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Tami Stockton, task 3

A. Freed people were legally allowed to purchase land but with much difficulty.

Since most blacks could not own land they rented from former slave masters. As

payment, blacks would tend to their crops paying their owners about half of their

revenue. Prior to the end of the war black families were often split up.

Marriages were separated and children were taken from their parents. During

reconstruction, former slaves had the chance to reunite with their loved ones.

For the first-time blacks were able to access education. Children and adults could

attend school for a monthly tuition. Blacks began building their own churches to

worship and practice freedom of religion. (Norton, 2007)

The Freedman’s Bureau ran for four years and was established to aid in suc cessful

reconstruction. They were an agency offering help and resources to refugees of

the war, including former slaves and lower class whites. In their active time the

bureau contributed by building schools, colleges, providing medical services,

supplies, and food. These were services and goods many blacks were

experiencing for the first time. (Norton, 2007)

The 14 th amendment to the constitution guaranteed citizenship to anyone born in

the United States. Former slaves were now considered citizens which was a huge

step towards racial equality. As citizens, everyone was protected from unfair law

enforcement under Due Process. The 14 th amendment expanded on equal rights

and enforced the responsibility of equal protection on state governments.

(Norton, 2007)

B. Industrialization following the civil war changed society particularly in people’s

daily living and economics. Major cities rapidly grew due to job opportunities.

Factories were built and laborers were needed. People left rural areas and

flocked to the bigger cities for an opportunity for a better life. A small

percentage of people found great economic success but most were living in

poverty. Living conditions were crowded and poor. The lower class became

aware and upset with the huge economic divide. They were working many hours

at difficult jobs and were still unable to live moderately. (Norton, 2007)

Politics began to change after industrialization. Political parties were being

questioned as a third party formed by farmers became a possibility. Politicians

made a lot of important decisions based on donations and gave jobs of high

power to the wealthiest. People began to lose faith that politicians would lobby

for the peoples best intrest over their own personal financial gain. (Schmoop,


C. Religion was used to support the agenda of progressive reforms especially

eliminating child labor, setting a minimum wage, and shorter work weeks.

Advocates of the movement suggested that these reforms reflect morality. They

promoted living a moral life, following the word of god, and living in Jesus’ image.
Upton Sinclair, an activist, wrote a fictional story that informed people of real life

conditions in meat packing factories. The information shed light on poor and

dangerous working conditions as well as unsanitary production. Sinclair’s writing

caused president Roosevelt to investigate the factories. After investigating,

Roosevelt enacted the Meat Inspection Act in 1906. This reform included

government inspections of the meat packing industry. Owners supported the stricter

guidelines because it raised their credibility for sales. (Norton, 2007)

The tax reform imposed an income tax on workers making under four thousand per

year. Because of the income qualification, farmers and people struggling to survive

did not owe a tax. The income tax was created to offset money lost from the

Underwood Tarif. (Norton, 2007)

The progressive movement bettered American politics in several different ways.

Primary elections allowed the people to vote for and elect presidential candidates

where recently they were elected from within the government. This reform was

included in the Wisconsin Idea, first implemented via governor Robert LaFollette of

Wisconsin. This political reform set the standard for the rest of the country who

soon followed. (Norton, 2007)

D. Hawaii was annexed in to the United States officially in the 1890s. a very small

percentage of Hawaii’s population was white American’s. The population was mainly

comprised of Asian immigrants. Hawaii was known for its sugar cane production. After

imposed tariffs on imports, Hawaiian farmers lost significant income. To avoid the

foreign tariff, the small American population organized to overthrow the leaders of

Hawaii. QUEEN LILIUOKALANI was overthrown and forced to step down by American

military. President Cleveland intended to reinstate the Queen until he realized how

many American’s wanted Hawaii to be annexed. (Norton, 2007)

America initially remained neutral during World War I. As a country, the United States

did not feel any of their territories were threatened. Despite the US’ claim for

neutrality, Germany recognized the US’ ties to Britain and attacked American ships.

Germany unsuccessfully tried to overthrow the United States by recruiting Mexico

under the promise of regaining territories they had lost to the US. (Norton, 2007)

Shmoop Editorial Team. (2008, November 11). Politics in The Gilded Age. Retrieved June 04,

2017, from

Norton, M. B. (2007). A people and a nation: a history of the United Nations. Boston:

Houghton Mifflin.