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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS Vol. 51, No. 6, 1075–1090, Dec.

Japanese Geotechnical Society



This paper presents a case study on a numerical prediction of the seepage and seismic behaviors of an unsaturated ˆll
slope. In this study, the numerical prediction is performed with a dynamic three-phase (soil, water and air) coupled
analysis based on porous media theory and constitutive models. The weak forms of three governing equations,
momentum balance equations of the overall three-phase material and mass and the momentum balance equations of
the pore ‰uids (water and air), are implemented in a ˆnite element model. The discretized equations are solved by the
fully implicit method and the skeleton stress is also implicitly integrated. The in-situ observation at the target ˆll slope
of the case study has been ongoing since 2006. First, distributions of water saturation in the ˆll slope are simulated by
performing seepage analyses to reproduce the in-situ ground water level in the ˆll slope. Second, seismic responses of
the ˆll slope during two past earthquakes are simulated, and the numerical method is validated by comparing observed
acceleration records and numerical one. Finally, seismic responses of the ˆll slope during a future scenario earthquake
are predicted under diŠerent moisture conditions of unsaturated ˆll. As a result, the following ˆndings were obtained.
1) The shape of the ground water level was partially reproduced from the quite dry ˆll slope element by using virtual
constant precipitation. However, the observation results of moisture distribution above the ground water level were
not reproduced. 2) In the validation analyses after two earthquakes, the numerical method reproduced the positions of
peak frequency of acceleration Fourier spectra. 3) The numerical results clearly showed that frequency characteristics
of the seismic response and the residual displacement of the ˆll slope were aŠected by the initial distribution of the
degree of saturation in the ˆll ground.

Key words: earth ˆll, eŠective stress analysis, seepage, seismic response, unsaturated soil, water retention curve (IGC:

Okamura and Soga, 2006; Unno et al., 2008), it ihas been
INTRODUCTION suggested that the behaviors of pore air and suction play
Fill slopes located in old valleys have been damaged an important role during the liquefaction of unsaturated
signiˆcantly during earthquakes due to the high water soil (Kazama et al., 2006).
content in the ˆll. Moreover, since the capillary zone in a The focus of liquefaction analyses done in the past
ˆll slope composed of volcanic soil with high water reten- tended to be on fully saturated ground. Various dynamic
tion is usually thick, it it is possible that it liqueˆes during soil-water coupled analyses based on porous media theo-
an earthquake (Uzuoka et al., 2005). Cyclic triaxial tests ry (Biot, 1962) have been proposed since the 1980's
with unsaturated soil have been performed to investigate (Zienkiewicz et al., 1978; Ghaboussi and Dikmen, 1978;
the liquefaction strength of unsaturated soils (e.g., Ishihara and Towhata, 1980; Zienkiewicz and Shiomi,
Yoshimi et al., 1989; Tsukamoto et al., 2002; Selim and 1984; Prevost, 1985; Finn et al., 1986; Iai and Kameoka,
Burak, 2006). In general, the liquefaction strength of un- 1993; Oka et al., 1994; Fukutake and Ohtsuki, 1995).
saturated soil is larger than that of saturated soil with the Although some of these took the degree of saturation
same conditions, but this is not the case when the initial into account and were therefore capable of were capable
water saturation is the same. In recent discussions on the of describing unsaturated soil (Meroi and Schre‰er, 1995;
liquefaction mechanism of unsaturated soil (e.g., Uzuoka et al., 2001), they did not consider the response
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan (
Professor, The University of Tokushima, Institute of Technology and Science, Japan (
Kajima Corporation (former Graduate Student, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University), Japan.
Nagoya City (former Graduate Student, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University), Japan.
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan (kazama_motok@civil.tohoku.
The manuscript was received on August 25, 2009 for publication in the Special Issue on ``IS-Kyoto International Symposium on Prediction
and Simulation Methods for Geohazard Mitigation'' published in Vol. 50 No. 4.
Written discussions on this paper should be submitted before July 1, 2012 to the Japanese Geotechnical Society, 4-38-2, Sengoku, Bunkyo-ku,
Tokyo 112-0011, Japan. Upon request the closing date may be extended one month.


In this study. constitutive models. Gallipoli et al. rw and ra are the partial densities of soil skele- Scotta. the seismic responses of the The compressibility of pore water under an isothermal ˆll slope during a future scenario earthquake are predict. pore water and air are of pore air plays an important role during liquefaction of deˆned as follows. degree of water saturation and sa is the degree of air satu- 2008. âpa=pa grad na- nv (5) kas Second. nw and na are the for the cyclic behavior of unsaturated soil have been volume fractions of each phase.g. the numerical prediction is per- formed by using a dynamic three-phase (soil. the response of rs=nsrsR=(1-n)rsR pore air pressure should be taken into consideration when rw=nwrwR=nswrwR reproducing the liquefaction behavior of unsaturated ra=naraR=nsaraR=n(1-sw)raR (1) soil. Schre‰er. The weak forms of simpliˆed governing equa.. The in‰uences of the moisture conditions on the = w (6) Dt K Dt seismic responses of unsaturated ˆll slop are discussed through the numerical results. Finally. where K w is the bulk modulus of the pore water. The stress and the pressures are deˆned as posi- target ˆll slope for this case study has been performed tive in tension and compression. ns. Since the compressibility partial densities of soil skeleton. ration.. The importance ra =raaa=div sa+rab+ âpa (3) of modeling the soil water characteristic curves (SWCC) Dt when reproducing any change in suction and water satu. rwR and raR are Muraleetharan. sa=-nsapaI (4) and air). The where U is the absolute temperature. The partial tions. sw is the proposed using suction as a stress variable (Khalili et al. respectively. 2006).. condition is assumed as ed under diŠerent initial moisture conditions of unsatu. and kws and kas are the validated by comparing the results to the observed ac. 2001.. 2009). However. Ravichandran and ton. The in-situ observation at the pressure. respectively. A simpliˆed constitutive model for a The mass exchange among three phases is ignored here. unsaturated soil (Kazama et al. and va is the velocity vector of the a phase. their numeri.. Gallipoli et al. The inter- since 2006. action vector for each phase is assumed as turbed soil samples are conducted before the predictions. pore water and air respectively. In addition. distributions of water saturation in the ˆll kws slope are simulated by performing seepage analyses to naraRg a as reproduce the in-situ ground water level in the ˆll slope. Recently. momentum balance equations of the overall three. Bian and Shahrour. saturated sandy soil is extended to an unsaturated soil us. de Boer. âpa is the interaction vector of the a phase proposed to reproduce the wetting process during cyclic with the other phases. The constitutive equations are as follows. w. rsR. where aa is the acceleration vector of the a phase. D a ra tion of seepage and seismic behaviors of an unsaturated +ra div va=0 (2) Dt ˆll slope. permeability coe‹cient of water and air. 2002). water and where Da/Dt is the material time derivative with respect air) coupled analysis based on porous media theory and to the a phase. is This study presents a case study on a numerical predic. Ravichandran. The linear momentum balance equation of the a phase is ing a skeleton stress (e. Cauchy stress of each phase is assumed as phase material and the continuity equations (mass and ss=s?-(1-n)(swpw+sapa)I momentum balance equations) of the pore ‰uids (water sw=-nswpwI. pore air pressure has been treated as a primary variable in dynamic analyses (Schre‰er and where rs.g. âps=- âpw- âpa The material parameters of the constitutive models are determined after calibrating the results of the laboratory nwrwRg w ws âpw=pw grad nw- n v tests. celeration records. solved by the fully implicit method and the skeleton stress 2003). seismic responses of the ˆll slope during two past earthquakes are simulated and the numerical method is where g is the gravity acceleration. First. constitutive models the real densities of each phase. are all included in a ˆnite element model (Uzuoka et al. 2009. A Cauchy total stress tensor of the a phase. b is the body simpliˆed SWCC model with a logistic function is force vector. a) not validated in real cases during an earthquake. 2009). loading. 2000. 2007). of pore air pressure explicitly. The compressibility of the pore air under an isothermal condi- tion assumed as NUMERICAL METHOD DsraR 1 Dspa Balance and Constitutive Equations = (7) Dt UR̃ Dt Firstly the basic equations are derived based on porous media theory (e. 2003) in place Dava of the eŠective stress of a saturated soil. DsrwR rwR Dspw rated ˆll. cal applications are limited to the model ground and are The mass balance equation for the a phase (a=s. pw is the pore water pressure and pa is the pore air is also implicitly integrated. sa is the ration during cyclic loading is now well understood.1076 MORI ET AL...g. n is the porosity. The discretized equations are where s? is the skeleton stress tensor (e.. In-situ tests and laboratory tests with dis. and R̃ is the speciˆc .

and 4) the material time Newmark implicit scheme is used for time integration. Newton-Raphson method iteratively at each time step. The primary momentum balance equations of the overall three-phase variables are the second-order material time derivative of material is derived as the displacement of soil skeleton as. The relationship between swe deviatoric stress tensor. as shown later. and its nonlinear evolution continuous function at pc=0. The unit of each { } kas +div (-grad pa+raRb-raRas) =0. Dssw Dspc D s ( p a- p w) =c =c (8) Dt Dt Dt Constitutive Equation for Skeleton Stress where c is the speciˆc water capacity and pc is the suction. 1966) is assumed as gence in the iterative numerical scheme. The among phases can be neglected.. we derive simpliˆed where K e is the elastic bulk modulus. and ``second'' in time. the pore water pres- sure äpw and the pore air pressure äpa with respect to the soil ras=div ss?-(swpw+sapa)It +r b (11) skeleton. the mass and momentum balance equations (continuity equations) of the pore water and air with the following Finite Element Formulation and Time Integration assumptions. The mass and momentum balance equations of the pore The linearized forms of the weak forms are derived as water and air are derived as Ddws[Das]+Ddws[D äpw]+Ddws[D äpa]=-dws(k) Ø nsK » DDtp +n w wR s w s a r Dp Ddww[Das]+Ddww[D äpw]+Ddww[D äpa]=-dww(k) -nrwRc rwRc +swrwR div vs w Dt Ddwa[Das]+Ddwa[D äpw]+Ddwa[D äpa]=-dwa(k) (18) { } ws k s w a where dw .. The iteration is con- tinued until the norm of the residual vectors is less than the convergence tolerance of 1. which allows for conver. stress (e. Gallipoli et al. The SWCC is as. Ddws[Das] is the directional derivative of dws with respect to Das. K * and G * are the dimensionless elastic balance equations of the overall three-phase material and modules. (11)–(13) are implemented in a particles are iincompressible. respectively. The plained brie‰y in APPENDICES 1 and 2. k as is the dry (maximum) coe‹cient of air K e=-K*p? G e=-G *p? (17) permeability. 1g pc=pa-pw (9) f=¿h-a¿-k=¿s/p?-a¿-k=0 (14) where sws is the saturated (maximum) degree of saturation. 2008). respectively. Assuming that plastic deforma- tion occurs only when the deviatoric stress ratio changes.g. 1) The conditions are isothermal. dw and dw are the weak form of the soil. The kinematic hardening material parameters alg. k kas=kas(1-swe)h k (10) ical state ratio. 2) the soil Weak forms of Eqs. By combining these equations. s is the the eŠective water saturation. 2007). the plastic potential function is assumed as water and air are assumed to be dependent on the eŠec- g=¿h-a¿+Mm ln ( p?/p?a)=0 (16) tive water saturation as where Mm is the material parameter which deˆnes the crit- kws=kws(swe)j . swr is the residual (minimum) degree of saturation and swe is where p? (=tr(s?)) is the mean skeleton stress. 2003) in place of an eŠective sumed as stress of a saturated soil. where a and b are the material parameters. The convergence toler- g ance is 1. and p?a is p? when ¿h-a¿=0. (13) residual vector is not the same. sw=(sws-swr)swe+swr the yield function is assumed as swe=s 1+exp (a1gpc+b1g)t -c . rule (Armstrong and Frederick. Finally the where kws is the saturated (maximum) coe‹cient of water elastic modules are assumed as permeability. in length. With the non-associ- shear. +div (-grad pw+rwRb-rwRas) =0 (12) g water and air.0×10-7.. The permeability coe‹cient of ated ‰ow rule. derivative of relative velocities and advection terms of The weak forms and time integration method are ex- pore ‰uids to the soil skeleton can be neglected. and k is the material parameter and suction pc is assumed as a logistic function with which deˆnes the elastic region. The logistic SWCC is parameter (back stress) is a. The constitutive relation between tion. A simpliˆed constitutive model for a saturated sandy The speciˆc water capacity is calculated from the soil soil is used for an unsaturated soil with using a skeleton water characteristic curve (SWCC). blg and clg.0×10-7 based on the unit ``kN'' in force. The above SWCC is mo.. UNSATURATED FILL SLOPE 1077 gas constant of air. G e is the elastic governing equations which include the momentum shear modulus. In the ˆnite element for- . The SWCC dur- a· =a(b ·ep-ae· ps) e· ps=¿ ·e p¿ (15) ing undrained cyclic shear has a similar shape as a ``wet- ting'' curve (Unno et al. (k). 3) the mass exchange ˆnite element formulation (Uzuoka et al. Although the governing equations are derived in the water saturation and suction is assumed as regime of ˆnite strain. and dws(k) is the Ø nsa UR̃ -nraRc Dt» Dspa +nraRc Dspw a aR Dt +s r div vs residual at the iteration step. jk and hk are the material parameters. ``m'' This simpliˆed formulation is called a u-pw-pa formula. we have assumed inˆnitesimal strain in this study for simplicity. The weak forms are linearized and solved by the where r is the overall density of the three-phase material. and ·e p is the diˆed to ˆt the ``wetting'' curve during undrained cyclic plastic deviatoric strain rate tensor.

Panorama of target ˆll slope step are obtained by local iteration of (19) at each stress integration point. The panorama of the target ˆll slope is shown in Fig. Implicit Stress Integration Implicit stress integration and the consistent tangent modulus at inˆnitesimal strain (e. Dg is the plastic mul- tiplier.1078 MORI ET AL. Figure 1 shows a comparison of the present topographi- cal map around the ˆll slope and a topographical map made in 1966 before the development. (19) are solved iteratively by the Newton-Raphson method with respect to s?. The diŠerentiation of (20) is carried out at each converged stress derived from the local itera- tion of (19). mulation. 3. to avoid volumetric locking. Plane view of the ˆll slope hill ground in northeastern Sendai City in the 1970s. 1985) are used to achieve the convergence of the global iteration of (18). and ``second'' in time. however this housing area is smoothly leveled at present. and became the Fig. When the yield function f is posi- tive with trial skeleton stress. Cross section of the ˆll slope . 2. If the yield function f is positive. and the ˆll slope was made from crushed sandy tuŠ.0× 10-10 based on the unit ``kN'' in force. a and Dg until the norm of the left-handed residual vector r of (19) is less than the con- vergence tolerance of 1. Topographies in 1966 and 1993 &g (tr) e r1=s?-s? +Dgc &s? r2=a-an+Da r3 = f (19) where s?(tr) is the trial skeleton stress for a given strain in- crement at the global iteration step. respectively. The nonlinear Eqs. THE FILL SLOPE AND MATERIAL PARAMETERS The Fill Slope for a Case Study The ˆll slope is located in a housing area developed on Fig.0×10-10. Simo and Taylor. ce is the elastic tensor. ee(tr) is the trial elastic strain (given strain). the Galerkin method and isoparametric 8-node elements are used. The unit of each resid- ual vector is not same. 3 and 4. The soil skeleton displacement and the ‰uid pressures are approximated at 8 nodes and 4 nodes. 1 is located in the edge of hous- ing area. The base rock around the observed ˆll slope is sandy tuŠ. then the following return mapping algorithm in the stress space is used: Fig. ``m'' in length.. The plane ˆgure and the estimated cross sectional view are shown in Figs. an is a at the previous time step. 2. The convergence tolerance is 1. and Da is the increment of a.g. 4. 1. the skeleton stress and back stress for a given strain increment at the global iteration Fig. The observed ˆll slope shown in the oval in Fig. The consistent tangent modulus is ob- tained as &s? &s? cep= = (20) &ee(tr) &e where cep is the elasto-plastic tensor. respectively. The crushed sandy tuŠ was weathered as time go by. The older topographical map shows numerous valleys branching out throughout this region.

under the condition where point C is ˆxed and the com- The capacity of the pore water and the air pressure gauge pression ratio is (1-S we0)/(1-S we1). the specimen was about 1.29 g/cm3. The eŠective method in Fig. undrained triaxial test.2 g/cm3. two water content gauges (G. retention tests. The results showed that the N-value in the original ground area was greater than 50. 1.25 m). used a logistic function to keep the suction continuously tained from the in-situ ˆll slope. E2. After the pore water pressure became cated at point B. we followed the results of saturated sand. we The specimen was recomposed from sandy soil ob. the measured SWCC during undrained shear shown in . E3. The dry density of the in-situ reproduce the scanning curves with a simple scaling soil varied from 1. Since the measured SWCC was not on laboratory tests. 1999) on saturated sand showed that the and eŠective water saturation on the main wetting curve eŠect of large changes in the strain rate on the stress. The initial dry density of around zero. UNSATURATED FILL SLOPE 1079 silty sand. and the resolution was 0. rated silty sand. I.8z. curve (A-C) along the axis of eŠective water saturation sure was increased to decrease the degree of saturation. the pore air pres. Soil Water Characteristic Curves (SWCC) during undrained ground. the scanning curves should be used to mined through the calibration of the undrained cyclic reproduce the SWCC during undrained cyclic shear.. The frequency of the pc1 pc0 input axial strain was much slower than that of an earth- quake. (9) is modiˆed to dry density of the in-situ ˆll. refer to Unno et al. the soil moisture condition is lo- solidation process. 5. tions. The value of P c2 is the ˆtting on initial water saturation.005 Hz. To grasp the looseness of the ˆll slope. as follows. The logistic SWCC function of Eq. At the beginning of the by controlling the air pressure during the isotropic con. The scan- the specimen under undrained air and water conditions. 3 and 4. The seismograph we used is the E-Catcher pro.0z every ten cycles. The seismo- graphs.L. The fre- quency of the sinusoidal wave was 0. The eŠect of the strain rate on the cyclic shear pca= pc0 { p -pc2 c 0 ( pc-pc0)+pc0 } (21) strength of the saturated sand was very small (Yoshimi where pc0 and swe0 are the initial suction and eŠective water and Oh-oka. 1986). -9. A recent study saturation respectively. Be- triaxial tests with unsaturated soil. Further discussion of strain rate dependency for Material Parameters unsaturated soil is necessary hereafter. A pore water pressure gauge (G.0 m and -4.05 kPa. Tatsuoka et al.2z. The material parameters of the constitu.18 g/cm3 to 1. as shown in Fig. can be temporarily negative. The modiˆed logistic SWCC roughly reproduce eŠect of the strain rate on the soil skeleton curve is small. The equation of the scanning curve (B-D) is shown step amplitudes with single amplitudes of 0. The positions of the measuring instruments are portrayed in Figs. ning curve (B-D) is obtained by the above two-step opera- The input axial strain was a sinusoidal wave with multi.. compress the main wetting minimal in the consolidation process. The N-value and converted N- value in the ˆll part were roughly less than ˆve. at the top of the ˆll slope (ˆll thickness is 17 m). 0.4z. in the middle of the ˆll slope (ˆll thickness is 8 m).6z and 2. pc1 (=pc0) and swe1 are the suction (Santucci et al.0 m) and a rain gauge were also installed around the Although the specimens used in this study were unsatu- location of seismograph E3 in the middle of the ˆll slope. The physical and Figure 5(a) shows the SWCC during the undrained cy- mechanical properties were investigated with in-situ and clic triaxial tests. -2. which agreed with the (9). were respec- tively installed in the upper natural ground. 5(a). we per- formed standard penetration tests at two points and Swedish Sounding Tests at 32 points on the ˆll slope. 1975. respectively and pc2 is the suction on the scanning curve at strain relation cannot be disregarded even though the swe=1. (2008). cause the suction during the undrained cyclic triaxial test tion of the testing method. This loading rate is slow enough to achieve an equilibrium condition swe= 1-swe0 1-swe1 [1 + exp ( a 1g p c a + b 1g )] 1g-c Ø + 1 - 1-swe0 1-swe1 » between the air and water pressure.L. The ˆll slope height is about 25 meters in height and it has a maximum thickness of about 17 meters. and in the lower natural Fig. designated as E1. and E4. Cyclic shear was applied to parameter for the experimental scanning curve. Next. the main drying and wetting curves obtained from water tive models for skeleton stress and SWCC were deter. cyclic triaxial test duced by Oyo S. The net diˆed main wetting curve (B-C) along the axis of suction stress was about 45 kPa for all specimens and the mean under the condition where point B is ˆxed and the expan- skeleton stress varied with the initial suction dependent sion ratio is ( P c0-P c2)/P c0. At ˆrst. 1.2z. expand the mo- was ±100 kPa. The logistic SWCC function is shown in Eq. The scanning curve (B-D) is made by degree of water saturation was from about 23z to 60z scaling the main wetting curve. 5(b). Four seismographs were installed in the ˆll slope and around the ground. For a detailed descrip. 0. The material of the ˆll was sandy soil.

0.0×10- 11 10.25. Further investigation on the SWCC during un. the ˆnite element for. alg. drained shear is necessary for more precise reproduction.e. Material parameters for seismic analysis Rock Fill Clay Air n 0.001 0.35 Main drying curve. only the local equilibrium is considered.0×10-8 1. the pore water and air pressure in. 0. clg 0.0×106 Real density of air.0×10- 13 1. Tests and simulations with the initial eŠective water saturation a 0.8 Critical state stress ratio. Cross sections and boundary conditions of the ˆll for numeri- cal analysis Table 2. SEEPAGE ANALYSIS crease. -2..0245 tion of the ˆll. a 5512 Numerical Data of Seepage Analysis Nonlinear hardening parameter. cise reproduction. blg.05 Main wetting curve.001 Fig. the simpliˆed constitutive homogeneous. Modiˆcations pore water pressure.001 0.0 jk / hk — 3. mean of the constitutive equations are necessary for more pre- skeleton stress (positive in compression) and the void ra.00 kws (m/s) 1.00 rsR (t/m 3) 2. In this case. K w (kPa) 1.72 2. Mm 1.00 1.1080 MORI ET AL.64 1. k 0. G* 140 initial distribution of water saturation in the ˆll.72 0.5. sws 0.05 — — l (kPa) 293876 127351 99915 0. ˆgures). the cross SWCC parameters section is used for ˆnite element modeling. pletely. 1. raR (t/m3) 1. blg. In the simulated results (denoted ``Model'' in the mulation presented in the previous section is not used.2 Scaling parameter. Table 1.00 1. 7. Figure 6 shows the time histories of work of three-phase porous media theory.25×10- 5 Fig.23×10- 3 Gas parameter. Therefore. suction. In the seepage Maximum degree of saturation. pore air pressure.8 Figure 7 shows the ˆnite element model of a cross sec- Yield function parameter.0/0. The initial condition.0×10- 10 10. Assuming a plane strain condition. i. pc2 (kPa) -15 Physical parameters of water and air Bulk modulus of water. Fig. 6.00 1. K * 600 Nonlinear hardening parameter.0. Material parameters of sandy soil from the ˆll seepage in the ˆll and the out‰ow of ground water from the ˆll over the long term.001 0.57 0. tio from tests and simulations when the initial eŠective water saturation of 46z.59 2. alg.01 m (kPa) 293877 31838 11102 0.001 of 46% . we carried out a Elasto-plastic model parameters two-dimensional seepage analysis in order to establish the Dimensionless shear modulus. 5(a).00 rwR (t/m3) 1. the model well reproduces the overall tendency Assuming that the variables in the specimen are of the test results. 3. while the suction and mean skeleton stress Seepage analysis is needed to establish the initial condi- decrease during cyclic undrained shear. 1/(R̃U) (s2/m2) 1.99 analyses. clg 1. b -1. suction and the mean skeleton stress do not attain zero.5. In the test results (denoted ``Test'' in the ˆgures). Dimensionless bulk modulus. the distribution of water saturation in the ˆll before the earthquake.0×10-7 1. equation of soil skeleton can be applied to predict pore Table 1 shows the calibrated material parameters of the water and air responses of unsaturated soil in the frame- constitutive model.37 0. which means that the specimen does not liquefy com- In the triaxial test simulations. is aŠected by rainfall inˆltration into the ˆll. all materials are linear elastic materials with Minimum degree of saturation. The position of the cross section is shown in Fig.0×10- 12 1. swr 0. Therefore.0 kas (m/s) 1. the tions for the dynamic analysis.

25 plying a free water surface on the pond of the ˆnite ele. as explained later. The distributions show urement positions are shown in Figs. Other parameters (rock and clay) were decided to refer to the report by Sendai City (Sendai City. the permeability of the ele- ments increased and the water saturation also increased. The ground the balanced state of soil moisture obtained from ap. the precipitation was 175 mm/year and the run oŠ at the toe of the ˆll slope roughly cor- responded to the observed ‰ux (0. The soil displacement at the bottom boundary is ˆxed in all directions and the lateral boundaries are vertical rollers. Because of the di‹culty reproducing actual rainfall history from the distant past. for example. 9. Constant rain fall is applied to the initial state and mined to ensure numerical convergence. 4 and 9.0 and the time increments are deter. the ˆll slope in Fig. then the water saturation gradually increases. When rain- fall is applied. When the computed amount of run oŠ at the toe of the ˆll slope became constant and equal to a particular value. 10. We deˆned this state as the tion in both cases when the water distribution became initial distribution of water saturation in the ˆll before an steady. Figure 9 is the enlarged ˆgure around the part of earthquake. However. The porosity and density of the ˆll was obtained from the in-situ soil sam- ple. UNSATURATED FILL SLOPE 1081 Lame's coe‹cients l and m in Tables 2. As the ele- ments gradually became wet. water level changed from G. The area) rainfall was input from the upper boundary through ``aerial elements''. Distribution of water saturation before an earthquake (ˆll existence of a pond at the right boundary in Fig. The meas- water saturation without rainfall. 2002). Distribution of water saturation before an earth quake (whole tion was assumed to be a virtual constant rainfall. m according to precipitation. Because the soil moisture in the ˆll depends water saturation.06 m3/min when it had rained for 6 days with a total precipitation of 160. The use of the aerial ele- ment made numerical treatment for the switching be- tween natural and essential boundaries on the surface. The water pressure is con- stant at the upper surface of the clay layer because of the Fig. Case 1 has low ground water level after light precipitation and Case 2 has high ground water level after heavy precipita- tion. the water distribution was adopted as the initial water dis- tribution. 8. as shown in Figs. on the suction from the free water surface.L.L.. -5.03 m3/min) at the toe of the ˆll when it had not rained for about one week before measurements were taken. The initial water distribution in the ˆll was deter- mined as follows. the quantity of input and output water Numerical Result of Seepage Analysis becomes balanced and the distribution of the water satu- Figures 8 and 9 show the distributions of water satura.25 m to G. -7. 2008). most of the ˆll tion method is g=1. as will be explained later. The aerial element is ex- plained brie‰y in APPENDIX 3. Two typical cases are considered in this study. 7(a). ration becomes a steady state. is dry. In Case 2. At ˆrst. In Case 1. 8. 8 and 9 show the initial distributions of soil moisture in the ˆll are shown in Fig. slope area) The seepage analyses are quasi-static analyses under the gravity force without inertia terms. The uppermost ˆgures (the initial The measured precipitation.5 mm. The smooth inˆltration of rain on the surface of the ˆll was simulated with ``aerial elements'' with a special SWCC and a large permeability of water in the vertical direction (Uzuoka et al. unnecessary. the precipita. The coe‹cient in the Newmark integra. Fig. the soil moisture . ground water level and state) in Figs. the precipitation was 236 mm/year and the run oŠ at the toe of the ˆll slope was 0. the input- ted rainfall did not easily inˆltrate the ˆll because of the small permeability of dry surface element. A large calculation time is adopted to obtain the steady state conditions of ment model. 8 and 9 (Cases 1 and 2). The coe‹cient of water permeability of the ˆll was obtained from the permeation velocity of rainfall based on in-situ observation and laboratory tests.

The boundary served and computed results of water saturation in the ˆll condition in the seismic analysis is shown in Fig. the computed water saturation in the un. As shown in Fig. Further studies on soil water characteris. The low ground water level (refer to the Case 1 of Figs. VALIDITY OF NUMERICAL METHOD In this chapter. in both cases. Numerical Results ous soil water characteristic curve. observed at the tions on the 16th Jul. were inputted from the lateral boundary. Two seismic data measured actually in the ˆll slope are used for validation of the numerical method. 2007. was 12. The maximum ac- rainfall period of about one week. Even so. The time increment for calculation is 0. The free ˆeld responses at of the soil. 10.0) was partially reproduced at the middle of the ˆll served at seismograph E4 and input acceleration. the peak time and the whole and soil blocks everywhere. slope. Therefore. The seismic data measured on 12 Apr. formed at the middle of the ˆll slope (refer to Fig. A comparison of the water saturation was per.L. This suggests that the inˆltrated water may the lateral boundaries were calculated with one dimen- have ‰owed in water channels in the ground. In 2008 (denote ``Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku EQ'' hereinafter) case 1. earthquakes and the observed data are shown in Table 3. 9). Moreover linear Kelvin (Voigt) type viscosities were assumed in all materials and their viscous coe‹cients were proportional to the elastic module with multiplier coe‹cients a in Table 2. 2007. 3 by using hours.002 sec- than the actual measured value. the ground water level (saturation= Figure 12 shows the time histories of acceleration ob- 1.8 cm/s2. sis. In case 2. Fig. the moisture dis. 7(b). we reproduced merical result was lager than that one of the observed the ground water level assuming that the ˆll ground was data. 11. ground water level and soil moisture (volumetric water content) Numerical Conditions The cross section in the Fig.3 cm/s2 and that one of Iwate- precipitation was 160. the comparison between actual meas- ured seismic motion and numerical result is performed to validate the reproducibility of the numerical method. 11. 7 was used for the seismic analyses. The boundary conditions for pore water and air were Fig. sional models of the lateral boundaries and the responses Figure 11 shows the comparison between the actual ob. In the result of the actual ˆll is not homogeneous but contains air spaces the EQ on 12 Apr. soil stiŠness and dumping) were stiŠer . which was too short considering the permeability the multiple re‰ection theory. Comparison of water saturation (middle of the ˆll slope) the same as the seepage analyses. In the seismic analyses the deconvolved waves were set at the bottom of the ˆnite element model and free ˆeld responses were set at the (volumetric water content) did not change notably except lateral boundaries of the ˆnite element model.5 saturated part above the ground water level was smaller and 0.50 m. only the ``Fill'' was elasto-plastic model with the material parameters in Table 1. tics in heterogeneous ground are necessary to reproduce the actual distribution of water saturation in unsaturated soil.5 mm over 6 days and the highest Miyagi Nairiku EQ was 96.25. because it had not rained heavily be- fore the two earthquakes.. parameters (e. celeration of the EQ on 12 Apr. 8 and 9) was only used as the initial distribution of water saturation. coe‹cients in Newmark implicit time integration are 0. the ˆll ground was assumed to be homogeneous and the moisture distribution was expressed by the continu. The for seasonal changes. 2007 and 14 Jun. the ordinary condition was assumed with a no were used for the validation analyses. The information of ground water level was G. The delay between the peak precipi. However. It should be pointed out that slope (the position of seismograph E2).1082 MORI ET AL. deconvolved wave was calculated from the measured ac- tation and the peak groundwater level was about 6–11 celeration records at seismograph E4 in Fig. The material parameters were the same as the seepage analysis in above chapter except for the ``Fill''. The slope. which starts from the Figure 13 shows the acceleration at the top of the ˆll initial ground water level. However the acceleration response of the nu- soil water characteristic curve.g. In the numerical analy. the condi. In the seismic analyses. -5. The in-situ observed precipitation. These results indicate that the numerical material homogeneous. onds. 2007 were assumed: the total seismograph E4. shape of acceleration history roughly agreed with the ob- tribution of the actual ˆll may not follow the continuous served one.

2007. Fig. The detailed As we used the simpliˆed elasto-plastic model of soil in discussion of temporal change in the stiŠness and damp. this study. These phenomena were the distribution of acceleration Fourier spectra was well induced by the decrease of the skeleton stress and the reproduced.73 Fig. In particular. the magnitude of spectrum was not repro.82 2008 6/14 NS 79.66 2.34 5. PREDICTIONS OF SEISMIC RESPONSES WITH However.69 19.2 86 km Data Max.45 20. studies with respect to the initial conditions including Figure 14 shows the acceleration Fourier spectra at the water saturation and soil density are necessary. Time histories of acceleration at the top of the ˆll in two past UD 30. 14.32 2007 4/12 NS 23.93 96.70 160. the wide strain range is necessary. In the result of the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku EQ.41 18.87 38.22 56.27 138.9?N 14198. Time histories of acceleration (observed (at E4) and input mo- tions) than actual ground in the small strain range. In the result of the EQ on 12 Apr.8?E 12 km 4. Acceleration Fourier spectra in past two earthquakes However the phase of the computed wave was gradually behind the observed one from about 3 seconds to 6 sec- onds and the computed acceleration responses became became smaller than that of the observed one.71 earthquakes *1: The magnitude of Japan Meteorological Agency Fig.51 61.5 26 km 2008 6/14 8:43:45 39901.41 130. DIFFERENT DISTRIBUTION OF WATER duced. 17 and 18). However clearly less then the observed one. the positions of peak frequency of acceleration Fourier spectra were reproduced. the SATURATION high frequency component of the computed result In this chapter.19 7. 13. top.84 12. UNSATURATED FILL SLOPE 1083 Table 3. a further study on the model performance in ing of soil is given later prediction part with diŠerent dis. In addition. 12.7?N 140952.01 9. the primary natural frequency shear stiŠness in the bottom part of the ˆll with the high at from 2 to 3 Hz was reproduced su‹ciently. In the result of the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku EQ. degree of saturation after the main shock. middle and bottom of the ˆll slope.96 20. The information of earthquakes and the observed accelera- tion Data Epicenter The ground surface Time Mj*1 distance to Year M/D (H:M:S) Latitude Longitude Depth the epicenter 2007 4/12 22:50:26 38911. the numerical results agreed with the observed one until about 3 seconds. (cm/s2) Direction Year M/D E1 E2 E3 E4 EW 14.51 27.52 EW 115.92 101.48 UD 6. the seismic responses dependent on the . Acc.8?E 8 km 7. parametric tribution of water saturation (Figs.

initial distribution of water saturation in the ˆll are tively. saturation.5 144 km *1: Moment magnitude Fig. 15. 2002). The acceleration was given on a stiŠ outcropping layer with the shear wave velocity of 700 m/s. The accelera- tion of scenario earthquake was calculated at each square mesh with the size of 500 meters in Miyagi Prefecture. and the residual of the slope with diŠerent initial distribution of water displacement resulted from the initial diŠerent distribu.0 cm/s2.5 meters at the mid- dle of the ˆll slope and about 4. We used Fig. Figure 15 shows the acceleration responses at the top tions of skeleton stress and shear strain. the distribu. The PGA of input acceleration is 153. predicted. we discuss the acceleration Numerical Results response. Time histories of acceleration in scenario earthquake ``High'': Case 2) . Assuming two cases of high and low ground water level in the ˆll.5 meters at the central ˆll slope. 18. However. 16. The diŠerence of ground water level be- tween Case 1 and Case 2 was about 1. the diŠerences of acceleration The numerical conditions were the same conditions responses appear after about 6 seconds. therefore the in- ‰uence of initial distribution of water saturation is not Numerical Conditions signiˆcant. Japan. Normalized accumulated dissipation energy (``Low'': Case 1.1084 MORI ET AL. The time history and the acceleration Fourier spectrum of in- put acceleration are shown in Figs. 15 and 16 respec- Table 4. Until about 6 seconds. the acceleration response spectra. 17. The information of scenario earthquake Epicenter The ground Mw*1 surface distance Fig. The maximum mentioned above except for the initial conditions and the input motion. the diŠerence in the ac- tion of water saturation in the ˆll. The information of scenario earthquake is shown in Table 4. Acceleration Fourier spectra in scenario earthquake the acceleration of scenario earthquake as the input ac- celeration at the bottom of the ˆnite element model. The calculated scenario earthquake wave was used for the input wave. The two initial distributions of water satu- ration in the ˆll with Case 1 and Case 2 were considered in the predictions. This calculated scenario earthquake wave was obtained from a numerical simulation of future earthquake (Sendai City. Output positions of normalized accumulated dissipation Latitude Longitude Depth to the epicenter energy and ground water level 38941?N 142955?E 20 km 7. Fig. celeration between the two cases is little.

These diŠerences between two cases were due to the softening of soil element because the seismic energy was dissipated in the softened soil elements..2 Hz and 3. UNSATURATED FILL SLOPE 1085 acceleration responses in Case 1 and Case 2 are 453. the shear stress propagated to Fig. The normalized accumulated dissipation energy monotonically increased after about 6. 19. 19. The amplitude of acceleration Fourier spectra in ˆll and the area with large SSRR expanded to the around Case 1 was larger than that in Case 2. predominant in the part under the ground water level.3 Hz were am- pliˆed on the top of ˆll slope. In the results at positions d. b the ampliˆcation characteristics depend on the ground and c in the case of high ground water level after about 10 water level. The dissipation spectral ratio changed on E/F in Case 1 and on C/D in of seismic energy in the high degree of saturation area Case 2 respectively. Spectrum output positions and ground water level Case 2 was smaller than that in Case 1. As a result of the dissipation of seismic energy in the high degree of saturation area. the remarkable. The predominant fre. The SSRR was deˆned as 1-p?/p?0. This tendency indicates the increase in plastic strain ac- cording to the softening of soil element. The distribution of SSRR in the unsaturated parts diŠerences in the acceleration responses at 7. SSRR above the ground water level rose until about 6 sec- . 2. 20. The time history of ac- cumulated dissipation energy clearly shows the temporal change in the stiŠness and damping of soil. Figure 17 shows the output locations of normalized accumulated dissipation energy and ground water level. Figure 16 shows the acceleration Fourier spectra of input acceleration and response acceleration on the top of the ˆll slope. 2. Acceleration Fourier spectra and spectrum ratio the upper ground became smaller in the case of high ground water level. According to the acceleration spectral ratio. The output positions of acceleration Fourier spec. low frequency domain (less than 2. ly showed that frequency characteristics of seismic trum and the ground water level are shown in Fig. Next. e and f. where p?0 is the ini- quencies of the ˆll ground were 0. The normalized accumulated dissipation energy (Kazama et al. the SSRR rose from the central Hz.0 seconds. In Case 1. The initial degree of satura- tion is diŠerent according to the ground water level as shown in the legends. larger seismic energy was dissipated. the acceleration spectral ratio at several depths of the ˆll Figure 21 shows the distributions of Skeleton Stress part. Larger shear stress was applied. Therefore the normalized accumulat- ed dissipation energy became smaller at the position a. The acceleration spectral ratios in caused the diŠerent responses between two cases in Fig. above the ground water level.0 Hz and 7.0 cm/s2 respectively.0 cm/s2 and 325. the acceleration Fourier spectrum and the ac.0 Hz were (above ground water level) became dapple. while the acceleration spectral ratios in high frequency celeration spectral ratio are shown to discuss the eŠect of domain (larger than 2.5 Hz.0 tial value of p?. The numerical results clear- trum. In this section we use the accumulated dissipation energy to discuss the eŠect of the ground water level on the stress-strain behav- ior in the softened soil elements.0 Hz) were 15. particularly the area. In Case 2. Namely the peak frequency of acceleration seconds (indicated as the dark gray area). The Fourier amplitude in Fig. response were aŠected by the initial distribution of water Figure 20 shows the acceleration Fourier spectrum and saturation in the ˆll ground. The seismic motion inputted at the base became Reduction Ratio (SSRR hereinafter) in Case 1 and Case strong toward a ground surface. The maximum ac- celeration response in Case 1 is larger than that in Case 2. 2000) is deˆned as t DW(t)= ft(g)g· (t)dt 0 (22) where t(g) is the shear stress in terms of shear strain g and g· (t) is the shear strain rate. Figure 18 shows the normalized accumulated dissipation energy at each location. The frequency of 2. the normalized accumulated dissipation energy with high ground water level was larger than that with low ground water level.0 Hz) were predominant in the part the ground water level on the acceleration Fourier spec.

the large shear shear stress did not propagate to the unsaturated part strain and displacement were generated due to the exis- above the ground water level. 21.3 water near the boundary. However.0 at the bottom of the the bench in the central ˆll and the boundary between cut ˆll.. 22. Yanagisawa et al. In Case 2.1086 MORI ET AL. ground water level at the boundary between cut and ˆll . The residual horizontal displacement at the and ˆll ground was dependent on the existence of ground top of the ˆll slope in Case 1 and Case 2 were about 0. Fig. the SSRR above the ground water level and ˆll ground. the relationship between ground residual deformation and shear strain was large at the bottom part of the ˆll slope. These phenomena degree of water saturation and low conˆning pressure. 1994). while Figure 22 shows the distributions of shear strain in the shear strain and displacement were not generated in Case 1 and Case 2. According to the numerical results. however the was limited near the bottom of the ˆll. Many houses have been meters and about 0. Distribution of shear strain onds that the SSRR was less than 1. and the displacement was magni. 1980. the changed little after about 10 seconds that the SSRR part with large shear strain laid at the part with high reached 1. the part with large shear strain (Asada et al. The displacement of the ˆll also was Case 1 which had no ground water near the boundary. At were due to the liquefaction of saturated soil and the the boundary between cut and ˆll ground. expressed in the ˆgure. The progress of shear strain at the boundary between cut ˆed 10 times. tence of ground water near the boundary in Case 2. Distribution of skeleton stress reduction ratio Fig. Case 2 had damaged with the residual displacement at the boundary broader large shear strain area and larger displacement between cut and ˆll ground during past earthquakes than Case 1. In Case 1.0 at the bottom of the ˆll..9 meters respectively.

. As a result.3 meters and about 0. Berkeley.E. Atsushi the unsaturated part are not clear. Meanwhile ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS the shear strain is large in the whole part of the saturated The in-situ observation in this study was supported by ˆll in Case 2. In Case 1. and Mihashi. And the degree of water saturation also is shown in of a novel in-situ observation method of the realistic the ˆgure. 2007. (1980): The survey of slope were performed by using the dynamic three-phase Miyagiken-Oki earthquake in 1978 (Residential Development. Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. Although we need fur. The developments ment. I. H. C. the unsaturated part were not clear. the nu- merical method reproduced the positions of peak fre- quency of acceleration Fourier spectra although it slightly overestimated the peak acceleration in the time history. Japan Society of Civil Engineers. (soil. Deformation and water saturation in the each cross section ration were performed. 3) The seismic response analyses of the unsaturated ˆll slope which had diŠerent distributions of water satu- Fig. O. of a ˆll. I. The ground water level at the boundary between cut and ˆll ground for understanding boundary between cut and ˆll ground should be inves- the mechanism of past damages and precise predictions tigated for understanding the mechanism of past of seismic responses of a ˆll.. (1966): A mathematical CONCLUSIONS representation of the multiaxial Bauschinger eŠect. C. Ltd). the numerical method reproduced the primary natural fre- quency at from 2 to 3 Hz in the acceleration Fourier spectra although it underestimated the time history of acceleration after the maximum acceleration. Shingo Sato (Fukken ual displacement. However. the top of the ˆll slope and the middle of the ˆll slope in 4) In this case study the variations of residual displace- Fig. the variations of residual dis. Mr. Ltd) and Mr. The area with large strain is limited in the bottom of the saturated ˆll. tion clearly aŠects the residual displacement of the ˆll slope after the earthquake. and Frederick. A case study on numerical predictions of distributions UK.G. sandy soils under cyclic loading: Application to liquefaction. J. and Shahrour. the observation results of the moisture dis- tribution above the ground water level were not repro- duced.. The vertical axis shows the height from the base ment dependent on the degree of water saturation in rock and the horizontal axis shows the residual displace. 435–458 (in media theory.B. Gijyutsu Consultant). damages and precise predictions of seismic responses Figure 23 shows the displacements of at the ˆll part. bottom of the ˆll and the upper part of the ˆll slides horizontally toward the pond. A. velopment Co. Mr. Katsuya Matsushita (Misawa Homes Institute of placement dependent on the degree of water saturation in Research and Development Co. 9. 3) Bian.9 meters and their constitutive modeling are desired for respectively. As a result. 2) The numerical method was validated for the two past earthquakes. H. In both cases. Japanese). water and air) coupled analysis based on porous street and park). Report RD/B/N731. of water saturation and seismic responses in the actual ˆll 2) Asada. UNSATURATED FILL SLOPE 1087 reproducing the moisture distribution in the actual ˆll slope. P. the initial distribution of water satura. Soil 1) The unsaturated seepage analysis was performed for . As for the EQ on 12 Apr. As for the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku EQ. the shear strain is large near the reproducing water distribution and seismic response. The numerical results clearly showed that frequency characteristics of seismic response and the residual displacement of the ˆll slope ground was not clear. Kawasaki (Misawa Homes Institute of Research and De- ther studies on the quantitative prediction of large resid. REFERENCES 1) Armstrong. 23. Further studies on soil water characteristics in a heterogeneous ground are necessary to reproduce the actual distribution of water saturation in the un- saturated soil. Ozawa. The residual horizontal displacements in Case distributions of water saturation in the unsaturated ˆll 1 and Case 2 were about 0. The numerical results showed that were aŠected by the initial distribution of water satu- the ground water level should be investigated at the ration in the ˆll ground. following ˆndings were ob. the shape of ground water level was partially reproduced from the quite dry ˆll slope ele- ment by using virtual constant precipitation. (2009): Numerical model for unsaturated tained.

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(1993): Finite element analysis of earth. Computer Methods in Ap- H. R. 87–99. Kamura. and Tatsuoka. (1984): Dynamic behavior of 19) Ravichandran. (2001): Li- Geotechnique. Miura. H. 892–898. Koseki.. Canada. A. 30) Uzuoka. T. J. N. M. 22(1). J. da. 231–275 (in Japanese).. (2007). Japan Society of Civil En- lytical Methods in Geomechanics. 4. Kamada. J. 157–162. A. Unno. of Civil Eng. U.. 24) Selim.. J. for rate-independent elastoplasticity. E. (2008): A fully cou. Dept. and Tokimatsu. 497–507. S. 1482–1492. 62(2). Liquefac. on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering. 33) Uzuoka. Geomechanics. S. G. T. (2006): Liquefaction mechanism of unsaturated volcanic sandy Finite element analysis of coupled system of unsaturated soil and soils. Kazama. on Computational Engineering and Science. Burak. Finite 12) Kazama. gineering and Science. 33. (2002): Resistance of partly saturated sand to liquefaction 851–856. gation in porous media. ASTM. (in Japanese). and A. Takamura. Kazama. and Towhata. 46(5). (1962): Mechanics of deformation and acoustic propa. Soils and gineers. 20) Ravichandran. Yasuda. 104(3). the current conˆguration of the solid skeleton consist of puter Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering. with reference to longitudinal and shear wave velocities. A. and Hu- Conf. Habte. T. numerical solution. I. on Unsaturated Soils.. 71–96.. K. (2002): Mechanics and thermodynamics of ing boundary conditions. 48(1). Japan Society of Civil En- quake induced damage to anchored sheet pile quay walls. M. Sento. 35) Yanagisawa. S. sibility on liquefaction resistance of partially saturated sand. Int.. and Tanizawa. R.. slides during the earthquake on May 26 and July 26. Soil Science including hydraulic and mechanical hystereses.. (1986): TARA-3: A program to compute the response of 2-D plied Mechanics and Engineering.. L. resistance of a partially saturated sand. Int. and Wakamatsu. 3rd Int. Proc. 3. uefaction analysis of partially improved ground. 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mated with bilinear interpolation function N fn. The diŠerent shape functions between solid skeleton and pore ‰uid are used for the approximations dvs=0 on &Bsu. The pore water and pore air pressures are approxi- the weak form of the mass and momentum balance equa. and the natural boundary 4 4 conditions (A1–4) is obtained in the current conˆguration pwe= S N fn pwn. and pwn dw w = w w wR Bs and pan are the pore water and air pressure. (12). The displace- dws= frdv・a dv+fdd ・s?dv-fšp div dv ・s?dv B s s s Bs s Bs s ment of the solid skeleton is interpolated using the eight- node serendipity interpolation functions N sn. (A1–12) ables with the subscript t are known at the current time the weak form of the mass and momentum balance equa. Eq. (13). the time increment. &Bsap a a (A1–13) boundaries hold The ˆnite element formulation in the current conˆgu- s s s s s s s ration is derived by applying the standard Galerkin & B = & B ! & B = & B ! & B = &B ! &B u t wp wp ap ap method in which the test functions are approximated by &Bsu?&Bst=&B ?&B =&B ?&B =0 s wp s wp s ap s ap (A1–7) the same shape functions used to approximate the prima- Considering the arbitrary test function dvs which satisˆes ry variables. in the element. the evolutions of pore water and air pressures are expressed as . - frdv ・bdv-fdv・tš da=0. respectively. Similarly. and špa are the prescribed pore water k a a aR - b-raRas) dv and air pressures at &Bswp and &Bsap respectively. at Dp s a the four corner nodes of the mixed element. šqw and šqa are the prescribed mass ‰ux on a unit area with unit normal vec- tor n at &Bswq and &Bsaq respectively. (A1–10) nodes. and b and g are the numerical ditions (A1–6) is obtained in the current conˆguration as parameters. (A1–8) of the displacement and pressures to satisfy the discrete the weak form of the momentum balance equation. the Newmark time integration scheme is used for the displacement of the solid skeleton. Eq. an isoparametric eight-node mixed ˆnite element (Q8P4) interpolation is used. and the natural boundary con. tion of pore water. B s s (A1–9) s B t s use= S N snusn 8 n= 1 (A1–14) Considering the arbitrary test function dpw which satisˆes where use is the approximated displacement of solid skele- ton in the element and usn is the displacement at the eight dpw=0 on &Bswp. UNSATURATED FILL SLOPE 1089 fØ » us= šus on &Bsu (A1–1) n(1-sw) Dspa dw a = d pa -nraRc dv sn=(s?- špI )n=tš on &Bst (A1–2) Bs UR̃ Dt pw= špw on &Bswp (A1–3) s w Dp nswpwRvws・n=qw・n= šqw on &Bswp pa= špa on &Bsap (A1–4) (A1–5) + fdp nr c Dt dv Bs a aR nsapaRvas・n=qa・n= šqa on &Bsap s where šu is the prescribed displacement vector of solid (A1–6) + fdp (1-s )r div v dv Bs a w aR s fgrad dp・{ g (-grad p +r } as skeleton at &Bsu. 1991) for the (11). Dt is tion of pore air. LBB conditions (Zienkiewicz and Taylor. Eq. In tained in the current conˆguration as the numerical cases. + fdp šq da=0. considering the arbitrary test function dp vs=vst+(1-g)Dtast+gDtas (A2–2) which satisˆes where the subscript t denotes the previous time. The decomposed + fdp šq da=0. + fdp nr c Dt dv+fdp s r div v dv Bs w wR Bs w w wR s { g (-grad p +r b -r a )}dv ws k APPENDIX 2: TIME INTEGRATION - f grad dp ・ Bs w w wR w wR s In dynamic analyses. and are constant during Newton-Raphson iteration. The vari- dpa=0 on &Bsap. &Bswp w w (A1–11) us=ust+Dtvst+ 1 Dt 2(1-2b)ast+bDt 2as (A2–1) a 2 Similarly. and the natural boundary conditions (A1–2) is ob. respectively. tš is the Bs prescribed traction vector at &Bst. špw. pae= S N fn pan (A1–15) n= 1 n= 1 as where pwe and pae are the approximated pore water and fdp Ø K -nr c » Dt dv w wR s w ns r Dp pore air pressures. locally undrained case at inˆnitesimal deformation.

same as the soil element above mentioned.0 and mvg=3. permeability of water (kws/kws as as s ) and air (k /ks ) also 2. 1 pw=pwt+Dt ·pwt+ Dt 2(1-2b) äpwt+bDt 2 äpw (A2–3) 2 ·pw= ·pwt+(1-g)Dt äpwt+gDt äpw (A2–4) 1 pa=pat+Dt ·pat+ Dt 2(1-2b) äpat+bDt 2 äpa (A2–5) 2 ·pa= ·pat+(1-g)Dt äpat+gDt äpa (A2–6) s where _ (=D /Dt) denotes the material time derivative of  with respect to the solid skeleton.0 are used in the analyses. The aerial element simulates where avg. Although the formulation of aerial element is the analyses. the material 3. The relative ton of the aerial element are ˆxed in the atmosphere.0 are used in the surface.0 (m2/kN). A3–1. avg water and air ‰ow in the atmosphere part above the ˆll =5. nvg and mvg are the material parameters. nvg=3. atmosphere. The relationship be- pw=pwt+(1-g)Dt ·pwt+gDt ·pw (A2–9) tween eŠective water saturation and suction is com- puted by van Genuchten model (van Genuchten.1090 MORI ET AL. 0. The aerial element has a special SWCC to reproduce are shown in Fig. A3–1. and the equations take the form us=ust+(1-g)Dtvst+gDtvs (A2–7) roughly zero or unity of water saturation in the at- pa=pat+(1-g)Dt ·pat+gDt ·pa (A2–8) mosphere as shown in Fig. (10). on the eŠective water saturation with Eq. The aerial element has large permeability of water and parameters of aerial element have the following features air with 10 m/s to reproduce fast ‰ow of ‰uids in the diŠerent from the soil element. . 1980) with APPENDIX 3: AERIAL ELEMENT swe=s1+(avgpc)n t -m vg vg (A3–1) Smooth inˆltration of rain on the ˆll surface is simulat- ed with ``aerial elements''. The permeability of water and air depend 1. In quasi-static analyses. A3–1 SWCC and relative permeability of aerial element are considered. only the velocity components Fig. The porosity of the aerial element is unity and the den. The nodes of the soil skele. zvg= sity of soil particle is zero.1 and hvg=10.