk elaborated that Tesla's status as a public company subjects it to the
quarterly earnings cycle that puts enormous pressure on the company to make decisions that may be right for a given quarter, but not
necessarily right for the company's long-term growth. Additionally, as the most shorted stock in the history of the stock market, being
a publicly traded company means that there are large numbers of investors who may have the incentive to attack the company.[87]

Musk released a considerably more detailed statement on the Tesla Blog the following week indicating that the proposal was by him in
his personal capacity, and not as CEO of Tesla. Furthermore, he indicated that he had high confidence in the funding being secured
based on discussions with the managing director of the Saudi sovereign wealth fund who had requested Musk consider taking Tesla
private and indicated strong capital support for doing so.[88] On August 24, 2018, Musk released a statement on the Tesla Blog
indicating that both he and the Tesla Board of Directors had made the decision for the company to remain traded on the public stock
markets.[89][84]

In September 2018, Musk was sued by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission for a tweet claiming that funding had been
secured for taking Tesla private. The lawsuit characterized the tweet as false, misleading, and damaging to investors, and sought to bar
Musk from serving as CEO on publicly traded companies.[90][91] Musk settled with the SEC two days later. The settlement terms
required Musk to leave as chairman, and prohibited him from running for chairman again for three years. Additionally, he and Tesla
Inc. were fined $20M each to reimburse investors whom were harmed by Musk's tweet.[92][93]

Production and sales


90,000
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000

Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Model S Model X Model 3

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Total Model S Model X Model 3 Total


Quarter In transit[b] Source
production sales sales sales sales[a]

Q1 2015 11,160 10,045 10,045 [94]

Q2 2015 12,807 11,532 11,532 [95]

Q3 2015 13,091 11,597 6 11,603 [96]

Q4 2015 14,037 17,272 206 17,478 [97]

Q1 2016 15,510 12,420 2,400 14,820 2,615 [65]

Q2 2016 18,345 9,764 4,638 14,402 5,150 [98][99]

Q3 2016 25,185 16,047 8,774 24,821 5,065 [100]

Q4 2016[c] 24,882 12,700 9,500 22,254 6,450 [101][102]

Q1 2017 25,418 ~13,450 ~11,550 25,051 ~4,650 [103]

Q2 2017 25,708 ~12,000 ~10,000 22,026 ~3,500 [104][105]

Q3 2017 25,336 14,065 11,865 222 26,137 4,820 [106][107]

Q4 2017 24,565 ~15,200 ~13,120 1,542 29,967 3,380 [108][109]

Q1 2018 34,494 11,730 10,070 8,182 29,997 6,100 [110]

Q2 2018 53,339 10,930 11,370 18,440 40,740 15,058 [111]

Q3 2018 80,142 14,470 13,190 55,840 83,500 11,824 [112]

a. Sales are only counted as sold when delivered to end customer and all paperwork is correct
b. Goods in transit are produced but not counted as sold until delivered
c. Sales by model do not add up to total, these are preliminary figures reported by Tesla. Only total sales is final figures are reported
by Tesla, as breakdown by model is not typically provided.

Tesla deliveries vary significantly by month due to regional issues such as ship availability and registration. Tesla does not follow the
auto industry standard of monthly reporting.[113] Some monthly sales are estimated by media.[114]

Strategy
Tesla aims to change the automotive industry by creating many innovative pieces that fit together; this strategy was called "complex
coordination" by Tesla investor Peter Thiel.[115] Its marketing, production, sales and technology strategies all are notably different
from its competitors.

Tesla's automotive strategy is to emulate typical technological-product life cycles and


initially target affluent buyers. It then moved into larger markets at lower price
points.[10][116] The battery and electric drivetrain technology for each model would be
developed and paid for through the sales of earlier models.[10][117] The Roadster was low-
volume and priced at US$109,000. Model S and Model X targeted the broader luxury
market. Model 3 is aimed at a higher-volume segment.[11][118] This business strategy is
common in the technology industry.[119] According to a Musk blog post, "New technology
in any field takes a few versions to optimize before reaching the mass market, and in this
case it is competing with 150 years and trillions of dollars spent on gasoline cars."[120] Robotic manufacturing of the Model
S at the Tesla Factory in Fremont,
Tesla's production strategy includes a high degree of vertical integration (80% in California
2016[121]), which includes component production and proprietary charging infrastructure.
The company operates enormous factories to capture economies of scale. Tesla builds
electric powertrain components for vehicles from other automakers, including the Smart ED2 ForTwo electric drive (the lowest-priced
car from Daimler AG), the Toyota RAV4 EV, and Freightliner's Custom Chassis Electric Van. Vertical integration is rare in the
automotive industry, where companies typically outsource 80% of components to suppliers,[122] and focus on engine manufacturing
and final assembly.[123][124]

Tesla's sales strategy is to sell its vehicles online and in company-owned showrooms rather than through a conventional dealer
network.[126][127]

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Tesla's technology strategy focuses on pure-electric propulsion technology, and


transferring other approaches from the technology industry to transportation, such as
online software updates.[128] Tesla allows its technology patents to be used by anyone in
good faith.[129] Licensing agreements include provisions whereby the recipient agrees not
to file patent suits against Tesla, or to copy its designs directly.[130] Tesla retained control
of its other intellectual property, such as trademarks and trade secrets to prevent direct
copying of its technology.[131]
The Tesla Patent Wall at its
Tesla Human Resources VP Arnnon Geshuri committed to bringing manufacturing jobs
headquarters was removed after the
"back to California".[132][133] In 2015, Geshuri led a hiring surge about which he said: "In
company announced its patents are
part of the open source the last 14 months we've had 1.5 million applications from around the world. People want
movement.[125] to work here."[134] Geshuri emphasizes hiring veterans, saying "Veterans are a great source
of talent for Tesla, and we're going after it."[133][135][136]

Sales
Tesla global sales passed 250,000 units in September 2017[107][137] and its 300,000th vehicle was produced in February 2018.[138] Its
top selling car is the Model S, with global sales of about 212,874 units between June 2012 and December 2017,[139] followed by the
Model X with about 72,059 units sold between September 2015 and December 2017.[140][103][104][106][108] Model 3 deliveries totaled
1,764 units in 2017.[107][109] The now-retired Roadster sold about 2,450 units.[141] In July 2017, Tesla said their vehicles had traveled 5
billion miles (8 billion km).[142]

Foreseeing Germany as its second market after the U.S. (and the largest in Europe), in 2016 Tesla stated the Dutch (Dienst
Wegverkeer) RDW-issued Whole Vehicle Type Approval (WVTA) should be accepted as a legal compliance document, with no need to
seek specific national type of approvals in EU member states.[143]

In 2016 BYD Auto was the world's top selling plug-in car manufacturer with 101,183 units sold, followed by Tesla with 76,243.[140][144]
However, Tesla revenues ranked ahead with US$6.35 billion, while BYD notched US$3.88 billion.[145] Also in 2016, Tesla sold US$1
billion worth of cars in China, the world’s largest market for electric vehicles, and in October of the following year it reached an
agreement with the Chinese government to build a factory in Shanghai.[146]

As of October 2016, Tesla operated about 260 galleries or retail locations in the United States.[147] In June 2016, Tesla opened its first
store-within-a-store: a small outpost within the Nordstrom's department store at The Grove shopping mall in Los Angeles.[148] In
2017, Tesla opened retail locations in Dubai and South Korea.[149]

In August 2015, Tesla launched a revamp of its stores to include interactive displays focused on safety, autopilot, charging network
and motors.[150] In 2017 Tesla had a US$52 million marketing budget and used a referral program and word of mouth to attract
buyers.[151][152]

US dealership disputes
Tesla operates stores and galleries[153][154]—usually located in shopping malls—in many
U.S. states. However, customers buy vehicles only from the Tesla website.[155][156][157][158]
The stores serve as showrooms that allow people to learn about the company and its
vehicles. Some galleries are located in states with restrictive dealer protection laws that
prohibit discussing price, financing, and test drives, as well as other restrictions.

Tesla's strategy of direct customer sales and owning stores and service centers is different
from the standard dealership model in the global vehicle marketplace. Tesla is the only
automaker that sells cars directly to consumers; all others use independently owned
Tesla gallery in Austin, Texas
dealerships,[159][160] although many provide online configuration and
financing.[161][162][163] 48 states have laws that limit or ban manufacturers from selling
vehicles directly to consumers,[164][165][166] and although Tesla has no independent dealerships, dealership associations in multiple
states have filed lawsuits over Tesla's sales practices.

Countries other than U.S. do not protect dealers. The Federal Trade Commission recommends allowing direct manufacturer
sales,[167][168] which analysts believe would save consumers 8% on average.[169][170]

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Used vehicles
Under a buyback program called the Resale Value Guarantee available in 37 U.S. states, a Tesla Model S sold before July 1, 2016
included the right to return it after three years with reimbursement of 43% to 50% of its initial price. This reimbursement matched the
trade-in values of competitive German luxury cars of that age. In addition to maintaining the resale value, Tesla hoped to secure a
supply of used cars to refurbish and re-sell with warranty. According to Automotive News, the profit margin on used car sales in the
U.S. is about triple that on new cars, and Tesla's direct sales would allow it capture resale profits.[171] Tesla ended the program in
2016, although they retained the Residual Value Guarantee on leased vehicles.[172][173]

In May 2015, Tesla started selling refurbished Model S cars in the U.S.[174] and within a month sold 1,600 cars.[175] As of July 2017,
over 80 used Model S and Model X cars were for sale, with either a four-year, 50,000-mile warranty[176] or a two-year, 100,000-mile
warranty for vehicles above 50,000 miles.[177][178] As of September 2015, similar programs existed in Canada,[179] Austria,[180]
Belgium,[181] Denmark,[182] France,[183] Germany,[184] Britain,[185] Netherlands,[186] Norway,[187] Sweden[188] and Switzerland.[189]

Technology
As a vertically-integrated manufacturer, Tesla has had to master multiple technology domains, including batteries, electric motors,
sensors and artificial intelligence.

Batteries
Unlike other automakers, Tesla does not use individual large battery cells, but thousands of
small, cylindrical, lithium-ion commodity cells like those used in consumer electronics. It
uses a version of these cells that is designed to be cheaper to manufacture and lighter than
standard cells by removing some safety features. According to Tesla, these features are
redundant because of the advanced thermal management system and an intumescent
chemical in the battery to prevent fires.[190] Panasonic is the sole supplier of the cells for
Model S, Model X, and Model 3 and cooperates with Tesla in the Gigafactory 1's '21–70'
cells.[191]
Tesla Supercharger in West
In February 2016, Tesla battery costs were estimated at US$200 per kWh.[123] Tesla Hartford, Connecticut
indicated later in 2016 that their batteries cost less than $190/kWh.[192] Still later that year
Argonne Labs estimated $163/kWh at a production rate of 500,000 packs per
year.[193][194]

The batteries are placed under the vehicle floor. This saves interior and trunk space but increases risk of battery damage by debris or
impact. The Model S has 0.25 in (6.4 mm) aluminum-alloy armor plate.[195] CTO Straubel expected batteries to last 10–15 years,[196]
and discounts using electric cars to charge the grid (V2G) because the related battery wear outweighs economic benefit. He also
prefers recycling over re-use for grid once they reach the end of their useful life for vehicles.[197][198] Since 2008, Tesla has worked
with ToxCo/Kinsbursky to recycle worn out RoHS batteries, which will be an integral part of GigaFactory.[199][200][201]

Motors
Tesla makes two kinds of electric motors. A three-phase four-pole AC induction motor with a copper rotor[202] (by which the Tesla
logo is inspired) is used in the Model S and Model X, and permanent magnet motors are used in the Model 3 and Semi. Motors for the
Model S and Model X are made at Tesla Factory, while motors for Model 3 are made at Gigafactory 1.

Autopilot
Tesla Autopilot provides semi-autonomous driver assist beginning in September 2014. Tesla replaced its sensors and software in 2016
(Hardware version 2, or "HW2"). As of 2017, Autopilot included adaptive cruise control, lane departure warning, emergency braking,
Autosteer (semi-automated steering), Autopark (parallel and perpendicular parking) and Summon (recalling the vehicle from a
parking place).[203][204] HW2 includes eight cameras and twelve ultrasonic sensors, in addition to forward-facing radar.[205] HW2.5
was released in mid-2017 that upgraded HW2 with a second GPU and, for the Model 3 only, a driver-facing camera.[206]

At the end of 2016, Tesla expected to demonstrate full autonomy by the end of 2017.[207][208] In April 2017 Musk predicted that in
around two years drivers would be able to sleep in their vehicle.[209]

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Glass
In November 2016, the company announced the Tesla glass technology group. The group produced the roof glass for the Tesla Model
3 and for use in SolarCity roof tiles announced in October 2016.[210] The tiles contain an embedded solar collector, and are one-third
lighter than standard roof tiles.[211]

Vehicle models
As of December 2017, Tesla offers three car models: the Model S, Model X and
Model 3. The firm's first vehicle, the first-generation Tesla Roadster is no longer
sold.

Model S
Model S deliveries began on June 22, 2012.[36] The first delivery in Europe took
place in August 2013.[214] Deliveries in China began in April 2014.[215] First
deliveries of the right-hand-drive model destined for the UK, Australia, Hong Kong
and Japan came in 2014.[216] As of June 2018, the Model S has three base Comparison of EPA-rated range for model
configurations: the 75D, 100D and P100D with EPA ranges of 259, 335, and 315 year 2016 and 2017 electric cars rated up
miles respectively.[217] until July 2017. Tesla vehicles shown
correspond to the variants with the longest
With an estimated 50,931 units sold in and shortest range for each model (S, X
2016, the Model S ranked as the world's and 3).[212][213]
bestselling plug-in car for the second
year in a row.[140][144] As of
December 2017, the Model S, with global sales of over 200,000 units, ranked as the world's
second best selling plug-in electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf (300,000).[139]

The United States is the world's leading Model S market with an estimated 118,817 units
Norway is the Model S largest sold through December 2017.[218][219] Norway ranked as the Model S largest overseas
overseas market due to the market as of November 2016,[220] with 11,802 new units registered.[221][222][223] The Tesla
country's comprehensive incentives Model S became the first electric car ever to top the monthly sales ranking in any country,
for the adoption of pure electric
when the electric car achieved the first place in the Norwegian new car sales list in
cars.
September 2013.[224][225][226]

In May 2010 Tesla purchased a stake in what would become the Tesla Factory in Fremont,
California, for US$42 million,[31][227][228] and opened the facility in October 2010.[227][229][230] For the European market, Tesla
reassembles and distributes the Model S from its European Distribution Center in Tilburg, Netherlands. Cars are built and tested in
Fremont; then the battery pack, the electric motor and parts are disassembled and shipped separately to Tilburg, where they are
reassembled.[231]

Among other awards, the Model S won the 2013 "Motor Trend Car of the Year",[232] the 2013 "World Green Car",[233] Automobile
Magazine's 2013 "Car of the Year",[234] and Time Magazine Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012 award.[235]

Model X
The Tesla Model X is a full-size crossover SUV with a lightweight aluminum body.[236] Model X deliveries started in September
2015.[44] It is offered in 5-, 6- and 7-passenger configurations. Notably, the passenger doors are articulating "falcon-wing" designs that
open vertically.

Production was rescheduled several times, from 2013 to late 2014,[237] to the second quarter of 2015,[238] to the third quarter of
2015.[239] In August 2015, user groups estimated around 30,000 X pre-orders, compared to 12,000 for the S.[240]

Deliveries of the Model X Signature series began on September 29, 2015. Model X sales totaled 2,400 units during the first quarter of
2016, rising to 4,638 in the second quarter of 2016. Global deliveries totaled 25,312 units in 2016,[140] and 46,535 in
2017.[140][103][104][106][108] The United States is its main market with an estimated 39,940 units sold through December 2017.[140][219]
Cumulative sales since inception totaled about 72,059 units through December 2017.[140][103][104][106][108]

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In September 2016, the Model X ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in
Norway.[241][242] Previously, the Model S had been the top selling new car four times.[241]

Model 3
The Model 3 (originally stylized as "☰") is
Tesla's third-generation car.[117] The car was
originally intended to be called the Model E,
but after a lawsuit from Ford that holds the
trademark on "Model E",[243] Musk announced
on July 16, 2014 that the car would be called
"Model 3" instead. The standard Model 3 Elon Musk delivering one of the first
Tesla Model 3 production model. delivers an EPA-rated all-electric range of 220 six Model X Founders Series
miles (350 km) and the long range model models
delivers 310 miles (500 km).[213]

On March 31, 2016, Tesla unveiled the car.[244] Potential customers began to reserve spots
on March 31 with a refundable deposit.[245] Tens of thousands were reported waiting to
reserve their spot.[246] As of April 7, 2016, one week after the unveiling, Tesla reported over
325,000 reservations,[247][248] representing sales of over US$14 billion.[63] As of July 2017,
Tesla reported about 500,000 reservations.[249] Bloomberg News claimed "the Model 3's
unveiling was unique in the 100-year history of the mass-market automobile." Bloomberg
compared it to the 1955 Citroën DS that took in 80,000 deposits over 10-days at the Paris
Auto Show.[250]
First production Tesla Model 3 cars
Tesla expected to invest between US$2 billion and US$2.5 billion in capital expenditures to ready for the delivery event on July
28, 2017.
support Model 3 production.[102] Limited vehicle production began in July 2017.[102] The
first 30 units were delivered at a special event on July 28, 2017.[213] Customer deliveries
totaled 1,764 units in the U.S. in 2017.[107][109] Since January 2018, the Model 3 has remained the top-selling plug-in passenger car in
the U.S. each month.[251] In June 2018 production reached 5,000 per week.[252] As of June 2018, Tesla has delivered a total of 28,386
Model 3 cars.[111] Since then, the Model 3 has been the world's best selling plug-in car for two months in-a-row, with about 14,600
units sold in July 2018.[253]

Planned models
In October 2015, Musk described a future "Model Y" that would be a full-sized SUV aimed for families.[254] Tesla had trademarked the
name "Model Y" in 2013.[255] In August 2017, Tesla announced that the Model Y would use the Model 3 platform.[256]

Musk wanted the first three models to spell "SEX", but settled with "S3X" because Ford owns the trademark to "Model E".[257] Making
the next vehicle the Model Y means that the model names will spell "S3XY".[258]

In 2016, Musk indicated he hoped to one day produce a car cheaper than the Model 3:[259][260]

There will be future cars that will be even more affordable down the road . . . With fourth generation and smaller cars
and what not, we'll ultimately be in a position where everyone can afford the car.

— Elon Musk at the Future Transport Solutions conference in Oslo, April 21, 2016

On July 20, 2016, Musk detailed his new master plan for Tesla. It includes more affordable cars produced in higher volume, solar-
power roofs, mid-size vehicles, SUVs and pickup trucks, as well as the refinement of autonomous vehicles and the creation of a sharing
economy, in which cars can be active while the owner is not using them.[261] A Tesla Minibus would be built on the Model X
platform.[262] In May 2017, Musk indicated that he might favor a 10–12-passenger version of the Model X over a dedicated minibus
design.[263]

In February 2018, Tesla announced that they would unveil Model Y production plans within the next 3–6 months[264] and posted open
positions for Model Y production and design. The job description on the Tesla website states: "The new Programs Engineering, Design
Engineer is responsible for designing, developing, and delivering prototype level components and systems for the Tesla Model Y as

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well as future Tesla product programs."[265] In May 2018, Musk said that the Model Y will be built on a platform that shares many
components with the Model 3, and that the Model Y will be in production at the earliest in early 2020.[266] Musk revealed that the
Model Y will be unveiled in March 2019.[267]

At the company's annual shareholder meeting in June 2018, Musk revealed Tesla's intention to enter a new market segment, offering a
compact hatchback in "less than five years".[268][269] He provided no details, and dodged a question about also producing a
subcompact. Musk also put to rest hopes for a Tesla motorcycle, saying "we’re not going to do motorcycles".[270]

Tesla Semi
The Tesla Semi is an all-electric Class 8 semi-trailer truck first mentioned in the 2016 Tesla Master plan.[271] Production is slated to
begin in 2019.

The vehicle's official announcement was at a November 16, 2017 press conference where two prototypes were shown. Musk confirmed
that the range would be 500 miles and that the zero to 60 mph time would be 5 seconds versus 15 seconds for a similar truck with a
diesel engine.[272] The Semi will be powered by four electric motors of the type used in the Tesla Model 3 and will include an extensive
set of hardware sensors to enable it to stay in its own lane, a safe distance away from other vehicles, and later, when software and
regulatory conditions allow, provide autonomous operation on highways.[273] Musk also announced that the company would be
involved in installing a solar-powered global network of the Tesla Megacharger devices to make the Semi more attractive to potential
long-haul customers. A 30-minute charge would provide 400 miles of range.[274][275]

2020 Roadster
Through a surprise reveal at the end of the event that introduced the Semi on November
16, 2017, Tesla unveiled the 2020 Roadster. Musk said that the new model will have a
range of 620 mi (1,000 km) on the 200 kWh battery pack and will achieve 0–60 mph in 1.9
seconds; it also will achieve 0–100 mph in 4.2 seconds,[276] and the top speed will be over
250 mph (400 km/h). The vehicle will have three electric motors allowing for all-wheel
drive, and torque vectoring during cornering.[277]

At the time, the base price was set at US$200,000 while the first 1,000 units, the Tesla Roadster 2020 prototype at
the launch event in November 2017.
Founder's series, would sell for US$250,000.[277] Reservations required a deposit of
US$50,000, and those who ordered the Founder's series paid the US$250,000 in full upon
ordering. Those who made a reservation at the event were allowed a test drive with a driver in the prototype.[278]

Battery products
In April 2015, the company unveiled its Powerwall home and Powerpack industrial battery packs,[279][280][281] and quickly received
orders valued at US$800 million.[282] The two models included a 7 kilowatt-hour (kWh) wall-mounted unit and 10 kWh unit. The
company announced larger-scale configurations for industrial users in units of 100 kWh. The company planned to open source its
patents for the entire range.

Initial cells were made by Panasonic. When production shifted to Gigafactory 1,[283] Tesla expected costs to drop by 30%.[279]

In September 2016, Tesla announced it had been chosen "through a competitive process" to supply Southern California Edison (SCE)
with 20 MW power (and 80 MWh energy) of battery storage. In May, regulators ordered SCE to invest in utility-scale battery systems
after natural gas provider Southern California Gas leaked 1.6 million pounds (730 t) of methane into the atmosphere when a well
ruptured at its Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Storage Facility.[284]

In February 2017, Musk announced plans to build three additional Gigafactories to increase its battery manufacturing.[285]

After Puerto Rico faced a hurricane, Elon Musk offered to work with Puerto Rico's government in rebuilding its solar energy grid. In
October 2017, Tesla brought 700 solar panels to the "Hospital del Niño," where the batteries helped bring care back to 3,000 patients
who needed constant care.[286]

Charging

Supercharger network
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In 2012, Tesla began building a network of


480-volt fast-charging Supercharger stations.
As of September 2018, there are 1,342
Supercharger stations operated globally with
11,013 superchargers.[287] The Supercharger is
a proprietary direct current (DC) technology
that provides up to 120 kW of power, a full
charge in around 75 minutes.[287] Tesla cars can
Tesla Model S charging at a Tesla superchargers in Toronto,
recommend the fastest route for long-distance
Supercharger station in Newark, Canada.
travel, incorporating possible charging
Delaware
delays.[288]

All Tesla cars come standard with Supercharging


hardware. Model S and X cars ordered after January 15, 2017 get 400 kWh of free Supercharging
credits, which provides a range of roughly 1,600 kilometres or 1,000 miles per year. Cars purchased
before that date get free supercharging.[289]

In December 2016, after a complaint sent to Musk via Twitter about abuse, Tesla announced that it
will start charging an "idle" fee for vehicles that continue to occupy charging stations after they are
fully charged.[290][291]

Destination charging location network


In 2014, Tesla discreetly launched the "Destination Charging Location" Network by providing
chargers to hotels, restaurants, shopping centers, resorts and other full service stations to provide
Tesla destination charger in
on-site vehicle charging at twice the power of a typical charging location.[292][293][294] On April 25,
North America
2016, Tesla launched European destination charging, with 150 locations and more to be added
later.[295] Chargers are installed free of charge by Tesla-certified contractors. All installed chargers
appear in the in-car navigation system.[296]

Facilities
In addition to its corporate headquarters, the company operates multiple large factories for making vehicles and their components.
The company operates[297] showrooms and galleries around the world.[298]

United States
Tesla was founded in San Carlos, California.[299] Tesla's first retail stores were in Los
Angeles,[300] in Menlo Park, California[301] and in Manhattan's Chelsea art district,
followed by others in major US cities.[126] In 2010, Tesla moved its corporate headquarters
and opened a powertrain development facility in Palo Alto.[302]

Factories
Tesla's first assembly plant occupies the former NUMMI plant in Fremont,
California.[303][304] It is known as the Tesla Factory.[305] As of 2016, the plant was not
highly automated—it was expected to produce some 80,000 cars with 6,000 workers New Tesla Model S cars at the Tesla
compared to a "typical" plant that might produce 250,000 cars with 3,000 workers.[306] Factory in 2012
The 370-acre (16,000,000 sq ft; 1,500,000 m2) site includes a 5,500,000-square-foot
(510,000 m2) building complex.[307]

In 2015, Tesla acquired Riviera Tool & Die (with 100 employees in Michigan), one of its suppliers of stamping items.[308][309] In 2017,
Tesla acquired Perbix Machine Company, a manufacturer of automated manufacturing equipment, that has been an equipment
supplier for over three years.[310]

Tesla occupies a second factory in Fremont. The building is more than 500,000 sq ft (46,500 m2). The location is next to a SolarCity
facility, a few miles from the original Fremont plant.[311]

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Gigafactory 1
Gigafactory 1 is located outside Reno, Nevada. As of January 2017, it occupied 1.9 million sq ft (180,000 m2) with 4.9 million sq ft
(460,000 m2) of usable area across several floors.[312]

It produces Powerwalls and Powerpacks[313][314] as well as battery cells[315] in partnership with Panasonic. It also produces Model 3
battery packs and drivetrains.[316]

The factory received substantial subsidies from local and state government.[317]

In August 2018, Tesla had a whistleblower problem. Karl Hansen was a former member of the company's security team. He filed a tip
with the Securities and Exchange Commission. In the tip, he alleged that Tesla suppressed an internal investigation into various
criminal activities at the Nevada Gigafactory. Hansen said that the company refused to tell the DEA about several employees who were
allegedly moving cocaine and crystal methamphetamine on behalf of a Mexican drug cartel. He also said that the company tried to get
him to not report a $37 million theft of raw materials. Additionally, he said the company fired an employee who reported the theft for
the reason that the employee was "not a Tesla team player."[318]

Gigafactory 2
The Gigafactory 2 is located in Buffalo, New York on the site of a former Republic Steel plant. It is operated by Tesla's SolarCity unit.
The factory is a $750 million, 1.2 million square foot facility that directly employs 500 workers. Tesla partners with Panasonic to
assemble photovoltaic panel modules, with plans to assemble full panels and solar roofs in 2018. Tesla received incentives to locate
the factory in Buffalo through the Buffalo Billion program.[319][320][321][322] As of August 2017, the factory added production of tiles for
the Tesla Solar Roof.[323] In January 2018, Tesla announced, after testing on employees' roofs, that it would begin installing the Tesla
Solar Roof on commercial customers' homes "within the next few months".[324]

Canada
Tesla's first "new design" store opened on November 16, 2012 in the Yorkdale Shopping
Centre in Toronto, Ontario. As of May 2017, eight Tesla stores/galleries operated in
Montreal, Quebec City, Calgary, Toronto and in Vancouver.[325]

Europe
Tesla opened its first European store in June 2009 in London.[326][327] Tesla's European
headquarters are in Amsterdam.[328] A 62,000 sq ft (5,800 m2) European service center
Tesla store in Toronto.
operates in Tilburg, Netherlands along with a 77,650 m2 (835,800 sq ft) assembly facility
that adds drivetrain, battery and software to the (imported) car body to reduce EU import
tax,[329][330][331] Musk confirmed in June 2014[332] and November 2016 its long-term plans
to build a car and battery gigafactory in Europe,[333] which several countries have
campaigned to host.[334]

In late 2016, Tesla acquired German engineering firm Grohmann Engineering in Prüm as a
new division dedicated to helping Tesla increase the automation and effectiveness of its
manufacturing process.[335] After winding down existing contracts with other auto
manufacturers, Grohmann works exclusively on Tesla projects.[336]
Tesla showroom in Munich,
As of February 2018, Tesla is building a small research and development office in Athens, Germany
Greece.[337][338]

In July 2018, it was reported that Tesla was exploring building its first major European factory in Germany or the Netherlands.[339]

Asia
Tesla opened its first Japanese showroom in Aoyama, Japan, in October 2010.[340]

Showrooms and service centers operate in Hong Kong,[341] Beijing and Shanghai.[342]

It also opened two showrooms in March 2017[343] and a service center in South Korea in late 2017.

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In July 2018, Tesla has signed an agreement with Chinese authorities to build a factory in
Shanghai, China and will be Tesla's first Gigafactory outside of the United States.[344]

Australia
Tesla opened a showroom in Sydney in 2010.[345][346] followed by a showroom and service
center in Melbourne in 2015.[347]

In July 2017, Tesla won a contract to install the world's biggest grid-scale battery in South
Tesla Motor's Japanese showroom Australia by promising installation within 100 days.[348] The Hornsdale Power Reserve
in Aoyama, Tokyo, which was the with total capacity of 100 megawatts was connected to the grid on December 1, 2017.
first showroom opened in the
country
Partners
Unlike many traditional manufacturers, Tesla operates as an original equipment
manufacturer (OEM), manufacturing powertrain components for other automakers. Tesla has confirmed partnerships with Daimler
and Toyota. It also works with Panasonic as a partner in battery and solar panel research and development. The company supplies
battery packs for Freightliner Trucks' Custom Chassis electric van.[349]

Daimler AG
Starting in late 2007, Daimler AG and Tesla began working together. On May 19, 2009, Daimler bought a stake of less than 10% in
Tesla for a reported US$50 million.[30][350] As part of the collaboration, Herbert Kohler, Vice-President of E-Drive and Future Mobility
at Daimler, took a Tesla board seat.[351] On July 13, 2009, Daimler AG sold 40% of its May acquisition to Aabar Investments PJSC.
Aabar is an Abu Dhabi government investment vehicle.[352][353] In October 2014, Daimler sold its remaining holding.[354]

Mercedes-Benz A-Class
Tesla builds electric-powertrain components for the Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-Cell, an
electric car with a range of 120 mi (200 km) and 214 ft⋅lbf (290 N⋅m) of torque. The
36 kWh battery contains approximately 4,000 lithium-ion cells.[356] 500 cars would be
built for trial in Europe beginning in September 2011.[357][358]

Mercedes-Benz B-Class ED
The Mercedes-Benz B-Class
The electric motor was rated 136 PS (100 kW; 134 hp) and 310 N⋅m (229 lb⋅ft), with a 36 Electric Drive uses a battery pack
kWh battery. The vehicle has a driving range of 200 km (124 mi) with a top speed of developed by Tesla.[355]
150 km/h (93 mph).[359]

Smart cars
Smart ED2s have a 14 kilowatt-hours (50 MJ) lithium-ion battery and a powertrain from Tesla.[360]

Toyota
On May 20, 2010, Tesla and Toyota announced a partnership to work on electric vehicle development, which included Toyota's
US$50 million future conditional investment[361] in Tesla and Tesla's US$42 million purchase of a portion of the former NUMMI
factory.[31][227][229][362] Tesla cooperated on the development of electric vehicles, parts, and production system and engineering
support.

On June 5, 2017, Toyota announced that it had sold all of its shares in Tesla and halted co-operation, as Toyota created their own
electric car division.[363]

Toyota RAV4 EV
Tesla and Toyota announced in July 2010 an agreement to develop a second generation of the compact Toyota RAV4 EV.[364] A second
generation RAV4 EV demonstrator was unveiled at the October 2010 Los Angeles Auto Show. Toyota built 35 of these converted
RAV4s (Phase Zero vehicles) for a demonstration and evaluation program that ran through 2011. The lithium metal-oxide battery and

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other powertrain components were supplied by Tesla.[365][366] In August 2012, the


production version RAV4 EV was unveiled; the battery pack, electronics and powertrain
components are similar to those used in the Tesla Model S sedan launched in June 2012,
and the Phase Zero vehicles used components from the Roadster.[367][368]

The RAV4 EV had a limited production run which resulted in just under 3,000 vehicles
being produced.[369] The RAV4 EV hasn't been on the market since 2014 and there aren't
any known plans to revive the model in the near term.[370]
Toyota RAV4 EV second generation

Freightliner Electric Van


The company supplies battery packs for Freightliner Trucks' Custom Chassis electric van.[349]

Panasonic
On January 7, 2010, Tesla and battery cell maker Panasonic announced that they would
together develop nickel-based lithium-ion battery cells for electric vehicles. Naoto
Noguchi, President of Panasonic's Energy Company, said that the Japanese firm's cells
would be used for Tesla's "current and next-generation EV battery pack."[371] The
partnership was part of Panasonic's US$1 billion investment over three years in facilities
for lithium-ion cell research, development and production.[372]

Beginning in 2010 Panasonic invested US$30 million for a multi-year collaboration on


next generation cells designed specifically for electric vehicles.[373]
Panasonic Energy Company
President Naoto Noguchi presented In July 2014, Panasonic reached a basic agreement with Tesla to participate in Gigafactory
Tesla CTO JB Straubel with the first 1.[374]
production run of lithium-ion cells
from Panasonic's facility in Tesla and Panasonic also collaborate on the manufacturing and production of photovoltaic
Suminoe-ku, Osaka, Japan
(PV) cells and modules in Buffalo, New York.[323][375]

Airbnb
In August 2015, Tesla partnered with Airbnb to provide destination chargers at certain host houses, initially in California.[376]

Liberty Mutual
Tesla partnered with Liberty Mutual Insurance Company to offer an auto-insurance plan designed specifically for its electric cars. The
plan was made available to US customers In October 2017.[377]

Lawsuits and controversies

Fisker Automotive
On April 14, 2008, Tesla sued Fisker Automotive, alleging that Henrik Fisker "stole design ideas and confidential information related
to the design of hybrid and electric cars" and was using that information to develop the Fisker Karma. Tesla had hired Fisker
Coachbuild to design the WhiteStar sedan, but rejected the design that Musk considered "substandard".[378][379] On November 3,
2008, Fisker Automotive Inc. issued a press release indicating that an arbiter had issued an interim award finding in Fisker's favor on
all claims.[380]

Founder dispute
The company founding was the subject of a lawsuit that was later dropped after an out-of-court settlement.[381][382] On May 26, 2009,
Eberhard filed suit against Tesla and Musk for slander, libel and breach of contract.[383] Musk wrote a lengthy blog post that included
original source documents, including emails between senior executives and other artifacts attempting to demonstrate that Eberhard
was fired by Tesla's unanimous board of directors.[120] A judge struck down Eberhard's claim that he was one of only two company
founders.[384] Tesla said in a statement that the ruling is "consistent with Tesla's belief in a team of founders, including the company's

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current CEO and Product Architect Elon Musk, and Chief Technology Officer JB Straubel, who were both fundamental to the creation
of Tesla from inception."[385] Eberhard withdrew the case[386] and the parties reached a final settlement. One public provision said
that the parties will consider Eberhard, Musk, Straubel, Tarpenning and Wright to be the five co-founders. Eberhard issued a
statement about Musk's foundational role in the company: "As a co-founder of the company, Elon's contributions to Tesla have been
extraordinary."[387]

Ecotricity
In early 2014, Tesla reportedly tried to break the exclusivity agreement their charging partner in the UK had for locations along the
UK's highways and tried to "blacken Ecotricity's name with politicians and the media".[388] Ecotricity replied by taking an injunction
against them.[389][390] The dispute was resolved out of court.[391]

Top Gear review


Tesla unsuccessfully sued British television show Top Gear for its 2008 review of the Tesla Roadster (2008) in which Jeremy Clarkson
could be seen driving one around the Top Gear test track, complaining about a range of only 55 mi (89 km) (a figure that was provided
to Top Gear by Tesla itself[392]), before showing workers pushing it into the garage, supposedly out of charge. Tesla filed a lawsuit
against the BBC for libel and malicious falsehood, claiming that two cars were provided and that at any point, at least one was ready to
drive. In addition, Tesla said that neither car ever dropped below 25% charge, and that the scene was staged.[393][394][395][396] The High
Court in London rejected Tesla's libel claim.[397] The falsehood claims were later struck out.[398] The Top Gear website posted a
favorable review of the Model S in 2015[399] and featured the Model X favorably in 2016.[400]

New York Times test drive


In early 2013, Tesla approached the New York Times to publish a story "Focused on future advancements in our Supercharger
technology".[401] In February 2013, the Times published an account on the newly installed Supercharger network on freeway between
Boston and New York City. The author describes fundamental flaws in the Model S sedan, primarily that the range was severely
lowered in the below-freezing temperatures of the American Northeast. At one point the vehicle died completely and needed to be
towed to a charging station.[402]

After the story was published, Tesla stock dipped 3%.[403] Three days later, Musk responded with a series of tweets, calling the article
"fake",[404] and followed up with a lengthy blog post disputing several of the article's claims. He called it a "salacious story" and
provided data, annotated screenshots and maps obtained from recording equipment installed in the press vehicle as evidence that the
New York Times had fabricated much of the story.[401]

[...] Instead of plugging in the car, he drove in circles for over half a mile in a tiny, 100-space parking lot. When the
Model S valiantly refused to die, he eventually plugged it in.

— Elon Musk, A Most Peculiar Test Drive – Tesla Blog

In a statement, the Times stood by the accuracy of the story, calling it "completely factual".[404] Author John Broder quickly issued a
rebuttal in which he clarified and rejected many of the accusations made by Musk.[405]

[...] I drove around the Milford service plaza in the dark looking for the Supercharger, which is not prominently marked.
I was not trying to drain the battery. (It was already on reserve power.) As soon as I found the Supercharger, I plugged
the car in.

— John Broder, That Tesla Data: What It Says and What It Doesn't — The New York Times

During further investigation by the media, Musk said "the Model S battery never ran out of energy at any time, including when Broder
called the flatbed truck." Auto blog Jalopnik contacted Rogers Automotive & Towing, the towing company Broder used. Their records
showed that "the car's battery pack was completely drained."[406] In his follow-up blog post, Broder said "The car's display screen said
the car was shutting down, and it did. The car did not have enough power to move, or even enough to release the electrically operated
parking brake."

In the days that followed, NYT public editor Margaret Sullivan published an opinion piece titled "Problems With Precision and
Judgment, but Not Integrity, in Tesla Test". She concludes "In the matter of the Tesla Model S and its now infamous test drive, there is
still plenty to argue about and few conclusions that are unassailable."[407] No legal action was pursued.

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Singapore tax surcharge


In early March 2016, a report by Stuff magazine said that test performed by VICOM, Ltd on behalf of Singapore's Land Transport
Authority had found a 2014 Tesla Model S to be consuming 444 Wh/km (0.715 kW⋅h/mi),[408][409] which was greater than the 236
watt-hours per kilometre (0.38 kW⋅h/mi) reported by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)[410] and the 181 watt-hours per
kilometre (0.291 kW⋅h/mi) reported by Tesla.[411] As a result, a carbon surcharge of S$15,000 (US$10,900 at March 2016 exchange
rate) was imposed on the Model S, making Singapore the only country in the world to impose an environmental surcharge on a fully
electric car.[412] The Land Transport Authority justified this by stating that it had to "account for CO2 emissions during the electricity
generation process" and therefore "a grid emission factor of 0.5g/watt-hour was also applied to the electric energy consumption",[413]
however Tesla countered that when the energy used to extract, refine, and distribute gasoline was taken into account, the Model S
produces approximately one-third the CO2 of an equivalent gasoline-powered vehicle.[411]

Later that month, the Land Transport Authority released a statement stating that they and the VICOM Emission Test Laboratory will
be working with Tesla engineers to review the test,[414] and a Tesla statement indicated that the discussions were "positive" and that
they were confident of a quick resolution.[411]

SEC investigations
The July 11, 2016 Wall Street Journal reported that Tesla was being investigated by the U.S. SEC to see if the company should have
disclosed a fatal crash involving its autopilot technology before the company sold more than US$2 billion worth of shares in May
2016.[415] A separate SEC investigation closed "without further action" in October 2016 about Tesla's use of non-GAAP (Generally
Accepted Accounting Principles) reporting; Tesla switched to GAAP-reporting in October 2016.[416]

SolarCity acquisition shareholder litigation


In September and October 2016, seven Delaware lawsuits were filed by Tesla stockholders seeking to block the proposed SolarCity
acquisition. In October 2016, the Court consolidated the actions and appointed a lead plaintiff. The plaintiffs alleged, among other
things, that the Tesla board of directors breached their fiduciary duties in approving the acquisition and that certain individuals would
be unjustly enriched by the acquisition.[417] The acquisition was approved by Tesla and SolarCity's stockholders on November 17,
2016[418] and the merger closed on November 21, 2016.

Autopilot 2 class-action lawsuit


On April 19, 2017, Tesla owners filed a class-action lawsuit due to Tesla exaggerating the capabilities of its Autopilot 2 to
consumers.[419] The lawsuit claimed that "buyers of the affected vehicles have become beta testers of half-baked software that renders
Tesla vehicles dangerous if engaged"[420] Tesla attacked the lawsuit as a "disingenuous attempt to secure attorney's fees posing as a
legitimate legal action".[421]

Labor practices
On April 19, 2017, Tesla factory workers filed unfair labor practice charges with the National Labor Relations Board, alleging that
Tesla uses "illegal surveillance, coercion, intimidation and prevention of worker communications [...] in an effort to prevent or
otherwise hinder unionization of the Fremont factory."[422][423]

According to CNBC, "the United Automobile Workers (UAW) union filed four separate charges with the National Labor Relations
Board alleging that [Tesla] has illegally surveilled and coerced workers attempting to distribute information about the union
drive."[424] On February 10, 2017, three Tesla employees allegedly were passing out literature to initiate organizing union efforts. The
literature pointed to working conditions, the company's confidentiality agreement and employee rights under the National Labor
Relations Act. The UAW's charges allege that Tesla illegally told employees that they could not pass out any literature unless it was
approved by the company.[424]

In an attempt to unionize Tesla's Fremont plant, the UAW has paid organizers on the ground since 2016. The UAW is renting from a
Fremont landlord, Sreenivasa Munukutla, who has been accused of wage and labor violations.[425] The UAW continued to lease from
Munukutla even as the Department of Labor investigation was ongoing.[425]

The Fremont plant has been unionized in the past, both when owned by General Motors (GM), and later by the NUMMI partnership
of GM and Toyota. While under UAW oversight, the plant closed once in 1982 (GM) and again in 2010 (NUMMI partnership) .[426][427]

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In May 2018, the United Auto Workers union filed a complaint with the National Labor Relations Board, seeking a federal
investigation against Tesla for CEO Elon Musk's tweet apparently threatening worker stock options if they joined a union. Tesla
responded that other car makers don't offer such stock options to union workers.[428][429] Minnesota Congressman Keith Ellison
chastised Musk for "threats" of unlawful retaliation and presented a list of questions on union activities and worker safety records,
asking for a response by June 15.[430]

Working conditions and injury policies


Employees describe working at Tesla as stressful and meaningful. In 2016, Tesla's employees averaged 30 years age, and 20% were
female.[431]

On May 14, 2017, Tesla said that Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR, a measure of employee safety)[432] was higher for the previous
years, and stated a TRIR of 4.6 for Q1 2017.[433] On May 18, 2017 The Guardian published a story about working conditions at Tesla
Factory,[434] relayed by CNBC.[435]

Former and current Tesla employees publicly expressed concerns about worker treatment. Between 2014 and 2017, ambulances went
to Tesla’s Fremont, California factory over 100 times to provide emergency services to workers exhibiting symptoms including
fainting, dizziness, abnormal breathing and chest pains resulting from the physically demanding tasks associated with their positions.
At the end of that period, Tesla Factory employed over 10,000 workers.[434]

Working conditions are in part a result of the company's ambitious production figures. The 2018 goal is to manufacture 500,000
automobiles, a 495% increase from 2016.[434] Tesla has acknowledged that its recordable incident rate (TRIR), which measures work-
related injuries and illnesses that have been reported to regulators, exceeded the industry average between 2013 and 2016.[433] Exact
data was not released by Tesla over that period, because the company says the data is not representative of the factory's current
operations.[434] In a statement, Tesla emphasized it is "building entirely new vehicles from the ground up, using entirely new
technology, production, and manufacturing methods, and ramping them at high volume."[436]

Musk strongly defended Tesla’s safety record and argued that the company had made significant improvement. In 2017, however,
when The Guardian reached out to 15 current and/or former workers, each contradicted Musk’s viewpoint. Jonathan Galescu, a
production technician for the company, said, “I’ve seen people pass out, hit the floor like a pancake and smash their face open. They
just send us to work around him while he’s still laying on the floor.”[434] In February 2017, Jose Moran, a Tesla worker, blogged about
the company’s practices of mandatory overtime, frequent worker injuries and low wages.[434] Both workers are involved with the
UAW's current organizing campaign.[437][438]

Tesla’s policies for dealing with injured employees were also criticized. In 2017, workers alleged that Tesla’s policies got in the way of
workers reporting injuries. At Tesla, workers who reported injuries were moved to lighter work and given access to supplemental
insurance benefits. One injured worker reported that his pay went from $22 an hour to $10 an hour. To protect their incomes, many
workers choose to work during their recovery from injury, in some cases inciting further damage and pain.[434]

In 2017, Tesla added extra shifts and safety teams to improve conditions. According to the company, "the average amount of hours
worked by production team members has dropped to about 42 hours per week, and the level of overtime decreased by more than 60
percent" after improvements were made.[439] When CNBC requested comment about the issues, Tesla responded, “Tesla’s safety
record is much better than the industry average, but it is not enough. Our goal is to have as close to zero injuries as humanly possible
and to become the safest factory in the auto industry.”[435][433]

On May 24, 2017, California Worksafe responded to Tesla's TRIR numbers, showing higher rates (8.8) than industry average (6.7) for
2015.[440] OSHA reports that the incident rate at UAW-represented Ford plants has also exceeded the industry average in recent
years.[441] In some cases, UAW-represented plants' incident rates were three or four times higher than the industry average.[441]

In April 2018, CIR's Reveal published an investigation concluding that Tesla under-counted worker injuries to make its safety record
appear better. It included findings such as the factory floor not having have clearly marked pedestrian lanes and instead having lanes
painted different shades of gray because Elon Musk does not like the color yellow. In addition, other safety signals (such as signs and
warning beeps) were lowered in order to please Musk's esthetic preferences.[442] Susan Rigmaiden, former environmental compliance
manager, commented: “If someone said, ‘Elon doesn’t like something,’ you were concerned because you could lose your job.”[442] Tesla
called Reveal's investigation an "ideologically motivated attack by an extremist organization working directly with union supporters to
create a calculated disinformation campaign against Tesla."[443] Reveal responded by publishing the details of their investigation,
which included interviews of more than three dozen current and former employees and managers as well as the review of hundreds of
pages of documents.[442] Additionally, many of the interviewed safety professionals had no involvement in a unionization effort.[442]
Tesla made no further response.

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Illegal workers suit


The Mercury News in 2016 investigated the use of foreign construction workers to build Tesla’s paint shop at Tesla Factory. A
whistleblower federal lawsuit was filed, which was unsealed in the summer of 2017. The suit alleged that Tesla and other major
automakers such as Mercedes-Benz, BMW and Volkswagen illegally used foreign construction workers to build their U.S. factories.
Court documents and the journalistic investigation showed that at least 140 foreign workers worked on the factory expansion, some of
whom had questionable work visas, for as little as five dollars per hour. The workers came mainly from Eastern Europe on “suspect
visas hired through subcontractors.”[444]

Ludicrous limited power output


Certain Tesla vehicles equipped with its Ludicrous performance mode had limited power output, as discovered by some Tesla owners
in 2017. The power limits were connected to how frequently the drivers used Launch Mode; if a driver used it too much, the car’s
power output was restricted to prevent excessive wear and tear on components. Customers complained and the company removed the
limiter.[445]

Software copyright infringement


In May 2018, it was reported that Tesla had for five[446] or six[447] years been using other people's copyrighted software unlawfully,
specifically engaging in GPL violations. The Software Freedom Conservancy reportedly alerted Tesla to the issue repeatedly, but only
in 2018 did Tesla begin to remedy its non-compliance with the software's license terms.[447][448][446]

Lawsuit alleging sabotage


On June 20, 2018, Tesla filed a civil lawsuit in Nevada against a former Tesla employee, who a few days before had been dismissed
after allegedly confessing to hacking Tesla's Manufacturing Operating System and to transferring gigabytes of confidential, proprietary
data to external, unknown entities.[449] By June 27, Tesla had been granted subpoenas compeling several companies that may be
storing data for the former employee, including Apple, Microsoft, Google, Facebook and Dropbox to surrender any such data.[450] Also
in late June, the ex-employee reacted by attempting to crowd-fund US$500,000 for his legal defense and counter-suit.[451] As of mid-
August, Tripp had retained legal counsel, and had either taken down, on advice of his lawyer, or been hacked, on each of his social
media accounts.[452]

Musk Twitter investigation


In September 2018, the U.S. Department of Justice began investigating Tesla based on a tweet sent out by Elon Musk. In the tweet,
Musk stated that he was considering taking the company private, and that he had "funding secured" to complete the deal. DOJ
investigators requested company documents in September related to Musk's announcement, and the company complied with the
requests.[453] The Securities and Exchange Commission launched its own investigation into Tesla and Musk as well. Musk's
announcement came as a surprise to shareholders, and consequently the company's stock price rose by almost 11 percent; 17 days
later, Musk said the proposal was dead. The volatile stock price movement resulted in multiple shareholder lawsuits.[453]

According to multiple sources, Musk will step down as chairman within 45 days and will be replaced by an independent chairman; he
will remain the CEO of the company. He and Tesla also agreed to pay $20 million dollars each in fines that will be distributed to
"harmed investors".[454][455]

Product issues

Recalls
As of March 2018, Tesla had issued six product recalls for the Model S, two for the Roadster, and two for the Model X.[456]

On April 20, 2017, Tesla issued a worldwide recall of 53,000 (~70%) of the 76,000 vehicles it sold in 2016 due to faulty parking brakes
that could become stuck and "prevent the vehicles from moving."[457][458]

On March 29, 2018, Tesla issued a worldwide recall of 123,000 Model S cars built before April 2016 due to corrosion-susceptible
power steering bolts that could fail and require the driver to use "increased force" to control the vehicle.[459]

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Crashes and fires


On October 1, 2013, a Model S caught fire after the vehicle hit metal debris on a highway in Kent, Washington. Tesla confirmed the fire
began in the battery pack and was caused by the "direct impact of a large metallic object to one of the 16 modules within the Model S
battery pack."[460] On November 6, 2013, a Tesla Model S on Interstate 24 near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, caught fire after it struck a
tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle. Tesla said that it would conduct its own investigation,[461] and as a
result of these incidents, announced its decision to extend its current vehicle warranty to cover fire damage.[462]

On January 4, 2014, a Tesla Model S in Norway caught fire while charging at one of Tesla's supercharger stations and was completely
destroyed. No one was injured.[463]

On March 28, 2014, NHTSA announced that it had closed the investigation into whether the Model S was prone to catch fire, after the
automaker said it would provide more protection to its battery packs.[464] All Model S cars manufactured after March 6 have the .25-
inch (6.4 mm) aluminum shield over the battery pack replaced with a new three-layer shield.[465]

A Model S driver died in a collision with a tractor-trailer on May 7, 2016, in Williston, Florida, while the vehicle was in autopilot mode.
The driver is believed to be the first person to have died in a Tesla vehicle in autopilot mode.[466][467] The NHTSA investigated the
accident and concluded: "A safety-related defect trend has not been identified at this time and further examination of this issue does
not appear to be warranted."[468]

On May 8, 2018, two 18-year olds died in a fire in Fort Lauderdale, Florida that ensued after crashing a Tesla Model S into a wall. The
car was limited to a top speed of 85 mph. The cause has not been identified yet.[469][470]

Maintenance costs, crash rates, and insurance costs


On June 4, 2017, the American Automobile Association raised insurance rates for Tesla owners following a report from the Highway
Loss Data Institute. The report concluded that the Model S crashes 46% more often and is 50% more expensive to repair than
comparable vehicles. Similarly, the Model X was concluded to crash 41% more often and to be 89% more expensive to repair than
similar vehicles. As a result, AAA raised insurance rates on Tesla cars by 30%. Tesla said that the analysis is "severely flawed and not
reflective of reality", however, Tesla failed to provide any contradictory numbers.[471] Shortly thereafter, Russ Rader, the spokesman
for the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, confirmed the AAA's analysis and that "Teslas get into a lot of crashes and are costly to
repair afterward".[472][473] Tesla has not made further statements on this topic.

Delays
Tesla has been criticized for repeatedly overpromizing and underdelivering. Delivery dates for new vehicles and new vehicle features
slipped on the Roadster, the Model S and the Model X. Advanced technologies like the prospect of a large network of solar-powered
supercharger stations (first installed 2012; only two were solar-powered as of late 2014) also lagged projections.[474]

In early October 2017, Musk had predicted that Model 3 production would be up to 5,000 units per week by December.[475] A month
later, he revised that target to "sometime in March" 2018 due in part to difficulties with robots on the assembly line, but primarily due
to problems with the battery module.[76] An analyst with Cowan and Company, a public relations firm, made this comment: "Elon
Musk needs to stop over promising and under delivering".[476]

On September 24, 2018, Musk revealed on Twitter that Tesla will be building its own car carriers as the company is facing challenges
due to logistics. Tesla is running into an acute shortage of car carrier trailers leading to a delay in the delivery.[477]

Hacking
In August 2015, two researchers said they were able to take control of a Tesla Model S by hacking into the car's entertainment
system.[478] The hack required the researchers to physically access the car.[479] Tesla issued a security update for the Model S the day
after the exploit was announced.[480]

In September 2016, researchers at Tencent's Keen Security Lab demonstrated a remote attack on a Tesla Model S and controlled the
vehicle in both Parking and Driving Mode without physical access. They were able to compromise the automotive networking bus
(CAN bus) when the vehicle's web browser was used while the vehicle was connected to a malicious Wi-Fi hotspot.[481] This was the
first case of a remote control exploit demonstrated on a Tesla. The vulnerability was disclosed to Tesla under their bug bounty
program and patched within 10 days, before the exploit was made public.[482] Tencent hacked the doors of a Model X in 2017.[483]

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In January 2018, security researchers informed Tesla that an Amazon Web Services account of theirs could be accessed directly from
the Internet and that the account had been exploited for cryptocurrency mining. Tesla reacted by securing the compromised system
and by rewarding the security researchers financially via their bug bounty program and stated that the compromise did not violate
customer privacy, nor vehicle safety or security.[484][485]

Servicing
Tesla offers service at their service centers, or if a center is not available, mobile technicians can perform most inspections and repairs.
It is recommended to have any Tesla car inspected every 12,500 miles or once a year, whichever comes first.[486] The first units for
each new model revealed design and manufacturing flaws, including the Model S and the Model X.[487][488] As the Tesla vehicle fleet
grew, limited service centers resulted in waiting periods for some owners.[489] Auto experts view the service delays as insignificant, as
owners are more accepting of the challenges of servicing a new type of car.[489]

Tesla does not provide service manuals except in jurisdictions that required them to do so.[490]

At the June 2018 shareholder meeting, Elon Musk confirmed that Tesla will soon start to open its first body shops in the top ten U.S.
metro areas, stocking some body parts, potentially allowing for same-day service.[491]

Lobbying activity
In June 2017, Tesla made a "last-minute push near the end of the Albany legislative session to expand its sales force in New York."[492]
However, Tesla and the legislature got pushback from the auto dealers. A New York State Legislature bill (A.8248/S.6600) would
allow Tesla to operate 20 sales locations in the state, up from its current 5. The dealers attacked the bill, arguing that it would hurt
their business because Tesla does not sell through dealers. According to the New York Law Journal, "Tesla . . . has its own in-house
lobbyists, according to disclosures filed with the state's lobbying entity."[492]

Board of directors
As of June 2018, the Tesla board of directors consists of:[493]

Elon Musk—Chairman, CEO and Product Architect of Tesla; founder, CEO and CTO of SpaceX; Chairman of SolarCity
Brad W. Buss—Former CFO of SolarCity; former CFO of Cypress Semiconductor Corp
Ira Ehrenpreis—General Partner, Technology Partners
Antonio J. Gracias—CEO and Chairman of the Investment Committee at Valor Equity Partners
Steve Jurvetson—Managing Director, Draper Fisher Jurvetson
Kimbal Musk—Co-founder of The Kitchen
Robyn M. Denholm—COO of Telstra
James Murdoch—CEO of 21st Century Fox
Linda Johnson Rice—CEO and Chairman of Johnson Publishing Company
A group of investors asked Tesla in a 2017 public letter to add two new independent directors to its board “who do not have any ties
with chief executive Elon Musk”.[494] The investors wrote that “five of six current non-executive directors have professional or
personal ties to Mr. Musk that could put at risk their ability to exercise independent judgement.”[495] The letter called for a more
independent board that could put a check on groupthink.[495] At first Musk responded on Twitter, writing that the investors "should
buy Ford stock" because "their governance is amazing.”[495] Two days later, he promised he would add two independent board
members.[496]

See also
Battery electric vehicle
List of automobile manufacturers of the United States
List of electric cars currently available
List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
List of production battery electric vehicles
Plug-in electric vehicles in California
Plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

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