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August 15 a) Transmission Genetics

b) Molecular Genetics
c) Population Genetics
 Branch in Biology
 Studies heredity and variation
1. Transmission Genetics
 Classical Genetics
 Greek word from gen
 Encompass basic principles in Genetics
 To become or grow into something
 How traits are passed from generation to the next
William Bateson in 1908  Relationship between chromosomes and heredity
 Arrangement of genes on chromosomes, map of the genes
on the chromosomes
 Transmission of traits from parents to offspring  How individuals inherits its genetic make-up and pass it
 Similarity of parents and offsprings to the next generation
Variation *Haploid genes = 23 chromosomes
 Difference between parents and offsprings *Diploid genes= 46 chromosomes
 Difference among offsprings
2. Molecular Genetics
 Difference among individuals in population
 Chemical nature of genes
"Genes are the principal determinants of life processes"
 How genetic info is encoded, replicated and expressed
Dictated by genes
3. Population Genetics
a) Cell structure
 Studies genetic composition of group of individuals of the
b) Cell functions
same species
c) Organization of cells into tissues/organs
 How the composition changes overtime
d) Organisms appearance
e) Reproduction  Study of evolution or genetic change
f) Adaptability Branches of Genetics
g) Behavior
1. Molecular Genetics
h) Subdivision of Genetics
 Structure and functions of the genes at molecular level
 Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
 Replication- duplication of DNA
 Transcription- DNA to RNA Happiness
 Translation- RNA to Polypeptide Criminality
 Polypeptide- large chain of amino acids
7. Population Genetics
2. Cytogenetics
 Fate of genes in the population
 Behavior of chromosomes
 Carrier of the genes *Factors affecting gene frequency

*life expectancy of down syndrome is 18 yrs old a) Mutation

b) Selection
*increase age of mother = higher probability of down syndrome
8. Quantitative Genetics
3. Developmental Genetics
 Role of genetic and environment factors
 Gene regulation during development  Inheritance and expression of quantitative traits
*Gene regulation is the proper switching on and off of genes Ex. Height, IQ
4. Evolutionary Genetics
 Genetic change within and between species Beginnings of Genetics
5. Biochemical Genetics Before Gregor Mendel
 Role of proteins/enzymes  Heredity is known as a blending process
 Enzymes are products of genes  Offsprings are intermediate between parents
Ex. Albinism (homozygous recessive)  Not true if offsprings resembles either one parents

Cannot produce tyrosinase (melanin) Golden Age of Greek Culture

6. Behavioral Genetics Attention was given to

 Behavioral traits are inherited 1. Reproduction

2. Heredity
 Theory of Pangenesis
 All organs and structures of the body contribute copies of
Manic Depressive Psychosis themselves to sex cells
August 15  Rediscoverers of Gregor Mendel
Jean Baptist de Lamarck William Bateson
 Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Saunders
 Acquired body modifications are inherited
August Weismann
 Germplasm Theory
 Observed Mendel's principles on animals
 Plans of the entire body are contributed only by the sex
cells Walter Sutton (USA)

Kolreuter, Gardner, Naudin, Charles Darwin, Dzierzon Theodor Boveri (Germany)

 Uniformity in F1  Chromosome Theory of Inheritance

 Variations in F2  No experiments done
Thomas Hunt Morgan and Calvin Bridges

Beginning of Classical Genetics  Association between specific gene and specific

1865 Gregor Mendel
Oswald Avery, Collin MacLeod, Mady McCarty
 Give concept of the gene
 Presence of discrete hereditary unit  DNA as hereditary material
 Explains similarities and differences among parents and  Elucidation of DNA Structure
offspring 1953
 Father of genetics
 James D. Watson
Responsible for 2 important principles of genetics
 Francis H. Crick
1. Principle of segregation  DNA double helix
2. Principle of independent assortment
Application of Genes
Carl Correns (Germany)
1. Microbial, plant and animal improvement
Erick Von Tschermak (Austria)
 Triploid banana = no seed
Hugo de Uries (Netherlands)  Teosinte = parents of corn
 Duplicated Mendels experiment on other plants
Norman Borlaug 4. Legal Application
 Green Revolution Leader  Blood type analysis
 Nobel Prize Winner of 1970  Paternity testing
 Wheats  DNA finger printing
 Disputed parentage
2. Medicine
 Identify criminals
 Identification of diseases and abnormalities (with genetic
5. Genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology
 Metabolic Disorders GMO or Transgenic organisms
 Phenylketonuria
 Mental retardation can be controlled by low level of
phenylamine Bt corn, cotton, soybean
 Galactosemia Basilus thuringenesis
 New born screening
Transgenic papaya with delayed ripening
3. Genetic Counselling
Humulin- insulin for diabetes (product of recombinant DNA)
 Inheritance of undesirable traits
Golden rice rich in pro vitamin A
Pedigree analysis of prospective analysis
August 17
 Coined by Francis Galton, 1883, England
 Application of knowledge for the improvement of the Structure of Chromosome
human race  Composed of chain of nucleosome
Euphenics Nucleosome
 Medical or genetic intervention designed to reduce the  Nucleosome core + DNA
impact of defective genotype on individuals
Composition of Nucleosome core
Composed of 2 each
1. H(2)A
Dietary control 2. H(2)B
Genetic surgery (future) 3. H(3)
4. H(4)
Chromatin fiber Basic chromosome number
 Long chain of nucleosome  True Diploid X = n
Chromosome Somatic chromosome number
 Folded chromatin fiber  Diploid no. 2n = 4
 Carrier of the genes  Rice 2n = 24
Composition of chromosomes Gametic chromosome number
 Chromosome arms  Haploid number (n)
 Centromere  Rice n = 12
 Telomere (telo means end)
DNA is long (tali)
 Equatorial division
Point of reference is nucleus (bola)  2 identical cells
(Bola tas pinapalibutan ng tali) 1. Prophase
 Visibly composed of sister chromatids
Nucleus Organized Region (NOR) 2. Metaphase
 Gene responsible for ribosomal  Chromosome alignment at the equatorial plane
 Permanent
3. Anaphase
 Used as cytological marker
 Sister chromatids separate as they move to the opposite
Types of chromosome based on position of the centromere
 Metacentric (Median)
4. Telophase
 Submetacentric (Submedian)
 Acrocentric (Subterminal)  Chromosome regrouped at the poles after cytokinesis
 Telocentric (Terminal)  2 cells are formed
Genome (X) *S phase yung rason bakit same cells ang nafoform sa mitosis
due to DNA synthesis
 Complete set of chromosome/genes cming from the male
or female parents
Meiosis I 2. Metaphase II
 Reductional division  Same as metaphase of mitosis
1. Prophase 3. Anaphase II
Leptotene = thin thread stage  Separation of sister chromatids
Zygotene = homologous pairing, formation of bivalent (II), 4. Telophase
chiasma holds (II) together
 4 haploid cells are formed
Pachytene = crossing-over stage, lead to genetic combination
Diplotene = separates at the centromere, terminalization at the
Diakinesis = (II) are evenly distributed, it is the best stage to
establish the chromosome number
2. Metaphase I
 Alignment of (II) at the equatorial plane
*in metaphase the chromosomes are unpaired while in
metaphase I the chromosomes are paired
3. Anaphase I
 Separation of (II) into (I) [univalent]
 Reductional division
4. Telophase I
 Chromosomes regroups at the opposite poles
 2 haploid cells are formed
Meiosis II
 Equational Division
1. Prophase II
 Same as prophase of mitosis