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CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY

MOISES PADILLA CAMPUS


MOISES PADILLA, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL

“PUPILS ENGAGEMENT IN MATH SUBJECT USING MOTHER TOUNGE


BASE STRATEGIES IN GRADE 1 PUPILS”

JOCELYN FACTORIN
MELONA ESPANOLA

“SUBMITTED TO THE ADMINISTRATION, FACULTY AND STAFF


OF THE CENTRAL PHILLIPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE”

Bachelor of Elementary Education


(General Education)

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

As a teacher, my goal was to go home at the end of each day with more energy

than I had at the beginning of the day. Seriously. Now, as I travel the country coaching

teachers on how to successfully use project learning, my goal remains the same. And I try

to teach educators the strategies they need to achieve this goal in their own classrooms. A

teacher in one of my workshops said, "When my students and I are in the flow, then I

don't feel like I have to work as hard." I heartily agree. When 90 to 100 percent of my

students are excitedly engaged in their tasks and asking deep and interesting questions, I

experience joy, and joy is a lot less tiring than the frustration that comes with student

apathy. Project-based classrooms with an active-learning environment make such in-the-

flow moments more common. Yet these same classrooms require many teacher and

student skills to work well. As teachers, we can feel overwhelmed when we try

something new and experience chaos instead of flow. The good news is that the strategies

for creating and managing high-quality project-learning environments are productive in

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any classroom, whether project learning is a central part of the curriculum or not. Here

are ten ideas that you can start practicing in your classroom today to help you create more

moments of flow. Students who have been shamed or belittled by the teacher or another

student will not effectively engage in challenging tasks. Consider having a rule such as

"We do not put others downs, tell others to shut up, or laugh at people." Apply it to

yourself as well as your students. This is the foundation of a supportive, collaborative

learning environment. To learn and grow, one must take risks, but most people will not

take risks in an emotionally unsafe environment.

The purpose of this study is to know the pupils engagement in math subject using

mtb strategies.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pupil’s engagement in math subject

using mtb strategies in grade 1 pupils.

Specifically, aimed to answer the following question.

1. What is the profile of the Grade 1 Pupils of Magallon Cadre Elementary School

in terms of:

a. Age;

b. Sex;

2. What is the level of pupils engagement in math subject in Magallon Cadre

Elementary School in terms of:

3. What is the level of academic performance of the respondents?

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4. Is there a significant difference on the level of socio-demographic profile and the

student’s academic performance?

5. Is there a significant relationship on the engagement of pupils on the math subject

using mtb strategies?

Hypotheses

1. There is no significant difference on the level of socio-demographic profile and

the student’s academic performance.

2. There is no significant relationship on the pupil’s engagement in math subject

using mtb strategies?

Theoretical Framework

UNESCO has encouraged mother tongue instruction in primary education since 1953

(UNESCO, 1953) and UNESCO highlights the advantages of mother tongue

education right from the start: children are more likely to enroll and succeed in school

(Kosonen, 2005); parents are more likely to communicate with teachers and participate in

their children’s learning (Benson, 2002); girls and rural children with less exposure to a

dominant language stay in school longer and repeat grades less often (Hovens, 2002;

UNESCO Bangkok, 2005); and children in multilingual education tend to develop better

thinking skills compared to their monolingual peers (e.g., Bialystok, 2001; Cummins,

2000; King & Mackey, 2007).

Some educators argue that only those countries where the student’s first language is the

language of instruction are likely to achieve the goals of Education for All. Research also

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suggests that engaging marginalized children in school through mother-tongue based,

multilingual education (MTB-MLE) is a successful model (Benson & Kosonen, 2013;

Yiakoumetti, 2012). We are beginning to get answers to some key questions: Under what

circumstances and with what resources can education in the mother-tongue combined

with multilingual education be an effective approach whereby children become proficient

in their home language while laying the foundation for learning in additional languages?

What are the costs and benefits of alternative approaches directed at the individual,

family, community, school, region, and nation? What are meaningful yet efficient ways

to measure costs and benefits? What are the implications of MTB-MLE for recruiting,

educating, and mentoring teachers and teacher assistants and for creating and evaluating

curricula in diverse language classrooms? What are the contributions of family and

community in formal and non-formal MTB-MLE, and how can these be measured

Conceptual Framework

The schematic diagram of this study shows the relationship between the

Independent and Dependent Variable. Independent Variable is divided into two parts; the

socio-demographic profile of the teachers at Magallon Cadre Elementary School in terms

of age, sex, length of teaching experience and educational attainment; and the teaching

skills and strategies of the teachers at Magallon Cadre Elementary School in terms of ;

competence, collaboration, communication and leadership. Then the dependent variable

is the teacher’s academic performance

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Independent Variable Dependent Variable

I. Socio-demographic profile

of grade 1 pupil of

Magallon Cadre
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Elementary School.
 Pupil’s engagement in
a. Age
math subject.
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b. Sex

c. Parents highest educational


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II. MTB STRATEGIES


a) Motivation
b) Support at Home
c) Learning environment
d) Teaching strategies

Figure1. A Schematic Diagram showing the relationship between Independent and

Dependent Variable.

Significance of the Study

This study is significant to the following.

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School Administration. Findings of the investigation will provide school administrators

with useful inputs for enhancing teachers’ performance and eventually serve as starting

point for a training program to develop teachers’ Instructional performance.

Teachers. Result of the study will develop awareness among teachers, their strength and

weakness and thus pave the way a self-evaluation of their own performance and

commitment towards their job. This exercise may not only improve their self-

understanding, but may also lead them to better understand of what are expected of them

as teachers. Likewise , this study is also considered important as this may be able to

further lead the way to a more cooperative and harmonious relationship, particularly

among the teachers , their students and other people around them.

Pupils. This study would give proper insights to the teachers so that full preparation may

be given to their pupils for the next level of education thru better performance, thus are

the “ gainers’” of this improved attitude, achievement and better performance of teachers

and school administrators.

Community Findings of this investigation will generally benefit of the community as

teachers are bound to perform much better and will consequently produce better citizens

out of pupils and others whose lives they will touch and influence.

Parents. Exert enormous influence over their children's development. They are, however,

not the only influences, especially after children enter school. It is especially important

that parents give children a good start, but it's also important for parents to recognize that

kids come into the world with their own temperaments, and it is the parents' job to

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provide an interface with the world that eventually prepares a child for complete

independence.

The Researcher: is someone who conducts research, an organized and systematic

investigation into something. Scientists are often described as researchers.

The Future Researcher: can be defined as a systematic study of possible future events

and circumstances.

Definition of Terms

The following terms used in this study are hereby defined conceptually and

operationally.

Age- conceptually, this terms refers to the life time of the person and the amount of time

during the person has lived.

Operationally, this term refer to the life span of the respondents.

Sex- conceptually, this term refers to the anatomical and physiological distinction

between male and female.

Operationally, this term refers to all the CPSU-MP students that are grouped into

male and female

Civil Status- conceptually, this term refers to one of the discrete options describing a

person’s relationship with a significant other, such as single, married, divorced, widowed,

civil union and domestic partnership.

Operationally, this term correspond to the family situation.

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Parent’s Highest Educational Attainment: conceptually, this term refers to the

highest level of education completed (defined here as a high school diploma or

equivalency certificate, an associate's degree, a bachelor's degree, or a master's or higher

degree).

Operationally, this term refers to highest degree of education an individual has

completed

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Chapter II

REVIEW OF REATED LITERATURE

In education, student engagement refers to the degree of attention, curiosity,

interest, optimism, and passion that students show when they are learning or being taught,

which extends to the level of motivation they have to learn and progress in their

education. Generally speaking, the concept of “student engagement” is predicated on the

belief that learning improves when students are inquisitive, interested, or inspired, and

that learning tends to suffer when students are bored, dispassionate, disaffected, or

otherwise “disengaged.” Stronger student engagement or improved student

engagement are common instructional objectives expressed by educators.

In many contexts, however, student engagement may also refer to the ways in which

school leaders, educators, and other adults might “engage” students more fully in the

governance and decision-making processes in school, in the design of programs and

learning opportunities, or in the civic life of their community. For example, many schools

survey students to determine their views on any number of issues, and then use the survey

findings to modify policies or programs in ways that honour or respond to student

perspectives and concerns. Students may also create their own questions, survey their

peers, and then present the results to school leaders or the school board to advocate for

changes in programs or policies. Some schools have created alternative forms of student

governance, “student advisory committees,” student appointments to the school board,

and other formal and informal ways for students to contribute to the governance of a

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school or advice superintendents, principals, and local policy makers. These broader

forms of “student engagement” can take a wide variety of forms—far too many to

extensively catalog here. Yet a few illustrative examples include school-

supported volunteer programs and community-service requirements (engaging students in

public service and learning through public service), student organizing (engaging

students in advocacy, community organizing, and constructive protest), and any number

of potential student-led groups, forums, presentations, and events (engaging students in

community leadership, public speaking, and other activities that contribute to “positive

youth development“). For a related discussion, see student voice.

In education, the term student engagement has grown in popularity in recent decades,

most likely resulting from an increased understanding of the role that certain intellectual,

emotional, behavioral, physical, and social factors play in the learning process and social

development. For example, a wide variety of research studies on learning have revealed

connections between so-called “non-cognitive factors” or “non-cognitive skills” (e.g.,

motivation, interest, curiosity, responsibility, determination, perseverance, attitude, work

habits, self-regulation, social skills, etc.) and “cognitive” learning results (e.g., improved

academic performance, test scores, information recall, skill acquisition, etc.). The concept

of student engagement typically arises when educators discuss or prioritize educational

strategies and teaching techniques that address the developmental, intellectual, emotional,

behavioral, physical, and social factors that either enhance or undermine learning for

students.

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It should be noted that educators may hold different views on student engagement, and it

may be defined or interpreted differently from place to place. For example, in one school

observable behaviors such as attending class, listening attentively, participating in

discussions, turning in work on time, and following rules and directions may be

perceived as forms of “engagement,” while in another school the concept of

“engagement” may be largely understood in terms of internal states such as enthusiasm,

curiosity, optimism, motivation, or interest.

While the concept of student engagement seems straightforward, it can take fairly

complex forms in practice. The following examples illustrate a few ways in which

student engagement may be discussed or addressed in schools:

 Intellectual engagement: To increase student engagement in a course or subject,

teachers may create lessons, assignments, or projects that appeal to student interests

or that stimulate their curiosity. For example, teachers may give students more

choice over the topics they are asked to write about (so students can choose a topic

that specifically interests them) or they may let students choose the way they will

investigate a topic or demonstrate what they have learned (some students may

choose to write a paper, others may produce short video or audio documentary, and

still others may create a multimedia presentation). Teachers may also introduce a

unit of study with a problem or question that students need to solve. For example,

students might be asked to investigate the causes of a local environmental problem,

determine the species of an unknown animal from a few short descriptions of its

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physical characteristics and behaviors, or build a robot that can accomplish a specific

task. In these cases, sparking student curiosity can increase “engagement” in the

learning process. For related discussions, see authentic learning, community-

based learning, differentiation, personalized learning, project-based learning,

and relevance.

 Emotional engagement: Educators may use a wide variety of strategies to promote

positive emotions in students that will facilitate the learning process, minimize

negative behaviors, or keep students from dropping out. For example, classrooms

and other learning environments may be redesigned to make them more conducive

to learning, teachers may make a point of monitoring student moods and asking them

how they are feeling, or school programs may provide counseling, peer mentoring,

or other services that generally seek to give students the support they need to

succeed academically and feel positive, optimistic, or excited about school and

learning. Strategies such as advisories, for example, are intended to build stronger

relationships between students and adults in a school. The basic theory is that

students will be more likely to succeed if at least one adult in the school is meeting

with a student regularly, inquiring about academic and non-academic issues, giving

her advice, and taking an interest in her out-of-school life, personal passions, future

aspirations, and distinct learning challenges and needs.

 Behavioral engagement: Teachers may establish classroom routines, use consistent

cues, or assign students roles that foster behaviors more conducive to learning. For

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example, elementary school teachers may use cues or gestures that help young

students refocus on a lesson if they get distracted or boisterous. The teacher may

clap three times or raise a hand, for example, which signals to students that it’s time

to stop talking, return to their seats, or begin a new activity. Teachers may also

establish consistent routines that help students stay on task or remain engaged during

a class. For example, the class may regularly break up into small groups or move

their seats into a circle for a group discussion, or the teacher may ask students on a

rotating basis to lead certain activities. By introducing variation into a classroom

routine, teachers can reduce the monotony and potential disengagement that may

occur when students sit in the same seat, doing similar tasks, for extended periods of

time. Research on brain-based learning has also provided evidence that variation,

novelty, and physical activity can stimulate and improve learning. For a related

discussion, see classroom management.

 Physical engagement: Teachers may use physical activities or routines to stimulate

learning or interest. For example, “kinesthetic learning” refers to the use of physical

motions and activities during the learning process. Instead of asking students to

answer questions aloud, a teacher might ask students to walk up to the chalkboard

and answer the question verbally while also writing the answer on the board (in this

case, the theory is that students are more likely to remember information when they

are using multiple parts of the brain at the same time—i.e., the various parts

dedicated to speaking, writing, physical activity, etc.). Teachers may also introduce

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short periods of physical activity or quick exercises, particularly during the

elementary years, to reduce antsy, fidgety, or distracted behaviors. In addition, more

schools throughout the United States are addressing the physical needs of students

by, for example, offering all students free breakfasts (because disengagement in

learning and poor academic performance have been linked to hunger and

malnutrition) or starting school later at a later time (because adolescent sleep

patterns and needs differ from those of adults, and adolescents may be better able to

learn later in the morning).

 Social engagement: Teachers may use a variety of strategies to stimulate

engagement through social interactions. For example, students may be paired or

grouped to work collaboratively on projects, or teachers may create academic

contests that students compete in—e.g., a friendly competition in which teams of

students build robots to complete a specific task in the shortest amount of time.

Academic and co-curricular activities such as debate teams, robotics clubs, and

science fairs also bring together learning experiences and social interactions. In

addition, strategies such as demonstrations of learning or capstone projects may

require students to give public presentations of their work, often to panels of experts

from the local community, while strategies such as community-based learning or

service learning (learning through volunteerism) can introduce civic and social

issues into the learning process. In these cases, learning about societal problems, or

participating actively in social causes, can improve engagement.

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 Cultural engagement: Schools may take active steps to make students from diverse

cultural backgrounds—particularly recently arrived immigrant or refugee students

and their families—feel welcomed, accepted, safe, and valued. For example,

administrators, teachers, and school staff may provide special orientation sessions

for their new-American populations or offer translation services and informational

materials translated into multiple languages. Students, families, and local cultural

leaders from diverse backgrounds may be asked to speak about their experiences to

students and school staff, and teachers may intentionally modify lessons to

incorporate the history, literature, arts, and perspectives of the student ethnicities and

nationalities represented in their classes. School activities may also incorporate

multicultural songs, dances, and performances, while posters, flags, and other

educational materials featured throughout the school may reflect the cultural

diversity of the students and school community. The general goal of such strategies

would be to reduce the feelings of confusion, alienation, disconnection, or exclusion

that some students and families may experience, and thereby increase their

engagement in academics and school activities. For related discussions, see dual-

language education, English-language learner, multicultural education,

and voice.

Creating a continuous learning environment

Advances in technology, shifts in demographics, and the constant competitive necessity

to upgrade workforce skills are disrupting corporate learning, including learning in

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finance. These forces are pushing companies to develop new ways to put employees in

charge of the learning experience and foster a culture of learning throughout the

organization.

In fact, according to Deloitte’s Global Human Capital Trends 2016 report, there has been

a shift beyond internal programs aimed at developing people to innovative platforms that

enable people to develop themselves. Consider that:

 More than eight in 10 executives (84 percent) in the 2016 survey view learning as an

important (40 percent) or very important (44 percent) issue.

 Employees at all levels expect dynamic, self-directed, and continuous learning

opportunities from their employers.

 Despite the strong shift toward employee-centric learning, many learning and

development organizations are still struggling with internally focused and outdated

platforms and static learning approaches.

Learning continues to be important to business executives worldwide, including CFOs, as

they strive to adapt to the disruptive change that is sweeping through corporate learning

and development organizations. And in this issue of CFO Insights, we will look at what

is behind the push for continuous learning and offer suggestions for how finance chiefs

can work with HR to advocate for its delivery.

Drivers of change

Several factors are driving the demand for change that has accelerated to warp

speed over the past year.

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First, most respondents in the global survey report that their companies are not

developing skills fast enough or leaders deeply enough.1 In today’s highly competitive

global economy and intensely competitive talent market, the C-suite clearly understands

that companies that do not constantly upgrade skills and rapidly build leaders will not be

able to execute their business plans.

Second, the ubiquity of always-connected mobile devices makes learning

potentially available everywhere and to everyone at any time. Employees can now take a

course on nearly any subject online, search for an expert video or podcast to learn a

quickly needed skill, and even earn a college degree without leaving their desk—or a

couch or coffee shop. This new world of consumer-centric learning puts employees, not

L&D departments, in charge.

Third, employees at all levels now recognize that “the learning curve is the

earning curve,”2 and they are demanding access to dynamic learning opportunities that fit

their individual needs and schedules.3 Millennials and other young employees have

grown up in this self-directed learning environment. They expect it as part of their

working lives and careers—and they will move elsewhere if employers fail to provide it.

New insights on teaching strategies

Education’s purpose is to prepare children for a fast-moving, ever-changing

world. Teaching faces the additional challenge of classrooms becoming increasingly

more culturally diverse. Now, more than ever, this requires an adaptation of current

teaching strategies. The recent OECD working paper teaching strategies for instructional

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quality: Insights from the TALIS-PISA Link data seeks to be a contribution to this

debate, by providing information about the teachings strategies used by mathematics

teachers in eight countries.

What are the most common used strategies used by teachers?

The analysis of the data showed that teaching practices can be classified in three

groups:

Active learning strategies, which consist of promoting the engagement of students in

their own learning. They typically include practices such as group work, use of

information and communication technology, or student self-assessment.

 Cognitive activation, which consists of practices capable of challenging students

in order to motivate them and stimulate higher-order skills, such as critical

thinking, problem solving and decision making.

 Teacher-directed instruction, which encompasses practices based on lecturing

and rely to a great extent on a teacher’s ability to deliver orderly and clear lessons.

It would be inappropriate, however, to favour one form of strategy over another,

since all of them contribute towards student learning – depending on the student’s

skills and the context. For example, data has shown that students exposed to

teacher-directed strategies are slightly more likely to respond to the less complex

items in the PISA mathematics evaluation, while cognitive activation strategies

seem to be moderately related to solving more complex maths items. However,

these associations appear to be tenuous and further explorations on the association

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of these strategies with student learning are needed. The results of the report

showed that teacher-directed practices and cognitive activation practices are the

strategies more often reported. Three out of four teachers reported presenting “a

summary of recently learned content” (teacher-directed practice) or that they “go

over homework problems that students were not able to solve” (cognitive

activation practices). However, only around one-third of teachers reported

engaging frequently in active learning strategies. Indeed, the frequency in which

active learning practices are used seems to be particularly low for mathematics

teachers. The lack of engagement in these strategies may indicate that the

necessary support and policies that would allow teachers to develop these

strategies are not in place.

What are the policies and the support that could foster the use of active

learning strategies?

The working paper evaluated the association of active learning with a myriad of

factors located at the school, the classroom and the teacher levels. One of the most

interesting results is that in all the eight participating countries, teacher self-

efficacy showed as being positively associated with the implementation of active

learning practices: the more the teacher feels confident in his or her ability to

provide quality instruction, the more likely he or she will be to engage in active

learning strategies. Indeed, teachers must feel confident in their abilities in order

to implement relevant teaching strategies.Also, when teachers dialogue, support

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and exchange materials with their colleagues, they are more likely to engage in

active learning practices. Teachers should not work as isolated agents, but rather

to engage in professional networks and in collaboration with colleagues.

What education policies can best support teachers’ self-efficacy?

Results from TALIS 2013 have shown that the level of self-efficacy among

teachers in a country is highly correlated with teachers’ participation rates in

professional development. The more teachers participate in training activities, the

more confident they feel about their ability to teach, and the more they use active

learning strategies. If professional development is not available at the school,

school leaders could try to foster other types of initiatives, such as mentoring

programmes.

What can schools do to promote collaboration among their teachers?

School leaders can provide opportunities for fostering relationships among their

staff in school by giving them a physical space where teachers can meet, or

allowing time away from administrative work for teachers to meet and develop a

relationship with their colleagues. Teachers everywhere are committed to helping

their students achieve the best they are capable of. The OECD, through the study

of the TALIS-PISA Link data, seeks to provide guidelines on how to support

them. The study findings can inspire teachers and school leaders to co-operate

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using a wider palette of techniques to meet the needs of students with varying

abilities, motivation and interests. The insights provided here can also inspire

education policy makers to design teaching policies that could foster the

implementation of innovative teaching strategies.

How can parents and teacher’s best educate young children?

What principles can both teachers and parents bring to the education of very young

children? Gillian Craig, who was part of the Learning Time with Shaun and

Timmy writing team, explains.

As teachers and parents, we follow certain principles in our roles. Often though, these

principles overlap and all we need to do is recognise and reinforce these areas.

Ask (the right) questions

When my daughter came out of her class one day shortly after her course started, I asked

her, 'What did you do in class today?'. She replied, 'I sneezed'. I realised that if I were to

get any useful information about what she had done in class, I was going to have to

change my line of questioning. Although my daughter is only two years old, (and more

experienced parents than me would not have asked such a broad question to start with),

questioning our children at any age about what they have done in class is a natural thing

to do. We want to know that they are happy and settled, and that they are learning. Doing

this immediately after class is a good strategy, when things are still fresh and you are still

in the school environment. Similarly, a child’s artwork can provide a prompt for asking

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questions: 'What (or who) is it?'; 'What colours did you use?'; 'Can you show me how you

did it?'; 'Did you like making it?'; 'What other things did you like today?'; 'Who did you

play with?'; and so on. Teachers also want their students to reflect on their lessons, but

with young children especially, this is a learned skill. Setting aside a few minutes at the

end of a lesson to ask children what they liked best, or what helped them, is always a

good idea. It is most beneficial when followed up with 'Why?'. For very young children,

providing them with pictorial prompts that illustrate feelings – fun, exciting, interesting,

easy, hard and boring, etc. – can often help elicit responses. Using crafts or activity books

to prompt reactions is also useful. Reflection will later build into self-reflection if the

habit is re-enforced, enabling children to recognise the value in the activities we set them.

Reinforce desirable behaviour

Early-years lessons should contain themes and values that are broadly desirable as

opposed to culturally specific. They should include sharing, helping friends, saying sorry

and forgiving each other, making amends, accepting each other, team work, taking turns

and being polite.In the classroom, activities can easily be developed to include turn-

taking and sharing, and encourage polite and co-operative behaviour, but the teacher

needs to provide support and encouragement. For parents, letting children talk politely

with shop assistants and people in lifts and restaurants is a positive way to keep the

context real for them. Also, encouraging positive behaviour when playing with friends or

asking for something supports the process enormously. Children don’t learn

these behaviours automatically, yet they are an essential part of being a well-

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CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
MOISES PADILLA CAMPUS
MOISES PADILLA, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL

rounded adult. Starting early and reinforcing this behaviour in and out of the classroom

will yield positive benefits in the future.

Avoid grading

This is an aspect of early-years education, which can be difficult for parents from

a variety of educational contexts to come to terms with. In many countries, children are

graded and measured against their peers just to get into a kindergarten. Yet we would

never dream of grading our children at home.

Every child has a range of strengths, but these will not be apparent all at once. The

absence of grading means that children can develop their skills and try new ones in a

relaxed and natural environment. It also means that teachers can spend more quality time

helping children develop those skills without feeling pressure to assign a grade to them.

When planning lessons, we need to take all our learners and their varied needs

into account. Children will find that movement, reading, writing, visual, and audio input

all help them learn. Children use a combination of these, and the way they use them is not

set in stone. As children acquire new skills, they develop new ways of solving problems

and getting the most out of activities. Similarly, at home, providing a range of materials

and toys for children lets them experiment with different ways of learning. Of paramount

importance is the issue of confidence. If young children can use English in a fun, creative

and inclusive way, the hope is that this will support happy, secure learners who, in future,

won’t see English as a hurdle to overcome, or just another school subject they have to

study.

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CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
MOISES PADILLA CAMPUS
MOISES PADILLA, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL

Praise strengths, but also effort

Giving praise can be tricky. Both parents and teachers naturally want to

encourage children and instil a positive sense of achievement, but this often takes the

form of quite generic compliments, such as 'well done', or 'good work'. In a classroom, it

also tends to be reserved for academic progress. While praise in itself is heartening, it can

be much more effective when targeting specifics.

One way to do this is by commenting on the actual thing a child did well, such as sharing,

following instructions, helping a friend, giving a correct answer, or singing well.

This shows that a teacher or a parent appreciates that particular aspect, and in doing so

reinforces it as desirable and provides an example to others.Another aspect of praise,

which is often overlooked, is effort. For young children, this is at least as important as the

result. Praising the effort they have made shows that we support them through the full

process, and notice their small triumphs. It’s important to note that adults don’t do things

equally well either, but the effort is still appreciated.

Develop the parent-teacher relationship

There are many ways in which the parent-teacher relationship can be mutually beneficial.

Parents and teachers can both share valuable insights into a child’s personality. Teachers

can pass on information about how the child copes with a classroom environment, and

additional strengths and skills which they have uncovered through various activities.

Teachers can keep parents informed about the syllabus, including themes, which can be

easy to reinforce at home. Parents can easily present the theme of helping friends, for

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CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
MOISES PADILLA CAMPUS
MOISES PADILLA, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL

example, by introducing a book, cartoon or song on the topic, role-playing with toys, or

setting up a play date with another child. It's most effective when teachers and parents

speak to each other face-to-face, but occasionally emailing parents with brief feedback

can help maintain the relationship, and encourage a more meaningful exchange of views.

Keeping the lines of communication open for queries or information from parents helps

make the relationship more equitable, so that the information isn't going one way, as

often happens. Finally, one of the most important ways to develop and maintain a good

parent-teacher relationship is simply by showing appreciation for each other. If a child

sees a parent and teacher thanking each other, the co-operative aspect is reinforced. It’s

also valuable to have your child thank the teacher, and for a teacher to thank the children

for coming.

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CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
MOISES PADILLA CAMPUS
MOISES PADILLA, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the research design, respondents of the study, sampling

procedure, data gathering instruments, validity and reliability of the instruments, data

gathering procedure and data analysis.

RESEARCH DESIGN

A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and

analysing measures of the variable specified in the research problem. This study the

researcher will use modified survey questionnaire.

LOCALE OF THE STUDY

This study will be conducted at Magallon Cadre Elementary School situated at

Barangay Magallon Cadre Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental.

RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY

The study will utilize 70 respondents taken from Magallon Cadre Elementary

School. They are taken as a whole.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

No sampling technique because they are taken as a whole.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

The researcher will utilize a modified survey questionnaire based on the study of

Panther. Each question have 5 alternative options or responses to choose from according

to the level which the teacher perceived their teaching skills and strategies. The assigned

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CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
MOISES PADILLA CAMPUS
MOISES PADILLA, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL

weighs on each option is interpreted in such a way that the higher score would indicate

high level of teaching skills and strategies. The weighs and interpretation assigned on

each response were as follows:

VALIDITY AND RELIABLITY OF THE INSTRUMENTS

In Validity the researcher will used a self-made questionnaire which is subject for

validation of 3 jurors utilizing Good and Scates Validity.

In Reliability the researcher will used Crombach Alpha to establish the reliability.

DATA PROCEDURE

As the validity of the research instrument was establish, the researcher will

produce enough copies of the survey questionnaire. Then a letter of permission will be

send School Divisions Superintendent asking permission to the conduct study. When a

letter is approved, the researcher will send a letter to conduct to the school principals of

the schools

Upon the approval of the school principal, the conduct of the study will be started.

The researcher will go to the respective classroom of the respondents and conduct their

survey questionnaire. After gathering the data, the researcher will hand in the data to the

statistician in order for the data gathered to be tally tabulate, and use appropriate

statistician tool. Then, the researcher will interpret the results in a tabular manner.

DATA ANALYSIS

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CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
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MOISES PADILLA, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL

For statement No.1: To determine the profile of the grade 1 pupil of Magallon

Cadre Elementary School in terms of: age, sex, civil status and highest educational

attainment: the frequency and percentage distribution will be used.

For statement no.2: To determine the engagement of grade 1 pupils in math

subject in terms of: Mean and standard deviation will be used.

For statement no.3: To determine the academic performance of grade 1 pupil in

Magallon Cadre Elementary School; Mean and standard deviation will be used.

For statement no.4: To determine the significant difference of the socio-

demographic profile of grade 1 pupils; the Analysis of Variance will be used.

For statement no.5: To determine the significant relationship of pupils

engagement in math subject using mtb strategies in grade 1 pupils; Pearson’s R

correlation will be used.

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