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Contents * Introductory Note The New Atlantis 3 .

published "The New Atlantis" in 1627. No reader acquainted in any degree with the processes and results of modern scientific inquiry can fail to be struck by the numerous approximations made by Bacon's imagination to the actual achievements of modern times. Rowley. The plan and organization of his great college lay down the main 4 . during that period of literary activity which followed Bacon's political fall. of the inhabitants of Bensalem represent the ideal qualities which Bacon the statesman desired rather than hoped to see characteristic of his own country. the piety and public spirit. None of Bacon's writings gives in short apace so vivid a picture of his tastes and aspirations as this fragment of the plan of an ideal commonwealth.Introductory Note * Bacon's literary executor. and in Solomon's House we have Bacon the scientist indulging without restriction his prophetic vision of the future of human knowledge. It seems to have been written about 1623. the year after the author's death. Dr. the dignity and splendor. The generosity and enlightenment.

For pure metaphysics. but which contain valuable elements of suggestion and stimulus for the future. The advancement of science which he sought was conceived by him as a means to a practical end the increase of man's control over nature. and this leaning to the useful is shown in the practical applications of the discoveries made by the scholars of Solomon's House. It contains much. Nor does the interest of the work stop here.lines of the modern research university. In still another way is "The New Atlantis" typical of Bacon's attitude. Bacon always had an eye to utility. both in its political and in its scientific ideals. 5 . In spite of the enthusiastic and broad-minded schemes he laid down for the pursuit of truth. and the comfort and convenience of humanity. and both in pure and applied science he anticipates a strikingly large number of recent inventions and discoveries. that we have as yet by no means achieved. or any form of abstract thinking that yielded no "fruit." he had little interest.

in the midst of the greatest wilderness of waters in the world. though we had made good spare of them. for five months space. (where we had continued for the space of one whole year) for China and Japan. taking with us victuals for twelve months. so as we could make little or no way. and brought forth dry land. and settled in the west for many days. by which time our victuals failed us. and more.The New Atlantis * We sailed from Peru. who showeth his wonders in the deep. But the wind came about. which carried us up (for all that we could do) towards the north. that as in the beginning he discovered the face of the deep. by the South Sea. so he would not discover land to 6 . beseeching him of his mercy. and were sometime in purpose to turn back. though soft and weak. and had good winds from the east. we gave ourselves for lost men and prepared for death. But then again there arose strong and great winds from the south. Yet we did lift up our hearts and voices to God above. So that finding ourselves. without victuals. with a point east.

not great indeed. which did put us in some hope of land. flat to our sight. where we saw the appearance of land. Whereupon being not a little discomforted. but only as warning us off. and that gave a pleasant view from the sea: and we thinking every minute long. being the port of a fair city. During which time. tipped at both 7 . that we might not perish. that hitherto were not come to light. what we should And after an hour and a half's sailing. yet without any cries of fierceness. and in the dawning of the next day. But straightways we saw divers of the people. till we were on land. which made it show the more dark. came close to the shore. whereof one of them had in his hand a tipstaff of a yellow cane. And it came to pass that the next day about evening we saw within a kenning before us. or continents. and full of boscage. we entered into a good haven. all that night. by signs that they made. with bastons in their hands (as it were) forbidding us to land. we might plainly discern that it was a land. and might have islands. towards the north. we were advising with ourselves. Wherefore we bent our course thither. but well built. there made forth to us a small boat. and offered to land. as it were thick clouds. with about eight persons in it. knowing how that part of the South Sea was utterly unknown.

but hanging downwards. the officer returned. And above all. and in ancient Greek. the sign of the cross to that instrument was to us a great rejoicing. This being delivered. on the other side. not spread. none of you. we were much perplexed. these words: Land ye not. and were so full of humanity. but otherwise soft and flexible. and by them a cross. which belongeth to mercy. he drew forth a little scroll of parchment (somewhat yellower than our parchment. In which scroll were written in ancient Hebrew.ends with blue. and you shall have that. or help for your sick. And when he saw one of our number. within sixteen days. did comfort us not a little. and in good Latin of the school. and provide to be gone from this coast. to find that the people had languages. Consulting hereupon amongst ourselves. without any show of distrust at all.) and delivered it to our foremost man. write down your wants. Meanwhile. and in Spanish. and as it were a certain presage of good. who came aboard our ship. present himself somewhat before the rest. This scroll was signed with a stamp of cherubim: wings. and shining like the leaves of writing tables. and left only a servant with us to receive our answer. except you have further time given you. Our answer was in 8 . if you want fresh water or victuals. or that your ship needeth repairs. The denial of landing and hasty warning us away troubled us much.

with four persons more only in that boat. they ran danger of their lives. there came towards us a person (as it seemed) of place. Our other wants we set down in particular. his under apparel was green. wherein were some twenty. without being chargeable unto them. of a kind of water chamolet. it might supply our wants. fair more glossy than ours. He had on him a gown with wide sleeves. so that if they were not permitted to land. and in very ill case. and a piece of crimson velvet to be presented to the officer. which was sent for him. nor would scarce look upon them. and went back in another little boat. About three hours after we had dispatched our answer. daintily made. We offered some reward in pistolets unto the servant. and so was his hat. but the servant took them not. and so left us. of an excellent azure colour.the Spanish tongue. being in the form of a turban. and the locks of his hair came down below the brims of it. which if it pleased them to deal for. That we had some little store of merchandise. and was followed by another boat. that we should send forth 9 . that for our ship. and not so huge as the Turkish turbans. they were many. it was well. gilt in some part of it. adding. He came in a boat. A reverend man was he to behold. signs were made to us. For our sick. When he was come within a flightshot of our ship. for we had rather met with calms and contrary winds than any tempests.

when they thank God. At which answer the said person lifted up his right hand towards Heaven. stood up. said aloud: "My Lord would have you know. "We were all ready to take that oath. you may have licence to come on land. When we were come within six yards of their boat. that it is not of pride. asked. nor have shed blood. "We were. which we did.some to meet him upon the water. and drew it softly to his mouth (which is the gesture they use. "Are ye Christians?" We answered." Whereupon one of those that were with him." We said. lawfully. or greatness. and four of our number with him. nor unlawfully within forty days past. another of the attendants of the great person which was with him in the same boat. and not to approach farther. but for that in your answer you declare that you have many sick amongst you. made an entry of this act. that he cometh not aboard your ship." fearing the less. after his Lord had spoken a little to him. they called to us to stay. Which done. sending the principal man amongst us save one. that ye are no pirates. whom I before described. which we presently did in our ship-boat. And thereupon the man. because of the cross we had seen in the subscription. he was warned by the Conservator of Health of the city that he should keep a 10 . being (as it seemed) a notary. in Spanish.) and then said: "If ye will swear (all of you) by the merits of the Saviour. and with a loud voice.

by six of the Clock. for our business. there came to us the same officer that came to us at first with his cane. we should be sent to. "For." The next morning early. and his merits:" and after told us. He used it (as it seemeth) for a preservative against infection. that the nature of the sickness of our men was not infectious. like an orange. that which was already done. and told us. and that he had prevented the hour. because we might have the whole day before us.distance. and answered. "twice paid. (so he called it. which cast a most excellent odour. both for our whole. holding in his hand a fruit of that country. For (as I after learned) they call an officer that taketh rewards. and a while after came the Notary to us aboard our ship. He came to conduct us to the Strangers' House. and brought to the Strangers' House. "if 11 . So he left us. "We were his humble servants. but hoped well. but of color between orange-tawney and scarlet. and singular humanity towards us. "By the name of Jesus. "He must not be twice paid for one labour:" meaning (as I take it) that he had salary sufficient of the State for his service.) where we should be accommodated of things." said he." So he returned. he smiling said. in the Morning." We bowed ourselves towards him. and for our sick. that the next day. and when we offered him some pistolets. He gave us our oath. and accounted for great honour.

which he took of desolate strangers. He brought us first into a fair parlour above stairs. some of glass. and said. and then asked us. of somewhat a bluer colour than our brick. as if it had been. God would reward. and see the place. but in so civil a fashion. being in 12 .you will follow my advice. The Strangers' House is a fair and spacious house. "What number of persons we were? And how many sick?" We answered. and our guide. standing in a row. when they did bid any welcome. (sick and whole. and then he led us to see the chambers which were provided for us. which was about an hour after. "We were in all. as we passed by them." We thanked him. and all the way we went. put their arms a little abroad. whereof our sick were seventeen. there were gathered some people on both sides. and to stay till he came back to us." He led us through three fair streets." He desired us to have patience a little. but to welcome us: and divers of them. "That this care. built of brick. he went before us. which is their gesture. some of a kind of cambric oiled. and then you may send for your sick. and with handsome windows. and said." And so six of us went on land with him: and when we were on land. and the rest of your number. there shall first go with me some few of you. not to wonder at us. "He was but our servant. which ye will bring on land.) one and fifty persons. and how it may be made convenient for you. and turned to us.

and lifting up his cane a little. This done. he might be removed from his cell. You shall want nothing. being in all forty. for which purpose there were set forth ten spare chambers. And he told us withal. many more than we needed. "Ye are to know. were instituted as an infirmary for sick persons. and lodge them alone by themselves. with all 13 . Then he led us to a long gallery. to a chamber. Which gallery and cells. that after this day and tomorrow." We gave him thanks. seventeen cells.) you are to keep within doors for three days. very neat ones. (which we give you for removing of your people from your ship. having partitions of cedar wood. for any business you may have abroad. besides the number we spake of before. and furnished civilly. where he showed us all along the one side (for the other side was but wall and window). and there are six of our people appointed to attend you. which were better than the rest.number nineteen: they having cast it (as it seemeth) that four of those chambers. that the custom of the land requireth. nor do not think yourselves restrained. But let it not trouble you. but rather left to your rest and ease. and the other fifteen chambers were to lodge us two and two together. (as they do when they give any charge or command) said to us. that as any of our sick waxed well. he brought us back to the parlour. like a dorture. The chambers were handsome and cheerful chambers. might receive four of the principal men of our company.

one of the pills. but he smiled. or whitish pills. but more clear: And a kind of cider made of a fruit of that country. when we were as 14 . and said. "My dear friends. There was given us also. and how it standeth with us. out of the whale's belly. The next day. as Jonas was. after that our trouble of carriage and removing of our men and goods out of our ship. "What? twice paid!" And so he left us. I thought good to call our company together. both for bread and treat: better than any collegiate diet. "God surely is manifested in this land. which was right good viands. Soon after our dinner was served in. a drink of grain. great store of those scarlet oranges. every night before sleep. and when they were assembled. We are men cast on land. We had also drink of three sorts. for our sick. said unto them. which (they said) were an assured remedy for sickness taken at sea. which (they said) would hasten their recovery.affection and respect. Besides. which they wished our sick should take. all wholesome and good. was somewhat settled and quiet. a wonderful pleasing and refreshing drink. a box of small gray." We offered him also twenty pistolets. there were brought in to us. wine of the grape. and only said. let us know ourselves. that I have known in Europe. such as is with us our ale.

" Our company with one voice thanked me for my good admonition. and without giving any the least occasion of offence. and may find grace in the eyes of this people. or unworthiness before them. for three days: who knoweth. and without care. and the new. During which 15 . God only knoweth. in expectation what would be done with us. for we are beyond. may withal have an eye upon us. Besides we are come here amongst a Christian people. and as we love the weal of our souls and bodies. and to come. to take some taste of our manners and conditions? And if they find them bad. to banish us straightways. let us look up to God. to give us further time. full of piety and humanity: let us not bring that confusion of face upon ourselves. and whether ever we shall see Europe. So we spent our three days joyfully.buried in the deep: and now we are on land. let us so behave ourselves. as we may be at peace with God. when they were expired. It is a kind of miracle bath brought us hither: and it must be little less. and our danger present. and every man reform his own ways. as to show our vices. if good. we are but between death and life. Yet there is more. that shall bring us hence. both the old world. Therefore for God's love. (though in form of courtesy) cloistered us within these wall. Therefore in regard of our deliverance past. and promised me to live soberly and civilly. whether it be not. For they have by commandment. For these men that they have given us for attendance.

he did bend to us a little. The State hath given you license to stay on land. and I do not doubt. they mended so kindly. as may be convenient.time. and let it not trouble you. if your occasions ask further time. and by vocation I am a Christian priest: and therefore am come to you to offer you my service. or death: he desired to speak with some few of us: whereupon six of us only staid. We of our parts saluted him in a very lowly and submissive manner. and much aforehand. and put his arms abroad. we had every hour joy of the amendment of our sick. that the Strangers' House is at this time rich. to obtain for you such further time. The morrow after our three days were past. and the rest avoided the room. and so fast. for so long it is since any stranger 16 . save that his turban was white. He had also a tippet of fine linen. who thought themselves cast into some divine pool of healing. for the law in this point is not precise. which I think you will not be unwilling to hear. for it hath laid up revenue these thirty-seven years. we should receive sentence of life. but my self shall be able. as looking that from him. there came to us a new man. clothed in blue as the former was. with a small red cross on the top. both as strangers and chiefly as Christians. At his coming in. Ye shall also understand. "I am by office governor of this House of Strangers. Some things I may tell you. that we had not seen before. He said. for the space of six weeks.

in our prayers. we would not fail to obey it. that we had before us a picture of our salvation in Heaven. As for any merchandise ye have brought. without especial leave. and have your return." We also most humbly besought him. ere we should forget. or this whole nation. or in gold and silver: for to us it is all one. And if you have any other request to make. ye shall be well used. to accept of us as 17 . were now brought into a place. for we that were a while since in the jaws of death.arrived in this part: and therefore take ye no care. "That our tongues should first cleave to the roofs of our mouths. though it was impossible but our hearts should be enflamed to tread further upon this happy and holy ground." We added. neither shall you stay one day the less for that. after we had looked awhile one upon another. and his noble free offers left us nothing to ask. hide it not. "That we could not tell what to say: for we wanted words to express our thanks. It seemed to us. For ye shall find we will not make your countenance to fall by the answer ye shall receive." We answered. either in merchandise. where we found nothing but consolations." (that is with them a mile and an half) "from the walls of the city. Only this I must tell you. the State will defray you all the time you stay. that none of you must go above a karan. admiring this gracious and parent-like usage. For the commandment laid upon us. either his reverend person.

said familiarly. for the entertainment of the time. "That he was come to visit us. he began thus: "We of this island of Bensalem. and after salutations." (for so they call it in their language. which we thought not of. that ye ask me questions. And when we were set. and looked for a priest's reward. "He was a priest. and all we had.his true servants.) "have this. and prevent us with comforts. both our persons. and sat him down: and we. (the rest were of the meaner sort. Therefore because he that knoweth least is fittest to ask questions. "That we were come into a land of angels. or else gone abroad." and called for a chair. than that I ask you. which did appear to us daily. and left us also confused with joy and kindness. which we have for our travellers. saying amongst ourselves." 18 ." The next day about ten of the clock." So he went from us. being some ten of us. not without tears of tenderness in his eyes. and of the laws of secrecy.) sat down with him. and are ourselves unknown. laying and presenting. much less expected. and the good of our souls and bodies. we know well most part of the habitable world. by as just a right as ever men on earth were bounden. that by means of our solitary situation. it is more reason. at his feet. and our rare admission of strangers. He said. the Governor came to us again. which was our brotherly love.

) as it might be some mile into the sea. that there was seen by the people of Renfusa. (in respect that land was so remote. rising from the sea a great way up towards heaven. satisfy your demand. more worthy to be known than the state of that happy land. and how it was converted to the faith?" It appeared in his face that he took great contentment in this our question: he said. "That we humbly thanked him that he would give us leave so to do: and that we conceived by the taste we had already. not sharp. But above all. by asking this question in the first place. Upon which so 19 ." (we said. that there was no worldly thing on earth. and so divided by vast and unknown seas.) within night.) "since that we were met from the several ends of the world. and on the top of it was seen a large cross of light.) who was the apostle of that nation. more bright and resplendent than the body of the pillar. (the night was cloudy. "About twenty years after the ascension of our Saviour. and I shall gladly.) we desired to know. or cylinder. but in form of a column. (for that we were both parts Christians. and hoped assuredly that we should meet one day in the kingdom of Heaven. and briefly. (a city upon the eastern coast of our island. "Ye knit my heart to you. a great pillar of light. from the land where our Saviour walked on earth.We answered. it came to pass. and calm. for it sheweth that you first seek the kingdom of heaven.

and the secrets of them: and to discern (as far as appertaineth to the generations of men) between divine miracles. to go nearer to this marvellous sight. works of art. and then raised himself upon his knees. made his prayers in this manner. to wonder. But when the boats were come within (about) sixty yards of the pillar. that there was in one of the boats one of the wise men. and could go no further. who having awhile attentively and devoutly viewed and contemplated this pillar and cross. It so fell out. of the society of Salomon's House. which house. but might not approach nearer: so as the boats stood all as in a theatre. And forasmuch as we learn in our books that thou never workest miracles. the people of the city gathered apace together upon the sands. or college (my good brethren) is the very eye of this kingdom. and lifting up his hands to heaven. works of nature. that the thing which we now see before our eyes is thy Finger and a true Miracle. fell down upon his face. thou hast vouchsafed of thy grace to those of our order. I do here acknowledge and testify before this people. and so after put themselves into a number of small boats. but to divine and 20 . yet so as they might move to go about. "'LORD God of heaven and earth. they found themselves all bound. beholding this light as an heavenly sign.strange a spectacle. and impostures and illusions of all sorts. to know thy works of Creation.

which thou dost in some part secretly promise by sending it unto us.' "When he had made his prayer. into his boat. and not wet at all with water. whereas all the rest remained still fast. The Book contained all the canonical books of the Old and New Testament. into a firmament of many stars. and some other books of the New Testament. were 21 . and the Apocalypse itself. he caused the boat to be softly and with silence rowed towards the pillar. grew a small green branch of palm. and wrapped in sindons of linen. moveable and unbound. dry. he presently found the boat he was in. (for we know well what the churches with you receive). the pillar and cross of light brake up. according as you have them. or chest of cedar. with all reverence. and when the wise man had taken it. And in the foreend of it. though it swam. which were not at that time written. as it were. and there were found in it a Book and a Letter. both written in fine parchment. (for the laws of nature are thine own laws. but a small ark. which was towards him. and thou exceedest them not but upon great cause. and to give us the interpretation and use of it in mercy.) we most humbly beseech thee to prosper this great sign. and cast itself abroad. which also vanished soon after. and there was nothing left to be seen. and taking that for an assurance of leave to approach. it opened of itself. But ere he came near it.excellent end.

and called him from us. and excused himself. Bartholomew.' "There was also in both these writings. conform to that of the Apostles. a servant of the Highest. through the apostolical and miraculous evangelism of Saint Bartholomew." And here he paused. 22 . Therefore I do testify and declare unto that people where God shall ordain this ark to come to land. in the original Gift of Tongues. and a messenger came. as well the Book.nevertheless in the Book. immediately after dinner. it was in these words: "'I. as if they had been written in his own language. and Indians. Persians. as the Letter. And thus was this land saved from infidelity (as the remainder of the old world was from water) by an ark. wrought a great miracle. that I should commit this ark to the floods of the sea. and from the Lord Jesus. that in the same day is come unto them salvation and peace and good-will. was warned by an angel that appeareth to me. So this was all that passed in that conference. saying. from the Father. For there being at that time in this land Hebrews. the same governor came again to us. and Letter. every one read upon the Book. The next day. in a vision of glory. and Apostle of Jesus Christ. And for the Letter. besides the natives.

and after we were set again. which we found to be true. than fearful to ask. somewhat abruptly. But encouraged by his rare humanity towards us. was known to few." He bowed himself a little to us. if he thought it not fit to be answered.) we would take the hardiness to propound it: humbly beseeching him. for the time we hear him speak." We answered. (that could scarce think ourselves strangers. being his vowed and professed servants. "We well observed those his words. was worth years of our former life. that there was a matter. and spend time with us if we held his company and conference agreeable. and yet we in Europe. considering they had the languages of Europe. "Well. but now he would make us amends. (notwithstanding all the remote discoveries and navigations of this last age). lest we might presume too far. which he formerly spake." One of our number said. and knew much of our state and business. he said. after a little pause. and that we thought an hour spent with him. We said. never heard of the least 23 . and yet knew most of the nations of the world. that this happy island. as we forgot both dangers past and fears to come. the questions are on your part. we were no less desirous to know. that he would pardon it."That the day before he was called from us. "That we held it so agreeable and pleasing to us. where we now stood. though he rejected it.

And yet the marvel rested not in this. doth commonly know more by the eye. This we found wonderful strange. in some degree." At this speech the Governor gave a gracious smile. But for this island. that they should have knowledge of the languages. on both parts. for that it seemed to us a conditioner and propriety of divine powers and beings. "That we did well to ask pardon for this question we now asked: for that it imported. as if we thought this land. of those that lie such a distance from them. that sent forth spirits of the air into all parts. nor yet of any ship of any other part of the world. and said. yet both ways suffice to make a mutual knowledge. For the situation of it (as his lordship said) in the secret conclave' of such a vast sea might cause it. a land of magicians. books. than he that stayeth at home can by relation of the traveller. we never heard tell of any ship of theirs that had been seen to arrive upon any shore of Europe. But then. affairs. and yet to have others open and as in a light to them. or by strangers that come to them: and though the traveller into a foreign country.inkling or glimpse of this island. for that all nations have interknowledge one of another. that had made return from them. to bring them news and intelligence of 24 . either by voyage into foreign parts. to be hidden and unseen to others. nor of either the East or West Indies. it was a thing we could not tell what to make of.

The Phoenicians. (especially for remote voyages.other countries. within these six-score years: I know it well: and yet I say greater then than now. gave men confidence to adventure upon the waters. that I know not how much it is increased with you. that the example of the ark. the navigation of the world. whether it was.) was greater than at this day. it was not any such conceit. "That we were apt enough to think there was somewhat supernatural in this island. I must reserve some particulars. But to let his lordship know truly what it was that made us tender and doubtful to ask this question. but such is the truth. "You remember it aright and therefore in that I shall say to you. in all possible humbleness. Do not think with yourselves." It was answered by us all. but yet with a countenance taking knowledge. but because we remembered. and especially the Tyrians. that we knew that he spake it but merrily. he had given a touch in his former speech. or somewhat more. that this land had laws of secrecy touching strangers. So had the 25 . but there will be enough left." "You shall understand (that which perhaps you will scarce think credible) that about three thousand years ago." To this he said. but yet rather as angelical than magical. to give you satisfaction. had great fleets. that saved the remnant of men from the universal deluge. which it is not lawful for me to reveal. or what it was.

(which is the same with Cambaline. "At that time. as to Paguin. they went sundry voyages.) and Quinzy. this land was known and frequented by the ships and vessels of all the nations before named. Arabians. This island. For though the narration and description.Carthaginians their colony. And for our own ships. which is made by a great 26 . Chaldeans. as well to your straits. and little tribes with us at this day. that came with them. Of all this. as to other parts in the Atlantic and Mediterrane Seas. but we have large knowledge thereof. or more. as far as to the borders of the East Tartary. Toward the east the shipping of Egypt and of Palestine was likewise great. of whom we have some stirps. (that you call America. as Persians. And (as it cometh to pass) they had many times men of other countries.) which have now but junks and canoes. which is yet further west. the inhabitants of the great Atlantis did flourish. so as almost all nations of might and fame resorted hither. and the great Atlantis. abounded then in tall ships. upon the Oriental Seas. "At the same time. that were no sailors. China also. of great content. and an age after.) had then fifteen hundred strong ships. there is with you sparing memory. (as appeareth by faithful registers of those times. which you call the Pillars of Hercules. or none.

Neither had the other voyage of those of Coya upon us had better fortune. and hill. as he cut off their 27 . then called Coya. I can say nothing: but certain it is. as that of Mexico. knowing well both his own strength and that of his enemies. were mighty and proud kingdoms in arms. be all poetical and fabulous: yet so much is true.) a wise man and a great warrior. that the said country of Atlantis. handled the matter so. (by name Altabin. and the several degrees of ascent. there never came back either ship or man from that voyage. and of the magnificent temple. the same author amongst you (as it seemeth) had some relation from the Egyptian priest whom he cited. as if it had been a scala coeli. For assuredly such a thing there was. city. then named Tyrambel. as well that of Peru. palace. and they of Coya through the South Sea upon this our island: and for the former of these. For the king of this island. as at one time (or at least within the space of ten years) they both made two great expeditions. and the manifold streams of goodly navigable rivers. whereby men did climb up to the same. they of Tyrambel through the Atlantic to the Mediterrane Sea. if they had not met with enemies of greater clemency. that the descendants of Neptune planted there. But whether it were the ancient Athenians that had the glory of the repulse and resistance of those forces. which was into with you. shipping and riches: so mighty. (which as so many chains environed the same site and temple).

those countries having. But it is true that the same inundation was not deep. (for that whole tract is little subject to earthquakes. although they had buildings in many places. so that although it destroyed man and beast generally.) but by a particular' deluge or inundation. not past forty foot. in most from their ships. than any part of the old world. "But the divine revenge overtook not long after those proud enterprises. yet some few wild inhabitants of the wood escaped. contenting himself only with their oath that they should no more bear arms against him. 28 . perished for want of food and other things necessary. as your man saith. the great Atlantis was utterly lost and destroyed: not by a great earthquake. dismissed them all in safety. though it were shallow. at this day. whereby they of the vale that were not drowned. both by sea and land: arid compelled them to render themselves without striking stroke and after they were at his mercy. and entoiled both their navy and their tamp with a greater power than theirs. yet that inundation. For as for men. higher than the depth of the water. For within less than the space of one hundred years. Birds also were saved by flying to the high trees and woods. from the ground. had a long continuance. far greater rivers and far higher mountains to pour down waters.

and great hairy goats. when after they came down into the valley. and found the intolerable heats which are there. who were invited unto it by the infinite flights of birds that came up to the high grounds. at the least. and knew no means of lighter apparel. by little and little. younger a thousand years. by this main accident of time. and civility to their posterity."So as marvel you not at the thin population of America. which remained in their mountains. Only they take great pride and delight in the feathers of birds. all others. For the poor remnant of human seed. (not like Noah and his sons. and having likewise in their mountainous habitations been used (in respect of the extreme cold of those regions) to clothe themselves with the skins of tigers. peopled the country again slowly. So you see. which was the chief family of the earth. with whom of. we had most commerce. while the waters stood below. and this also they took from those their ancestors of the mountains. that they have in those parts. which continueth at this day. they were forced to begin the custom of going naked. we lost our traffic with the Americans.) they were not able to leave letters. nor at the rudeness and ignorance of the people. in regard they lay nearest to us. than the rest of the world: for that there was so much time between the universal flood and their particular inundation. for you must account your inhabitants of America as a young people. bears. arts. 29 . and being simple and savage people.

"There reigned in this land."As for the other parts of the world. I shall now give you an account by itself: and it will draw nearer to give you satisfaction to your principal question. which might be by our sailing to other nations. not superstitiously. you see how it hath long since ceased. though a mortal man. and therefore why we should sit at home. whose memory of all others we most adore. as this of yours. But now of the cessation of that other part of intercourse. I must yield you some other cause.) but our shipping. and specially far voyages (the rather by the use of galleys. but as a divine instrument. his name was Solamona: and we esteem him as the lawgiver of our nation. for number. is as great as ever. and was wholly bent to make his kingdom and people happy. For I cannot say (if I shall say truly. He therefore. strength. pilots. about nineteen hundred years ago. or by a natural revolution of time. This king had a large heart. a king.) were altogether left and omitted. and such vessels as could hardly brook the ocean. that part of intercourse which could be from other nations to sail to us. So then. mariners. except it were by some rare accident. it is most manifest that in the ages following (whether it were in respect of wars. and all things that appertain to navigation. taking into 30 . inscrutable for good.) navigation did every where greatly decay.

For first. but only (as far as human foresight might reach) to give perpetuity to that which was in his time so happily established. being five thousand six hundred miles in circuit. so as it might be a thousand ways altered to the worse. and hath made them a curious.consideration how sufficient and substantive this land was to maintain itself without any aid (at all) of the foreigner. and of rare fertility of soil in the greatest part thereof. and are under the crown and laws of this state. he hath preserved all points of humanity. doubting novelties. Therefore amongst his other fundamental laws of this kingdom. recalling into his memory the happy and flourishing estate wherein this land then was. foolish nation. and commixture of manners. and finding also the shipping of this country might be plentifully set on work. he did ordain the interdicts and prohibitions which we have touching entrance of strangers. and. But our lawgiver made his law of another temper. and yet continued in use. and likewise by sailing unto some small islands that are not far from us. It is true. the like law against the admission of strangers without licence is an ancient law in the kingdom of China. in taking 31 . fearful. thought nothing wanted to his noble and heroical intentions. but scarce any one way to the better. But there it is a poor thing. which at that time (though it was after the calamity of America) was frequent. both by fishing and by transportations from port to port. ignorant.

" At which speech (as reason was) we all rose up and bowed ourselves. to detain strangers here against their wills. But this restraint of ours hath one only exception. Wherein he saw so far. whereof you have tasted. which is admirable. we have memory not of one ship that ever returned. But you must think. He went on. which sheweth that their law of keeping out strangers is a law of pusillanimity and fear. and thinking it against humanity. and against policy that they should return and discover their knowledge of this estate. preserving 32 . but as many as would stay should have very good conditions and means to live from the state. at several times. whatsoever they have said could be taken where they came but for a dream. For the Chinese sail where they will or can. he took this course: he did ordain that of the strangers that should be permitted to land. our Lawgiver thought fit altogether to restrain it. So is it not in China. "That king also. that chose to return in our bottoms.order and making provision for the relief of strangers distressed. Now for our travelling from henna into parts abroad. What those few that returned may have reported abroad I know not. still desiring to join humanity and policy together. as many (at all times) might depart as would. that now in so many ages since the prohibition. and but of thirteen persons only.

And I am rather induced to be of this opinion. honored him with the title of this foundation. So as I take it to be denominate of the king of the Hebrews. but you will by and by find it pertinent. from the cedar of Libanus to the moss that groweth out of the wall. finding himself to symbolize in many things with that king of the Hebrews (which lived many years before him). which with you are lost. It was the erection and institution of an Order or Society. It is dedicated to the study of the works and creatures of God. This maketh me think that our king. namely. and the lanthorn of this kingdom. And here I shall seem a little to digress. which he wrote. and no stranger to us. For we have some parts of his works. But the records write it as it is spoken. that natural history. which we call Salomon's House. Some think it beareth the founder's name a little corrupted. and I will now open it to you. one above all hath the preeminence. which is famous with you. "Ye shall understand (my dear friends) that amongst the excellent acts of that king. and avoiding the hurt. and of all things that have life and motion. the noblest foundation (as we think) that ever was upon the earth. for that I find in ancient records this Order or Society is sometimes called Salomon's House.the good which cometh by communicating with strangers. as if it should be Solamona's House. of all plants. and sometimes the College of the Six 33 .

after they had landed the brethren. whereby I am satisfied that our excellent king had learned from the Hebrews that God had created the world and all that therein is within six days: and therefore he instituting that House for the finding out of the true nature of all things. and that the brethren should stay abroad till the new mission. and inventions of all the world. and insert the more fruit in the use of them). should return. and especially of the sciences. whose errand was only to give us knowledge of the affairs and state of those countries to which they were designed. arts. than with store of victuals. and patterns in every kind: That the ships. he made nevertheless this ordinance. appointed to several voyages. "But now to come to our present purpose. that every twelve years there should be set forth. for the buying of such things and rewarding of such persons as they should 34 . That in either of these ships there should be a mission of three of the Fellows or Brethren of Salomon's House. instruments. When the king had forbidden to all his people navigation into any part that was not under his crown. (whereby God might have the more glory in the workmanship of them.Days Works. manufactures. and withal to bring unto us books. and good quantity of treasure to remain with the brethren. These ships are not otherwise fraught. out of this kingdom two ships. did give it also that second name.

And he. he was silent. that we might do well to think with ourselves what time of stay we would demand of the state. and so were we all. nor for silks. and the like circumstances of the practique. and bade us not to scant ourselves. nor any other commodity of matter. for he would procure such time as we desired: Whereupon we all rose up. and how they that must be put on shore for any time. and presented ourselves to kiss the skirt of his tippet. and to what places these voyages have been designed. and what places of rendezvous are appointed for the new missions. I may not do it: neither is it much to your desire. But thus you see we maintain a trade not for gold.think fit. but he would not suffer us. But when it came once amongst our people that the state used to offer conditions 35 . nor for spices. but only for God's first creature. color themselves under the names of other nations. or jewels. For indeed we were all astonished to hear so strange things so probably told. which was Light: to have light (I say) of the growth of all parts of the world." And when he had said this. Now for me to tell you how the vulgar sort of mariners are contained from being discovered at land. silver. and descended to ask us questions of our voyage and fortunes and in the end concluded. perceiving that we were willing to say somewhat but had it not ready in great courtesy took us off. and so took his leave.

and reverend custom it is. if there be a mirror in the world worthy to hold men's eyes. whom they call the 36 . One day there were two of our company bidden to a Feast of the Family. to make this feast which is done at the cost of the state. and to keep them from going presently to the governor to crave conditions. and lived most joyfully. as they call it. shewing that nation to be compounded of all goodness. and such a freedom and desire to take strangers as it were into their bosom. We took ourselves now for free men. seeing there was no danger of our utter perdition. The Father of the Family. at whose hands we found such humanity. strangers that would stay. A most natural. It is granted to any man that shall live to see thirty persons descended of his body alive together. But with much ado we refrained them. not of the meanest quality. going abroad and seeing what was to be seen in the city and places adjacent within our tedder. we had work enough to get any of our men to look to our ship. This is the manner of it. it is that country. as was enough to make us forget all that was dear to us in our own countries: and continually we met with many things right worthy of observation and relation: as indeed. and obtaining acquaintance with many of the city. till we might agree what course to take. and all above three years old.

which room hath an half-pace at the upper 37 . taketh to him three of such friends as he liketh to choose. such reverence and obedience they give to the order of nature. if they should be disobeyed. who is called ever after the Son of the Vine. are summoned to attend him. the father or Tirsan cometh forth after divine service into a large room where the feast is celebrated. if any be subject to vice. or take ill courses. if any of the family be distressed or decayed. There. These two days the Tirsan sitteth in consultation concerning the good estate of the family. they are reproved and censured. The governor assisteth. There. On the feast day. and is assisted also by the governor of the city or place where the feast is celebrated. and the courses of life. which any of them should take. order is taken for their relief and competent means to live. of both sexes. There. they are compounded and appeased. and all the persons of the family. two days before the feast. if there be any discord or suits between any of the family. with divers other the like orders and advices. The Tirsan doth also then ever choose one man from among his sons. So likewise direction is given touching marriages. though that seldom needeth. to live in house with him.Tirsan. to the end to put in execution by his public authority the decrees and orders of the Tirsan. The reason will hereafter appear.

there is a traverse placed in a loft above on the right hand of the chair. And the state is curiously wrought with silver and silk of divers colors. Over the chair is a state. and a carved window of glass. is a chair placed for him. like the leaf of a silver asp. with a table and carpet before it. and is ever of the work of some of the daughters of the family. where she sitteth. broiding or binding in the ivy.end. there cometh in from the lower end of the room. and it is of ivy. but is not seen. But the substance of it is true ivy. both at his back and upon the return of the half-pace. and all the linage place themselves against the wall. and veiled over at the top with a fine net of silk and silver. When the Tirsan is come forth. and the females following him. in order of their years without difference of sex. When he is set. Against the wall. but more shining. after it is taken down. for it is green all winter. the room being always full of company. an ivy somewhat whiter than ours. the friends of the family are desirous to have some leaf or sprig to keep. in the middle of the half-pace. and stand upon their feet. he sitteth down in the chair. and if there be a mother from whose body the whole linage is descended. made round or oval. leaded with gold and blue. The Tirsan cometh forth with all his generation or linage. whereof. but well kept and without disorder. the males before him. after some pause. a 38 . with a privy door.

exemptions. the father or Tirsan standeth up supported by two of his sons. but the herald's mantle is streamed with gold. 39 . This scroll is the king's charter. such as he chooseth. and as of right. cometh up as far as the half-pace. and there first taketh into his hand the scroll. For they say the king is debtor to no man. Then the herald with three curtesies. To such do one our well beloved friend and creditor: which is a title proper only to this case. containing gifts of revenew. or rather inclinations. whereof one carrieth a scroll of their shining yellow parchment. and is ever styled and directed. and hath a train. and points of honour. but for propagation of his subjects. and though such charters be expedited of course. with a long foot or stalk.taratan (which is as much as an herald) and on either side of him two young lads. granted to the Father of the Family. The seal set to the king's charter is the king's image. Then the herald mounteth the half-pace and delivereth the charter into his hand: and with that there is an acclamation by all that are present in their language. according to the number and dignity of the family. and many privileges. yet they are varied by discretion. imbossed or moulded in gold. and while it is read. This charter the herald readeth aloud. The herald and children are clothed with mantles of sea-water green satin. and the other a cluster of grapes of gold.

and the women only stand about him. and is thereupon called the Son of the Vine. both the stalk and the grapes. ever after. leaning against the wall. as before. After the ceremony endeth the father or Tirsan retireth. But the grapes are daintily enamelled. of what degree or dignity soever. and if the males of the family be the greater number. except he hap to be of Salomon's House. and none of his descendants sit with him. with a little sun set on the top.which is thus much: Happy are the people of Bensalem. the grapes are enamelled purple. The room below the half-pace hath tables on the sides for the guests that are bidden. He is served only by his own children. Then the herald taketh into his hand from the other child the cluster of grapes. who perform unto him all service of the table upon the knee. who are served with 40 . such as are male. This golden cluster the herald delivereth also to the Tirsan. where he sitteth alone under the state. The grapes are in number as many as there are descendants of the family. who presently delivereth it over to that son that he had formerly chosen to be in house with him: who beareth it before his father as an ensign of honour when he goeth in public. then they are enamelled into a greenish yellow. if the females. and after some time cometh forth again to dinner. which is of gold. with a crescent on the top.

who stand about him as at the first. (or daughter of Bensalem. if there be any of his sons 41 . though seldom the order of age be inverted. and having withdrawn himself alone into a place. whereof the former two peopled the world. where he makes some private prayers. and that done. as he pleaseth. and giveth the blessing in these words: Son of Bensalem. the Prince of Peace. varied according to the invention of him that composeth it (for they have excellent posy) but the subject of it is (always) the praises of Adam and Noah and Abraham. and towards the end of dinner (which in the greatest feasts with them lasteth never above an hour and an half) there is an hymn sung. to give the blessing with all his descendants. and make the days of thy pilgrimage good and many. and the last was the Father of the Faithful: concluding ever with a thanksgiving for the nativity of our Saviour. or her head. Dinner being done. Then he calleth them forth by one and by one. he cometh forth the third time. be upon thee. This he saith to every of them. and the Holy Dove. the Tirsan retireth again. in whose birth the births of all are only blessed.) thy father with it: the man by whom thou hast breath and life speaketh the word: the blessing of the everlasting Father. by name.great and comely order. The person that is called (the table being before removed) kneeleth down before the chair. and the father layeth his hand upon his head.

which they ever after wear in the front of their turban or hat. laying his arm over their shoulders. whom they leave to their own religion.of eminent merit and virtue. By that time six or seven days were spent. and the Eliah of the 42 . because they are of a far differing disposition from the Jews in other parts. they standing. and they call him also the Milken Way. and persevere to the end.) he calleth for them again. for the rest of the day. they fall to music and dances. and love the nation of Bensalem extremely. made in the figure of an ear of wheat. it is well ye are born. Sons. and saith. Surely this man of whom I speak would ever acknowledge that Christ was born of a virgin and that he was more than a man. and have a secret inbred rancour against the people among whom they live: these (contrariwise) give unto our Saviour many high attributes. after their manner. and he would tell how God made him ruler of the seraphims which guard his throne. I was fallen into straight acquaintance with a merchant of that city. He was a Jew and circumcised: for they have some few stirps of Jews yet remaining among them. This done. (so they be not above two. whose name was Joabin. Which they may the better do. and other recreations. And withall delivereth to either of them a jewel. This is the full order of that feast. give God the praise. For whereas they hate the name of Christ.

whom they call Nachoran. I desired to know of him what laws and customs they had concerning marriage. and many other high names. and learned. And because propagation of families proceedeth from the nuptial copulation. the man was a wise man. Amongst other discourses.Messiah. by another son. in holding the Feast of the Family. and that Moses by a secret Cabala ordained the Laws of Bensalem which they now use. by tradition among the Jews there. and that when the Messiah should come. one day I told him I was much affected with the relation I had. yet they are far from the language of other Jews. And for the country of Bensalem. the king of Bensalem should sit at his feet. whereas other kings should keep a great distance. to have it believed that the people thereof were of the generations of Abraham. which though they be inferior to his divine majesty. of their custom. and of great policy. and excellently seen in the laws and customs of that nation. But yet setting aside these Jewish dreams. and sit in his throne at Hierusalem. being desirous. from some of the company. this man would make no end of commending it. and whether they kept marriage well and whether they were tied to 43 . for that (methought) I had never heard of a solemnity wherein nature did so much preside.

It is the virgin of the world. They say ye have put marriage out of office: for marriage is ordained a remedy for unlawful concupiscence. nor anything of that kind. it would have appeared to him in the likeness of a fair beautiful wife. Nay they wonder (with detestation) at you in Europe. that with them there are no stews. than the chaste minds of this people. You shall understand that there is not under the heavens so chaste a nation as this of Bensalem. "You have reason for to commend that excellent institution of the Feast of the Family. For there is nothing amongst mortal men more fair and admirable. no courtesans. nor so free from all pollution or foulness. of an holy hermit amongst you that desired to see the Spirit of Fornication. To this he said. and I will tell you what I know. And indeed we have experience that those families that are partakers of the blessing of that feast do flourish and prosper ever after in an extraordinary manner. which permit such things. there is commonly permission of plurality of wives. no dissolute houses.' and such as with them it seemed to be. Know therefore. and there appeared to him a little foul ugly Aethiop. for that where population is so much affected. I remember I have read in one of your European books. But hear me now. But if he had desired to see the Spirit of Chastity of Bensalem. and natural concupiscence seemeth as a 44 .

or reputation. or resort to courtesans. And therefore there are with you seen infinite men that marry not. marriage is almost expulsed. (being of the same matter. (where sin is turned into art. what is marriage to them but a very bargain. are no more punished in married men than in bachelors. that was first instituted.) as chaste men do. 45 . as it ought to be if those things were tolerated only for necessity? No. and they call it Lot's offer. and a kind of imposition or tax. deflowering of virgins. unnatural lust. and the like. And the depraved custom of change. when the prime and strength of their years is past. as advoutries. And when they do marry. marry late. with some desire (almost indifferent) of issue. should greatly esteem children. than to be yoked in marriage.) maketh marriage a dull thing. But when men have at hand a remedy more agreeable to their corrupt will.spar to marriage. and the delight in meretricious embracements. but chose rather a libertine and impure single life. and many that do marry. wherein is sought alliance. is the case much amended. But they say this is a preposterous wisdom. but they remain still as a very affront to marriage. They hear you defend these things. who to save his guests from abusing. So likewise during marriage. and not the faithful nuptial union of man and wife. Neither is it possible that those that have cast away so basely so much of their strength. as done to avoid greater evils. The haunting of those dissolute places. or portion.

is.) I have not read of any such chastity. and to speak generally. yet thinking it decent that upon his pause of speech I should not be altogether silent. That whosoever is unchaste cannot reverence himself." And when he had said this. said only this.offered his daughters: nay they say farther that there is little gained in this. that if you stop the flames altogether. and that I confess the righteousness of Bensalem was greater than the righteousness of Europe. And their usual saying is. they have no touch of it. whereupon I. That the reverence of a man's self. that he was come to bring to memory our sins. in any people as theirs. (as I said before. and yet there are not so faithful and inviolate friendships in the world again as are there. They have ordained 46 . As for masculine love. for that the same vices and appetites do still remain and abound. as the widow of Sarepta said to Elias. They allow no polygamy. but if you give it any vent. unlawful lust being like a furnace. and went on in this manner: "They have also many wise and excellent laws touching marriage. and they say. next to religion. it will quench. the chiefest bridle of all vices. it will rage. the good Jew paused a little. far more willing to hear him speak on than to speak myself. "That I would say to him." At which speech he bowed his head.

that none do intermarry or contract." The next morning he came to me again. until a month be past from their first interview. for they think it a scorn to give a refusal after so familiar knowledge: but because of many hidden defects in men and women's bodies. I will provide you and your fellows 47 .) where it is permitted to one of the friends of the men. "There is word come to the Governor of the city. before they contract. "You will pardon me. but the cause of his coming is secret. for they have near every town a couple of pools. where the married couple are permitted. and said. (which they call Adam and Eve's pools. This they dislike. that spake with the Jew: whereupon he turned to me and said. His coming is in state. to see one another naked. that one of the Fathers of Salomon's House will be here this day seven-night: we have seen none of them this dozen years. to see them severally bathe naked. but they mulct it in the inheritors: for the children of such marriages are not admitted to inherit above a third part of their parents' inheritance." And as we were thus in conference. in a rich huke. they have a more civil way. joyful as it seemed. I have read in a book of one of your men. of a Feigned Commonwealth. there came one that seemed to be a messenger. Marriage without consent of parents they do not make void. for I am commanded away in haste. and another of the friends of the woman.

and told him. and of the same colour with his hair. richly trapped in blue velvet embroidered. The chariot was covered with cloth of gold tissued upon blue. and a sindon or tippet of the same about his neck. His hat was like a helmet. he made his entry. He had before him fifty attendants. There was also a sun of gold." and set with stone. with wings displayed. comely of person. that were curious. He was a man of middle stature and age. His under garment was of excellent white linen down to the foot. set in borders of gold. radiant. a small cherub of gold. The day being come. and two footmen on each side in the like attire. girt with a girdle of the same. I was most glad of the news." I thanked him. and adorned with crystal. He was clothed in a robe of fine black cloth. and had an aspect as if he pitied men. and his locks curled below it decently: they were of colour brown. with two horses at either end. in the midst. He was carried in a rich chariot without wheels. gilt. young men all. and on the top before. or Spanish montera. and the hinder-end the like of emeralds of the Peru colour. litter-wise. His neck was bare to the shoulders. with wide sleeves and a cape. His beard was cut round. somewhat lighter. in white satin loose coats 48 . The chariot was all of cedar. upon the top. He had gloves.of a good standing to see his entry. save that the fore-end had panels of sapphires. and shoes of peach-coloured velvet.

but the crosier of balm-wood. 49 . like the Persian. blue. bare-headed. who carried. He sat alone. in linen garments down the foot. and stockings of white silk. the other a pastoral staff like a sheep-hook. and shoes of blue velvet. Next before the chariot. "I shall not be able to attend you as I would. and under his foot curious carpets of silk of diverse the mid leg." Three days after the Jew came to me again. When the shew was past. in regard of some charge the city hath laid upon me. set round like hat-bands. The windows likewise were not crowded. went two men. and shoes of blue velvet. the Jew said to me. girt. to avoid all tumult and trouble. but in silence. but far finer. as blessing the people. the one a crosier. but every one stood in them as if they had been placed. Behind his chariot went all the officers and principals of the companies of the city. and hats of blue velvet. The street was wonderfully well kept: so that there was never any army had their men stand in better battle-array than the people stood. neither of them of metal. for the entertaining of this great person. the pastoral staff of cedar. "Ye are happy men. neither before nor behind his chariot: as it seemeth. Horsemen he had none. for the Father of Salomon's House taketh knowledge of your being here. with fine plumes of diverse colours. upon cushions of a kind of excellent plush. and said. He held up his bare hand as he went.

finely attired in white. that ye shall choose: and for this hath appointed the next day after to-morrow. And because he meaneth to give you his blessing. and spake to me thus in the Spanish tongue. we bowed low at our first entrance. but instead of his gown. Then he warned the pages forth of the room. holding forth his hand ungloved. he stood up. He was alone. We found him in a fair chamber.and commanded me to tell you that he will admit all your company to his presence. of the same fine black." We came at our day and hour. on either hand one. and kissed the hem of his tippet. He was set upon a low Throne richly adorned. the rest departed. he had on him a mantle with a cape. as we were taught. richly hanged. and carpeted under foot without any degrees to the state. and a rich cloth of state over his head. and when we were come near his chair. When we came in. That done. His under garments were the like that we saw him wear in the chariot. and in posture of blessing. and I was chosen by my fellows for the private access. and I remained. and have private conference with one of you. save that he had two pages of honour. and caused me to sit down beside him. and we every one of us stooped down. of blue satin embroidered. he hath appointed it in the forenoon. 50 . fastened about him.

my son. and secret motions of things. These caves we call the Lower Region."God bless thee. to make you know the true state of Salomon's House. that the depth of a hill. for the love of God and men. refrigerations. Secondly. I will set forth unto you the end of our foundation. I will keep this order. and we use them for all coagulations. the preparations and instruments we have for our works. a relation of the true state of Salomon's House. "The Preparations and Instruments are these. We have large and deep caves of several depths: the deepest are sunk six hundred fathom: and some of them are digged and made under great hills and mountains: so that if you reckon together the depth of the hill and the depth of the cave. I will give thee the greatest jewel I have. the several employments and functions whereto our fellows are assigned. and from the open air. to the effecting of all things possible. indurations. "The end of our foundation is the knowledge of causes. For I will impart unto thee. And fourthly. and the depth of a cave from the flat. the ordinances and rites which we observe. they are (some of them) above three miles deep. Son. First. For we find. and 51 . is the same thing. Thirdly. from the sun and heaven's beams. and the enlarging of the bounds of human empire. both remote alike.

as winds. and indeed live very long. where we put diverse cements. accounting the air between the high places and the low. as the Chineses do their porcellain. and the producing also of new artificial metals. We use these towers. for insolation. and for the view of divers meteors. and some of the fiery meteors also. so that the vantage of the hill with the tower is in the highest of them three miles at least.) for curing of some diseases. and situations. and for prolongation of life in some hermits that choose to live there. And these places we call the Upper Region. rain. And upon them. by whom also we learn many things. (which may seem strange. according to their several heights. We use them likewise for the imitation of natural mines. the highest about half a mile in height. We use them also sometimes. refrigeration. for the making of the earth fruitful. by compositions and materials which we use. and some of them more fine. as a Middle Region. in some places. well accommodated of all things necessary. and some of them likewise set upon high mountains. and lay there for many years. hail. "We have burials in several earths.conservations of bodies. conservation. "We have high towers. But we have them in greater variety. are dwellings of 52 . We have also great variety of composts and soils. snow.

hermits, whom we visit sometimes, and instruct what to observe. "We have great lakes, both salt, and fresh; whereof we have use for the fish and fowl. We use them also for burials of some natural bodies: for we find a difference in things buried in earth or in air below the earth, and things buried in water. We have also pools, of which some do strain fresh water out of salt; and others by art do turn fresh water into salt. We have also some rocks in the midst of the sea, and some bays upon the shore for some works, wherein is required the air and vapor of the sea. We have likewise violent streams and cataracts, which serve us for many motions: and likewise engines for multiplying and enforcing of winds, to set also on going diverse motions. "We have also a number of artificial wells and fountains, made in imitation of the natural sources and baths; as tincted upon vitriol, sulphur, steel, brass, lead, nitre, and other minerals. And again we have little wells for infusions of many things, where the waters take the virtue quicker and better, than in vessels or basins. And amongst them we have a water which we call Water of Paradise, being, by that we do to it made very sovereign for health, and prolongation of life.


"We have also great and spacious houses where we imitate and demonstrate meteors; as snow, hail, rain, some artificial rains of bodies and not of water, thunders, lightnings; also generations of bodies in air; as frogs, flies, and divers others. "We have also certain chambers, which we call Chambers of Health, where we qualify the air as we think good and proper for the cure of divers diseases, and preservation of health. "We have also fair and large baths, of several mixtures, for the cure of diseases, and the restoring of man's body from arefaction: and others for the confirming of it in strength of sinewes, vital parts, and the very juice and substance of the body. "We have also large and various orchards and gardens; wherein we do not so much respect beauty, as variety of ground and soil, proper for divers trees and herbs: and some very spacious, where trees and berries are set whereof we make divers kinds of drinks, besides the vineyards. In these we practise likewise all conclusions of grafting, and inoculating as well of wild-trees as fruittrees, which produceth many effects. And we make (by art) in the same orchards and gardens, trees and flowers to come earlier or later than their seasons; and to come

up and bear more speedily than by their natural course they do. We make them also by art greater much than their nature; and their fruit greater and sweeter and of differing taste, smell, colour, and figure, from their nature. And many of them we so order, as they become of medicinal use. "We have also means to make divers plants rise by mixtures of earths without seeds; and likewise to make divers new plants, differing from the vulgar; and to make one tree or plant turn into another. "We have also parks and enclosures of all sorts of beasts and birds which we use not only for view or rareness, but likewise for dissections and trials; that thereby we may take light what may be wrought upon the body of man. Wherein we find many strange effects; as continuing life in them, though divers parts, which you account vital, be perished and taken forth; resuscitating of some that seem dead in appearance; and the like. We try also all poisons and other medicines upon them, as well of chirurgery, as physic. By art likewise, we make them greater or taller than their kind is; and contrariwise dwarf them, and stay their growth: we make them more fruitful and bearing than their kind is; and contrariwise barren and not generative. Also we make them differ in colour, shape, activity, many ways. We find means to make

flies. bake-houses. such as are with you your silk-worms and bees. yea 56 . of what matter and commixture what kind of those creatures will arise.commixtures and copulations of different kinds. and meats. And these drinks are of several ages. and spices. sugar. which have produced many new kinds. of putrefaction. We have drinks also brewed with several herbs. worms. of grains. and kitchens. rare and of special effects. whereof some are advanced (in effect) to be perfect creatures. and fruits dried. and have sexes. as the general opinion is. where we make trials upon fishes. some to the age or last of forty years. as we have said before of beasts and birds. and of mixtures with honey. fishes. but we know beforehand. and do propagate. and decocted. manna. "We have also particular pools. Also of the tears or woundings of trees. "We have also places for breed and generation of those kinds of worms and flies which are of special use. Neither do we this by chance. and drinks of other juice of fruits. like bests or birds. and roots. "I will not hold you long with recounting of our brewhouses. and of roots. and them not barren. breads. We make a number of kinds of serpents. where are made divers drinks. and of the pulp of canes. Wines we have of grapes.

and some other. whereof some of the drinks are such. pass through to the palm. and yet taste mild to the mouth. to insinuate into the body. "We have dispensatories. And above all. we have some of them so beaten and made tender and mortified. insomuch as some of them put upon the back of your hand will.with several fleshes. as they become nourishing. without any other meat. sharpness. So for meats. which taken by men enable them to fast long after. and kernels. do desire to live with them. as they are in effect meat and drink both: so that divers. 57 . We have some meats also and breads and drinks. so that they are indeed excellent drink. or shops of medicines. that used make the very flesh of men's bodies sensibly' more hard and tough and their strength far greater than otherwise it would be. who live very long. especially in age. or fretting. roots. yea and some of flesh and fish dried. as divers do live of them. we strive to have drink of extreme thin parts. some do nourish so. with divers kinds of leavenings and seasonings: so that some do extremely move appetites. Breads we have of several grains.' yet without all corrupting. and white-meats. with a little stay. and many will use no other. and yet without all biting. with little or no meat or bread. as well as a strong heat would meat otherwise prepared. as a weak heat of the stomach will turn them into good chylus. We have also waters which we ripen in that fashion.

many others. as papers. as they were natural simples. as well for such as are not brought into vulgar use amongst us as for those that are. if we have such variety of plants and living creatures more than you have in Europe. many of them are grown into use throughout the kingdom. dry. silks. moist. but yet. we have not only all manner of exquisite distillations and separations.) the simples. must likewise be in so much the greater variety. soft and mild. "We have also furnaces of great diversities. and. and long fermentations. linen. if they did flow from our invention. and that keep great diversity of heats. strong and constant. which you have not. tissues. excellent dies. and shops likewise. dainty works of feathers of wonderful lustre. but also exact forms of composition. For you must know that of the things before recited. and stuffs made by them. and ingredients of medicines. and the 58 . (for we know what you have. "We have also divers mechanical arts. We have them likewise of divers ages. quiet. blown. drugs. And for their preparations. yea and substances. fierce and quick.Wherein you may easily think. we have of them also for patterns and principals. and especially by gentle heats and percolations through divers strainers. whereby they incorporate almost.

and of all colours: and out of things uncoloured and transparent. and (as it were) orbs. as in the heaven and remote places. of producing of light originally from divers bodies. yield heat.) but of themselves single. all delusions and deceits of the sight. But above all. and represent things near as 59 . and returns. in figures. places for strong insulations. we have heats. Also all colourations of light. And farther. requireth. magnitudes. and make so sharp as to discern small points and lines. or art. colours all demonstrations of shadows. and of hays and herbs laid up moist. which we carry to great distance. (as it is in gems. we have heats of dungs. and again. We find also divers means. motions. Besides. These divers heats we use. yet unknown to you. and prisms. which we intend. in imitation of the Sun's and heavenly bodies' heats. progresses. We represent also all multiplications of light. and of their bloods and bodies. and such like. that pass divers inequalities. where we make demonstrations of all lights and radiations. as the nature of the operation. and of bellies and maws of living creatures. places under the earth. "We have also perspective-houses. we can represent unto you all several colours. whereby we produce admirable effects. Instruments also which generate heat only by not in rainbows. We procure means of seeing objects afar off. of lime unquenched. which by nature.

crystals likewise. observations in urine and blood not otherwise to be seen. grains and flaws in gems. refractions. and to you unknown. We represent also all manner of reflexions. and things afar off as near.afar off. We have harmonies which you have not. some sweeter than any you have. Divers instruments of music likewise to you unknown. We have also helps for the sight. and other rare stones. and multiplications of visual beams of objects. many of them of great beauty. and other materials besides those of which you make glass. "We have also precious stones of all kinds. both natural and artificial. Also a number of fossils. where we practise and demonstrate all sounds. halo's. and their generation. "We have also sound-houses. and amongst them some of metals vitrificated. making feigned distances. and imperfect minerals. and circles about light. of quarter-sounds. We have also glasses and means to see small and minute bodies perfectly and distinctly. as the shapes and colours of small flies and worms. and lesser slides of sounds. far above spectacles and glasses in use. which you have not. Likewise loadstones of prodigious virtue. together with bells and rings that are dainty and 60 . and glasses of divers kinds. We make artificial rain-bows. which cannot otherwise be seen.

and sallets. We represent small sounds as great and deep. We have certain helps which set to the ear do further the hearing greatly. likewise great sounds extenuate and sharp. so that they will deceive any man's taste. broths. where are prepared engines and instruments for all sorts of motions. We represent and imitate all articulate sounds and letters. and the voices and notes of beasts and birds. wherewith we join also practices of taste. some shriller. and some deeper. making all smells to breathe outs of other mixtures than those that give them. we make divers tremblings and warblings of sounds. We multiply smells. milks.sweet. which in their original are entire. and as it were tossing it: and some that give back the voice louder than it came. where we make all sweet-meats. in strange lines and distances. We have also means to convey sounds in trunks and pipes. There 61 . reflecting the voice many times. some rendering the voice differing in the letters or articulate sound from that they receive. in far greater variety than you have. We have also divers strange and artificial echoes. "We have also perfume-houses. "We have also engine-houses. We make divers imitations of taste likewise. yea. And in this house we contain also a confiture-house. dry and moist. and divers pleasant wines. We imitate smells. which may seem strange.

exquisitely made. by wheels and other means: and to make them stronger and more violent than yours are. by images. Also fireworks of all variety both for pleasure and use. and subtilty. also swimming-girdles and supporters. We have ships and boats for going under water. false 62 . birds. and engines of all kinds: and likewise new mixtures and compositions of gun-powder. exceeding your greatest cannons and basilisks. fineness. beasts. of men.we imitate and practise to make swifter motions than any you have. where we represent all manner of feats of juggling. We imitate also flights of birds. fishes. We have divers curious clocks. "We have also houses of deceits of the senses. We imitate also motions of living creatures. and other like motions of return: and some perpetual motions. as well of geometry as astronomy. either out of your muskets or any engine that you have: and to make them and multiply them more easily. strange for equality. We represent also ordnance and instruments of war. wild-fires burning in water. and brooking of seas. where are represented all instruments. and serpents. and with small force. and unquenchable. "We have also a mathematical house. we have some degrees of flying in the air. We have also a great number of other various motions.

and patterns of experiments of all other parts. impostures. But we do hate all impostures. These we call 63 . These we call Merchants of Light. that they do not show any natural work or thing. "We have three that collect the experiments of all mechanical arts.apparitions. adorned or swelling. And surely you will easily believe that we that have so many things truly natural which induce admiration. who bring us the books. and illusions. These we call Depredators. could in a world of particulars deceive the senses. if we would disguise those things and labour to make them seem more miraculous. "For the several employments and offices of our fellows. and without all affectation of strangeness. insomuch as we have severely forbidden it to all our fellows. and abstracts. and their fallacies. under the names of other nations. under pain of ignominy and fines. and also of liberal sciences. but only pure as it is. and lies. "We have three that collect the experiments which are in all books. and also of practices which are not brought into arts. we have twelve that sail into foreign countries. (for our own we conceal). "These are (my son) the riches of Salomon's House.

means of natural divinations. 64 . looking into the experiments of their fellows. to consider of the former labours and collections. and the easy and clear discovery of the virtues and parts of bodies. "Then after divers meetings and consults of our whole number. as well for works as for plain demonstration of causes. to give the better light for the drawing of observations and axioms out of them. These we call Pioneers or Miners. These we call Dowry-men or Benefactors. such as themselves think good. and knowledge.Mystery-men. "We have three that bend themselves. of a higher light. and cast about how to draw out of them things of use and practise for man's life. more penetrating into nature than the former. "We have three others that do execute the experiments so directed. out of them. These we call Lamps. we have three that take care. and report them. "We have three that try new experiments. These we call Inoculators. to direct new experiments. These we call Compilers. "We have three that draw the experiments of the former four into titles and tables.

These we call Interpreters of Nature. "For our ordinances and rites: we have two very long and fair galleries: in one of these we place patterns and samples of all manner of the more rare and excellent inventions in the other we place the statues of all principal inventors. men and women. for the concealing of those which we think fit to keep secret: though some of those we do reveal sometimes to the state and some not. as you must think. we have three that raise the former discoveries by experiments into greater observations. and which not: and take all an oath of secrecy. There we have the statue of your Columbus. axioms. And this we do also: we have consultations. "We have also. which of the inventions and experiences which we have discovered shall be published. that the succession of the former employed men do not fail. novices and apprentices."Lastly. that discovered the West Indies: also the inventor of ships: your monk that was the inventor of ordnance and of gunpowder: the inventor of music: the inventor of letters: the inventor of printing: the inventor of observations of astronomy: the inventor of works in metal: the inventor of glass: the inventor of silk of the 65 . a great number of servants and attendants. besides. and aphorisms.

Then have we divers inventors of our own. as it cometh to pass. some of marble and touch-stone. earthquakes. comets. For upon every invention of value. we do publish such new profitable inventions as we think good. we erect a statue to the inventor. These statues are some of brass. "Lastly. and the turning of them into good and holy uses. temperature of the year. and we give counsel thereupon. which since you have not seen. and divers other things. swarms-of hurtful creatures. of excellent works. great inundations. and give him a liberal and honourable reward. some of gold. which we say daily. scarcity. imploring his aid and blessing for the illumination of our labours. where. And we do also declare natural divinations of diseases. of Lord and thanks to God for his marvellous works: and forms of prayers. some of iron. and besides. it were too long to make descriptions of them. plagues. by more certain tradition than you have. some of cedar and other special woods gilt and adorned. tempests. some of silver. "We have certain hymns and services. what the people shall do for the prevention 66 . we have circuits or visits of divers principal cities of the kingdom.worm: the inventor of wine: the inventor of corn and bread: the inventor of sugars: and all these. in the right understanding of those descriptions you might easily err.

a land unknown. and God bless this relation. kneeled down. having assigned a value of about two thousand ducats. (The rest was not perfected.and remedy of them. and said. for we here are in God's bosom. and I. For they give great largesses where they come upon all occasions. I give thee leave to publish it for the good of other nations." And when he had said this. for a bounty to me and my fellows. my son. and he laid his right hand upon my head. "God bless thee. which I have made." And so he left me. as I had been taught.) *** 67 . he stood up.

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