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1. US policies since 1979 have served to strengthen the very terrorism it claims to oppose.

the ways that the US

has contributed to the spread of terrorism, either openly or clandestinely. through its material support of terrorist
groups, and second, by the example set in using extreme violence to achieve ends. the ways in which the US-
trained terrorists have played a significant role in Russia's conflict with Chechnya. the Russian Federation's war
in Chechnya served to undermine efforts at democratization.
2. democracy cannot be instituted during war or under wartime conditions. many civil liberties were suspended.
In the 1980s, the Soviet war in Afghanistan served to counteract the push toward democratization, since this
war was used as an excuse for state control of speech and press freedoms. Currently, the same excuse is
3. American gangsterism: it also provided terrorists with the moral justification for their acts. For example, neither
Iraq nor Libya ever attacked the United States, yet the U.S. government believes it was justified in attacking
those two countries. So too with the missile attacks on Sudan and Afghanistan in 1998. While neither
Afghanistan nor Sudan attacked the United States, President Clinton argued that the United States had the right
to launch missile attacks against them. As former Pakistani interior minister Naseer Ullah Babar described the
missile attacks, the United States is applying the system of collective punishment
4. US never learns its lessons. The actions of the Carter administration and Secretary Brzezinski can only be seen
as an act of ruthless cynicism. Between 1982 and 1992, some 35,000 Muslim radicals from 43 Islamic countries
in the Middle East, North and East Africa, Central Asia and the Far East would pass their baptism under fire
with the Afghan mujahideen. Tens of thousands more foreign Muslim radicals came to study in the hundreds of
new madrassas [religious schools] that Zia's military government began to fund in Pakistan and along the
Afghan border.
5. In the 1980s the Reagan administration believed that supporting Moslem fundamentalists was the best way to
fight communism and socialism in predominately Moslem countries. Moslem fundamentalists fanatics
supported by saudi arabia were vehemently anticommunist and antisocialist.
6. With the withdrawal of the Soviets from Afghanistan, many jihad soldiers returned to their home countries to
pick up the fight they left in Afghanistan. In Algeria, for instance, the Islamic Salvation Front has engaged in a
bloody civil war with the government, and many of its key members are veterans of the Afghan war.
7. bin Laden had enough cash to run his own operation. This fit well with the U.S. government's own belief that
wealthy individuals, not the state, should step forward and, in an act of charity and volunteerism, provide the
necessary funds and support for a worthy cause. Bin Laden's actions in Afghanistan fit well within the U.S.
government's concept of a "worthy cause," and so he was allowed to work to train and to recruit his following.
8. Since the CIA conducted its operations in Afghanistan through the Pakistani government and secret police. The
U.S. government has denied any contact or support for Osama bin Laden, for example, and since no direct
evidence has surfaced
9. the "Afghan trap
11. the largest, longest, and costliest military operation in Soviet history
12. Tribal law and traditions held sway, making it impossible for Afghanistan to function as a modern nation state.
There was neither a proletariat, nor a feudal system in the usual sense.
13. To what degree are covert actions, particularly covert wars, compatible with democracy? How often do wars
really solve political problems?
14. in an effort to identify patterns that could help future policymakers
15. Reagan Buildup at CIA Spawned Current Woes; Security Failures Followed Cold War Successes
16. Under President Ronald Reagan's activist CIA director, William J. Casey, the agency nearly doubled in size in
the early 1980s. It enjoyed dramatic victories - in supporting anti-Soviet Afghanistan rebels and in penetrating
the Moscow hierarchy - that undoubtedly contributed to Communism's collapse. But the CIA, protected from
Congress and the public by a wall of secrecy, never came to grips with problems of excessive bureaucracy, lack
of accountability and an arrogance bred of its own success :the idea of {doing} what{ever} could be done
papered over the problems with propaganda and money.
decades the United States (U. S.) has used conventional military power to influence or overthrow adversarial
governments in Panama, Serbia, Iraq, and Afghanistan; yet, when Russia invaded Georgia in 2008, the U. S.
and Europe offered only rhetorical support.
18. Containment AND DETENTE policy : US wanted to exhaust the Soviet Union economically; to wreck its plans of
improving the standard of living, thus arousing dissatisfaction with their leadership." That is what the Reagan
administration intended. That is what happened.
19. Casey was not an ordinary director of the CIA. He was in the Cabinet, on every foreign policy decision-making
body, and on the five-member National Security Planning Group (NSPG). He had an office in the extended
White House, met with the President twice a week, often alone, and was guaranteed open access to him
20. Reagan Doctrine's reliance on proxies. By establishing that American plans for a military presence predated
the Iranian Revolution and Soviet invasion, and that they were aimed more at containing local states than the
Soviet Union