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Hazel A.

Ayala
BS Bio 1-C

THE RULES OF INFERENCE

Modus Ponens
If you are a Biologist then you study intimate details about living organism.
You are a Biologist.
Therefore, you study intimate details about living organism.

Modus Tollens
If a single variable is being measured against a control then it is a good science
experiment.
It is not a good science experiment.
Therefore, a single variable is not being measured against a control.

Hypothetical Syllogism
If Human Genome Project is completed then a specific gene variation could be
pinpointed.
If a specific gene variation could be pinpointed then possible treatments for chronic
illnesses could be given.
Therefore, If Human Genome Project is completed then possible treatments for chronic
illnesses could be given.

Disjunctive Syllogism
A specialized stem has underground modification or an aerial modification.
A specialized stem do not have underground modifications.
Therefore, it has an aerial modification.

Addition
Cells come from pre-existing cells.
Therefore, either cells come from pre-existing cells or did arise spontaneously.
Simplification
Members of animal kingdom are eukaryotic and they are heterotrophic.
Therefore, members of animal kingdom are eukaryotic.

Conjunction
Adenosine triphosphate is the currency of biological energy.
It is a high energy molecule.
Therefore, adenosine triphosphate is the currency of biological energy and it is a high
energy molecule.

Resolution
The simple columnar epithelium are ciliated or functions in the absorption.
The simple columnar epithelium are not ciliated or single layer of tall cells.
Therefore, the simple columnar epithelium are functions in the absorption or single layer
of tall cells.
Hazel A. Ayala
BS Bio 1-C

THE RULES OF INFERENCE

Modus Ponens
If you are a Biologist then you study intimate details about living organism.
You are a Biologist.
Therefore, you study intimate details about living organism.

Modus Tollens
If a single variable is being measured against a control then it is a good science
experiment.
It is not a good science experiment.
Therefore, a single variable is not being measured against a control.

Hypothetical Syllogism
If Human Genome Project is completed then a specific gene variation could be
pinpointed.
If a specific gene variation could be pinpointed then possible treatments for chronic
illnesses could be given.
Therefore, If Human Genome Project is completed then possible treatments for chronic
illnesses could be given.

Disjunctive Syllogism
A specialized stem has underground modification or an aerial modification.
A specialized stem do not have underground modifications.
Therefore, it has an aerial modification.

Addition
Cells come from pre-existing cells.
Therefore, either cells come from pre-existing cells or did arise spontaneously.
Simplification
Members of animal kingdom are eukaryotic and they are heterotrophic.
Therefore, members of animal kingdom are eukaryotic.

Conjunction
Adenosine triphosphate is the currency of biological energy.
It is a high energy molecule.
Therefore, adenosine triphosphate is the currency of biological energy and it is a high
energy molecule.

Resolution
The simple columnar epithelium are ciliated or functions in the absorption.
The simple columnar epithelium are not ciliated or single layer of tall cells.
Therefore, the simple columnar epithelium are functions in the absorption or single layer
of tall cells.