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Sofia University ‘St Kliment Ohridski’
Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics
Plamena Petrova Nedelcheva
Information Systems FN: 71037
........................................................ visually-impaired............... 3 Internet – an important part of the modern world ..... 15 Glossary............ 5 Deaf............................. 16 References ............................................................................................5 Mobility-impaired .................................................. 12 Web Accessibility is not only about the disabled people....... 14 Conclusion.......5 Blind............. 4 Types of disabilities that concern web design............................................ 18 2 ...............................7 W3C Proposed Recommendation.........................................................Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva Table of Contents Introduction............................7 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2............................. hard-of-hearing................................ hearing-impaired ................................ 7 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1................................................8 The European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO) ...........0 ....................................................0.................................................................... low-vision ................................6 Learning-disabled ............
Disability may involve physical impairment. We use it to read news. sounds. entertain ourselves. There are organizations that put together recommendations for web accessibility. find information. videos. 3 . flash all make Internet as appealing as it is. Colors. This is the group of the people with disabilities. or various types of chronic disease. cognitive or intellectual impairment.Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva Introduction Today Internet plays a great role in our everyday life. etc. sensory impairment. Those include The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) that is part of The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and The European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO). buy products. Usually there is one group of people that is not taken in consideration by designers when creating websites. stay in touch with friends. images. mental disorder (also known as psychiatric or psychosocial disability). send mail. Web pages and web content is designed to grab out attention and keep us interested. Web designers work to make our experience better and web developers try to make the web as interactive as possible.
Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva Internet – an important part of the modern world Today most people have Internet access – at home.361. And the Internet users in Bulgaria are 4. which is 55.327.463. limited movement.9%. which is 21. 1 See Wikipedia’s list of Internet users by countries (2008) 2 See Wikipedia‐ Disability 4 . learning disabilities.000. deafness and hearing loss. Those disabilities make it harder for people to take full advantage of the Internet but by adding in a few simple accessibility features web designers can make it easier for those people to use the web content. photosensitivity and combinations of these2. cognitive limitations. school.1 The Internet users in the European Union are 293. which is 59.9% of the world’s population.632. the number of Internet users in the world is 1.1% of the population. libraries. What is the number of Internet users that are people with disabilities? Indeed they are a small part of the Internet users but they deserve a better and easier access to web content.000. including blindness and low vision. work. In 2008. speech difficulties.070. It is the job of web designers to make websites accessible to a wider range of people with disabilities. and Internet cafes.
or hearing-impaired hearing either now have or used to have some actual hearing. then a written transcripts should be provided at the very least. Deaf people tend to have the least hearing. they are the most apt to use whatever sign language or language is native to their region. Most deaf. Blind. hard-of-hearing. hard-of-hearing. But someone with a lower degree of impairment may be more accurately called hard-of-hearing.Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva Types of disabilities that concern web design Deaf. Hard-of-hearing4 people tend to have a greater degree of usable hearing than deaf people. a latedeafened person lost his or her hearing in adulthood or at least after completely learning a spoken language. hearing-impaired Everyone with significantly impaired hearing is deaf3 in a generic sense. low-vision Everyone with significantly impaired vision is blind in a generic sense. If it’s a key function of a website for people to be able to hear a message. Deaf users are able to access the Internet in much the same way as nondeaf people with one key exception — audio content. visually-impaired. Hearing-impaired is a more medical-sounding term. 3 See Deaf 4 See Joe Clark (2007) 5 . In addition. But someone with a lower degree of impairment may be more accurately called visually-impaired.
which reads the content of the web page. Opera. Those users usually browse the contents of a web site via a keyboard only so it is essential that the design is easy to navigate only with the Tab. But for IE/Windows users to be able to resize text. Mozilla/Netscape/Firefox. Where Web design is concerned. This software. Mobility-impaired People with mobility impairments have difficulty moving one or more parts of the body. etc.Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva Not many people with any kind of visual impairment read Braille – estimates run as low as 10%. you must specify the font size in terms of %. users with partial or poor sight need to be able to enlarge the text on web pages. sifts through the HTML markup and the technology deciphers what needs to be read aloud and what should be ignored. and the Return keys. which sits between the user and the browser. there are not that many very young blind or visually-impaired people. and all other browsers but one provide text resizing widgets that work no matter what method a designer has been used to specify type size. a mobility impairment that affects use of a computer or device (chiefly a disability involving the hands and/or arms) is really the only relevant disability. Konqueror. or rather the HTML. To take full advantage of the Internet. 6 . back to them. em or a relative value (small. Web users who have no sight at all may utilize a screen reader. Users with poor vision may also use a screen magnifier. IE5 Macintosh Edition. Visual impairment is largely a condition of age. ShiftTab. medium.) or use a basic or advanced style sheet switcher to provide this functionality. Safari.
It consists of 14 guidelines that are intended to make Web content accessible to people with disabilities. where cognitive refers to the functions of the brain (“the mental process of knowing.0 The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1. Products of their work are the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1. reasoning. but there are many others. including aspects such as awareness. processing. and judgment”). The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)5 is a working group part of the W3C responsible for issuing Web Accessibility guidelines.0 and 2. perception.0 (1999) 7 . You may also run across the term cognitive disabilities.06 was issued on 5 may 1999. 5 See WAI 6 See W3C’s WCAG 1. W3C Proposed Recommendations The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the regulating organization that issues guidelines and recommendations about web standards. Dyslexia is the most famous learning disability (it causes confusion in reading and a few other tasks). understanding.Web Accessibility Learning-disabled Plamena Nedelcheva Learning disabilities affect the perception. and reception of information and other stimuli.0 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.
Use markup and style sheets and do so properly. Provide context and orientation information. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 (2008) 8 .Web Accessibility WCAG 1. operable. It consists of 4 main principles that provide the foundation for Web accessibility: perceivable. 7 See W3C’s WCAG 2. Use interim solutions. understandable. Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes. Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces. and robust. Provide clear navigation mechanisms.0 Guidelines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Plamena Nedelcheva Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content. Clarify natural language usage Create tables that transform gracefully. Don't rely on color alone.07 was published on 3 November 2008. Design for device-independence. Use W3C technologies and guidelines.0 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2. Ensure that documents are clear and simple. Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully.
the working group has also documented a wide variety of techniques.1 Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need. an ‘alt’ attribute should be used in the ‘img’ tag for labeling images so that a blind person could use a text-to-speech program (img src=”… “ alt =”…. Some advisory techniques address accessibility barriers that are not covered by the testable success criteria. For each of the guidelines and success criteria in the WCAG 2.0 document itself. symbols or simpler language. purchasing.”) Guideline 1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout ) without losing information or structure People that are visually-impaired or with low sight may choose to ignore images or styles on the web page so it should be created in such a way so that no information is lost because of that. 9 . testable success criteria are provided to allow WCAG 2. For example. and contractual agreements. For each guideline.Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva The 12 guidelines provide the basic goals that authors should work toward in order to make content more accessible to users with different disabilities." The advisory techniques go beyond what is required by the individual success criteria and allow authors to better address the guidelines.0 to be used where requirements and conformance testing are necessary such as in design specification. Braille. regulation. Principle 1: Perceivable . such as large print.Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive Guideline 1.2 Time-based Media: Provide alternatives for time-based media Guideline 1. speech. The techniques are informative and fall into two categories: those that are sufficient for meeting the success criteria and those that are "advisory.
User interface components and navigation must be operable Guideline 2.1 Readable: Make text content readable and understandable 10 . Also images of text should be avoided unless a particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.2 Enough Time: Provide users enough time to read and use content Guideline 2. Principle 2: Operable . find content and determine where they are Web pages must have titles that describe topic or purpose. Guideline 2.4 Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background Contrasting colors should be used for foreground and background so that it is easier for the user to read he contents of the page.1 Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard Guideline 2.3 Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures Blinking or flashing elements should not be used since they can cause seizures.4 Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate.Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable Guideline 3.Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva Guideline 1. The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone. Principle 3: Understandable .
states. Guideline 4. including assistive technologies For all user interface components (form elements.Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents. Guideline 3.Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined via the lang attribute in the html tag (<html lang= “en-US”>). 8 See Joe Clark (2008) 11 . Guideline 3. and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set.2 Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways Navigational mechanisms (menus) that are repeated on multiple Web pages should occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated. properties.1 Compatible: Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents. links and components generated by scripts). including assistive technologies Captioning8 for online video and transcripts for video and audio content should be provided for deaf people. the name and role can be programmatically determined.3 Input Assistance: Help users avoid and correct mistakes Principle 4: Robust .
2)10. • A sampler randomly selecting pages from the URL repository to be evaluated by the web accessibility metrics.2. • A set of web accessibility metrics (WAMs) reporting accessibility problems according to the Unified Web Evaluation Methodology (UWEM). Their main purpose is assessing the accessibility of European web sites and participating in a cluster developing a European The European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO)9 was founded in Accessibility Methodology. The results from the first evaluation. • A Data Warehouse providing on-line access to the collected data via an online reporting tool. Benchmarking scores by country have been determined according to UWEM 1. • A URL repository storing web site information such as a list of pages available. On 3 December 2007 EIAO issued Unified Web Evaluation Methodology (UWEM 1. which is based on W3C’s WCAG 2. March and April 2008 are shown in the following table (figure 1).0.Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva The European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO) September 2004. carried out in February. The crawler is based on the Open Source Web Crawler HarvestMan. The European Internet Accessibility Observatory consist of: • A web crawler exploring and identifying available resources on each web site.2 (2007) 11 See Accessibility Benchmarking Scores 12 . 11 9 See EIAO 10 See UWEM 1.
March and April 2008 13 . carried out in February.Results from the first evaluation.Web Accessibility Ranking Country Number of evaluated web sites 8 165 46 131 148 48 70 198 62 14 105 142 197 36 354 51 258 28 187 171 73 16 22 7 2198 Plamena Nedelcheva Percentag e of fail tests 17% 20% 21% 22% 23% 24% 25% 26% 26% 27% 27% 28% 28% 28% 29% 30% 30% 31% 31% 32% 34% 34% 35% 38% 28% Score Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 United Kingdom Sweden Czech Republic Netherlands Denmark Ireland Iceland Germany Italy Poland Norway EU level sites Austria Slovenia Switzerland Portugal France Cyprus Belgium Hungary Luxembourg Romania Spain Bulgaria Europe Average Some Accessibility Tests Failed Some Accessibility Tests Failed Some Accessibility Tests Failed Some Accessibility Tests Failed Some Accessibility Tests Failed Some Accessibility Tests Failed Some Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Many Accessibility Tests Failed Figure 1 .
Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva Conclusion The Internet is a great source of information and knowledge available to everyone via computer r mobile device and Internet connection. But there are people with different impairments that cannot use Web pages the way other people do. 15 . the people who make web pages can make it easier for people with impairments to use and enjoy web content. Most people use Web content daily for various purposes. By following a few simple guidelines proposed by various organizations that regulate Internet content. They usually need assistance from software to see or head the content of the Web site.
Users must be able to interact with a user agent (and the document it renders) using the supported input and output devices of their choice and according to their needs. and others. Device independent . American Sign Language. Natural Language . Image of text .Synchronized visual and/or text alternative for both speech and non-speech audio information needed to understand the media content. Output devices may include monitors. etc. common software-based assistive technologies include screen readers. Captions . devices for grasping. an image) in order to achieve a particular visual effect.Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva Glossary Accessible . Braille . 16 . head wands. reading machines. and Braille devices.Text that has been rendered in a non-text form (e. Braille devices.g. Japanese. speech synthesizers. Hardware assistive technologies include alternative keyboards and pointing devices.Content is accessible when it may be used by someone with a disability. Input devices may include pointing devices. and voice input software that operate in conjunction with graphical desktop browsers (among other user agents). In the area of Web Accessibility. speech synthesizers.Software or hardware that has been specifically designed to assist people with disabilities in carrying out daily activities.Braille uses six raised dots in different patterns to represent letters and numbers to be read by people who are blind with their fingertips. keyboards. and Braille. written. Keyboard interface . screen magnifiers.Interface used by software to obtain keystroke input.Spoken. or signed human languages such as French. Assistive technology . microphones. Assistive technology includes wheelchairs.
Screen reader . and voice recognition software. 17 . Screen readers are used primarily by individuals who are blind. Text alternative . including assistive technologies. User agent . and electronic mail. not painted. multimedia players.Set by software using methods that are supported by user agents. text browsers. Most PDAs are used to track personal data such as calendars. Seizure . Plamena Nedelcheva Label . contacts. plug-ins. including desktop graphical browsers.A seizure is a sudden change in behavior due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. voice browsers. to the screen.Text that is programmatically associated with non-text content or referred to from text that is programmatically associated with non-text content.Text or other component with a text alternative that is presented to Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) .A PDA is a small.Web Accessibility a user to identify a component within Web content.A software program that reads the contents of the screen aloud to a user. Programmatically set . Screen readers can usually only read text that is printed. A PDA is generally a handheld device with a small screen that allows input from various sources. screen magnifiers. portable computing device. mobile phones.Software to access Web content. and some software assistive technologies used in conjunction with browsers such as screen readers.
com/articles/thisishowthewebgetsregulated 18 .w3.Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.net/ Preliminary European Accessibility Benchmarking Scores http://www. ‘What Is Web Accessibility?’ http://www.net/ Joe Clark.thinkquest.eiao.cita.uiuc.w3.wikipedia. ‘This is How the Web Gets Regulated’ (2008)http://alistapart.com/articles/wiwa Joe Clark.org/book/sashay/serialization/ Wikipedia – Disability http://en.http://www.dhs.org/wiki/Disabilities Wikipedia -Web Accessibility http://en.0 http://www.html European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO) .org/TR/WAI-WEBCONTENT/ W3C Proposed Recommendation .w3.alistapart.wikipedia.org/TR/WCAG20/ Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) http://www.il.Hearing Impairment http://en.org/wiki/Web_accessibility Wikipedia.0 http://www.html Illinois Center for Information Technology Accessibility http://html.Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.wikipedia.org/WAI/ Trenton Moss.0 http://www.eiao.Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva References W3C Proposed Recommendation .state.edu/ Illinois Information Technology Accessibility Act Implementation Guidelines for Web-Based Information and Applications 1.us/IITAA/IITAAWebImplementationGuidelines.org/11799/data/mobility.org/wiki/Deaf Mobility Impairment http://library. ‘Building Accessible Websites’ (2007) http://joeclark.
eiao.List of countries by number of Internet users http://en.Web Accessibility Plamena Nedelcheva Wikipedia .http://www.wikipedia.net/ Unified Web Evaluation Methodology version 1.org/uwem1_2/ 19 .org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_number_of_internet_users The European Internet Accessibility Observatory .wabcluster.2 http://www.
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