This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**WHO Child Growth Standards
**

Growth velocity based on weight, length

and head circumference

Methods and development

**Department of Nutrition for
**

Health and Development

**WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
**

WHO child growth standards : growth velocity based on weight, length and head circumference :

methods and development.

Coordinating team: Mercedes de Onis ... [et al.].

1.Anthropometry - methods. 2.Body size - standards. 3.Child development. 4.Growth.

5.Reference standards. 6.Nutrition assessment. I.de Onis, Mercedes. II.World Health

Organization. Dept. of Nutrition for Health and Development.

ISBN 978 92 4 154763 5

(NLM classification: WS 103)

**© World Health Organization 2009
**

All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO

Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41

22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to

reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution

– should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail:

permissions@who.int).

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply

the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization

concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or

concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent

approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that

they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of

a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of

proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the

information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed

without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the

interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health

Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.

Printed in China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

**Members of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group
**

Coordinating Team

Mercedes de Onis [Study Coordinator], Adelheid Onyango, Elaine Borghi, Amani Siyam, Alain Pinol

(Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization).

Executive Committee

Cutberto Garza [Chair], Mercedes de Onis, Jose Martines, Reynaldo Martorell, Cesar G. Victora (up

to October 2002), Maharaj K. Bhan (from November 2002).

Steering Committee

Coordinating Centre (WHO, Geneva): Mercedes de Onis, Jose Martines, Adelheid Onyango, Alain

Pinol.

Investigators (by country): Cesar G. Victora and Cora Luiza Araújo (Brazil), Anna Lartey and

William B. Owusu (Ghana), Maharaj K. Bhan and Nita Bhandari (India), Kaare R. Norum and GunnElin Aa. Bjoerneboe (Norway), Ali Jaffer Mohamed (Oman), Kathryn G. Dewey (USA).

United Nations Agency Representatives: Cutberto Garza (UNU), Krishna Belbase (UNICEF).

Advisory Group

Maureen Black, Wm. Cameron Chumlea, Tim Cole, Edward Frongillo, Laurence Grummer-Strawn,

Reynaldo Martorell, Roger Shrimpton, Jan van den Broeck. For the work presented in this document,

Charlotte M Wright, John Himes, Huiqi Pan, Robert Rigby, Mikis Stasinopoulos and Stef van Buuren,

participated in an advisory capacity.

Participating countries and investigators

Brazil: Cora Luiza Araújo, Cesar G. Victora, Elaine Albernaz, Elaine Tomasi, Rita de Cássia Fossati

da Silveira, Gisele Nader (Departamento de Nutrição and Departamento de Medicina Social,

Universidade Federal de Pelotas; and Núcleo de Pediatria and Escola de Psicologia, Universidade

Católica de Pelotas).

Ghana: Anna Lartey, William B. Owusu, Isabella Sagoe-Moses, Veronica Gomez, Charles SagoeMoses (Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana; and Ghana Health Service).

India: Nita Bhandari, Maharaj K. Bhan, Sunita Taneja, Temsunaro Rongsen, Jyotsna Chetia, Pooja

Sharma, Rajiv Bahl (All India Institute of Medical Sciences).

Norway: Gunn-Elin Aa. Bjoerneboe, Anne Baerug, Elisabeth Tufte, Kaare R. Norum, Karin Rudvin,

Hilde Nysaether (Directorate of Health and Social Affairs; National Breastfeeding Centre,

Rikshospitalet University Hospital; and Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo).

Oman: Ali Jaffer Mohamed, Deena Alasfoor, Nitya S. Prakash, Ruth M. Mabry, Hanadi Jamaan Al

Rajab, Sahar Abdou Helmi (Ministry of Health).

USA: Kathryn G. Dewey, Laurie A. Nommsen-Rivers, Roberta J. Cohen, M. Jane Heinig (University

of California, Davis).

- iii -

Acknowledgements

The WHO Child Growth Standards were constructed by the Coordinating Team in the Department of

Nutrition for Health and Development of the World Health Organization.

The Study Group is indebted to the parents, children and more than 200 field staff that participated in

the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. The generous contribution of many individuals that

provided expertise and advice was also crucial to the development of the growth standards.

The project received funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Netherlands Minister for

Development Cooperation, the Norwegian Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the United States

Department of Agriculture (USDA). Financial support was also provided by the Ministry of Health of

Oman, the United States National Institutes of Health, the Brazilian Ministry of Health and Ministry of

Science and Technology, the Canadian International Development Agency, the United Nations

University, the Arab Gulf Fund for United Nations Development, the Office of the WHO

Representative to India, and the WHO Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development.

iv

......1.....................................................52 A3....................................88 4............1b 2-month intervals for girls .....................5b 6-month intervals for girls ....13 3.................................................... xvii 1.........................1 2-month intervals ....... Construction of the head circumference velocity standards ...............................................1 Weight velocities conditional on age...........5 6-month intervals...........................1 1-month intervals...................................Contents Executive summary...........................................2a 2-month intervals for boys......................................................................................................................1b 1-month intervals for girls ......................................................................................................4b 6-month intervals for girls .......................................................1 Data cleaning..................................................................157 5.........................................................................................................................14 3.................120 A4................................... Construction of the length velocity standards....................61 A3....................................3 3-month intervals..................................76 A3...............7 2.....................................3 4-month intervals ...................................................70 A3.........2 3-month intervals .................................................................1a 2-month intervals for boys..............................93 4...................................................................................................................................................................46 A3........5 2...........3 4-month intervals .............................. Introduction...........40 A3.........................4...129 A4.........................2 Anthropometry methods ................126 A4............................................................................................................................................................................6 2.................................................1........11 3.......................................................4 6-month intervals ....2b 2-month intervals for girls .....................159 5................................3b 4-month intervals for girls ......................................4........... Methodology ...............................................................4 Data cleaning procedures and correction to target age ..............................................................174 -v- ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................94 4.2 3-month intervals ...........................11 3............................................................................1.........................................................................................7 2.................................................2 2-month intervals............82 3.132 A4...........................1...............3a 4-month intervals for boys.......................................1 2-month intervals ......................4a 4-month intervals for boys.......2a 3-month intervals for boys..........5 2....144 A4.........34 A3....................2 Centile tables of weight velocity by birth weight category from birth to 60 days............7 2........................95 4.......................................................1a 2-month intervals for boys....58 A3............................................................................................. Construction of the weight velocity standards ........................................................................................................................................2 Correction to target age .........................................................114 A4........................................................................................................93 4...........138 A4...................34 A3.............11 3.......................3a 3-month intervals for boys......................................................157 5..........160 Appendix A5 Diagnostics ......................................................114 A4....................................................................15 Appendix A3 Diagnostics............................................................4 6-month intervals ............................96 Appendix A4 Diagnostics ........................................174 A5........1.........................................4 4-month intervals..................................12 3.......................................64 A3...........5a 6-month intervals for boys........................1 2................................8 3.................................................................................................................150 5................................................................1a 1-month intervals for boys.......4b 4-month intervals for girls ......2b 3-month intervals for girls ..........................................158 5...................3b 3-month intervals for girls ........................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Sample description .............5 2.....................................1 Design of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study .................4a 6-month intervals for boys..................5 Statistical methods for constructing the growth velocity standards........................

...........................................1b A5.............................. 239 Appendix C Results from analyses related to regression to the mean.................................. 180 3-month intervals for boys .......................................................................................................A5...2b A5............................4b 2-month intervals for girls ............................................................................ 223 7......................................... 229 8. Computation of centiles and z-scores for velocities based on weight. 216 6................................................................ 235 Appendix B Model specifications of the WHO child growth velocity standards ............................... 186 3-month intervals for girls .... 240 vi ...............................................3a A5..................................2a A5...........4a A5.......... Discussion .................. length and head circumference........................................................................ Bibliography.......................... 198 4-month intervals for girls ........................... 204 6-month intervals for boys .....3b A5......................................................................................... 210 6-month intervals for girls ............................................................. 192 4-month intervals for boys ........................................................................................................

........35 Figure A3.... df(µ)=9............. 10th......................................................... 50th................... 50th......................................... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 1-month weight velocity for boys...... df(σ)=4... df(ν)=4..........13 3rd..... 75th........................ τ=2)] for 2-month weight velocity for boys ...................05.................................... df(σ)=5..4 5th.................................................................. df(σ)=6.............11 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.................05..................12 Fitting of the µ...... 75th.........................48 Figure A3.........57 ....1 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.....45 Figure A3.......17 Fitting of the µ. 50th.......................................................... τ=2)] for 1-month weight velocity for girls...........8 3rd....................49 Figure A3......... τ=2)] for 1-month weight velocity for boys .2 Fitting of the µ...... df(µ)=9.......................................................................... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 1-month weight velocity for girls ....... df(µ)=12.... 90th.............................................. 10th... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month weight velocity for girls ................................... and ν curves of selected model for 1-month weight velocity for boys........38 Figure A3....3 3rd.................. df(σ)=4...51 Figure A3........................... 25th..........56 Figure A3.................................. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month weight velocity for girls ...........................7 Fitting of the µ...................................... and ν curves of selected model for 2-month weight velocity for girls ..........14 5th............... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 1-month weight velocity for boys.................. 25th.50 Figure A3.43 Figure A3........ 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month weight velocity for boys.....42 Figure A3..... 75th.........................47 Figure A3.......55 Figure A3................. 50th........ and ν curves of selected model for 1-month weight velocity for girls ....... df(µ)=12.. and ν curves of selected model for 2-month weight velocity for boys.vii - .18 3rd...................05...................................................10 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 1-month weight velocity for girls ............................... 75th........................ σ....... 25th................53 Figure A3................37 Figure A3...... 25th....................20 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month weight velocity for girls ............................6 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0........ df(ν)=3..........15 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month weight velocity for boys...............................39 Figure A3...........44 Figure A3..16 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0..................................... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month weight velocity for boys..................... σ.................................................. 90th........................................54 Figure A3................. σ......... 90th...................................... 10th.......................... 50th.Figures Appendix A3 Figure A3..................... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 1-month weight velocity for girls .......... 50th........................................................... τ=2)] for 2-month weight velocity for girls........................................... 50th......................................................... df(ν)=1................5 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 1-month weight velocity for boys..41 Figure A3....36 Figure A3........................ σ....................................... df(ν)=4.......19 5th................................................. 50th... 10th...............................9 5th..... 90th..05...................................

.................. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month weight velocity for boys................... 50th..................................... 66 Figure A3.. df(µ)=11.......... 67 Figure A3............................................. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month weight velocity for girls ....... 25th.................... 61 Figure A3...................................... τ=2)] for 6-month weight velocity for boys............................ 50th....................... 50th.................. τ=2)] for 4-month weight velocity for boys...... df(µ)=10................................................33 Fitting of the µ................................................ 65 Figure A3......... 69 Figure A3.................. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month weight velocity for boys.................................................... 50th.. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month weight velocity for boys.. 10th.. 25th..................................25 5th........ 80 Figure A3.......................... df(σ)=5... 75th.41 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month weight velocity for boys ............ 90th. 75th............................................. df(ν)=5.. 71 Figure A3.......................... 75th...................................... df(σ)=5...........40 5th...... 72 Figure A3.........28 Fitting of the µ................................... 10th..... df(µ)=9... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month weight velocity for girls .............. df(ν)=3... 60 Figure A3........ 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month weight velocity for boys.. 50th...... 63 Figure A3. 10th..... 25th.........42 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0...................... τ=2)] for 4-month weight velocity for girls ........ df(ν)=5...... 74 Figure A3............. 90th........... 58 Figure A3..........21 3rd. df(σ)=5...................................32 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0........36 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month weight velocity for girls ........................... 75th. 50th............................. 79 Figure A3................................................ 77 Figure A3............24 3rd........................... 75 Figure A3................. df(σ)=5...........................................29 3rd..............30 5th...................................... and ν curves of selected model for 4-month weight velocity for girls ......Figure A3............ 90th.........05.......................05............................. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month weight velocity for girls ..... 81 Figure A3............................. df(ν)=4.38 Fitting of the µ................ 83 viii ............... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month weight velocity for girls ....................................05...........26 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month weight velocity for girls ..... τ=2)] for 6-month weight velocity for girls ..................................................... σ.................23 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month weight velocity for boys ..........................27 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.................................................................................. 10th...... 68 Figure A3.........35 5th... 50th.............. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month weight velocity for boys... σ........ 25th..... 75th.............. 50th....................................................................................22 5th........................ 90th....... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month weight velocity for boys...............37 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.........31 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month weight velocity for boys ....................................... σ..................................... 25th...........39 3rd...... and ν curves of selected model for 6-month weight velocity for boys ....................... 59 Figure A3............................... and ν curves of selected model for 4-month weight velocity for boys ......................34 3rd....................................... 78 Figure A3................. 62 Figure A3....... 50th.....................05...... 10th................................................. 90th....... df(µ)=7...... 50th............................ 73 Figure A3...

......................................................................................................... 25th........... σ..........................05................................ 50th.... 75th................................................116 Figure A4........................ τ=2)] for 2-month length velocity for girls................ 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month length velocity for boys ...2 Fitting of the µ.............. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month length velocity for girls... σ....... 10th.... 90th..85 Figure A3........ 10th...........122 Figure A4.. and ν curves of selected model for 2-month length velocity for boys.................................... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month length velocity for girls.......................................124 Figure A4.... 10th..87 Appendix A4 Figure A4......... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month length velocity for girls.................................. df(µ)=9.... 90th............................ df(σ)=5....... df(σ)=7......119 Figure A4.. 25th...05.............................................. 50th.......................... τ=2)] for 2-month length velocity for boys ..................................................................... 90th. 50th........................................10 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month length velocity for girls ..4 5th..15 5th. df(σ)=7....3 3rd.............................................5 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month length velocity for boys.....16 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month length velocity for girls ....................115 Figure A4....... and ν curves of selected model for 2-month length velocity for girls ...................131 Figure A4......128 Figure A4..........................44 3rd...... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month length velocity for girls.......... σ..... 75th.......... df(µ)=10.........................................Figure A3......................... df(ν)=1.......7 Fitting of the µ................ 50th.........................123 Figure A4..... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month length velocity for boys ............ 90th........... 50th.....................................................................................................121 Figure A4.....................................................14 3rd.......... df(ν)=1......127 Figure A4..........................84 Figure A3..........8 3rd............125 Figure A4....................................13 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month length velocity for boys.............. df(ν)=1................................... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month length velocity for boys . and ν curves of selected model for 6-month weight velocity for girls .............................. 75th.......126 Figure A4..... 90th.......................117 Figure A4...............133 ..............129 Figure A4.........9 5th.....05........... 50th............ 25th........................... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month weight velocity for girls ..........86 Figure A3.........................1 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.46 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month weight velocity for girls ......................6 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0............... τ=2)] for 4-month length velocity for boys .11 3rd...................... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month length velocity for boys ..................... 10th............. 50th.45 5th.................12 5th...118 Figure A4........................................17 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0...................................................................130 Figure A4.............. 10th....... df(µ)=8............................................... 50th............................. 75th... 25th.. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month weight velocity for girls ........................ 50th.................. 75th................................. 50th........................ix - ........................43 Fitting of the µ.......................................... 25th................

............................... σ. 136 Figure A4........36 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month length velocity for girls .05..............25 5th.26 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month length velocity for girls ........................ τ=2)] for 4-month length velocity for girls .....................................34 3rd................... 154 Figure A4......... and ν curves of selected model for 6-month length velocity for boys ................. 50th...................27 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0..................18 Fitting of the µ........................19 3rd... τ=2)] for 6-month length velocity for girls .....................................05.....21 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month length velocity for boys ...................................... 75th...................28 Fitting of the µ.......................... 25th...... 75th...... σ......05.................32 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0...........30 5th... df(µ)=7...............................33 Fitting of the µ...............................35 5th................ σ....................... 10th. 155 Appendix A5 Figure A5....................24 3rd..........................29 3rd.. df(ν)=1....................................... and ν curves of selected model for 2-month head circumference velocity for boys .................................05.31 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month length velocity for boys .......................... 145 Figure A4.................... 50th................................................................................. 10th.20 5th......................................... 139 Figure A4........................................................................ 140 Figure A4... df(µ)=7..................................... 142 Figure A4.. 147 Figure A4.................. 50th........... 25th.......23 Fitting of the µ.. df(µ)=8.. 176 x ................. 25th................................... 152 Figure A4... df(ν)=4.... 50th..... 141 Figure A4...................... 50th................... df(σ)=5............................................ 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month length velocity for boys.................. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month length velocity for boys.......................... 90th................. 135 Figure A4....... 137 Figure A4................................ df(σ)=4........ 90th... 148 Figure A4.......... τ=2)] for 2-month head circumference velocity for boys .................................. 153 Figure A4......... 175 Figure A5........ 90th........................ 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month length velocity for girls ................................. 25th..................... 146 Figure A4.......... df(σ)=4................................... df(σ)=5............................... 10th....Figure A4.................................. 50th. 151 Figure A4... 143 Figure A4.. 75th...... and ν curves of selected model for 6-month length velocity for girls ............................................................................................................ 10th......... 90th....... 50th...... and ν curves of selected model for 4-month length velocity for girls ....................1 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.............. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month length velocity for girls ........... df(ν)=1.................................... τ=2)] for 6-month length velocity for boys.................. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month length velocity for girls ................................... and ν curves of selected model for 4-month length velocity for boys ............. σ....................... 50th.......... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month length velocity for boys......2 Fitting of the µ...... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month length velocity for girls ...................................... 149 Figure A4..... σ.............. df(µ)=8........... 75th....... df(ν)=1.......22 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month length velocity for boys.......................................... 134 Figure A4............

...................................... and ν curves of selected model for 3-month head circumference velocity for girls...... and ν curves of selected model for 3-month head circumference velocity for boys .................................... 50th.........................4 5th........... 10th...191 Figure A5............................183 Figure A5.................11 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0...... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month head circumference velocity for boys .................. 50th...........8 3rd............ 75th. 10th............ 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month head circumference velocity for boys ........................... df(σ)=4............. df(ν)=3........ σ....... df(µ)=7....... σ. and ν curves of selected model for 4-month head circumference velocity for boys ................ df(σ)=4...9 5th.......................190 Figure A5.12 Fitting of the µ.........................199 Figure A5..........197 Figure A5..... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month head circumference velocity for boys .............................05............14 5th...... 50th.........184 Figure A5.. df(µ)=8............... 50th.. and ν curves of selected model for 2-month head circumference velocity for girls....15 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month head circumference velocity for boys ................................... 25th.. 90th.. 75th..........189 Figure A5.................................... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month head circumference velocity for boys ...24 5th..188 Figure A5.............177 Figure A5.................... 50th...........19 5th... 50th................196 Figure A5................. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month head circumference velocity for boys ..........5 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month head circumference velocity for boys ............... 10th..Figure A5........................... 90th.............7 Fitting of the µ.........................187 Figure A5....................... 25th.......... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month head circumference velocity for girls.............................. df(µ)=10.......181 Figure A5.18 3rd................... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month head circumference velocity for girls............. 90th.......23 3rd.................3 3rd.........................13 3rd...................... 25th................ 10th...........................22 Fitting of the µ........20 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month head circumference velocity for girls .. τ=2)] for 4-month head circumference velocity for boys ......................................... 50th..................182 Figure A5............ 75th...................21 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.............xi - ............................. σ... τ=2)] for 3-month head circumference velocity for boys ......... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month head circumference velocity for girls........... 50th.....05........ 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month head circumference velocity for girls..... df(ν)=2................... 50th.................. 75th........................... 50th.....10 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month head circumference velocity for girls ................. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month head circumference velocity for boys ..194 Figure A5................. τ=2)] for 3-month head circumference velocity for girls .............. df(σ)=4.................202 ...... 10th............... τ=2)] for 2-month head circumference velocity for girls ........... 25th..................6 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0......................195 Figure A5.................................200 Figure A5.........179 Figure A5...16 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0........... df(ν)=1.......... 90th..........193 Figure A5........... 25th................................. df(ν)=4...178 Figure A5..... df(µ)=7....... σ.................................................... df(σ)=5...05..... 90th.05.........201 Figure A5....... 75th......17 Fitting of the µ...185 Figure A5..........

........... 203 Figure A5........... 50th................................... 90th......................... 218 Figure A5...................... and ν curves of selected model for 4-month head circumference velocity for girls.................30 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month head circumference velocity for girls................ 25th.......... 75th............ 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month head circumference velocity for girls....................................................05...... df(ν)=2..............05................ 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month head circumference velocity for girls.................................................... 208 Figure A5...................................... 75th.......................... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month head circumference velocity for boys ...........05...... 212 Figure A5.............. df(σ)=5... df(σ)=4............. 211 Figure A5..... 219 Figure A5............. 90th.. 221 Appendix C Figure C1 Comparison between 1-month WHO weight increment z-scores and SDgain .............. 217 Figure A5... 10th.................31 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.................. 205 Figure A5..26 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0...........25 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month head circumference velocity for boys ......... 220 Figure A5............. 25th....................................38 3rd........................................ df(µ)=9.. 25th. τ=2)] for 6-month head circumference velocity for girls... 241 Figure C2 Comparison between 2-month WHO weight increment z-scores and SDgain ............... 215 Figure A5..........39 5th............................ 213 Figure A5................27 Fitting of the µ........ df(ν)=2................................. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month head circumference velocity for boys ............Figure A5...................35 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month head circumference velocity for boys .......... 50th........... σ........... 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month head circumference velocity for girls........ 10th.....................33 3rd................ 242 xii ..........................40 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month head circumference velocity for girls............. 50th......................36 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0................................. and ν curves of selected model for 6-month head circumference velocity for girls............... 206 Figure A5.32 Fitting of the µ....................... and ν curves of selected model for 6-month head circumference velocity for boys ....................................... 214 Figure A5.... τ=2)] for 4-month head circumference velocity for girls....... 50th.37 Fitting of the µ........... 209 Figure A5..... 10th...28 3rd.............. df(σ)=5.............. 207 Figure A5..... 50th.... df(µ)=9.................. df(ν)=2................ 241 Figure C3 Differences between 1-month WHO weight increment z-scores and SDgain ...34 5th............................... 242 Figure C4 Differences between 2-month WHO weight increment z-scores and SDgain .......................... 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month head circumference velocity for girls.... τ=2)] for 6-month head circumference velocity for boys ........... 90th.29 5th.......... 50th...................... σ...... df(µ)=10................ 75th...... σ.................

..........................................................................................................................................................................................100 Table 20 Boys 3-month length increments (cm) ...................................................165 Table 30 Boys 4-month head circumference increments (cm) .......................................................................................................................112 Table 26 Boys 2-month head circumference increments (cm) ......24 Table 10 Boys 4-month weight increments (g) ................................................................162 Table 27 Girls 2-month head circumference increments (cm) ..................................8 Table 4 Boys 1-month weight increments (g) .......6 Table 2 Maximum tolerable differences in days between planned and actual measurement ages..............................................Tables Table 1 Total sample and number of compliant children in the longitudinal component ..........................................................................................................26 Table 11 Girls 4-month weight increments (g)..........................................................................................30 Table 13 Girls 6-month weight increments (g)......................................................................................................................................................32 Table 14 Boys weight increments (g) by birth-weight groups .........................................................................................................16 Table 5 Girls 1-month weight increments (g).....................................................................................91 Table 17 Girls weight velocity (g/d) by birth-weight groups .................................................................................................................................................................172 ...................................................98 Table 19 Girls 2-month length increments (cm)................................................................17 Table 6 Boys 2-month weight increments (g) ..........7 Table 3 Number of increments available for the construction of the WHO child growth velocity standards by sex and anthropometric indicator .........................................................................................................................................................................104 Table 22 Boys 4-month length increments (cm) .............................................................170 Table 33 Girls 6-month head circumference increments (cm) ........................................................................................22 Table 9 Girls 3-month weight increments (g)......................28 Table 12 Boys 6-month weight increments (g) ...........89 Table 15 Boys weight velocity (g/d) by birth-weight groups ...................................................................163 Table 28 Boys 3-month head circumference increments (cm) .............................................164 Table 29 Girls 3-month head circumference increments (cm) ............102 Table 21 Girls 3-month length increments (cm)...........................110 Table 25 Girls 6-month length increments (cm)................106 Table 23 Girls 4-month length increments (cm)........................................................................................108 Table 24 Boys 6-month length increments (cm) ...........................18 Table 7 Girls 2-month weight increments (g)........92 Table 18 Boys 2-month length increments (cm) .........................................................xiii - ..............90 Table 16 Girls weight increments (g) by birth-weight groups...168 Table 32 Boys 6-month head circumference increments (cm) .........................................................................................................................................20 Table 8 Boys 3-month weight increments (g) ............................................166 Table 31 Girls 4-month head circumference increments (cm) ........................................

....................... df(ν)=4..................... 70 Table A3...1 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. 34 Table A3. df(µ)=8.... df(µ)=7........ 132 Table A4...... df(µ)=9............ df(µ)=12....................... df(σ)=4........ df(ν)=1............. 186 Table A5........ df(µ)=9..05.. df(ν)=1. df(ν)=5..6 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0............... df(µ)=7... 174 Table A5.3 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.... df(ν)=4.................2 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0... df(µ)=10.........05. τ=2)] for 2-month length velocity for girls .5 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.. 46 Table A3............2 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0... τ=2)] for 4-month length velocity for boys ........ df(ν)=3. df(σ)=4...1 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0...... τ=2)] for 2-month weight velocity for girls..................1 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0..........6 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0........ df(µ)=7......................... df(σ)=4.05....... df(σ)=7..05........ 144 Table A4....... df(ν)=1.. 52 Table A3.......... df(µ)=10.......Appendix A3 Table A3........ df(µ)=11.. df(µ)=8..4 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0... df(µ)=7............... 120 Table A4.... df(σ)=5..... τ=2)] for 4-month weight velocity for girls..8 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0..............05. τ=2)] for 2-month length velocity for boys ................ df(σ)=5...................... 76 Table A3............4 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0....4 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0...... df(ν)=1....... df(σ)=5.....3 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0...05. τ=2)] for 6-month weight velocity for boys ...... 150 Appendix A5 Table A5............ df(ν)=1. df(σ)=5.................... df(µ)=12..... τ=2)] for 6-month weight velocity for girls...05... τ=2)] for 4-month weight velocity for boys ........2 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0................. 138 Table A4... τ=2)] for 2-month head circumference velocity for girls ................ τ=2)] for 3-month head circumference velocity for girls ......05.................... df(µ)=9..... df(ν)=1......05. τ=2)] for 1-month weight velocity for boys .......... df(σ)=4...... df(ν)=3.................. τ=2)] for 4-month length velocity for girls .. df(σ)=4..... 82 Appendix A4 Table A4... df(µ)=8.... τ=2)] for 3-month head circumference velocity for boys.. df(ν)=1..05......... df(µ)=7.............. τ=2)] for 2-month weight velocity for boys .. df(σ)=5.05............ 114 Table A4. 180 Table A5.... df(µ)=9...............05.05... τ=2)] for 6-month length velocity for boys .............7 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0... df(σ)=7. df(ν)=4............ df(ν)=3......... df(σ)=6.......... df(ν)=4. df(σ)=5................. df(σ)=5.......05.05.......... df(ν)=2. df(σ)=4...... df(µ)=8....5 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.......... 198 xiv ........... 64 Table A3....3 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0................ τ=2)] for 4-month head circumference velocity for boys. τ=2)] for 2-month head circumference velocity for boys....... 40 Table A3................. df(ν)=1... df(σ)=5..05.............................. df(ν)=5. df(σ)=4.... τ=2)] for 6-month length velocity for girls ..05..... df(µ)=10............. 192 Table A5.. df(σ)=5..........05........ df(ν)=4...5 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0............... τ=2)] for 1-month weight velocity for girls..05.

.....216 Appendix B Table B1 Degrees of freedom for fitting the parameters of the Box-Cox-power exponential (BCPE) distribution for the models with the best fit to generate standards based on age...8 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0..............240 ... df(µ)=9.....239 Appendix C Table C1 Proportions of children falling below/rising above their starting z-scores (time1) after 1..... weight....xv - ..05.........204 Table A5....... df(µ)=9......Table A5. df(σ)=4. τ=2)] for 6-month head circumference velocity for girls..or 2-month periods (time2) ........................ df(ν)=2. τ=2)] for 6-month head circumference velocity for boys ......... df(ν)=2.... τ=2)] for 4-month head circumference velocity for girls.... length........ df(σ)=5..... and head circumference in children 0-24 months of age...05...05....... df(σ)=5......................6 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0......210 Table A5....... df(ν)=2..7 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0........... df(µ)=10.............

Q-test A statistical test which combines overall and local tests assessing departures from the normal distribution with respect to median. δ A constant value (delta) added to weight increments.xvi - . it can have a very simple form locally. Skewness A statistical term used to describe a distribution's asymmetry in relation to a normal distribution. Kurtosis An attribute of a distribution describing "peakedness". Cubic spline A piecewise third-order polynomial function that passes through a set of m (or degrees of freedom) control points. Box-Cox transformation A power transformation to the normal distribution. Standard deviation score (SD) See z-score. In this report all p-values were compared to a level of significance set to 0. variance.Glossary BCPE The Box-Cox power exponential distribution. yet be globally flexible and smooth. which portrays a distribution with skinny tails. ν The power of the Box-Cox transformation (to the normal distribution) of the Box-Cox power exponential distribution related to the skewness. Z-score The deviation of an individual's value from the median value of a reference population divided by the standard deviation of the reference population (or transformed to normal distribution). skewness and kurtosis. τ The power exponential parameter of the Box-Cox power exponential distribution — related to the kurtosis. Degrees of freedom (df) The number of control points used to fit the cubic splines. λ The power of the age (or starting weight) transformation. P-value The probability of falsely rejecting the hypothesis being tested. Cut-off A designated limit beyond which a subject or observation is classified according to a pre-set condition. . Worm plots A set of detrended Q-Q plots — plots that compare the distribution of a given set of observations to the normal distribution.05. µ The median of the Box-Cox power exponential distribution. Coefficient of variation The ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. σ The approximate coefficient of variation of the Box-Cox power exponential distribution — related to the variance. A high kurtosis portrays a distribution with fat tails in contrast to a low kurtosis.

and length (potentially useful since stunting originates in the first two years of life. Before the BCPE could be applied to the weight increments conditional on age. 4 and 6. These characteristics make BMI velocity difficult to interpret. Another recommendation by the consultative expert group on the construction of the velocity curves was to explore other distributions in addition to the one used to construct the attained growth standards (the Box-Cox-power-exponential — BCPE). which had been recommended for international use since the late 1970s. The MGRS is unique in that it was purposely designed to produce a standard by selecting healthy children from diverse ethnic backgrounds living under conditions likely to favour the achievement of their full genetic growth potential. This investigation was carried out in an effort to identify the most appropriate methodology for handling anticipated negative increments specifically in relation to weight.xvii - . to all weight increments to shift their distribution above zero. it was necessary to add a constant value.Executive summary In 1993. By the MGRS design. The 3-month velocities were constructed for the full age range (birth to 24 months) using the parameter curves estimated for the 2-month (birth to 24 months). It was hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) velocity might be useful in predicting changes leading to extremes of adiposity. The review concluded that the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO growth reference. Moreover. Furthermore. head circumference (the next most-used measurement in clinical settings). The World Health Assembly endorsed this recommendation in 1994. The children were measured at birth. and there is little knowledge of its prognostic utility. BMI velocity standards were not developed. The increments on which the velocity standards are based were calculated using the longitudinal sample of 882 children (428 boys and 454 girls) whose mothers complied fully with the MGRS infant-feeding and no-smoking criteria and completed the follow-up period of 24 months. The steps followed to select the best models to fit the data for each indicator were comparable to those used to construct the attained growth standards. In response. based on head and arm circumference and subscapular and triceps skinfolds. followed a year later. However. The first set of the WHO Child Growth Standards for attained growth based on length/height. A key component in the MGRS design was a longitudinal cohort of children who were examined in a sequence of 21 visits starting at birth and ending at 24 months of age. and bimonthly in the second year. delta. 2. at weeks 1. A principal rationale for the MGRS longitudinal component was to allow for the development of growth velocity standards. The second complementary set. unreliability in BMI increments is a composite of measurement error from various sources. In the interest of keeping the z-score calculation formula simple and considering the fact that adjustment for kurtosis had negligible impact on the final predicted . All velocity standards required the modelling of skewness. Therefore. the predicted centiles were shifted down by the pre-added delta. the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) was implemented between 1997 and 2003 to develop international growth standards for children below 5 years of age. BMI peaks during infancy and then drops through the second year. the latest 3-month increment that could be calculated based on observed measurements was from age 11 to 14 months. monthly from 2–12 months. The findings favoured the application of the BCPE distribution with some methodological adjustments only in the case of weight conditional on age. namely breastfeeding and not smoking. On the recommendation of a consultative expert group it was decided to develop velocity standards for the following anthropometric variables: weight (the most commonly used measurement and the most responsive to short-term influences). Afterwards. Such frequently collected and well-controlled data are highly unusual. weight and age was released in April 2006. did not adequately represent early childhood growth and that new growth curves were necessary. the 3-month (birth to 14 months) and the 4-month (birth to 24 months) intervals jointly in a cubic spline surface. the mothers of the children selected for the construction of the standards engaged in fundamental health-promoting practices. the World Health Organization (WHO) undertook a comprehensive review of the uses and interpretation of anthropometric references. and early detection of changes in velocity may be beneficial for prevention).

the increments presented in this report are those considered to be most useful clinically. lactation counsellors. weight increments are presented from birth to 60 days in 1-week and 2-week intervals that coincide with the measurement schedule in the MGRS.who.and 3-month increments are presented from birth to 12 months. neonatologists. The velocity standards for length are presented in 2. However. paediatric endocrinologists. 2-. which generally occur after 6 months of age. For head circumference. The overall choice of intervals is in line with those proposed by other authors. When mother-child dyads experience xviii . this reflects both a natural pattern of saltatory growth and possible catchup or catch-down growth that contributes to overall narrowly canalized patterns in the attained growth trajectories of individual children.to 6-month incements from birth to 24 months. rather than focus only on weight gain.int/childgrowth/en. it was decided not to fit kurtosis (i. It is not unusual for a child to grow at the 95th velocity centile one month and at the 20th the next while continuing to track on the attained weight-for-age chart. Correlations between subsequent increments are typically low. This is because one cannot expect the growth rate in a given 2-month period. It was not possible to estimate from these data precisely when infants should recover their birth weight following weight loss that is common in the first few postnatal days. growth velocities of individual children are characterized by very high variability in consecutive growth intervals. it is important to adopt a holistic approach that looks at the child's overall health status and clinical signs. and when they become more active and start to explore their environment. models were restricted to the LMS class). For example. suggesting that recovery of birth weight could be achieved in less than one week.g. In addition. The WHO velocity standards for weight are presented as 1-mo increments from birth to 12 months. and as 2. such as Q-tests and worm plots. the centile corresponding to an increment between age 2 and 3 months is not associated with the centile corresponding to half of the increment in the 2-month interval between ages 1 and 3 months. The tables of weight velocity from birth to 60 days present physiological weight losses that occur in the early postnatal period but are not usually included in available reference data.and 3-month increments for head circumference go up to 12 months of age only. Electronic copies of the full set of velocity standards are available on the Web: www. For similar reasons.and 6-month increments from birth to 24 months. Considering the 25th centile (0 g increment from birth to 7 days). However.centiles. when children are more exposed to food contamination. which are key to maintaining successful infant nutrition. 4. 2. This is the expected overall pattern of growth under conditions of adequate nutrition and psychosocial care. Following wide consultation with different potential users of these standards (e.e. One-month increments for length and head circumference were not considered clinically useful as the measurement error over such a short period exceeds the 5th centile as early as 6 months of age. The intrinsic biological complexity of the dynamics of human growth makes the use and interpretation of the standards presented in this report more challenging than that of the attained growth standards. to be the sum of the two corresponding 1-month intervals. This includes also assessing mother-child interaction. and researchers). The diagnostic tools used iteratively to detect possible model misfits and biases in the fitted curves included tests of local and global goodness of fit.to 6-month increments from birth to 24 months. Centiles are presented for both net increments and velocity in g/d. 3-. and breastfeeding technique. the data suggest that 75% of newborns recover their birth weight by day 7. and continues to taper off gently through the second year.and 6-month increment tables are independent of each other and the clinician should use the one that most closely approximates the interval over which the child is seen. indicators of successful breastfeeding such as infant breastfeeding behaviour and the timing of stage II lactogenesis. It is understood that recovery depends on what percentage of birth weight was lost and the successful initiation of lactation. the 2. are captured in the lowest centiles. With specific reference to weight. Net increments at the median (0 to 7 days) are positive for both boys and girls. managers of child health programmes. They coincide with the weaning period. except perhaps at the median. reaching a near-plateau by the end of the first year. Patterns of differences between empirical and fitted centiles were also examined. and 4. negative increments. The 1-. Growth progresses at a rapidly decelerating rate from birth.

Chief among them is the lack of correlation between successive increments in healthy. The discussion section of the report provides overall guidance on interpreting increments that are beyond the allowable range of variation around the intervals.3%. or observed intervals that are on target (say exactly 2 months) but with starting and ending ages that do not coincide with those tabulated in the standards. only when velocities are repeatedly low should they cause concern. During periods of severe illness (e. one would expect successive increments to be repeatedly in the higher ranges. this probability increases to only 2% and 1. If the 15th centile is chosen. since the position on the attained growth chart is essential to interpreting the growth rate. Future research will need to determine what patterns of successive velocity thresholds over which specified intervals have the best diagnostic and prognostic validity for specific diseases. respectively. However. 4 and 6 months) for which the centiles are presented.g. Normally growing children can have a very high z-score one month and a very low one the following month. The accuracy of growth assessment is improved greatly if measurements are replicated independently and the values averaged. and these daily increments offer a flexible option for evaluating growth over fractions of the tabulated time blocks.breastfeeding difficulties in the early postpartum period. There are some fundamental differences between velocity and attained (distance) growth that affect how the increment standards should be used and interpreted. velocity assessment should be done at scheduled visits that coincide with the ages and intervals (1. Ideally. a single low value is not informative. without any underlying reason for concern. prolonged diarrhoea) one would expect very low velocity followed by compensatory high velocity (catch-up). growth velocity must always be interpreted in conjunction with attained growth.xix - . the timing of clinic visits is dictated by uncontrollable factors. This "tracking" is not usually seen for successive individual growth velocities. In the WHO standards. very low z-score values. 2. Measurements of growth are subject to error from multiple sources. should raise the question of whether there is underlying morbidity within the holistic clinical assessment of the child. An important difference with attained growth is that single extreme values of increments are comparatively less worrisome. however. even in the absence of such difficulties. the variability in successive z-scores tends to be minimal over short periods (there are high correlations between successive attained values). Ultimately. . In practice. visits to the clinic take place at random ages. the probability of two consecutive 1-month or 2-month weight increments falling below the 5th centile is 0. The velocity standards presented in this report provide a set of tools for monitoring the rapid and changing rate of growth in early childhood.8%. measurements need to be taken with reasonable care and accuracy as the calculation of increments involves two measurement errors. For individual attained growth curves. hence increments per day are likely to be handier to use than weekly or fortnightly increments. Faulty measurements can lead to grossly erroneous judgements regarding a child's growth. lactation performance and weight gain are monitored every few days. or vice versa. During catch-up growth. Thus. even if observed only once. 3. normally growing children. and ingenuity will be called for in applying the standards. Although the high level of reliability achieved in the MGRS is unlikely to be reached in routine clinical measurement in primary health care settings. Nevertheless.

.

1986. INTRODUCTION The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) was implemented between 1997 and 2003 to develop growth standards for children below 5 years of age. This report presents the WHO growth velocity standards and describes the methods used to construct the standards for weight conditional on age. 1980. in part due to scarcity of appropriate longitudinal datasets. especially given the study's rigorous inclusion criteria (de Onis et al.to 6-month intervals). 1. The complexity in applying growth velocity using available presentation formats associated with the z-score scale was recognized. sound data-management procedures. Among technical issues discussed. In other words. Roche and Himes. 1952.e. 2006). 2004b). 2007) and another on the presentation and application of such standards (Wright. Two background documents were prepared to guide the advisory group's discussions. Such frequently collected and well-controlled data are highly unusual. there are far fewer velocity references than there are for attained growth. rigorous data-collection methods. Proponents of the use of growth velocity consider it a superior quantitative measure of growth compared to attained size for age (Tanner. Strictly speaking. and head circumference conditional on age. Nevertheless.g. g/time). The MGRS collected primary growth data and related information from 8440 healthy breastfed infants and young children from diverse ethnic backgrounds and cultural settings (de Onis et al. Multi-level modelling was believed to be potentially extremely complex given the large number of growth intervals in the WHO standards data that would have to be modelled.. grams). and research settings and to discuss available strategies and related methods for the construction of the velocity standards. an advisory group met in March 2007 to review uses of growth velocity standards in clinical practice. length conditional on age.. 2005) or multi-level (ML) (Goldstein. Guo et al. The second complementary set. since the increments presented in this report refer to specific time periods (i. 2004b. the terms velocity and increment will be used interchangeably. 2007).g. 1986) modelling. In addition.e. Technical aspects regarding presentation and application included the choice of -1- . followed a year later (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. weight and age that describe the attained growth of healthy children was released in April 2006. while an increment is a change in value expressed in units (e. The second technical issue concerned which approach to statistical modelling to use for the increments. Baumgartner et al. weight conditional on age and birth weight. 2007). Borghi et al. one on technical and statistical issues (Himes and Frongillo. their impact on attained size becomes evident only after the altered rate of growth has had time to produce its result (Tanner. the first was whether to model increments (i.. As part of the preparatory work for the construction of the standards presented in this report. A key component in the MGRS design was a longitudinal cohort of children who were examined in a sequence of 21 visits starting at birth and ending at 24 months of age. based on head and arm circumference and subscapular and triceps skinfolds. velocity is a change in value expressed in units per time period (e. Despite their hypothesized advantage.1. 2006a. use of the GAMLSS method as recommended by the background document on statistical issues (Himes and Frongillo. public health programmes. A principal rationale for the MGRS longitudinal component was to allow for development of velocity growth standards. They point out that. The first set of the WHO Child Growth Standards based on length/height. The standards are based on a prescriptive approach using well-defined criteria.. 1991).. 2004a). i. whereas pathogenic factors affect growth velocity directly. 2007) provided consistency with the methodology used to construct the WHO attained growth standards..e. The consensus was in favour of GAMLSS over ML modelling because it had been used more extensively in growth curve construction and its capabilities and associated diagnostic tests were better understood. 1952). and state-of-the art statistical methods (de Onis et al. examining velocity should lead to earlier identification of growth problems than would the examination of attained growth only. GAMLSS (Rigby and Stasinopoulos. using measurements) or changes in z-scores.

weight and head circumference in intervals ranging from three months in the first year to six months in the second year. 1966b. (1986) published data for 6-month increments from birth to 18 years.and 6-month increments from birth to 24 months. The final choice of variables (weight. The second output presents empirical centiles of increments from birth to 60 days in 1-week and 2-week intervals that coincide with the measurement schedule in the MGRS: birth to 7 days. 1985. BMI velocity standards were not developed.. Moreover. For similar reasons.24 cm for head circumference (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Therefore. and one interval from age 2 to 3 years. 1999). BMI peaks during infancy and then drops through the second year. paediatric endocrinologists... (1989) presented centiles of monthly weight and length increments from the Fels Longitudinal sample (birth to 12 months). Guo et al. 2000).. and in 2.g.and 3-month increments are presented from birth to 12 months. 1999). Roche et al. However.to 3-month) intervals. neonatologists. 1952. mainly by neonatologists and others caring for infants). When selecting measurement intervals. 5th centile) to be detected with some certainty if they are to be clinically useful in detecting growth problems. 1966a. unreliability in BMI increments is a composite of measurement error from various sources. 1966b. hence data are usable only if the measurements are taken with reasonable care and accuracy. Tanner et al. For head circumference. 1989. lactation counsellors. We did not consider 1-month increments for length and head circumference to be clinically useful as the measurement error over such a short period exceeds the 5th centile as early as 6 months of age. the 2. The main output concerns increments conditional on age. 1966a. (1991) published reference values of g/d or mm/d in variable (1. It was hypothesized that BMI velocity might be useful in predicting changes leading to extremes of adiposity. 1991. Cole. The Technical Error of Measurement (TEM) in the longitudinal study of the MGRS was 0.g. Guo et al.to 6-month increments from birth to 24 months. The velocity standards for length are presented in 2.2 Introduction variables and intervals. the increments presented in this report are those considered to be the most useful clinically. account should be taken of the fact that the calculation of increments involves two measurement errors. 2.and 3-month increments for head circumference go up to 12 months of age only. managers of child health programmes. usually from early childhood to early adulthood. and length (potentially useful since stunting originates in the first two years of life. and 4. Himes. 1995. Growth standards should allow for low velocities (e. length and head circumference) is similar to other published velocity references (Falkner. However. Roche and Himes. and researchers). and 7-14. Two years later. presented as 1-month intervals from birth to 12 months. 1980. such intervals cannot be used to detect nascent growth problems with a view to initiating timely corrective action. Prader et al. and whether data should be displayed as tables or curves.. velocity reference data (conditional on age) have been presented in yearly intervals (Tanner et al.. 1986. These data are presented both as net increments in grams and as g/day velocities over each index period. 1989). It was decided to develop velocity standards for the following anthropometric variables: weight (the most commonly used measurement and the most responsive to short-term influences). Baumgartner et al. These characteristics make BMI velocity difficult to interpret.. In some cases. Measurement intervals should be wide enough that expected growth exceeds measurement error (Tanner. 2006b). 28-42 and 42-60 days.38 cm for length and 0. 1958. It is expected that they will be especially useful for lactation management purposes during this critical period for establishing breastfeeding. .to 6month intervals from birth to 24 months. Baumgartner et al. 14-28. The overall choice of intervals is supported by approaches suggested by other authors (Himes. The need for guidance on the use and interpretation of velocity standards was also recognized. Roche et al. Following wide consultation with potential users of these standards (e. head circumference (the next most-used measurement in clinical settings. Tanner and Davies. The WHO velocity standards for weight are presented in two output types. and detecting changes in velocity during this period may be beneficial in terms of prevention). van't Hof et al. Falkner (1958) presented reference data for length. and there is little knowledge of its prognostic utility.

The models used in developing the WHO growth velocity standards produce centiles on a continuous scale. Different variants of charts combining the concepts of attained size and velocity have been developed and proposed for clinical use. Correlations between subsequent increments are typically low. Graphic diagnostic outputs with point estimates linked as curves (not model-based curves) are presented throughout the report to facilitate comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles. 1966b). Wright et al. and it is not unusual for an infant whose increment at one interval was on the 5th centile to gain at the 75th centile during the next interval. However. reflecting a natural pattern of saltatory growth (Lampl et al. 1992) as well as possible catch-up or catch-down growth that contribute to overall narrowly canalized patterns in attained growth trajectories of individual children. 1998)..who. .. For example. be pathologically enormous (Tanner et al. 1986). The lack of correlation between increments makes it difficult to define what constitutes a normal or abnormal sequence of increments. These standards provide a set of tools for monitoring the rapid and changing rate of growth in early childhood. Electronic copies of the full set of velocity standards are available on the Web: www. 1988) except perhaps in the median range (Tanner et al. On the other hand. by maturity. High levels of intra-individual variation in velocity are normal.. those tools do not appear to have gained currency even when incorporated into computerized applications.int/childgrowth/en. Cole. leading to the recommendation that velocity be examined always in conjunction with related measures of attained growth (Tanner. but the final centile values are presented in tabular format only for the specific age intervals described earlier.. the interpretation of velocity curves presents a counter-intuitive logic: children are not expected to track on a fixed velocity curve (Healy et al. Curves for attained growth are commonly used to track individual growth patterns. 1998. 1952). a child whose weight velocity tracks on the 3rd centile from 5 to 16 years of age would be lighter at 16 years than a 5 year-old (Baumgartner et al. 1994.. Cole. a child following the 97th centile from pre-school age would. 1966b). but they cannot serve an equivalent purpose for growth velocity. particularly in the United Kingdom (Wright et al.. For users habituated to attained growth curves.Introduction 3 An important consideration regarding the presentation of standards relates to whether centiles are presented as curves or tabulated values.. 1997.

.

2004b). length. As part of the site-selection process in Ghana. India.. 2002. 2004b). Muscat. Since it is likely that in well-off populations such infants represent small but normal children. screening teams measured newborns within 24 hours of delivery.. 2004c). 2004b). 2. USA. 2004. During the study. no maternal smoking before and after delivery. 5 mm). Brazil. 2004a). 2. the MGRS combined a longitudinal component from birth to 24 months with a cross-sectional component of children aged 18–71 months. Observers working in pairs collected anthropometric data. Norway. single term birth. Mohamed et al. Norway and the USA.e. head circumference. their exclusion would have artificially distorted the standards’ lower centiles. if necessary. METHODOLOGY 2. 2004c).3%) were not excluded. demographic and environmental characteristics (de Onis et al. Term low-birth-weight (<2500 g) infants (2. -5- . which are the focus of this report. introduction of complementary foods by the age of 6 months. Each observer independently measured and recorded a complete set of measurements. 2006c). Briefly. monthly from 2–12 months. ≥20% of mothers followed WHO feeding recommendations and breastfeeding support was available (de Onis et al. 2004).. Mothers and newborns were screened and enrolled at birth and visited at home a total of 21 times on weeks 1. and continued partial breastfeeding up to at least 12 months). Individual inclusion criteria were: no known health or environmental constraints to growth. mothers willing to follow MGRS feeding recommendations (i. a third set of readings for the variable(s) in question (de Onis et al. after which the two compared their readings.. Local criteria for screening newborns. and Pelotas. child morbidity. 7 mm. The study populations lived in socioeconomic conditions favourable to growth where mobility was low. exclusive or predominant breastfeeding for at least 4 months.1 Design of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study The MGRS (July 1997–December 2003) was a population-based study undertaken in Davis.. based on parental education and/or income levels... and follow-up teams conducted home visits until 24 months of age (de Onis et al. motor development.. and in selected affluent neighbourhoods of Accra. Oslo. The MGRS protocol and its implementation in the six sites are described in detail elsewhere (de Onis et al.. California. both observers once again independently measured and recorded a second and. surveys were conducted to identify socioeconomic characteristics that could be used to select groups whose growth was not environmentally constrained (Owusu et al. Data were collected on anthropometry. perinatal factors. at which time measurement techniques were standardized against one of two MGRS anthropometry experts. Results from the anthropometry standardization sessions have been reported elsewhere (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. The enrolment and baseline characteristics of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study are described in detail elsewhere (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Ghana and South Delhi. were developed from those surveys. The longitudinal sample with visits planned at target ages allowed for the construction of growth velocity standards. the anthropometry expert visited each site to participate in these sessions (de Onis et al. The longitudinal component of the MGRS included data on weight. 100 g. and absence of significant morbidity (de Onis et al. Bhandari et al. for which growth velocity standards are presented in this report. bimonthly standardization sessions were conducted at each site. 4 and 6. Pre-existing survey data for this purpose were available from Brazil. and bimonthly in the second year. For the longitudinal component of the study. If any pair of readings exceeded the maximum allowable difference for a given variable (weight. and socioeconomic. recumbent length (referred to subsequently as length) and head circumference. Oman. India and Oman.. 2004b). 2006b). Once a year.2 Anthropometry methods Data collection teams were trained at each site during the study's preparatory phase.2. feeding practices.

For these shorter intervals. Portable electronic scales with a taring capability. yet sturdy and portable to enable them to be carried back and forth on home visits. length and head circumference. For length. 1-. A self-retracting. Length and head circumference were recorded to the last completed unit rather than to the nearest unit. six of whom were excluded for morbidities affecting growth (4 cases of repeated episodes of diarrhoea. half of the smallest measurement unit) was added to each measurement before analysis. Of these.3 Sample description A total of 1743 children were enrolled in the longitudinal sample. a total of 10 184 1-month increments (4909 for boys and 5275 for girls). 2. Length was measured with the portable Harpenden Infantometer (range 30–110 cm. 0. calibrated to 0. Instruments needed to be highly accurate and precise. a total of 14 520 2-month increments (7016 for boys and 7504 for girls). 12 690 4-month increments (6114 for boys and 6576 for girls) and 10 999 6-month increments (5299 for boys and 5700 for girls) were calculated. 14 410 2-month increments (6950 for boys and 7460 for girls).1 kg (i. .e.7 cm-wide. For head circumference. 4. Table 1 Total sample and number of compliant children in the longitudinal component Site Brazil Ghana India Norway Oman USA All a N 309 328 301 300 291 208 1737 Boys 29 103 84 75 73 64 428 Complianta Girls 37 124 89 73 76 55 454 Total 66 227 173 148 149 119 882 Compliant with infant-feeding and no-smoking criteria and completed the 24-month follow-up. Metal tapes were chosen because they are robust and accurate. 0. Shorter interval increments were also calculated between birth and two months following the MGRS design for use in lactation management programs (see section 3. 9294 3-month increments (4476 for boys and 4818 for girls). 9405 3-month increments (4536 for boys and 4869 for girls). Based on the compliant children's data. and 1 case of protein-energy malnutrition) leaving a sample of 1737 children (894 boys and 843 girls). 3-. UNICEF Electronic Scale 890 or UNISCALE). flat metal tape with a blank lead-in strip (calibrated to 1 mm).e. Full details of the instruments used and how measurements were taken are provided elsewhere (de Onis et al. the mothers of 882 children (428 boys and 454 girls) complied fully with the MGRS infant-feeding and no-smoking criteria and completed the follow-up period of 24 months (96% of compliant children completed the 24-month follow-up) (Table 1). was used to measure head circumference. 2-. with digit counter readings precise to 1 mm). To correct for the systematic negative bias introduced by this practice. For weight. which was rounded off to the nearest 100 g.2). there were 2014 weight increments for boys and 2088 for girls. This correction did not apply to weight.and 6-month increments were calculated for weight. and stay in a single plane around the head. 9411 3-month increments (4545 for boys and 4866 for girls). 2004c). They were replaced on a regular basis when the grading marks faded. 1 case of repeated episodes of malaria. were used to measure weight.6 Methodology All study sites used identical measuring equipment. 12 803 4-month increments (6183 for boys and 6620 for girls) and 11 097 6-month increments (5358 for boys and 5739 for girls) were calculated.05 cm (i. 12 807 4-month increments (6178 for boys and 6629 for girls) and 11 100 6-month increments (5353 for boys and 5747 for girls) were calculated. a total of 14 517 2-month increments (7005 for boys and 7512 for girls)..

Table 2 Maximum tolerable differences in days between planned and actual measurement ages. Age range (months) 0-6 6-12 12-24 Maximum tolerable difference (Diff = Actual measurement age . 609.Methodology 2. included negative increments (about 4. • when the Diff was negative and greater in absolute value than the tolerable difference indicated in Table 2.2 Correction to target age The actual ages at which the measurements were made were at times delayed (or advanced on a few occasions) compared to the target ages. 183.4. 122. length or head circumference) corresponding to the target age was estimated by linear interpolation using measurements at the immediate previous visit and at the actual measurement age corresponding to the interval of interest. 304. weight. which means that the large negative increments and the usually large positive increments immediately following them were both excluded.e. 28. It is important to note that weights and not increments were excluded. if a visit was done at day 100 the weight measurement for the target visit age (91 days) was derived by interpolating between the weights at age 61 days and age 100 days. 365. Four additional weights (0. large weight losses. Length and head circumference In the case of length and head circumference no values were set to missing.1% for the 1-month and 3. 274. 57 (0. length or head circumference) corresponding to the . even in the absence of reported morbidity. In most cases.target agea) ± 3 days ± 5 days ± 7 days a Target ages of the MGRS schedule were 0. The threshold was set at approximately 10% of the median birth weight for the first year.02%) without reported morbidity but with losses greater than 350 g per month in Year 1 or 1 kg per month in Year 2 were also set to missing. 731 days The correction method was applied as follows: • when the Diff was positive and greater than the tolerable difference indicated in Table 2.5% of negative increments were retained. 213. Over 99. 244.4% for the 2-month increments). 487. 91. and at about 10% of the median weight of a child at 12 months for the second year. 548. weight.4 7 Data cleaning procedures and correction to target age 2. are a sign of underlying problems (sub-clinical illness or psychosocial problems) that normally trigger diagnostic investigations. The data were corrected to target age as shown in Table 2. 152. In routine paediatric care. 61. 2. the measurement (i.e.g. not surprisingly. 670. Of the 16 403 weight values available.and 2-month weight increments. For example. 426. these were associated with reported morbidity and occurred mainly towards the end of Year 1 and in Year 2.4. 335.1 Data cleaning Weight Distributions of 1. the measurement (i. as they are part and parcel of normal growth. 61 days for a 2-month interval). This resulted in some measurement intervals being either longer or shorter than planned by the MGRS design (e.35%) with reported morbidity that entailed losses greater than 250 g per month were set to missing.

The correction to target age was applied to less than 10% of all measurements. In the case of head circumference. The final numbers of observed increments used in the construction of the WHO child growth velocity standards are shown in Table 3. 2001) for local and global goodness of fit. The two distributions that could be applied with no restrictions were the Sinh-arcsinh . The fact that visits in the second year took place at 2-month intervals was a limitation when it came to constructing the 3-month velocity standards. the 3-month (birth to 14 months) and the 4-month (birth to 24 months) intervals jointly in a cubic spline surface (described in section 2. In sum. the Box-Cox-powerexponential distribution (BCPE — Rigby and Stasinopoulos. the estimated weight for age 91 days was based on weights at ages 80 and 122 days. it was not necessary to apply this approach because the 3-month interval centiles were presented only up to age 12 months. Table 3 Number of increments available for the construction of the WHO child growth velocity standards by sex and anthropometric indicator Indicator Weight Length Head circumference a Interval 1-month 2-month 3-month 4-month 6-month 2-month 3-month 4-month 6-month 2-montha 3-month 4-month 6-month Girls 5242 7419 4789 6537 5662 7504 4866 6620 5739 5316 4869 6629 5747 Boys 4869 6889 4440 6058 5247 7016 4545 6183 5358 4947 4536 6178 5353 Total 10 111 14 308 9229 12 595 10 909 14 520 9411 12 803 11 097 10 263 9405 12 807 11 100 Number of available head circumference 2-month increments up to 14 months (see Chapter 5).8 Methodology target age was estimated by linear interpolation using measurements at the actual age corresponding to the interval of interest and the immediate subsequent age that corresponded to the next planned visit. 2007).e. the diagnostics included the Qtests (Royston and Wright. Distributions other than the BCPE were investigated for capability to handle negative increments. The BCPE distribution is defined only on positive values. 2. for a visit at age 80 days. Weight velocities conditional on age required adjustment of the methodology to handle anticipated negative weight increments resulting from weight losses. 2004) with a cubic spline smoothing function. The approach proposed to construct 3-month velocities for the full age range (birth to 24 months) was to use the parameter curves estimated for the 2-month (birth to 24 months). 2006a. The growth curve fitting method and diagnostic tools used to select the best models for each of the indicators are described in detail in the report on the WHO child growth standards (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group.5). Patterns of differences between empirical and fitted centiles also were examined.5 Statistical methods for constructing the growth velocity standards The underlying methodology used for constructing the weight. The latest 3-month increment that could be calculated based on observed measurements was from age 11 to 14 months. i. For example. length and head circumference velocity standards was the same used to construct the attained growth standards. 2000) and worm plots (van Buuren and Fredriks.

in using the same approach as applied for the attained growth curves to select the best model. However. which cannot be obtained without a computer. whereas the modelling process for each of these velocity standards was sensitive to the choice of delta. and in the case of the 6-month interval. the correction applied for the skewed attained growth standards beyond -3SD or +3SD applies (such an increment will always lie below -3SD). δ) to all weight increments to shift their distribution above zero. for the 2-month interval. 2004). Exceptionally. models would converge only for low degrees of freedom producing over-smoothed curves that fitted the data badly. To calculate z-scores. . Given the operational uncertainties around the application of these distributions and the poor results obtained when they were applied to the MGRS data.e. The BCPE was swift in fitting the data to predict centiles. it was 600 g for both sexes. Both distributions are recent methodologies that have not been extensively applied and tested on empirical data. The approach proposed to construct 3-month velocities for the full age range (birth to 24 months) was to use parameter curves (L. and the 4-month (birth to 24 months) intervals jointly in a cubic spline surface. it was necessary to add a constant value (termed delta.. Despite their magnitude. A similar procedure was applied in constructing the attained growth standards for length/height-for-age (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. observed 3-month increments were available only up to 14 months of age. Conducted comparisons demonstrated that adjusting for kurtosis resulted in very slight shifts in the predicted centiles. there was residual kurtosis after adjusting for the skewness parameter. the SEP distribution requires numerical integration for the calculation of z-scores. 2006a). In order to avoid having to apply the necessarily complicated resulting z-score calculation formula. Moreover. The velocity data were thus fitted using the LMS method. also investigated using the 2-month weight increments sample. This would be a major drawback for the application of the growth velocity standards.Methodology 9 (SHASH) distribution (Jones and Pewsey. these negative increments were not excluded and in each case they were followed by compensatory large increments. it was 500 g for boys and 800 g for girls. For the SEP distribution. A few trials with the SHASH distribution were carried out using the 2-month weight increments sample. the decision was made not to model kurtosis. In some cases. for the 4-month interval. 2008) and the skew exponential power (SEP) distribution (DiCiccio and Monti. M and S) estimated for the 2-month (birth to 24 months). but it varied by sex for some of the intervals. the final centile curves were practically unaffected and followed the empirical data closely. it was 350 g for boys and 450 g for girls. It was verified that. Before the BCPE could be applied to these data. For each interval for which the weight increment was modelled. As noted in section 2. the 3-month (birth to 14 months). the increment is negative and its absolute value is greater than delta). The delta values were near the absolute value of the minimum observed increment at each interval. 2004). The modelling proved to be unstable. When a child's increment is less than (-)delta (i. M and S values derived from the model fitted on the shifted observations should be used.4. the decision was made to revert to the BCPE (which readily simplifies to the LMS method (Cole and Green. 1992) if no adjustment for kurtosis is necessary). In the case of the 1-month interval. which were then shifted downward by the pre-added delta. a constant delta value was added at all ages. These were the result of smaller losses accumulated in two consecutive 2-month measurement intervals. both are available for application with the GAMLSS package (Stasinopoulos et al. three observed losses in the 4-month interval data for girls were between 600 g and 700 g. For example. delta was 400 g for both sexes. many of the models considered either failed to converge or did so only after 100 or more iterations. the delta value needs to be incorporated into the LMS formula. Delta should first be added to the child's increment and then the L.

or remaining skewness. Finally. df(µ)=9. which were estimated as constant values for both boys and girls. To minimize the right edge effect. an increment at age 5 months corresponds to the weight gain between ages 4 and 5 months.11-14mo). M and S parameters allowed the prediction of the 3-month velocity from birth to 24 months. an arbitrary starting model (BCPE(x=ageλ. girls' 2-month length velocity conditional on age). 2. The Q-test results were interpreted and considered simultaneously with results of worm plots (van Buuren and Fredriks. Prior to determining the best degrees of freedom for the parameter curves. In this exercise. The selection of the model in those cases relied more on the goodness of fit when comparing fitted with predicted 3rd to 97th centiles. in addition. 1-4mo. 5.and 4-month intervals were re-applied to the data but using the unified delta values. df(σ)=4. 2-5mo. On a few occasions. . M and S values were used to construct the centile curves using the usual LMS formulae (including delta in the case of weight). likely indicate that the smoothing curves cannot fully capture the inherent fluctuations across ages. the ages corresponding to the intervals were shifted to their mid-point. The exception was the L values for length.10 Methodology The following steps were undertaken: 1. the two diagnostic tools indicated significant residual skewness for the selected models (e. Given that adjustment for kurtosis was never considered. the variable age as used in the modelling exercise and subsequent diagnostic outputs refers to age in months at the end of the interval in question. 2001).05 and. increasing the number of degrees of freedom used to fit the parameter ν did not improve model adequacy.…. For length. It is worth noting that in the case of velocities conditional on age. the age-transformation power. the natural logarithm transformation was applied to the S estimates (similar to GAMLSS modelling).. The estimation obtained from the cubic splines for each of the L. It is worth mentioning that in all cases with significant residual skewness. a search was conducted for the best λ. For example. the search for the best BCPE model was carried out using only observed increments (i. the predicted L. In sum.e. 2004) was used to construct the growth standards.and 4-month intervals were used.g. the final BCPE parameter estimates for the 2. M and S parameter estimates obtained in steps 1 and 2 were fed into a cubic spline fitting exercise (a surface fitting of the parameter as a function of age and interval) that was done for each of the parameters separately. 4. τ=2)) was used and the selection was based only on the global deviance values over a preset grid of λ values. The three parameters were each fitted on transformed age to the power 0. Worm plots were examined to detect any misfit of the median or the variance. For this. especially in adjusting for skewness. df(ν)=4. there were some cases where the plots remained depicting non-flat worms (as S-shaped worms). parameter estimates up to 12 months only were used in the analyses described below. The GAMLSS package (Stasinopoulos et al. The final BCPE model specifications for the 2. it was necessary to unify the delta across intervals for each sex (650 g for boys and 800 g for girls). For both length and weight 3-month intervals. For weight. difficulties experienced in finding models of best fit. L. in the case of the 1-month weight velocity. rather than that the BCPE inadequately fits the increments at each age. 3.

1-3. df(µ)=9. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. eleven of which were excluded as outliers. leaving a final sample of 5231 observations for the modelling exercise. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=1 so the model BCPE(x=age0.3. 4. Tables generated from the 1-month increment curves contain estimated centiles for ages 0-1. CONSTRUCTION OF THE WEIGHT VELOCITY STANDARDS 3. …. τ=2) was further evaluated. df(µ)=9. 1-5. σ and ν (dotted blue line) using the final model and their respective empirical estimates (points in red).1a. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. …. There is no evidence of bias in any of the parameters.05.7 illustrates the fitting of parameters µ.05. df(σ)=4.6) from this model indicated adequate fit as the overall Q-test p-values were non-significant at the 5% level. . The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. The next three figures (A3. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A3. tables generated from the 2-month increment curves contain estimated centiles for ages 0-2.05. fixing λ=0. …. 18-24 months. …. 3. tables generated from the 3-month increment curves contain estimated centiles for ages 0-3. …. The overall Q-test p-values were all non-significant.5) show no evidence of bias when comparing fitted against empirical centiles or centile residuals. Table 4 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 1-month weight velocities between birth and 12 months. The best value of the agetransformation power was λ=0.05. The Q-test results (Table A3. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=4 and the model BCPE(x=age0. df(ν)=4. section A3. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. No bias is observed for any of the parameters.1 1-month intervals Boys There were 4869 1-month weight increments for boys. df(ν)=1. 3-.11 - . Girls There were 5242 1-month weight increments for girls. Yet the median fit for that model was under-smoothed compared to that of the boys and decreasing the df(µ) to 9 (the same as for the boys) resulted in a smoother curve. Figure A3. tables generated from the 4-month increment curves provide estimated centiles for ages 0-4. The Q-test results (Table A3. 1-2.2) and worm plots (Figure A3.05. 1-4. df(σ)=4. indicating an adequate fit of the boys' 1-month weight increments.and 6-month weight increments conditional on age.3.05. ν=1 and τ=2. 11-12 months.1) and worm plots (Figure A3. Figure A3. 20-24 months. except for a minor over-estimation of about 20 g in the 50th and 75th centiles. 1-7. and the tables from the 6-month increment curves provide estimated centiles for ages 0-6. A3. The model with df(µ)=9 and df(σ)=4 provided the smallest GAIC(3). 21-24 months.1. σ and ν curves (dotted blue line) against their corresponding empirical estimates (points in red).4 and A3.1) from this model indicated residual skewness in only 1 out of 12 age groups. 22-24 months. 2-. Figures A3.2 shows the fitted µ. τ=2) was further evaluated.1b. section A3.8 and A3.9 show adequate fitting of centile curves.1 Weight velocities conditional on age The objective was to create sex-specific velocity curves for 1-. ν=1 and τ=2. fixing λ=0. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A3. The model with df(µ)=13 and df(σ)=4 provided the smallest GAIC(3).

05.12). df(µ)=12.20).1.11) from this model indicated residual skewness in only 1 out of 17 age groups. df(ν)=4. comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles and centile residuals depict patterns of underestimation (25th centile) and over-estimation (75th centile) of about 25 g (Figures A3.4) and worm plots (Figure A3. fixing λ=0.14. and the overall Q-test p-values were non-significant at the 5% level. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A3. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=3 and the model BCPE(x=age0. df(ν)=3. The best value of the agetransformation power was λ=0.16) from this model indicated residual skewness in only 1 out of 17 age groups and the overall Q-test p-values were non-significant at the 5% level. The model with df(µ)=12 and df(σ)=6 provided the smallest GAIC(3). The Q-test results (Table A3. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves.17 shows adequate fitting of the parameters µ. Table 6 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 2-month weight velocities between birth and 24 months. τ=2) was further evaluated. . The model with df(µ)=12 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3). df(µ)=12.13 and A3.15 shows the distribution of empirical minus fitted centile differences. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A3. which indicate a slight over-estimation of the 75th centile (average of about 30 g) but no bias otherwise in any of the remaining centiles. Similar to the boys.2b. Table 5 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 1-month weight velocities between birth and 12 months. ν=1 and τ=2. averaging about 25 g and countered by an equally slight over-estimation in the 75th centile. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed.12 Weight velocity conditional on age Figure A3. df(σ)=5.3) and worm plots (Figure A3. ten of which were excluded as outliers. leaving a final sample of 7409 observations for the modelling exercise. ν=1 and τ=2. Table 7 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 2-month weight velocities between birth and 24 months.05. Figure A3.05.05. There appears to be a slight but systematic under-estimation in the 25th centile. σ and ν with the respective sample estimates. 3. seven of which were excluded as outliers. Figure A3. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=4 and the model BCPE(x=age0. leaving a final sample of 6882 observations for the modelling exercise.18 to A3. section A3. section A3. τ=2) was further evaluated.05.05. The fitted curves of the parameters µ. σ and ν seemed adequate when compared to the empirical values (Figure A3. The best value of the agetransformation power was λ=0.2a.2 2-month intervals Boys There were 6889 2-month weight increments for boys. Girls There were 7419 2-month weight increments for girls. The Q-test results (Table A3. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. The fitted centile curves and empirical centiles are shown in figures A3. df(σ)=6.10 depicts the distribution of the centile residuals. fixing λ=0.

.and 4-month intervals. df(ν)=2.1.05. The concordance between the predicted centiles and empirical values was evaluated by the comparisons in figures A3. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A3. seven of which were excluded as outliers. Thus. those parameter estimates were joined to their equivalents obtained from the 2. The model with df(µ)=8 and df(σ)=4 provided the smallest GAIC(3). df(µ)=8. Those parameter estimates were joined to their equivalents obtained from the 2. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. The smallest global deviance value corresponded to the age-transformation power λ=0. leaving a final sample of 4782 observations for the modelling exercise. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=4. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A3. the model BCPE(x=age0.5. Figures A3. Girls There were a total of 4789 3-month weight increments for girls. The model with df(µ)=8 and df(σ)=3 provided the smallest GAIC(3).05. M and S). section A3.05. df(σ)=4. for the benefit of jointly modelling parameter curves for the three intervals. df(σ)=3. Those show a slight over-estimation of about 50 g in the 75th and 90th centiles. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. The model BCPE(x=age0. section A3. df(µ)=8. The best value of the agetransformation power was λ=0.24 to A3.23 show minor bias (25 g on average) in the 10th and lower centiles (under-estimation) and a slight overestimation in the 75th and 90th centiles (less than 50 g on average). The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. fixing λ=0. τ=2) was selected to predict the girls' 3-month interval parameter curves up to age 12 months. M and S).3a.3 3-month intervals Boys There were 4440 3-month weight increments for boys. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed.3b. ν=1 and τ=2.05. Table 9 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 3-month weight velocities between birth and 24 months.and 4-month interval models (birth to 24 months) using the unified delta value (800 g) and a cubic spline surface was fitted for each parameter (L.26. df(ν)=4. fixing λ=0.and 4-month interval models (birth to 24 months) using the unified delta value (650 g) and a cubic spline surface was fitted for each parameter (L. τ=2) was selected to predict the boys' 3-month interval parameter curves up to age 12 months (see step 2 in section 2. Table 8 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 3-month weight velocities between birth and 24 months.05. The resulting predicted parameter estimates for interval 3-months (birth to 24 months) were used to construct the final centiles for girls. ν=1 and τ=2. three of which were excluded as outliers. In accordance with step 3 of the methodology described in section 2.21 to A3.Weight velocity conditional on age 13 3. The resulting predicted parameter estimates for interval 3-months (birth to 24 months) were used to construct the final centiles for boys. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=1 but df(ν)=2 yielded very similar GAIC(3) value and allowed the ν curve to closely follow the patterns observed for the 2.05. leaving a final sample of 4437 observations for the modelling exercise.5).

the fitted curves seem adequate. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A3. ν=1 and τ=2. four of which were excluded as outliers. Table 10 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 4-month weight velocities between birth and 24 months. The model with the smaller df(ν) was selected.05. Figure A3. The next three plots (figures A3. The best value of the agetransformation power was λ=0.14 Weight velocity conditional on age 3. σ and ν with the respective sample estimates. and an over-estimation in the 75th centile both less than 50 g. . with an overall Q-test p-value that was only marginally significant at the 5% level and thus the model was considered adequate.0441).05. Figure A3. df(µ)=9. except for an underestimation in the 5th and 10th centiles. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. leaving a final sample of 6533 observations for the modelling exercise. The model with df(µ)=9 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3). section A3.05.34 to A3. ν=1 and τ=2. The model with df(µ)=11 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3).4a. df(ν)=5.e.29 to A3. df(ν)=5. σ and ν curves against their corresponding empirical estimates. Although there are notable fluctuations for the σ and ν parameters. Table 11 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 4-month weight velocities between birth and 24 months.05.4 4-month intervals Boys There were 6058 4-month weight increments for boys.1. τ=2) and further evaluated. τ=2) was further evaluated. Comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles and centile residuals depict patterns of under-estimation in the 10th and 97th centiles and over-estimation in the 75th centile by about 50 g (Figures A3. fixing λ=0. In sum. the selected model was considered adequate for constructing the 4-month velocity for girls. section A3. model BCPE(x=age0. two of which were excluded as outliers. fixing λ=0. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=6 but with negligible difference from that yielded when df(ν)=5.36). The Q-test results (Table A3.28 shows the fitted µ. df(µ)=11. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. The overall Q-test p-value was marginally significant at the 5% level (p-value=0.32) from this model indicated residual skewness in 3 out of 15 age groups.31) show no evidence of bias when comparing fitted against empirical centiles or centile residuals.27) from this model indicated residual skewness in only 1 out of 15 age groups.6) and worm plots (Figure A3.05. The Q-test results (Table A3.4b. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=5 and the model BCPE(x=age0.33 shows adequate fitting of the parameters µ. df(σ)=5. i. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A3.5) and worm plots (Figure A3. df(σ)=5. Girls There were 6537 4-month weight increments for girls. leaving a final sample of 6056 observations for the modelling exercise. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves.05. The best value of the agetransformation power was λ=0.

fixing λ=0. ν=1 and τ=2.38 shows the fitted µ. leaving a final sample of 5246 observations for the modelling exercise.0448). The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=3. Figure A3. leaving a final sample of 5657 observations for the modelling exercise.05. df(σ)=5. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=4 and the model BCPE(x=age0. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A3.7) and worm plots (Figure A3.42) from this model indicated residual skewness in 2 out of 13 age groups. one of which was excluded as an outlier. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A3. fixing λ=0. df(µ)=7. The Q-test results (Table A3.40 and A3.1.41) show a slight bias (of about 50 g) when comparing fitted against empirical centiles or centile residuals at the 5th and 10th centiles (underestimation) and at the 75th and 90th centiles (over-estimation). The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves.05.8) and worm plots (Figure A3. A3.5b. .05. Comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles and centile residuals depict patterns of under-estimation in the 5th and 10th centiles by less than 50 g and over-estimation in the 75th and 90th centiles by about 50 g (Figures A3.05. The overall Q-test p-value for this parameter was marginally significant at the 5% level (p-value=0. σ and ν curves against their corresponding empirical estimates. The Q-test results (Table A3.05. σ and ν with the respective sample estimates. df(ν)=4. df(µ)=10. Thus the model BCPE(x=age0.43 shows adequate fitting of the parameters µ. five of which were excluded as outliers.39. Table 12 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 6-month weight velocities between birth and 24 months.44 to A3. The next three plots (figures A3. Figure A3.05. τ=2) was further evaluated.46). The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. There are some fluctuations for the parameter ν yet the fitted curve seems adequate. df(σ)=5. section A3. In sum. the selected model was considered adequate for constructing the 6-month velocity for girls. Table 13 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 6-month weight velocities between birth and 24 months. τ=2) was further evaluated. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. The best value of the agetransformation power was λ=0. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. The best value of the agetransformation power was λ=0. The model with df(µ)=7 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3). Girls There were 5662 6-month weight increments for girls.37) from this model indicated residual skewness in only 1 out of 13 age groups. with an overall Q-test p-value that was non-significant at the 5% level and thus the model was considered adequate.5a.Weight velocity conditional on age 15 3. df(ν)=3. ν=1 and τ=2. The model with df(µ)=10 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3). section A3.5 6-month intervals Boys There were 5247 6-month weight increments for boys.

Boys 1-month weight increments (g) Interval 0-4 wks 4 wks-2 mo 2-3 mo 3-4 mo 4-5 mo 5-6 mo 6-7 mo 7-8 mo 8-9 mo 9-10 mo 10-11 mo 11-12 mo La 1.4743 Sa 0.0488 921.5306 715.7659 0.6257 684.5306 715.33882 0.3470 1215.7419 0.32154 0.e.7241 0.33882 0.7620 0.32154 0.6257 684.7688 0.3989 1017.26783 0.19591 0.7688 0.7419 0. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.3989 1017.35502 δ 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 -3SD -160 354 178 44 -45 -128 -183 -223 -256 -286 -312 -333 -2SD 321 615 372 219 128 40 -21 -63 -98 -128 -153 -172 -1SD 694 897 585 411 318 224 161 118 84 55 34 22 Median 1023 1196 815 617 522 422 357 316 285 259 243 239 1SD 1325 1512 1061 837 738 632 565 528 500 478 469 475 2SD 1608 1844 1322 1069 965 853 785 752 729 711 710 726 3SD 1876 2189 1597 1313 1202 1083 1014 987 969 956 963 990 85th 1336 1524 1071 845 746 640 573 535 508 486 478 484 95th 1509 1724 1228 985 883 773 706 671 646 627 623 635 97th 1575 1803 1290 1041 937 826 758 724 701 683 680 695 99th 1697 1955 1410 1147 1041 927 859 827 806 790 791 811 The L.35502 δ 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 1st 182 528 307 160 70 -17 -76 -118 -153 -183 -209 -229 3rd 369 648 397 241 150 61 0 -43 -77 -108 -132 -150 5th 460 713 446 285 194 103 42 -1 -36 -66 -89 -106 15th 681 886 577 403 311 217 154 111 77 48 27 15 25th 805 992 658 476 383 287 223 181 148 120 100 91 50th 1023 1196 815 617 522 422 357 316 285 259 243 239 75th 1229 1408 980 764 666 563 496 457 429 405 394 397 Interval 0-4 wks 4 wks-2 mo 2-3 mo 3-4 mo 4-5 mo 5-6 mo 6-7 mo 7-8 mo 8-9 mo 9-10 mo 10-11 mo 11-12 mo La 1. Weight velocity conditional on age a 16 Table 4 .6249 822.7713 0.7659 0.1842 756.7459 658.7459 658.3828 0.7668 0.26783 0.4374 639.24854 0.3470 1215.30439 0.3828 0.6590 0.7241 0.19296 0.22048 0.28677 0.6249 822. M.4374 639.0783 1596.22790 0.7624 0.20965 0.28677 0.19591 0.24854 0.22790 0. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the 50th centile (or Median) values.7624 0.7003 0.19296 0.5809 643.20965 0.1842 756.22048 0.4743 Sa 0.6590 0.5809 643.7761 Ma 1423.7003 0.7761 Ma 1423.0783 1596.7713 0.7668 0.30439 0.7620 0.0488 921.

8825 888.19384 0.3023 710.7781 0.9803 801.7781 0.0098 984.7781 0.7781 0.4834 1411.8825 888.7781 0.7781 0.e.24596 0.6032 633.0098 984.7781 0. M.9803 801. 17 .4834 1411.30106 0.7781 0.33208 0.7781 0.7781 0.7781 0.7781 0.6923 672.19766 0.7781 Ma 1279.7781 0.28409 0.28409 0.24596 0.7781 0.31676 0.Girls 1-month weight increments (g) Interval 0-4 wks 4 wks-2 mo 2-3 mo 3-4 mo 4-5 mo 5-6 mo 6-7 mo 7-8 mo 8-9 mo 9-10 mo 10-11 mo 11-12 mo La 0.26515 0.7781 0.20995 0.6032 633.26515 0.6923 672.6072 644.7383 S 0.19766 0.7383 Sa 0.20995 0.2166 631.7781 Ma 1279.7781 0. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the 50th centile (or Median) values.22671 0.7781 0.2166 631.7781 0.7781 0.33208 0.1075 1118.7781 0.30106 0.1075 1118.31676 0.19384 0.7781 0. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.3910 744.21479 0.7781 0.3023 710.3910 744.22671 0.6072 644.34627 δ 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 -3SD 123 251 105 14 -62 -132 -185 -224 -259 -286 -307 -324 -2SD 358 490 297 192 108 31 -24 -64 -101 -131 -151 -166 -1SD 611 744 502 383 293 210 153 116 77 48 31 22 Median 879 1011 718 585 489 401 344 311 273 245 233 232 1SD 1161 1290 944 796 695 604 547 519 482 456 451 458 2SD 1453 1580 1178 1016 911 815 760 738 702 679 682 699 3SD 1757 1880 1421 1244 1134 1036 982 967 933 913 924 953 85th 1171 1301 952 804 703 611 555 526 489 464 459 467 95th 1348 1476 1094 937 833 739 684 659 623 598 598 612 97th 1418 1545 1150 990 885 790 734 711 675 652 653 670 99th 1551 1677 1256 1090 983 886 832 811 776 754 759 781 Weight velocity conditional on age Table 5 a The L.21479 0.34627 δ 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 1st 280 410 233 133 51 -24 -79 -119 -155 -184 -206 -222 3rd 388 519 321 214 130 52 -4 -44 -81 -110 -131 -145 5th 446 578 369 259 172 93 37 -2 -40 -70 -89 -102 15th 602 734 494 376 286 203 146 109 70 41 24 15 25th 697 829 571 448 355 271 214 178 139 110 95 88 50th 879 1011 718 585 489 401 344 311 273 245 233 232 75th 1068 1198 869 726 627 537 480 450 412 385 378 383 Interval 0-4 wks 4 wks-2 mo 2-3 mo 3-4 mo 4-5 mo 5-6 mo 6-7 mo 7-8 mo 8-9 mo 9-10 mo 10-11 mo 11-12 mo La 0.

22426 0.31858 0.9049 1057.32058 0.17025 0.6725 0.21318 0.0541 1014.7399 0.8040 986.17422 0.4661 1000.7965 978.17559 0.8655 0.7771 0.8554 0.5891 0.6120 2592.30864 0.6979 1272.e.8335 0.a La 0.6312 1077.5277 1201. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.18708 0.4016 976.4599 1143.29479 0.6088 0.6486 0.6270 0.28462 0.5954 0.1036 1744.7597 0.8748 Ma 2815.8210 0.24611 0.7191 0.32377 0. Weight velocity conditional on age Interval 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 11-13 mo 12-14 mo 13-15 mo 14-16 mo 15-17 mo 16-18 mo 17-19 mo 18-20 mo 19-21 mo 20-22 mo 21-23 mo 22-24 mo Boys 2-month weight increments (g) 18 Table 6 .32673 δ 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 1st 1144 1040 675 455 291 165 79 16 -41 -92 -132 -169 -202 -230 -250 -262 -272 -281 -291 -299 -307 -314 -320 3rd 1338 1211 810 576 404 271 182 117 60 10 -28 -62 -92 -119 -138 -148 -155 -162 -170 -178 -185 -191 -196 5th 1443 1303 884 642 466 330 238 172 115 67 30 -2 -31 -58 -75 -84 -90 -97 -104 -111 -118 -123 -128 15th 1720 1549 1081 820 634 487 390 323 266 219 187 159 133 109 93 87 84 79 73 67 61 57 53 25th 1890 1701 1202 930 738 585 486 417 360 315 286 260 236 212 197 193 192 188 182 176 171 167 164 50th 2216 1992 1438 1145 941 778 673 601 544 502 478 458 437 414 401 399 401 398 393 387 382 378 376 75th 2552 2296 1685 1371 1156 982 871 797 739 700 681 666 648 626 614 615 619 617 611 605 599 596 594 85th 2737 2463 1822 1496 1277 1096 982 907 848 810 795 782 766 744 731 734 739 737 731 725 719 715 713 95th 3054 2753 2059 1715 1486 1294 1175 1098 1039 1003 992 984 969 947 935 939 945 944 937 929 923 919 917 97th 3179 2868 2154 1802 1569 1374 1252 1174 1115 1079 1070 1064 1050 1028 1016 1020 1027 1025 1018 1010 1003 999 997 99th 3418 3088 2336 1970 1731 1528 1402 1322 1261 1227 1221 1218 1206 1183 1170 1176 1183 1181 1173 1164 1156 1151 1149 The L.8078 0.5821 999.0761 2038. M.9799 981.30285 0.3696 Sa 0.32222 0.20130 0.9680 998.1850 1000.6464 0.23472 0.6071 0.8197 1541.27217 0.4215 992.6959 0.32529 0.7188 0.3670 1377.8903 1101.9071 1037.7929 0.25918 0.31615 0.5915 0.31290 0. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the 50th centile values.8447 0.

3696 Sa 0.17559 0.7929 0.6464 0.32529 0.23472 0.9799 981. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.5891 0.0541 1014.32377 0.7771 0.30864 0.5277 1201.31290 0.32222 0.1850 1000.31615 0.22426 0.8748 Ma 2815.8447 0. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the Median values.9071 1037.8554 0.1036 1744.6979 1272.27217 0.8903 1101.5821 999.continued Interval 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 11-13 mo 12-14 mo 13-15 mo 14-16 mo 15-17 mo 16-18 mo 17-19 mo 18-20 mo 19-21 mo 20-22 mo 21-23 mo 22-24 mo La 0.8078 0.8197 1541.9049 1057.e.6088 0.6270 0.Boys 2-month weight increments (g) .31858 0.9680 998.7399 0.32058 0.6071 0.21318 0.24611 0.28462 0.7191 0.6486 0.20130 0.6725 0.4661 1000.25918 0.0761 2038.4016 976.32673 δ 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 -3SD 862 795 480 282 131 16 -64 -126 -181 -233 -278 -318 -353 -383 -405 -421 -434 -446 -457 -467 -477 -486 -495 -2SD 1285 1165 773 543 373 242 154 89 32 -18 -56 -91 -122 -149 -168 -179 -187 -195 -203 -211 -218 -224 -230 -1SD 1737 1564 1093 831 644 497 400 332 275 229 197 169 144 119 103 98 95 90 84 78 72 68 65 Median 2216 1992 1438 1145 941 778 673 601 544 502 478 458 437 414 401 399 401 398 393 387 382 378 376 +1SD 2718 2446 1808 1484 1264 1084 970 896 837 799 783 771 754 732 719 722 726 725 719 712 707 703 701 +2SD 3243 2926 2202 1846 1612 1414 1292 1213 1153 1119 1110 1105 1092 1069 1057 1061 1068 1067 1059 1051 1044 1039 1037 +3SD 3788 3430 2619 2233 1984 1769 1636 1553 1491 1459 1458 1459 1448 1424 1410 1416 1424 1422 1412 1401 1391 1385 1382 Weight velocity conditional on age Table 6 a The L.4215 992.30285 0.8040 986.18708 0.17422 0.5915 0.29479 0.5954 0.7597 0.8655 0.6959 0. M.4599 1143. 19 .8210 0.17025 0.7965 978.6312 1077.6120 2592.8335 0.3670 1377.7188 0.

a

La

0.4599

0.3294

0.3128

0.3560

0.4264

0.5002

0.5699

0.6268

0.6730

0.7102

0.7382

0.7605

0.7762

0.7864

0.7913

0.7922

0.7902

0.7866

0.7827

0.7795

0.7771

0.7755

0.7743

Ma

2497.0406

2314.2285

1907.0116

1673.5778

1482.7466

1342.3734

1251.4869

1181.4135

1116.8192

1078.3961

1058.4112

1040.8737

1027.9459

1019.6870

1016.4898

1017.5335

1017.2241

1012.8511

1007.2711

1001.8324

993.3265

980.7096

967.2057

Sa

0.18000

0.17612

0.17761

0.18421

0.19524

0.20864

0.22315

0.23586

0.24680

0.25656

0.26494

0.27292

0.28011

0.28705

0.29343

0.29961

0.30592

0.31201

0.31824

0.32415

0.33014

0.33605

0.34166

δ

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

1st

968

890

625

451

295

170

76

3

-59

-104

-135

-163

-185

-204

-219

-231

-243

-255

-267

-279

-291

-305

-318

3rd

1128

1030

740

556

395

267

175

103

40

-3

-31

-57

-78

-95

-108

-118

-128

-139

-151

-162

-174

-189

-202

5th

1216

1107

804

615

450

321

229

157

95

53

26

1

-19

-35

-47

-55

-64

-75

-86

-97

-109

-124

-137

15th

1455

1317

978

773

600

468

377

306

243

203

179

157

140

127

118

112

106

97

88

79

67

53

39

25th

1604

1450

1088

874

695

560

469

399

336

297

274

254

238

227

220

216

212

205

196

188

178

164

150

50th

1897

1714

1307

1074

883

742

651

581

517

478

458

441

428

420

416

418

417

413

407

402

393

381

367

75th

2210

2000

1545

1290

1085

938

846

775

708

670

652

637

626

621

622

627

631

631

628

626

620

608

596

85th

2386

2163

1681

1413

1200

1048

955

883

814

776

759

745

736

732

735

743

750

751

751

750

745

735

723

95th

2696

2452

1922

1632

1403

1243

1147

1072

999

960

944

932

924

924

930

943

954

959

962

965

963

954

942

97th

2820

2569

2020

1720

1486

1321

1223

1147

1073

1033

1018

1005

999

999

1007

1021

1035

1041

1046

1050

1049

1040

1029

99th

3062

2799

2213

1894

1646

1473

1372

1293

1215

1174

1159

1147

1142

1144

1154

1172

1189

1199

1206

1213

1214

1207

1197

The L, M, S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.e. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the

difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the 50th centile values.

Weight velocity conditional on age

Interval

0-2 mo

1-3 mo

2-4 mo

3-5 mo

4-6 mo

5-7 mo

6-8 mo

7-9 mo

8-10 mo

9-11 mo

10-12 mo

11-13 mo

12-14 mo

13-15 mo

14-16 mo

15-17 mo

16-18 mo

17-19 mo

18-20 mo

19-21 mo

20-22 mo

21-23 mo

22-24 mo

Girls 2-month weight increments (g)

20

Table 7

Girls 2-month weight increments (g) - continued

Interval

0-2 mo

1-3 mo

2-4 mo

3-5 mo

4-6 mo

5-7 mo

6-8 mo

7-9 mo

8-10 mo

9-11 mo

10-12 mo

11-13 mo

12-14 mo

13-15 mo

14-16 mo

15-17 mo

16-18 mo

17-19 mo

18-20 mo

19-21 mo

20-22 mo

21-23 mo

22-24 mo

La

0.4599

0.3294

0.3128

0.3560

0.4264

0.5002

0.5699

0.6268

0.6730

0.7102

0.7382

0.7605

0.7762

0.7864

0.7913

0.7922

0.7902

0.7866

0.7827

0.7795

0.7771

0.7755

0.7743

Ma

2497.0406

2314.2285

1907.0116

1673.5778

1482.7466

1342.3734

1251.4869

1181.4135

1116.8192

1078.3961

1058.4112

1040.8737

1027.9459

1019.6870

1016.4898

1017.5335

1017.2241

1012.8511

1007.2711

1001.8324

993.3265

980.7096

967.2057

Sa

0.18000

0.17612

0.17761

0.18421

0.19524

0.20864

0.22315

0.23586

0.24680

0.25656

0.26494

0.27292

0.28011

0.28705

0.29343

0.29961

0.30592

0.31201

0.31824

0.32415

0.33014

0.33605

0.34166

δ

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

-3SD

742

695

465

304

156

34

-61

-136

-199

-246

-280

-311

-336

-358

-375

-389

-402

-414

-426

-438

-450

-462

-474

-2SD

1085

991

709

528

367

241

148

75

13

-30

-60

-86

-107

-125

-138

-149

-159

-171

-183

-194

-207

-221

-234

-1SD

1469

1330

989

783

609

477

386

315

253

212

188

167

150

137

128

123

117

108

99

89

78

64

50

Median

1897

1714

1307

1074

883

742

651

581

517

478

458

441

428

420

416

418

417

413

407

402

393

381

367

+1SD

2368

2146

1667

1400

1189

1037

944

872

803

765

748

734

724

721

723

731

738

739

738

738

733

722

710

+2SD

2884

2630

2071

1766

1528

1361

1263

1186

1110

1070

1055

1043

1037

1038

1046

1062

1076

1083

1088

1093

1093

1085

1074

+3SD

3445

3167

2522

2172

1901

1714

1607

1522

1437

1393

1378

1367

1363

1368

1383

1406

1428

1443

1455

1466

1471

1466

1457

Weight velocity conditional on age

Table 7

a

The L, M, S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.e. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the

difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the Median values.

21

a

La

0.6854

0.6503

0.5884

0.5368

0.4999

0.4819

0.4866

0.5135

0.5582

0.6092

0.6580

0.7000

0.7323

0.7550

0.7695

0.7769

0.7781

0.7740

0.7663

0.7569

0.7475

0.7393

Ma

3638.8730

3215.1010

2661.5629

2231.9042

1939.0717

1745.5952

1611.6464

1514.8958

1442.6013

1387.8840

1346.3553

1314.9304

1291.3726

1273.8860

1261.0053

1251.6296

1244.9248

1240.2027

1235.8993

1229.8975

1220.6029

1206.8517

Sa

0.15801

0.16539

0.17708

0.18850

0.19877

0.20848

0.21853

0.22940

0.24108

0.25261

0.26315

0.27214

0.27922

0.28446

0.28821

0.29074

0.29231

0.29311

0.29350

0.29388

0.29460

0.29591

δ

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

1st

1733

1415

1011

704

496

355

249

162

86

21

-35

-80

-115

-141

-159

-171

-177

-180

-180

-180

-183

-189

3rd

1960

1621

1187

856

632

480

369

280

205

142

90

48

16

-8

-25

-36

-42

-46

-47

-49

-53

-61

5th

2083

1733

1284

940

707

550

436

346

271

210

159

119

88

65

49

38

32

28

26

24

19

10

15th

2409

2031

1542

1166

910

739

618

526

452

393

347

310

283

263

248

238

231

227

224

220

213

202

25th

2608

2214

1702

1307

1038

859

733

639

567

509

465

430

404

385

372

362

355

351

347

342

334

322

50th

2989

2565

2012

1582

1289

1096

962

865

793

738

696

665

641

624

611

602

595

590

586

580

571

557

75th

3383

2931

2337

1874

1558

1350

1208

1108

1036

982

942

913

891

874

861

852

846

841

836

829

819

804

85th

3600

3132

2518

2038

1709

1494

1348

1246

1173

1120

1080

1051

1029

1012

1000

991

984

979

975

968

957

941

95th

3972

3480

2833

2323

1975

1748

1595

1489

1414

1360

1320

1291

1269

1252

1239

1230

1223

1218

1214

1207

1196

1179

97th

4119

3618

2958

2438

2082

1850

1694

1587

1511

1457

1416

1387

1364

1347

1334

1324

1317

1313

1308

1302

1291

1274

99th

4401

3882

3199

2659

2289

2049

1888

1778

1700

1644

1602

1571

1547

1529

1515

1505

1499

1494

1490

1484

1473

1455

The L, M, S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.e. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the

difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the 50th centile values.

Weight velocity conditional on age

Interval

0-3 mo

1-4 mo

2-5 mo

3-6 mo

4-7 mo

5-8 mo

6-9 mo

7-10 mo

8-11 mo

9-12 mo

10-13 mo

11-14 mo

12-15 mo

13-16 mo

14-17 mo

15-18 mo

16-19 mo

17-20 mo

18-21 mo

19-22 mo

20-23 mo

21-24 mo

Boys 3-month weight increments (g)

22

Table 8

Interval

0-3 mo

1-4 mo

2-5 mo

3-6 mo

4-7 mo

5-8 mo

6-9 mo

7-10 mo

8-11 mo

9-12 mo

10-13 mo

11-14 mo

12-15 mo

13-16 mo

14-17 mo

15-18 mo

16-19 mo

17-20 mo

18-21 mo

19-22 mo

20-23 mo

21-24 mo

**Boys 3-month weight increments (g) - continued
**

La

0.6854

0.6503

0.5884

0.5368

0.4999

0.4819

0.4866

0.5135

0.5582

0.6092

0.6580

0.7000

0.7323

0.7550

0.7695

0.7769

0.7781

0.7740

0.7663

0.7569

0.7475

0.7393

Ma

3638.8730

3215.1010

2661.5629

2231.9042

1939.0717

1745.5952

1611.6464

1514.8958

1442.6013

1387.8840

1346.3553

1314.9304

1291.3726

1273.8860

1261.0053

1251.6296

1244.9248

1240.2027

1235.8993

1229.8975

1220.6029

1206.8517

Sa

0.15801

0.16539

0.17708

0.18850

0.19877

0.20848

0.21853

0.22940

0.24108

0.25261

0.26315

0.27214

0.27922

0.28446

0.28821

0.29074

0.29231

0.29311

0.29350

0.29388

0.29460

0.29591

δ

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

650

-3SD

1401

1116

758

488

305

179

82

-2

-79

-148

-208

-258

-297

-326

-346

-358

-365

-366

-365

-363

-362

-365

-2SD

1899

1565

1139

815

595

446

336

248

173

109

56

13

-20

-44

-61

-73

-79

-82

-83

-85

-89

-96

-1SD

2428

2049

1558

1180

923

751

629

537

464

405

358

322

295

275

260

250

244

239

236

232

225

214

Median

2989

2565

2012

1582

1289

1096

962

865

793

738

696

665

641

624

611

602

595

590

586

580

571

557

+1SD

3578

3112

2500

2021

1694

1479

1334

1232

1159

1105

1066

1037

1015

998

986

977

970

965

960

954

943

927

+2SD

4194

3688

3022

2496

2137

1902

1745

1637

1561

1506

1466

1435

1412

1395

1382

1372

1366

1361

1357

1350

1339

1322

+3SD

4836

4293

3576

3007

2618

2365

2197

2081

1998

1938

1893

1858

1832

1811

1797

1786

1779

1775

1772

1767

1756

1738

Weight velocity conditional on age

Table 8

a

The L, M, S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.e. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the

difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the Median values.

23

a

**Girls 3-month weight increments (g)
**

La

0.2298

0.0924

0.0599

0.1300

0.2404

0.3580

0.4576

0.5317

0.5891

0.6373

0.6806

0.7211

0.7527

0.7679

0.7642

0.7482

0.7267

0.7032

0.6782

0.6522

0.6262

0.6013

Ma

3403.9240

3054.3512

2618.6440

2277.5681

2030.2917

1855.0162

1724.5802

1624.4588

1552.7117

1506.4120

1476.5227

1455.9527

1442.0871

1434.2381

1431.1099

1429.1551

1425.3256

1418.4764

1409.2288

1398.1693

1385.3711

1370.5464

Sa

0.16227

0.15958

0.16338

0.16990

0.17960

0.19157

0.20334

0.21350

0.22168

0.22796

0.23285

0.23682

0.24040

0.24403

0.24794

0.25198

0.25598

0.25989

0.26384

0.26792

0.27191

0.27539

δ

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

800

1st

1493

1293

983

718

507

342

212

113

40

-11

-49

-79

-102

-120

-131

-139

-147

-155

-163

-172

-181

-190

3rd

1681

1453

1120

843

627

461

333

234

162

113

78

51

30

14

4

-4

-12

-21

-30

-41

-52

-63

5th

1784

1542

1197

913

694

528

400

301

230

181

147

122

102

88

78

70

62

53

43

32

20

8

15th

2067

1785

1409

1106

878

710

582

484

413

366

334

311

294

283

275

269

261

252

241

229

216

202

25th

2247

1941

1545

1229

995

825

697

598

528

481

451

429

413

403

397

392

385

376

366

354

340

326

50th

2604

2254

1819

1478

1230

1055

925

824

753

706

677

656

642

634

631

629

625

618

609

598

585

571

75th

2992

2600

2123

1752

1488

1305

1170

1066

992

944

914

894

880

875

875

877

877

873

867

859

848

834

85th

3215

2799

2299

1911

1636

1447

1309

1202

1126

1077

1046

1025

1012

1007

1010

1014

1017

1015

1011

1005

996

984

95th

3610

3159

2619

2197

1901

1700

1554

1442

1360

1308

1275

1252

1239

1235

1241

1251

1258

1261

1262

1260

1255

1246

97th

3772

3307

2751

2315

2009

1803

1653

1538

1454

1401

1366

1342

1328

1325

1333

1344

1354

1359

1361

1362

1359

1351

99th

4089

3600

3013

2549

2223

2005

1846

1724

1636

1579

1542

1515

1500

1497

1508

1524

1538

1548

1554

1559

1560

1556

The L, M, S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.e. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the

difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the 50th centile values.

Weight velocity conditional on age

Interval

0-3 mo

1-4 mo

2-5 mo

3-6 mo

4-7 mo

5-8 mo

6-9 mo

7-10 mo

8-11 mo

9-12 mo

10-13 mo

11-14 mo

12-15 mo

13-16 mo

14-17 mo

15-18 mo

16-19 mo

17-20 mo

18-21 mo

19-22 mo

20-23 mo

21-24 mo

24

Table 9

5802 1624.24403 0.26792 0.1693 1385.1551 1425.7679 0. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.2288 1398.3256 1418.27191 0.25198 0.17960 0. M.7527 0.5227 1455.24040 0.6782 0. 25 .23682 0.3512 2618.1300 0.1099 1429.7267 0.2917 1855.continued La 0.23285 0.9527 1442.25989 0.6262 0.4588 1552.22168 0.2404 0.9240 3054.19157 0. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the Median values.4576 0.26384 0.2298 0.7482 0.27539 δ 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 -3SD 1231 1072 792 544 340 175 43 -58 -132 -186 -228 -262 -290 -311 -323 -331 -337 -342 -347 -352 -358 -363 -2SD 1629 1409 1083 809 594 429 300 201 129 79 43 16 -6 -22 -33 -41 -49 -57 -67 -77 -87 -98 -1SD 2085 1801 1422 1118 890 721 593 495 424 378 346 323 306 295 287 281 274 265 254 242 228 214 Median 2604 2254 1819 1478 1230 1055 925 824 753 706 677 656 642 634 631 629 625 618 609 598 585 571 +1SD 3192 2779 2281 1894 1621 1433 1295 1189 1112 1064 1033 1012 999 994 996 1000 1002 1001 996 990 981 968 +2SD 3855 3383 2819 2376 2065 1856 1704 1587 1502 1448 1413 1388 1374 1371 1379 1392 1403 1409 1412 1414 1412 1406 +3SD 4600 4079 3445 2931 2570 2328 2153 2019 1921 1857 1815 1784 1766 1764 1779 1802 1824 1841 1856 1868 1878 1880 Weight velocity conditional on age Table 9 a The L.0924 0.3711 1370.5464 Sa 0.5317 0.6806 0.20334 0.7032 0.e.6522 0.22796 0.0599 0.25598 0.15958 0.0162 1724.6373 0.4120 1476.2381 1431.7117 1506.3580 0.6440 2277.6013 Ma 3403.Interval 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo 10-13 mo 11-14 mo 12-15 mo 13-16 mo 14-17 mo 15-18 mo 16-19 mo 17-20 mo 18-21 mo 19-22 mo 20-23 mo 21-24 mo Girls 3-month weight increments (g) .16990 0.0871 1434.5891 0.5681 2030.24794 0.4764 1409.7642 0.16338 0.16227 0.21350 0.7211 0.

4590 1262.4470 2424.4376 1315.0178 1526.22766 0.20390 0.4863 0.6482 0.8646 1284.8041 0.4321 0.8084 0.6287 1423.7222 0. M.4302 0.4881 0.7912 0.17439 0.29393 0.25575 0.27024 0.31520 0.7822 0.31482 0.7587 0.28350 0.7672 0.31327 0.1643 1257.31429 0.3463 1473.5472 1297.31114 0.30757 0.26 Table 10 Boys 4-month weight increments (g) a La 0.7712 0.31696 δ 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 1st 2196 1763 1242 914 696 526 390 270 175 101 43 -6 -37 -54 -62 -66 -66 -64 -62 -58 -54 3rd 2460 2006 1444 1086 848 666 526 409 320 251 195 147 115 99 91 87 84 82 80 80 81 5th 2603 2138 1554 1181 933 744 602 486 401 334 280 231 199 183 175 171 167 163 159 157 157 15th 2977 2490 1852 1440 1165 959 812 698 619 559 507 457 424 410 403 397 390 382 374 368 366 25th 3204 2706 2038 1602 1312 1097 945 832 757 700 648 598 564 550 543 537 529 519 508 501 497 50th 3636 3123 2400 1924 1607 1371 1212 1098 1026 974 924 871 835 821 815 809 798 785 771 762 757 75th 4079 3558 2784 2269 1926 1671 1501 1384 1313 1263 1213 1156 1118 1104 1099 1091 1079 1064 1049 1039 1035 85th 4321 3799 2998 2464 2108 1843 1666 1545 1473 1423 1373 1313 1274 1260 1255 1248 1235 1219 1204 1194 1190 95th 4734 4214 3371 2807 2432 2148 1958 1828 1753 1702 1649 1585 1542 1528 1523 1516 1503 1487 1472 1463 1461 97th 4896 4378 3520 2946 2563 2272 2077 1942 1864 1813 1759 1693 1648 1634 1630 1622 1609 1593 1578 1570 1570 99th 5206 4695 3809 3215 2820 2515 2308 2163 2080 2027 1970 1899 1852 1837 1833 1826 1813 1797 1783 1777 1779 The L.5632 0.9524 1321.2621 1308.e.31628 0.6678 0. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.7966 0.6071 1598.3339 Sa 0.8054 0.7469 0.19057 0.7539 1271.5468 1334.5825 0.15684 0. Weight velocity conditional on age Interval 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 9-13 mo 10-14 mo 11-15 mo 12-16 mo 13-17 mo 14-18 mo 15-19 mo 16-20 mo 17-21 mo 18-22 mo 19-23 mo 20-24 mo .4564 2900.21598 0.4914 1711.2992 3623.1094 2106.24076 0.30204 0.7242 0.31566 0.7181 1370.5547 1871. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the 50th centile values.6991 Ma 4136.

Interval 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 9-13 mo 10-14 mo 11-15 mo 12-16 mo 13-17 mo 14-18 mo 15-19 mo 16-20 mo 17-21 mo 18-22 mo 19-23 mo 20-24 mo La 0.continued a The L. M.2621 1308.7222 0.24076 0.4470 2424.7181 1370.4564 2900.19057 0.e.7587 0.5825 0.5468 1334.4321 0.30204 0.31520 0.4881 0. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the Median values.27024 0. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.21598 0.1643 1257.7712 0.7469 0.30757 0.31482 0.9524 1321.31566 0.7912 0.5547 1871.4590 1262.6482 0.8054 0.17439 0.6287 1423.5472 1297.4863 0.7966 0.8041 0.7822 0.7539 1271.2992 3623.28350 0.31628 0.6678 0.20390 0.31327 0.22766 0.29393 0.8646 1284.7672 0.31696 δ 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 -3SD 1807 1413 955 673 486 333 202 78 -25 -107 -168 -217 -248 -266 -275 -276 -272 -264 -255 -245 -237 -2SD 2389 1940 1389 1039 806 627 489 371 281 210 154 105 73 57 49 45 43 42 41 42 44 -1SD 3000 2511 1871 1456 1179 973 825 711 633 573 521 471 438 424 416 411 404 395 387 381 379 Median 3636 3123 2400 1924 1607 1371 1212 1098 1026 974 924 871 835 821 815 809 798 785 771 762 757 +1SD 4297 3774 2976 2444 2090 1825 1649 1528 1457 1407 1356 1297 1258 1244 1239 1232 1219 1204 1188 1178 1174 +2SD 4979 4462 3597 3017 2631 2336 2138 2000 1921 1870 1815 1748 1702 1688 1684 1676 1663 1648 1633 1625 1625 +3SD 5681 5186 4261 3641 3231 2905 2678 2513 2418 2359 2297 2219 2166 2151 2146 2140 2128 2114 2102 2100 2107 Weight velocity conditional on age Table 10 Boys 4-month weight increments (g) .15684 0.25575 0.3463 1473.1094 2106.5632 0.3339 Sa 0.4376 1315.8084 0.4914 1711.31114 0.31429 0.0178 1526.6071 1598.6991 Ma 4136.7242 0. 27 .4302 0.

0362 0.7127 1631.5334 1855.5922 1643.18968 0.6699 0.24275 0.20292 0.e.4069 0.5659 0.8194 2331.7222 1963. Weight velocity conditional on age Interval 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 9-13 mo 10-14 mo 11-15 mo 12-16 mo 13-17 mo 14-18 mo 15-19 mo 16-20 mo 17-21 mo 18-22 mo 19-23 mo 20-24 mo .23120 0.17682 0.0557 0.25952 0.26914 δ 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1st 1970 1646 1241 926 671 471 323 216 137 75 29 -6 -29 -41 -47 -48 -50 -52 -56 -59 -62 3rd 2176 1824 1397 1071 811 611 463 356 281 222 181 150 130 119 112 108 104 98 90 82 75 5th 2291 1924 1484 1152 890 689 541 435 360 303 264 235 216 206 199 194 188 180 171 162 152 15th 2606 2200 1726 1377 1108 904 755 649 576 522 486 461 446 436 430 423 415 405 392 379 366 25th 2806 2379 1883 1522 1248 1042 891 785 712 659 624 601 586 578 572 565 556 546 532 517 503 50th 3210 2741 2202 1817 1532 1319 1164 1055 980 926 892 869 855 849 844 839 831 821 807 792 776 75th 3653 3147 2561 2147 1846 1623 1460 1347 1267 1209 1171 1147 1133 1128 1126 1124 1120 1113 1102 1088 1075 85th 3909 3385 2772 2340 2028 1797 1630 1512 1429 1367 1326 1300 1286 1281 1281 1281 1280 1276 1267 1256 1245 95th 4370 3819 3157 2692 2357 2110 1932 1805 1712 1641 1594 1563 1547 1544 1547 1553 1558 1560 1557 1552 1547 97th 4560 4000 3318 2838 2493 2238 2054 1923 1826 1751 1700 1667 1650 1647 1652 1660 1668 1673 1674 1672 1669 99th 4935 4362 3641 3130 2762 2490 2295 2154 2047 1962 1904 1865 1847 1845 1853 1866 1880 1891 1899 1904 1909 The L.28 Table 11 Girls 4-month weight increments (g) a La 0.2729 Sa 0.26290 0.24522 0.21481 0.5248 3541.4454 1591.25623 0.3407 1691.0205 1780.8111 0.8064 0.25299 0. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the 50th centile values.6549 1668.4873 0.5249 Ma 4009.1498 3002.2985 2616.6227 0.26613 0.7139 0.2189 1621.0212 1607.5732 0.16054 0.0891 -0.7759 0.0491 -0.7201 0.7399 1576.6291 1655.24757 0.16706 0.6483 0.1899 0.7924 0.8520 1638.3154 0.23622 0.3840 1648. M.1251 1726.23980 0.7577 0. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.15636 0.22441 0.5089 2118.25015 0.

e.24757 0.5334 1855.16054 0.8194 2331.6483 0.6699 0.2189 1621.6549 1668.5659 0.7139 0.15636 0.8520 1638. 29 .8064 0.1899 0.2729 Sa 0.23120 0.4873 0.7759 0.0362 0.8111 0.2985 2616.26290 0.25299 0.4454 1591.7127 1631.5248 3541.continued a The L.25015 0.5922 1643.20292 0.24275 0.7201 0.5089 2118. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the Median values.18968 0.3407 1691.17682 0.7924 0.0891 -0.3154 0.0491 -0.21481 0.6291 1655.0205 1780.23622 0.26914 δ 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 -3SD 1683 1400 1027 727 477 278 130 20 -62 -132 -186 -229 -257 -271 -274 -270 -265 -261 -257 -253 -249 -2SD 2120 1775 1354 1031 773 572 424 318 241 182 139 107 87 75 69 66 62 57 50 44 37 -1SD 2625 2218 1742 1391 1122 918 768 663 589 536 500 475 460 451 444 437 429 419 406 393 379 Median 3210 2741 2202 1817 1532 1319 1164 1055 980 926 892 869 855 849 844 839 831 821 807 792 776 +1SD 3883 3360 2750 2320 2009 1779 1613 1495 1412 1351 1310 1284 1271 1266 1265 1265 1264 1259 1251 1239 1228 +2SD 4658 4094 3402 2914 2563 2304 2117 1984 1884 1807 1754 1719 1702 1700 1705 1715 1725 1731 1733 1733 1732 +3SD 5548 4965 4179 3614 3202 2898 2680 2521 2396 2293 2220 2172 2149 2148 2162 2185 2210 2233 2253 2272 2290 Weight velocity conditional on age Table 11 Girls 4-month weight increments (g) .26613 0.5732 0.25952 0.23980 0.7222 1963. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.0557 0.6227 0.7399 1576.5249 Ma 4009.1251 1726.16706 0.1498 3002. M.0212 1607.24522 0.3840 1648.22441 0.4069 0.25623 0.7577 0.Interval 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 9-13 mo 10-14 mo 11-15 mo 12-16 mo 13-17 mo 14-18 mo 15-19 mo 16-20 mo 17-21 mo 18-22 mo 19-23 mo 20-24 mo La 0.

5168 0.9058 1533. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the 50th centile values.31675 0.6081 1571.9406 1903.4895 0.31113 0.31549 0.6162 1590.4150 1616.6190 0.15679 0.4609 0.e. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.5697 0.5549 1557.0267 1545.5905 2501.26076 0.4856 0.30394 0.20802 0.4660 0.7478 Ma 4929.4511 0.7718 4243.6428 0.31347 0.27848 0.6160 1508.4744 Sa 0.5943 0.7187 0.31517 0.30878 0.30 Table 12 Boys 6-month weight increments (g) Interval 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 7-13 mo 8-14 mo 9-15 mo 10-16 mo 11-17 mo 12-18 mo 13-19 mo 14-20 mo 15-21 mo 16-22 mo 17-23 mo 18-24 mo La 0.2925 3442.9150 2879.31683 0.29319 0.22426 0.4490 0. M.6871 1520.7774 1709. .30647 δ 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 1st 2940 2342 1736 1319 1030 806 642 515 415 341 291 258 236 221 212 206 202 198 195 3rd 3229 2611 1968 1523 1217 982 813 683 582 506 455 422 400 386 377 372 368 363 360 5th 3387 2759 2096 1636 1321 1080 909 778 676 599 547 515 493 479 470 465 460 455 451 15th 3810 3157 2443 1945 1607 1351 1175 1042 938 858 805 772 750 735 725 719 713 706 700 25th 4072 3406 2662 2141 1789 1524 1346 1212 1106 1024 970 937 914 898 887 880 872 863 855 50th 4580 3893 3093 2530 2152 1871 1688 1553 1445 1359 1301 1267 1241 1222 1207 1196 1184 1171 1158 75th 5114 4411 3555 2949 2546 2249 2062 1927 1816 1725 1662 1624 1593 1569 1549 1533 1515 1496 1478 85th 5412 4701 3816 3188 2771 2465 2277 2141 2028 1934 1868 1827 1793 1765 1741 1721 1700 1677 1656 95th 5929 5210 4275 3609 3169 2849 2658 2521 2404 2304 2232 2184 2143 2108 2077 2050 2021 1992 1964 97th 6136 5413 4461 3779 3331 3005 2813 2675 2557 2453 2379 2329 2284 2246 2212 2182 2150 2117 2086 99th 6534 5809 4821 4112 3647 3311 3116 2978 2856 2746 2665 2609 2558 2513 2472 2435 2397 2358 2321 a Weight velocity conditional on age The L.1588 1651.8054 2220.5442 0.7336 0.17552 0.6849 0.1830 1794.31109 0.24197 0.5209 0.6833 2037.6649 0.7027 0.19228 0.

31675 0.7187 0.6649 0.6833 2037.9150 2879.19228 0.6849 0.30647 δ 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 -3SD 2524 1960 1411 1035 772 566 410 288 192 122 73 40 16 0 -11 -18 -23 -27 -31 -2SD 3151 2538 1905 1467 1166 933 766 637 536 460 409 377 355 340 331 326 322 318 314 -1SD 3836 3182 2465 1965 1625 1368 1192 1059 954 874 821 789 766 751 741 735 728 721 715 Median 4580 3893 3093 2530 2152 1871 1688 1553 1445 1359 1301 1267 1241 1222 1207 1196 1184 1171 1158 +1SD 5382 4672 3789 3163 2748 2443 2255 2119 2006 1912 1847 1806 1772 1745 1722 1702 1681 1659 1638 +2SD 6241 5518 4556 3867 3414 3086 2893 2755 2636 2531 2454 2403 2357 2316 2281 2249 2215 2181 2148 +3SD 7158 6432 5392 4642 4152 3800 3602 3461 3333 3212 3120 3053 2990 2932 2880 2832 2783 2733 2687 Weight velocity conditional on age Table 12 Boys 6-month weight increments (g) .6190 0.31683 0.30394 0.8054 2220. M.7336 0.31109 0.5209 0.4511 0.22426 0.4895 0.6081 1571.26076 0.4150 1616. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the Median values.27848 0.4856 0.1588 1651.5168 0.7478 Ma 4929.31347 0.5697 0.6160 1508.20802 0.6428 0.31549 0.29319 0.2925 3442.31517 0.4609 0.5943 0.6162 1590.24197 0.5549 1557.17552 0.Interval 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 7-13 mo 8-14 mo 9-15 mo 10-16 mo 11-17 mo 12-18 mo 13-19 mo 14-20 mo 15-21 mo 16-22 mo 17-23 mo 18-24 mo La 0.9406 1903.1830 1794.15679 0.9058 1533. 31 .6871 1520.4744 Sa 0.4660 0.7774 1709.5442 0.5905 2501.e.7718 4243.31113 0.continued a The L.30878 0.7027 0.4490 0.0267 1545.

2944 1850.28481 0.27943 0.30278 0.29696 0. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.4246 0.Interval 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 7-13 mo 8-14 mo 9-15 mo 10-16 mo 11-17 mo 12-18 mo 13-19 mo 14-20 mo 15-21 mo 16-22 mo 17-23 mo 18-24 mo La -0.0280 0.5063 2248.6943 1677.0429 1713.15945 0.25997 0.3361 1758.29439 0.3567 1725.3097 0.8691 1703.6489 0.24383 0.6772 1659.0799 0.29175 0.28870 0.7206 0.6812 0.1942 0.7016 0.2742 1939.1223 -0.9660 1640.30619 0.9319 3327.29971 0.1167 1691.27156 0.7438 Sa 0.7315 2853.3800 2501.4715 1793.20514 0.7317 0.18755 0. M.22466 0.5512 1738.5250 0.30991 0.7065 0.6643 0.6644 0.6476 Ma 4528.31376 32 Table 13 Girls 6-month weight increments (g) δ 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 1st 2701 2174 1684 1279 964 725 549 425 340 284 249 230 221 216 211 204 193 178 161 3rd 2924 2381 1877 1461 1140 900 725 603 519 465 431 412 401 394 386 377 365 348 330 5th 3049 2498 1985 1563 1240 999 824 702 619 565 532 513 501 492 484 474 461 444 425 15th 3395 2822 2286 1846 1514 1271 1097 975 891 838 805 785 772 762 751 740 726 708 689 25th 3620 3033 2480 2030 1692 1446 1271 1147 1063 1009 975 956 942 931 920 908 894 876 857 50th 4079 3462 2878 2403 2052 1799 1618 1489 1400 1343 1309 1288 1275 1264 1253 1242 1228 1210 1191 75th 4597 3946 3324 2821 2451 2186 1996 1857 1760 1697 1660 1639 1627 1617 1608 1599 1586 1569 1551 85th 4902 4231 3586 3064 2682 2409 2211 2065 1962 1895 1855 1834 1823 1815 1807 1800 1788 1772 1754 95th 5462 4753 4063 3506 3099 2807 2592 2430 2314 2238 2194 2173 2163 2158 2155 2151 2143 2128 2111 97th 5697 4971 4262 3689 3271 2969 2746 2577 2454 2375 2329 2307 2299 2296 2294 2292 2285 2271 2254 99th 6170 5409 4660 4054 3610 3288 3047 2862 2726 2638 2588 2566 2560 2560 2563 2565 2561 2549 2533 a Weight velocity conditional on age The L.6042 0.17265 0. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the 50th centile values.5880 2068.6534 0.e.7288 0. .9831 3911.

18755 0.e.3567 1725.1167 1691.29439 0.30278 0.6943 1677.7016 0.continued a The L.3800 2501.24383 0.9319 3327.29696 0.Interval 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 7-13 mo 8-14 mo 9-15 mo 10-16 mo 11-17 mo 12-18 mo 13-19 mo 14-20 mo 15-21 mo 16-22 mo 17-23 mo 18-24 mo La -0.6643 0.27156 0.2742 1939.0799 0.6772 1659.5512 1738.5250 0.7317 0.9660 1640.30991 0.5063 2248.3097 0.6476 Ma 4528.30619 0.28870 0.0280 0. S values provided are estimated based on the modelling of the shifted observations (i.17265 0.7288 0.15945 0.31376 δ 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 -3SD 2395 1889 1421 1032 725 486 308 182 93 34 -2 -20 -26 -27 -26 -30 -38 -51 -66 -2SD 2862 2324 1824 1411 1092 852 677 554 470 415 381 362 352 345 338 330 317 301 283 -1SD 3417 2843 2305 1864 1532 1288 1114 992 908 855 822 802 789 778 768 756 742 724 705 Median 4079 3462 2878 2403 2052 1799 1618 1489 1400 1343 1309 1288 1275 1264 1253 1242 1228 1210 1191 +1SD 4870 4201 3559 3039 2658 2386 2189 2044 1941 1875 1835 1815 1803 1795 1787 1779 1768 1752 1733 +2SD 5820 5085 4366 3784 3360 3053 2825 2652 2526 2444 2397 2376 2368 2366 2365 2364 2358 2345 2328 +3SD 6964 6141 5320 4653 4164 3802 3527 3311 3153 3049 2991 2969 2967 2974 2984 2993 2995 2986 2972 Weight velocity conditional on age Table 13 Girls 6-month weight increments (g) .25997 0.3361 1758.6812 0. 33 .1942 0. M.29175 0.27943 0.29971 0.6534 0.6489 0.5880 2068.4246 0.8691 1703.7065 0.6644 0.6042 0.7315 2853.28481 0.1223 -0.7438 Sa 0.0429 1713.2944 1850. by the addition of delta to the actual increment) which explains the difference (equals to delta) in value between the "M" and the Median values.9831 3911.4715 1793.7206 0.20514 0.22466 0.

2 0.2 -0.0 2. df(µ)=9.0 0.3 7.5 -0.0 0. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of. respectively.4 0. variance or skewness.8 9.8 0.5 1.0 1.9 -0. .4 0.0 -0.2 -0.3 0. df(ν)=4.6 0.34 Weight velocity conditional on age Appendix A3 Diagnostics A3.1 -0.8 0. df(σ)=4.3 3.4 -0.2 0.0 -0.3 -0.1 1.0 8.4 0.5 -1.1a 1-month intervals for boys Table A3.9 -0.2272 z2 0.8 0.2 0.5994 z3 -0.5 0.05.3 -0.4 4. τ=2)] for 1-month weight velocity for boys Age (days) 26 to 44 44 to 76 76 to 107 107 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 370 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-1 mo 1-2 mo 2-3 mo 3-4 mo 4-5 mo 5-6 mo 6-7 mo 7-8 mo 8-9 mo 9-10 mo 10-11 mo 11-12 mo N 419 417 415 405 406 408 410 406 396 392 396 399 4869 z1 -0.6 -1.4 0.7 -0. mean.1 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.1 0.0 0.4060 Note: Absolute values of z1.5 0.3 8.

df(ν)=4.05.Weight velocity conditional on age 35 8-9 mo 9-10 mo 10-11 mo 11-12 mo 4-5 mo 5-6 mo 6-7 mo 7-8 mo 0-1 mo 1-2 mo 2-3 mo 3-4 mo Figure A3. df(µ)=9. df(σ)=4.1 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. τ=2)] for 1-month weight velocity for boys .

35 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 Age (months) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0.25 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 0.4 Age (months) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Age (months) Figure A3.6 0.20 0.30 0.0.2 Fitting of the µ. and ν curves of selected model for 1-month weight velocity for boys Weight velocity conditional on age Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 1-mo weight increment (g) 36 1 .0 1.8 1. σ.2 1.

50th.3 . 90th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 1-month weight velocity for boys 37 Figure A3. 10th.1500 Weight velocity conditional on age 1000 97th 500 90th 50th 0 1-mo weight increment (g) Fitted Empirical 10th 3rd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Age (months) 3rd.

4 5th.1500 38 1000 500 95th 75th 25th 5th 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Age (months) Figure A3. 75th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 1-month weight velocity for boys Weight velocity conditional on age 50th 0 1-mo weight increment (g) Fitted Empirical . 25th. 50th.

5 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 1-month weight velocity for boys .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 60 20 -20 -60 -20 20 60 10th Centile -60 -20 -60 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 6 7 8 9 10 12 8 9 10 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 60 -60 -20 20 60 -20 5 7 97th Centile -60 4 6 60 3 20 60 20 3 5 -20 2 95th Centile -20 2 4 -60 1 90th Centile 1 3 20 60 20 -60 2 2 75th Centile -20 20 -20 -60 1 1 50th Centile 60 25th Centile -60 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 1-mo weight increment (g) 20 60 5th Centile Weight velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 Age (months) 39 Figure A3.

df(σ)=4.5 -0.5 0.7 -1.4 16. mean.3 -0.0 0.3 6.8 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.1b 1-month intervals for girls Table A3. τ=2)] for 1-month weight velocity for girls Age (days) 26 to 44 44 to 76 76 to 107 107 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 370 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-1 mo 1-2 mo 2-3 mo 3-4 mo 4-5 mo 5-6 mo 6-7 mo 7-8 mo 8-9 mo 9-10 mo 10-11 mo 11-12 mo N 446 441 441 436 438 439 440 433 433 431 423 430 5231 z1 -0. respectively.9 -0.5 9.2 0.9 0.5 1.8 -0.40 Weight velocity conditional on age A3. df(ν)=1.0 1.2 -0.6 0.4 0.1422 Note: Absolute values of z1.1278 z3 -0.8 -0.4 -1.0832 z2 0. variance or skewness. df(µ)=9.3 -0. .0 1.5 0.3 1.1 14.5 -2.1 -0.7 -0.1 -0.5 1.7 3.1 0.2 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.05.9 -1.0 11.1 1.2 1.6 -0.7 -1. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.0 -2.

τ=2)] for 1-month weight velocity for girls . df(σ)=4.05. df(ν)=1.Weight velocity conditional on age 41 8-9 mo 9-10 mo 10-11 mo 11-12 mo 4-5 mo 5-6 mo 6-7 mo 7-8 mo 0-1 mo 1-2 mo 2-3 mo 3-4 mo Figure A3.6 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(µ)=9.

0.20 0.25 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 1400 1200 1000 800 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 Age (months) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0. and ν curves of selected model for 1-month weight velocity for girls Weight velocity conditional on age Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 1-mo weight increment (g) 42 1 . σ.35 0.0 Age (months) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Age (months) Figure A3.7 Fitting of the µ.8 1.30 0.6 0.4 0.

50th. 10th.1500 Weight velocity conditional on age 1000 500 97th 90th 50th 0 1-mo weight increment (g) Fitted Empirical 10th 3rd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Age (months) 3rd.8 . 90th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 1-month weight velocity for girls 43 Figure A3.

9 5th. 50th.1500 44 1000 500 95th 75th 25th 5th 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Age (months) Figure A3. 25th. 75th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 1-month weight velocity for girls Weight velocity conditional on age 50th 0 1-mo weight increment (g) Fitted Empirical .

10 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 1-month weight velocity for girls .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 20 40 0 -40 0 20 40 10th Centile -40 0 -40 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 7 8 9 10 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 20 40 -40 0 20 40 -40 4 6 97th Centile 0 20 40 3 5 20 40 2 95th Centile 0 2 4 -40 1 90th Centile 1 3 0 20 40 0 2 2 75th Centile -40 0 -40 1 1 50th Centile 20 40 25th Centile -40 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 1-mo weight increment (g) 20 40 5th Centile Weight velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 Age (months) 45 Figure A3.

0 4.2 -0. variance or skewness.9 1.2 0.3 14.1 11. .4 1.1 0.0 -0.1 2.8 0.1 0.8 -0. mean.0 -1.3 0. df(µ)=12.0 0.0 1.4 0.4 -0.5 -0.1 0.0 19. df(σ)=6.8 0.6 -1.1 -0.9 0.3 -0.3 1.0 0.3 -1.4 1.3 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.3 -0.3 0.1 1.9 0.8 0.2a 2-month intervals for boys Table A3.2 -0.2 0.1 0.7 -0.2 1.1 -0.4 -0.2 -0.3 -0. respectively. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.1 -0.1 -1. df(ν)=3.4 5. τ=2)] for 2-month weight velocity for boys Age (days) 55 to 76 76 to 107 107 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 738 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo 14-16 mo 16-18 mo 18-20 mo 20-22 mo 22-24 mo N 419 413 407 406 406 404 408 397 392 399 386 399 406 406 410 413 411 6882 z1 -0.6 13.1555 Note: Absolute values of z1.1 1.6004 z3 -0.4921 z2 0.5 -1.4 -0.1 -0.5 0.46 Weight velocity conditional on age A3.3 -0.3 1.05.1 0.

Weight velocity conditional on age 47 20-22 mo 22-24 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo 14-16 mo 16-18 mo 18-20 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo Figure A3.05.11 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(ν)=3. df(σ)=6. τ=2)] for 2-month weight velocity for boys . df(µ)=12.

6 0.30 0. σ.0 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 2-mo weight increment (g) 48 2 .8 1.25 0.20 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 2500 2000 1500 1000 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0. and ν curves of selected model for 2-month weight velocity for boys Weight velocity conditional on age 0.4 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A3.0.12 Fitting of the µ.

90th. 50th.13 3rd.3000 Weight velocity conditional on age 2000 1000 97th 90th 50th 0 2-mo weight increment (g) Fitted Empirical 10th 3rd 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 49 Figure A3. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month weight velocity for boys . 10th.

50th. 75th.14 5th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month weight velocity for boys Weight velocity conditional on age 50th 0 2-mo weight increment (g) Fitted Empirical . 25th.3000 50 2000 1000 95th 75th 25th 5th 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A3.

15 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month weight velocity for boys .4 6 8 10 14 18 22 100 50 0 -100 0 50 100 10th Centile -100 0 -100 2 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 6 8 10 14 18 22 8 10 14 18 22 18 2 4 6 22 8 10 14 18 22 100 -100 0 50 100 0 14 22 97th Centile -100 8 10 18 100 6 50 100 50 6 14 0 4 95th Centile 0 4 8 10 -100 2 90th Centile 2 6 50 100 50 -100 4 4 75th Centile 0 50 0 -100 2 2 50th Centile 100 25th Centile -100 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 2-mo weight increment (g) 50 100 5th Centile Weight velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 Age (months) 51 Figure A3.

05.4 0.2b 2-month intervals for girls Table A3.1 -0.52 Weight velocity conditional on age A3.1 0.4 13.2 -1.7 0.2 -0.5 0.1 -0.0 0.6 6.2 -0. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.4 1. respectively.5 -0.6 0.7 0.5 -0.0 0.3 -0.3 0.2 -0.5 0.2 2.2 -0. τ=2)] for 2-month weight velocity for girls Age (days) 58 to 76 76 to 107 107 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 738 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo 14-16 mo 16-18 mo 18-20 mo 20-22 mo 22-24 mo N 444 440 438 440 435 437 435 436 425 428 430 440 440 440 437 431 433 7409 z1 0.4 0.8 14.6 -1. mean.6 1.4676 z3 -1.6 -0.3 1.4 -1.5 -0.9 0.8 -0.2863 z2 0.5 1.2 0.6 -0.4 -1.0 0.2 5.1 1.8 0.3 -1.1 0.3632 Note: Absolute values of z1. .2 0.4 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.9 1. df(µ)=12.7 -0.0 0.2 13. df(σ)=5.0 -0.4 14. variance or skewness. df(ν)=4.2 -0.8 0.0 0.0 -0.9 0.2 -0.

16 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.05. df(σ)=5.Weight velocity conditional on age 53 20-22 mo 22-24 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo 14-16 mo 16-18 mo 18-20 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo Figure A3. df(µ)=12. τ=2)] for 2-month weight velocity for girls . df(ν)=4.

30 0.20 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 2500 2000 1500 1000 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0. σ. and ν curves of selected model for 2-month weight velocity for girls Weight velocity conditional on age 0.17 Fitting of the µ.2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A3.25 0.4 0.0.8 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 2-mo weight increment (g) 54 2 .6 0.

10th.18 3rd. 50th. 90th.2500 2000 1500 1000 97th 500 90th 50th 0 2-mo weight increment (g) Weight velocity conditional on age Fitted Empirical 10th 3rd 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 55 Figure A3. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month weight velocity for girls .

50th. 25th. 75th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month weight velocity for girls Weight velocity conditional on age 50th 0 2-mo weight increment (g) 2500 56 Fitted Empirical .19 5th.2000 1500 1000 95th 500 75th 25th 5th 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A3.

20 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month weight velocity for girls .4 6 8 10 14 18 22 50 0 -50 0 50 10th Centile -50 0 -50 2 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 6 8 10 14 18 22 6 8 10 14 18 22 14 18 22 22 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 50 -50 0 50 -50 8 10 18 97th Centile 0 50 6 14 50 4 95th Centile 0 4 8 10 -50 2 90th Centile 2 6 0 50 0 4 4 75th Centile -50 0 -50 2 2 50th Centile 50 25th Centile -50 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 2-mo weight increment (g) 50 5th Centile Weight velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 Age (months) 57 Figure A3.

90th.21 3rd.3a 3-month intervals for boys 3000 2000 97th 90th 50th 0 10th 3rd 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A3. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month weight velocity for boys Weight velocity conditional on age 1000 3-mo weight increment (g) Fitted Empirical . 10th. 50th.58 4000 A3.

22 5th. 75th. 25th. 50th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month weight velocity for boys .4000 Weight velocity conditional on age 3000 2000 1000 95th 75th 50th 25th 5th 0 3-mo weight increment (g) Fitted Empirical 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) 59 Figure A3.

23 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month weight velocity for boys Weight velocity conditional on age Empirical-Fitted Centile for 3-mo weight increment (g) 50 150 5th Centile 60 3rd Centile .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 150 50 -50 -150 -50 -150 -150 -50 50 150 10th Centile 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 12 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 8 9 10 12 14 12 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 12 14 150 -150 -50 50 150 -50 7 9 10 97th Centile -150 6 8 150 5 50 150 50 -50 5 7 -50 4 95th Centile -150 4 6 -150 3 90th Centile 3 5 50 150 50 -150 4 4 75th Centile -50 50 -50 -150 3 3 50th Centile 150 25th Centile 6 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Age (months) Figure A3.

90th. 10th.Weight velocity conditional on age A3.3b 3-month intervals for girls 2000 97th 90th 1000 3-mo weight increment (g) 3000 Fitted Empirical 50th 0 10th 3rd 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) 61 Figure A3. 50th.24 3rd. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month weight velocity for girls .

25th. 50th. 75th.62 2000 1000 95th 75th 25th 5th 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A3. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month weight velocity for girls Weight velocity conditional on age 50th 0 3-mo weight increment (g) 3000 Fitted Empirical .25 5th.

26 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month weight velocity for girls .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 150 50 -50 -150 -50 50 150 10th Centile -150 -50 -150 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 8 9 10 12 14 12 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 12 14 150 -150 -50 50 150 -50 7 9 10 97th Centile -150 6 8 150 5 50 150 50 5 7 -50 4 95th Centile -50 4 6 -150 3 90th Centile 3 5 50 150 50 -150 4 4 75th Centile -50 50 -50 -150 3 3 50th Centile 150 25th Centile -150 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 3-mo weight increment (g) 50 150 5th Centile Weight velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Age (months) 63 Figure A3.

df(σ)=5.2 0.8 -1.0 12.9 1.5 10. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.2 -0. .3 1.1 0. df(ν)=5.3 1.4 0.05.7 0.64 Weight velocity conditional on age A3. respectively.1 0.9 0.4 1.5 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.7 -1.5 -1.0 4.2898 z2 0.0 18.7 -1.8 -0.0 0.1 -0.0 0.1 -0.1 5.7 -0.4 0.3 0. df(µ)=11.0 0.2 -0.4 -0.5 2.8 1. τ=2)] for 4-month weight velocity for boys Age (days) 113 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 750 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo N 409 407 412 408 400 394 395 406 396 392 400 404 413 408 412 6056 z1 -0.7 0.2 -0.1 -0.4 0.4 0. variance or skewness.4a 4-month intervals for boys Table A3.1 -1.1 0.6128 z3 0.4 0.4 -0.2 0.9 1.1 -0.7 0.5 10.4 -0.0 0.0 0. mean.0467 Note: Absolute values of z1.1 1.

05. τ=2)] for 4-month weight velocity for boys . df(σ)=5.Weight velocity conditional on age 65 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo Figure A3. df(ν)=5.27 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(µ)=11.

and ν curves of selected model for 4-month weight velocity for boys Weight velocity conditional on age 0.8 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 4-mo weight increment (g) 66 4 .28 Fitting of the µ.25 0.2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A3.4 0.30 0.20 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 3500 2500 1500 24 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0.6 0. σ.6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0.

5000 Weight velocity conditional on age 3000 2000 97th 90th 1000 4-mo weight increment (g) 4000 Fitted Empirical 50th 0 10th 3rd 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Age (months) 67 Figure A3. 10th. 50th. 90th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month weight velocity for boys .29 3rd.

5000 68 3000 2000 75th 50th 25th 5th 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Age (months) Figure A3. 25th.30 5th. 75th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month weight velocity for boys Weight velocity conditional on age 1000 95th 0 4-mo weight increment (g) 4000 Fitted Empirical . 50th.

31 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month weight velocity for boys .6 8 10 14 18 22 50 0 -100 0 50 10th Centile -100 0 -100 4 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 8 10 14 18 22 8 10 14 18 22 18 4 6 22 8 10 14 18 22 50 -100 0 50 -100 14 22 97th Centile 0 50 8 10 18 50 6 95th Centile 0 6 14 -100 4 90th Centile 4 8 10 0 50 0 6 6 75th Centile -100 0 -100 4 4 50th Centile 50 25th Centile -100 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 4-mo weight increment (g) 50 5th Centile Weight velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 Age (months) 69 Figure A3.

4b 4-month intervals for girls Table A3.4 -1.1 -0.4 -2.6 0.4 0.0 0.6 2.4 7.1 0.6 -0.1 0.1 -0.0 0.0 0.9 -1.0 -0.70 Weight velocity conditional on age A3.1 1.1 0.2 0.9 12.1 6.7 1.3 0.4 -0.0441 Note: Absolute values of z1.7951 z3 -0.0 -0.05.2 0. respectively.4 6.6 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.2 0. .3 -0.0 0. df(σ)=5. variance or skewness. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.3 -0.1 0.5 -0.4 -0.9 2.5 -0.6 -0.1 1.5 0.6 1.3 0.3776 z2 0. df(µ)=9.7 0.0 -0.7 0. τ=2)] for 4-month weight velocity for girls Age (days) 119 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 749 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo N 441 441 439 436 430 438 431 426 432 433 436 444 434 432 440 6533 z1 -0.3 0. mean.8 0.2 0.3 1.2 18. df(ν)=5.7 10.9 0.

df(ν)=5. df(µ)=9.Weight velocity conditional on age 71 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo Figure A3. τ=2)] for 4-month weight velocity for girls .05.32 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(σ)=5.

33 Fitting of the µ. and ν curves of selected model for 4-month weight velocity for girls Weight velocity conditional on age 0.2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A3.2 0.4 0.8 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 4-mo weight increment (g) 72 4 .16 0.0.6 0.24 0.0 -0.28 0. σ.20 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0.

50th.4000 2000 3000 Empirical 97th 1000 90th 50th 10th 3rd 0 4-mo weight increment (g) Weight velocity conditional on age Fitted 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Age (months) 73 Figure A3. 90th. 10th.34 3rd. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month weight velocity for girls .

50th. 25th. 75th.74 2000 3000 Empirical 95th 1000 4-mo weight increment (g) 4000 Fitted 75th 25th 0 5th 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Age (months) Figure A3. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month weight velocity for girls Weight velocity conditional on age 50th .35 5th.

6 8 10 14 18 22 50 100 0 -100 0 50 100 10th Centile -100 0 -100 4 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 8 10 14 18 22 8 10 14 18 22 18 4 6 22 8 10 14 18 22 50 100 -100 0 50 100 -100 14 22 97th Centile 0 50 100 8 10 18 50 100 6 95th Centile 0 6 14 -100 4 90th Centile 4 8 10 0 50 100 0 6 6 75th Centile -100 0 -100 4 4 50th Centile 50 100 25th Centile -100 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 4-mo weight increment (g) 50 100 5th Centile Weight velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 Age (months) 75 Figure A3.36 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month weight velocity for girls .

3 0.5 3.2 0.5a 6-month intervals for boys Table A3.1 0.1 0.2 0.9516 z3 -0.05.3 1.7 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.3 -0. mean. df(σ)=5.5 0.2 1.3 0.6 -0. τ=2)] for 6-month weight velocity for boys Age (days) 175 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 750 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 8-14 mo 10-16 mo 12-18 mo 14-20 mo 16-22 mo 18-24 mo N 415 409 408 398 392 405 401 403 396 394 409 411 405 5246 z1 -0.1 0.76 Weight velocity conditional on age A3.0 0. respectively.8 10.0 0. .0 3. variance or skewness.7 0.2 0.3 -1.3 0.9 10. df(ν)=3. df(µ)=10.0581 Note: Absolute values of z1.3 -0.2 0.0 0.6 1.0 0.1 -0.5 0.1 -0.8 -0.5 -0.1 0.1 3.8 0.1 -0.0 -0.5 3. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.3246 z2 -0.8 17.3 -1.0 -0.3 1.3 0.0 0.3 -1.

37 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.Weight velocity conditional on age 77 18-24 mo 10-16 mo 12-18 mo 14-20 mo 16-22 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 8-14 mo 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo Figure A3. df(µ)=10. df(ν)=3. df(σ)=5.05. τ=2)] for 6-month weight velocity for boys .

4 0. and ν curves of selected model for 6-month weight velocity for boys Weight velocity conditional on age 0.8 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 6-mo weight increment (g) 78 6 7 8 9 .25 0.2 6 7 8 9 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A3.15 0.20 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 5000 4000 3000 2000 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 7 8 9 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0.5 0.38 Fitting of the µ.30 0. σ.7 0.3 0.0.6 0.

4000 3000 2000 97th 90th 1000 6-mo weight increment (g) 5000 6000 Weight velocity conditional on age Fitted Empirical 50th 10th 3rd 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 79 Figure A3. 90th.39 3rd. 10th. 50th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month weight velocity for boys .

4000 3000 2000 95th 50th 25th 5th 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A3. 25th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month weight velocity for boys Weight velocity conditional on age 75th 1000 6-mo weight increment (g) 5000 6000 80 Fitted Empirical . 75th.40 5th. 50th.

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 50 100 -100 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 50 100 97th Centile -100 0 50 100 95th Centile -100 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 75th Centile 50 100 8 0 50 100 0 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 -100 6 90th Centile 6 8 0 50 100 0 8 6 50th Centile -100 -100 0 50 100 25th Centile 6 10th Centile 0 50 100 -100 0 50 100 0 -100 6 -100 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 6-mo weight increment (g) 5th Centile Weight velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 81 Figure A3.41 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month weight velocity for boys .

respectively.3 9.0 0.5 6. df(µ)=7.5b 6-month intervals for girls Table A3.1 -0.7 -0.3 -0.9577 z3 -0. variance or skewness.2 -0.1 0.4 17.5 2.1 -0.6 -0.2 0.4 0.9 -0.3 1.4 2.5 2.1 -0.2 0.7 0. .0 -0.8 10.0 0.2 -0.2773 z2 0.2 -0.1 1.2 -0.1 -1.2 -0.0 -0. df(σ)=5. τ=2)] for 6-month weight velocity for girls Age (days) 175 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 750 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 8-14 mo 10-16 mo 12-18 mo 14-20 mo 16-22 mo 18-24 mo N 442 437 433 437 430 430 438 433 427 440 440 428 442 5657 z1 -0.1 0.0 -0.4 0.5 -0.8 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.0 0.7 -0. mean.82 Weight velocity conditional on age A3.0448 Note: Absolute values of z1.5 3. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.05.2 -0.8 1.1 -0. df(ν)=4.4 0.6 7.7 0.5 0.

df(µ)=7. τ=2)] for 6-month weight velocity for girls . df(ν)=4.05.42 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.Weight velocity conditional on age 83 18-24 mo 10-16 mo 12-18 mo 14-20 mo 16-22 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 8-14 mo 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo Figure A3. df(σ)=5.

20 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 4500 3500 2500 1500 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 7 8 9 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0.6 0. σ. and ν curves of selected model for 6-month weight velocity for girls Weight velocity conditional on age 0.2 0.8 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 6-mo weight increment (g) 84 6 7 8 9 .0.30 0.0 6 7 8 9 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A3.4 0.43 Fitting of the µ.25 0.

4000 3000 2000 97th 90th 50th 1000 6-mo weight increment (g) 5000 Weight velocity conditional on age Fitted Empirical 10th 3rd 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 85 Figure A3.44 3rd. 50th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month weight velocity for girls . 10th. 90th.

50th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month weight velocity for girls Weight velocity conditional on age 75th .45 5th. 75th. 25th.4000 3000 2000 6-mo weight increment (g) 5000 86 Fitted Empirical 95th 1000 50th 25th 5th 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A3.

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 150 -50 -150 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 150 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 150 97th Centile -50 -150 -50 50 150 95th Centile -150 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 75th Centile -50 8 50 150 50 -50 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 -150 6 90th Centile 6 8 50 150 50 -50 8 6 50th Centile -150 -150 -50 50 150 25th Centile 6 10th Centile 50 150 -150 -50 50 150 50 -50 -150 6 -150 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 6-mo weight increment (g) 5th Centile Weight velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 87 Figure A3.46 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month weight velocity for girls .

Only the median is provided when the sample size is too small. g/d.88 3. which present the median and the 25th. . are expected to be particularly useful for lactation management purposes. The tables. respectively.5 kg.2 Weight velocity from birth to 60 days Centile tables of weight velocity by birth weight category from birth to 60 days This section provides sex-specific centiles for weight increments conditional on birth weight for oneor two-week intervals from birth to 2 months following the MGRS longitudinal component visits schedule. as happened for the birth-weight group 2 to 2. these figures come from calculating individual daily increments for newborns in each of the birth-weight categories and then estimating centiles directly from the raw g/d values. The daily weight gains. The values are presented both as net increments in grams and as g/day over each index period. The estimation of the centiles was done using the STATA software. Instead. which applies a simple method of ranking observations in the sample. The rows of the tables show age intervals in days and the columns provide the grouping of the birth weights in grams. are not the simple average of the gross gains or losses reported in corresponding weekly and fortnightly tables. 10th and 5th centiles that were generated based on empirical estimates. Tables 14 and 16 show the weight gain values by birth-weight group and age interval for boys and girls. Tables 15 and 17 present the sex-specific daily weight gain values by birth-weight groups and age interval.

Weight velocity from birth to 60 days 89 Table 14 Boys weight increments (g) by birth-weight groups Age (days) 0-7 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 2000-2500 2500-3000 150 150 -* 0 -* -150 -* -200 (7) (88) Birth weight (g) 3000-3500 3500-4000 150 150 0 0 -150 -250 -250 -300 (142) (100) 4000+ 50 -50 -250 -250 (46) All 150 0 -150 -250 (383) 7-14 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 275 -* -* -* (6) 250 150 0 -100 (88) 250 150 50 -50 (141) 250 100 0 -50 (100) 275 150 50 -100 (46) 250 150 0 -50 (381) 14-28 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 600 -* -* -* (7) 700 550 450 450 (95) 650 550 450 350 (154) 700 500 400 350 (113) 725 550 400 400 (48) 650 550 450 350 (417) 28-42 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 600 -* -* -* (7) 550 500 350 300 (95) 550 450 350 300 (156) 550 450 350 300 (113) 548 450 300 300 (46) 550 450 350 300 (417) 42-60 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 450 -* -* -* (7) 650 550 450 450 (96) 650 500 400 350 (153) 650 500 400 350 (113) 611 400 300 217 (47) 650 500 400 350 (416) Note: Results are based on empirical centiles. *: n is too small to estimate lower centiles. .

. *: n is too small to estimate lower centiles.90 Weight velocity from birth to 60 days Table 15 Boys weight velocity (g/d) by birth weight-groups Age (days) 0-7 Birth weight (g) 3000-3500 3500-4000 21 21 0 0 -21 -36 -36 -43 (142) (100) Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 2000-2500 21 -* -* -* (7) 2500-3000 21 0 -21 -29 (88) 4000+ 7 -7 -36 -36 (46) All 21 0 -21 -36 (383) 7-14 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 40 -* -* -* (6) 36 21 0 -14 (88) 33 19 6 -7 (141) 31 14 0 -7 (100) 36 25 6 -14 (46) 36 19 0 -7 (381) 14-28 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 43 -* -* -* (7) 50 39 34 32 (95) 46 39 30 25 (154) 50 36 29 23 (113) 50 37 33 29 (48) 47 38 32 25 (417) 28-42 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 40 -* -* -* (7) 42 36 27 21 (95) 40 31 25 21 (156) 41 33 24 21 (113) 40 31 21 21 (46) 40 32 25 21 (417) 42-60 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 24 -* -* -* (7) 35 29 25 24 (96) 34 28 21 17 (153) 34 26 22 19 (113) 34 23 15 14 (47) 34 28 22 18 (416) Note: Results are based on empirical centiles.

*: n is too small to estimate lower centiles.Weight velocity from birth to 60 days 91 Table 16 Girls weight increments (g) by birth-weight groups Age (days) 0-7 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 2000-2500 2500-3000 0 150 -* 0 -* -100 -* -150 (18) (109) Birth weight (g) 3000-3500 3500-4000 100 100 0 0 -100 -150 -200 -250 (147) (85) 4000+ 150 0 -100 -200 (25) All 100 0 -100 -200 (384) 7-14 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 200 -* -* -* (18) 200 100 0 -100 (108) 200 100 0 -50 (147) 200 100 0 -100 (84) 200 100 50 0 (25) 200 100 0 -50 (382) 14-28 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 500 -* -* -* (20) 600 450 400 300 (124) 550 436 350 300 (176) 550 450 300 250 (93) 600 450 300 200 (28) 550 450 350 300 (441) 28-42 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 500 -* -* -* (20) 500 382 300 300 (127) 465 400 300 250 (174) 457 325 295 200 (92) 525 375 300 300 (28) 500 382 300 250 (441) 42-60 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 550 -* -* -* (18) 550 400 300 300 (127) 500 400 300 289 (175) 585 408 350 250 (92) 550 334 155 150 (28) 550 400 300 288 (440) Note: Results are based on empirical centiles. .

92 Weight velocity from birth to 60 days Table 17 Girls weight velocity (g/d) by birth-weight groups Age (days) 0-7 2500-3000 21 0 -14 -21 (109) Birth weight (g) 3000-3500 3500-4000 14 14 0 0 -14 -21 -29 -36 (147) (85) Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 2000-2500 0 -* -* -* (18) 4000+ 21 0 -14 -29 (25) All 14 0 -14 -29 (384) 7-14 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 29 -* -* -* (18) 29 14 0 -12 (108) 29 14 0 -7 (147) 29 14 0 -14 (84) 29 14 7 0 (25) 29 14 0 -7 (382) 14-28 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 36 -* -* -* (20) 43 33 29 21 (124) 39 32 25 21 (176) 42 32 23 18 (93) 44 31 22 17 (28) 39 32 25 21 (441) 28-42 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 36 -* -* -* (20) 36 27 23 21 (127) 35 28 21 18 (174) 32 25 18 15 (92) 38 26 21 21 (28) 35 27 21 18 (441) 42-60 Median 25th 10th 5th (n) 29 -* -* -* (18) 31 23 19 17 (127) 27 21 18 15 (175) 32 23 19 13 (92) 29 20 9 9 (28) 29 22 18 15 (440) Note: Results are based on empirical centiles. . *: n is too small to estimate lower centiles.

4. . 1-7. The model with df(µ)=9 and df(σ)=7 provided the smallest GAIC(3). To examine if the recoding of these few negative values had an impact on the final centiles. df(ν)=1. 1-4. 4.2).1) from this model agree with the Q-test results. On the strength of biology. …. At the -3SD. leaving a final sample of 7015 observations for the modelling exercise. Tables generated from the 2-month increment curves provide estimated centiles for ages 0-2. df(σ)=7.93 - . which are shown in figures A4. τ=2) was further evaluated.05.16%) between -0.05.20%) between -0. and for girls 15 out of 7504 (0. This was caused by residual skewness (absolute z3 values larger than 2) in three out of 17 age groups. the fitted curves of the parameters µ. one comparison was made using the girls' 2-month length increments with the negative (adding a delta value to all observations) versus the recoded values.3 and A4. ν=1 and τ=2. Negative length increments are clearly the result of measurement error since children cannot grow shorter.1a.1 cm. Table 18 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 2-month length velocities between birth and 24 months. ….5 cm (22-24 months). This group was selected since it had a larger number of negative increments. the two models yielded identical estimates for the intervals between birth and 14 months. …. σ and ν seemed adequate when compared to the empirical values (Figure A4. df(µ)=9. by at most 0. The recoding had no impact on the model specifications and the resulting centiles changed only slightly.1) indicate an adequate fit of the parameters µ and σ (p-values > 0. CONSTRUCTION OF THE LENGTH VELOCITY STANDARDS The objective was to create sex-specific velocity curves for 2-. By contrast. fixing λ=0. Treating negative increments as zero growth constrained centile estimates to be zero or above but did not introduce bias.1 2-month intervals Boys There were 7016 2-month length increments for boys.4.5 and -0. Using the nominal shift to "no growth" thus averted the biological contradiction of expected/predicted negative growth at the extreme low centiles.01 to enable their inclusion in the BCPE modelling. therefore. indicate close concordance between the two. 21-24 months. one of which was excluded as an outlier. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=1 and the model BCPE(x=age0. and for very few cases.75 and -0. section A4.05 cm. tables generated from the 4-month increment curves provide estimated centiles for ages 0-4.1 cm (14-16 months) and -0. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A4. 20-24 months.5 shows the distribution of empirical minus fitted centile differences with no indication of systematic bias except for a slight under-estimation of the 25th centile by about 0.05 cm. tables generated from the 3-month increment curves provide estimated centiles for ages 0-3. negative increments were recoded as "no growth" by assigning the nominal value of +0. The overall Q-test p-values (Table A4. 1-5. The best value of the agetransformation power was λ=0. The numbers involved were small: for the 2-month increments for boys 11 out of 7016 (0. 1-3. 22-24 months. For the later ages. the analysis including the negative increments resulted in negative centile estimates ranging between -0. and tables generated from the 6-month increment curves provide estimated centiles for ages 0-6.05 cm.05) yet a significant p-value for the skewness parameter ν.4. 18-24 months. 3-. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. The worm plots (Figure A4. Figure A4.05.and 6-month length increments conditional on age. …. The fitted centile curves and empirical centiles. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed.

df(σ)=6. df(µ)=10.7 displays adequate fitting of the parameters µ and σ. There were four out of 17 groups with residual skewness. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=1 and the model BCPE(x=age0. resulting in a significant p-value for the overall test of the ν parameter at level 5%.94 Length velocity conditional on age Girls There were 7504 2-month length increments for girls. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. . The diagnostic test results are presented in Appendix A4.and 4-month interval models (birth to 24 months) and a cubic spline surface was fitted for the µ and σ parameters (M and S).2) and worm plots (Figure A4. The model with df(µ)=7 and df(σ)=6 provided the smallest GAIC(3). The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves.05.1 cm (Figures A4.8 to A4. Figures A4. Table 20 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 3-month length velocities between birth and 24 months. df(σ)=7. The Q-test results (Table A4. comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles and centile residuals depict some patterns of negligible biases usually less than 0. fixing λ=0. figure A4. df(ν)=1. Those parameter estimates were joined to their equivalents obtained from the 2.11 to A4. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A4. ν=1 and τ=2.05. Similar to the boys.05.1 cm over-estimation) comparing the empirical and fitted centiles. fixing λ=0. The best value of the agetransformation power was λ=0.5). two of which were excluded as outliers. 4. ν=1 and τ=2. τ=2) was further evaluated. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves.13 show negligible size bias (of about 0. Table 19 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 2-month length velocities between birth and 24 months.05. section A4. τ=2) was selected to predict the boys' 3-month interval parameter curves up to age 12 months (see step 2 in section 2. Furthermore. and reasonable smoothing of the fluctuations in the ν parameter when compared with the respective sample estimates.6) indicated an adequate fit of the parameters µ and σ. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. leaving a final sample of 4543 observations for the modelling exercise. and the centile residuals.05. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=1 and thus the model BCPE(x=age0. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. For the L curve. the fitted constant (df(ν)=1 in the model above for the first year) was projected into the second year. in the 75th centile and above. The resulting predicted parameter estimates for the 3-month interval (birth to 24 months) from the fitted spline surface (M and S) plus the constant value for L were used to construct the final centiles for the boys' 3-month interval.1b. section A4. The model with df(µ)=10 and df(σ)=7 provided the smallest GAIC(3).2a.2 3-month intervals Boys There were 4545 3-month length increments for boys.10). df(ν)=1. df(µ)=7.05.

05. df(µ)=8.05.1 cm in the 75th centile. df(ν)=1. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. the fitted constant for the ν parameter (L) was projected from the first into the second year. The ν parameter empirical curve exhibits fluctuations that are reasonably averaged by the fitted value. The diagnostic test results are presented in Appendix A4.19. The next three plots (figures A4. The model BCPE(x=age0. one of which was excluded as an outlier. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. τ=2) was selected to predict the girls' 3-month interval parameter curves up to age 12 months.16) show only an average overestimation smaller than 0.15) and centile residuals (A4.05. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. df(σ)=5. section A4.Length velocity conditional on age 95 Girls There were 4866 3-month length increments for girls.17) from this model indicated an adequate fit of the data with only 1 out of 15 age groups showing misfit of the median (absolute z1>2) and 2 out of 15 age groups with residual skewness (absolute z3>2). σ and ν curves against their corresponding empirical estimates. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=1. The model with df(µ)=8 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3).and 4-month interval models (birth to 24 months) for the µ and σ parameters (M and S) and a cubic spline surface was used to fit each of these parameters.18 shows the fitted µ. ν=1 and τ=2. df(σ)=5. 4. df(µ)=8. Comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles (A4. except for a slight under-estimation in the 10th and lower centiles by about 0. and the model BCPE(x=age0.20 and A4. fixing λ=0.05. The diagnostic test results are presented in Appendix A4. Table 21 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 3-month weight velocities between birth and 24 months. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=1.3a. section A4.14 and A4. The smallest global deviance value corresponded to the age-transformation power λ=0.05. ν=1 and τ=2.5. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. Following step 3 of the methodology described in section 2. Similar to boys. The predicted parameter estimates from the fitted spline surface (M and S) for 3-month interval (birth to 24 months) plus the constant value for L were used to construct the final centiles for the girls' 3-month interval. leaving a final sample of 4865 observations for the modelling exercise. df(ν)=1.1 cm. .2b. Table 22 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 4-month length velocities between birth and 24 months. A4. Yet the overall Q-test p-value was non-significant at the 5% level and thus the model was considered adequate. those parameter estimates were joined to their equivalents obtained from the 2. The model with df(µ)=8 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3).3) and worm plots (Figure A4.05. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. τ=2) was further evaluated. Figure A4.21) show no evidence of bias when comparing fitted to empirical centiles or centile residuals.3 4-month intervals Boys There were 6183 4-month length increments for boys. fixing λ=0. The Q-test results (Table A4.

The Q-test results (Table A4.23 shows adequate fitting of the parameters µ and σ with the respective sample estimates and a fair constant fitting of the fluctuations in the empirical curve for ν by the selected model. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. Figure A4. ν=1 and τ=2. df(σ)=5. Table 24 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 6-month length velocities between birth and 24 months. except for a slight over-estimation by about 0. df(σ)=5. the simpler model (i.05. Although the smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=3.28 shows the fitted µ. σ and ν curves against their corresponding empirical estimates.05. the model with df(ν)=1 was also considered to be more consistent with the other intervals. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A4. Figure A4. The Q-test results (Table A4. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. The model with df(µ)=7 and df(σ)=5 corresponded to the smallest GAIC(3).4) and worm plots (Figure A4. Comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles and centile residuals depict a reasonable fit of the data with a slight over-estimation in the 75th centile by about 0. τ=2) was further evaluated.05.05. A4.05. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed.27) from this model indicated an adequate fit of the data with only 1 out of 13 age groups showing misfit of the skewness (absolute z3>2). fixing λ=0. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=1 and the model BCPE(x=age0. Since there were no detectable differences in the final centiles estimated by either model.96 Length velocity conditional on age Girls There were 6620 4-month length increments for girls. Table 23 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 4-month length velocities between birth and 24 months.31) show no evidence of bias when comparing fitted to empirical centiles or centile residuals.4a. section A4. The ν parameter empirical curve fluctuated and was well averaged by the fitted constant value. 4.30 and A4.29.24 to A4. fixing λ=0. BCPE(x=age0. . section A4.5) and worm plots (Figure A4.e. The next three plots (figures A4. τ=2) was further evaluated. df(ν)=1.26). df(µ)=8. Yet the overall Q-test p-value was non-significant at the 5% level and thus the model was considered adequate.1 cm in the 90th and 95th centiles. The diagnostic test results are presented in the Appendix A4. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. one of which was excluded as an outlier.05.4 6-month intervals Boys There were a total of 5358 6-month length increments for boys. df(µ)=7. The model with df(µ)=8 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3). The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. df(ν)=1. leaving a final sample of 5357 increments for the modelling exercise.3b.22) from this model indicated clearly that it was adequate for constructing the 4-month velocity curves for girls.05 cm (Figures A4. ν=1 and τ=2.

df(σ)=4. Table 25 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 6-month length velocities between birth and 24 months.34 to A4. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. Figure A4.33 shows adequate fitting of the parameters µ and σ curves with the respective sample estimates. ν=1 and τ=2. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=1 and the model BCPE(x=age0. df(µ)=7. τ=2) was further evaluated.36).32) from this model indicated clearly that it was adequate for constructing the 6-month velocity curves for girls.05.05. . The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. fixing λ=0.4b.6) and worm plots (Figure A4.05. The fluctuations in the empirical curve for ν are fitted reasonably well by the constant in the selected model. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A4.Length velocity conditional on age 97 Girls There were 5739 6-month length increments for girls. df(ν)=1. Comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles and centile residuals depict fair concordance between the empirical and fitted data (Figures A4. section A4. The Q-test results (Table A4. The model with df(µ)=7 and df(σ)=4 provided the smallest GAIC(3).

32400 0.3 7.9 2.4 0.0 3.6 95th 10.14062 0.9497 0.9497 0.1 3.3 3.0 1.6 0.2 3.31391 0.1 9.0 0.4 2.2 50th 8.7 0.9 3.0 0.5716 4.3 1.6901 2.3 3.1 4.9 0.2 4.4 4.3 3.7 0.3 0.5 3.1 2.9 3.20929 0.34908 0.2 1.3 1.0 4.4 1.5 3.5 2.8 2.7 Length velocity conditional on age Interval 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 11-13 mo 12-14 mo 13-15 mo 14-16 mo 15-17 mo 16-18 mo 17-19 mo 18-20 mo 19-21 mo 20-22 mo 21-23 mo 22-24 mo .2 1.1357 2.6 2.7 0.5 4.7 1.5 2.8 6.2 4.7 3.1 2.5 4.2 0.0 1.24323 0.2 3.4 2.98 Table 18 Boys 2-month length increments (cm) L 0.0 2.1 5.7 1.7 3.7 3.30505 0.5 0.8030 1.6 4.8 0.5 3.4 5.0 0.5785 2.3 0.4 2.6 3.0 1.4820 6.9497 0.0 5.3 2.1 3.2 3.9 5.4 1.3 99th 11.5 1.1 1.1 4.9 0.9 0.5 1.7 3.4 3.3 1.8 2.0 3rd 6.6 1.0 0.41274 0.3 6.0 2.6 1.5 0.5 3.9 1.5 0.9 2.5 1.9 1.26837 0.4 1.1 97th 10.4 4.7 2.0 1.7 2.3 5.6 0.4 3.4 3.7 2.9497 0.9 3.8 3.7 1.9497 0.4 4.8 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.8 1.6 2.3 1.8 3.2 3.3 2.6 1.42656 0.8 2.13400 0.9497 0.8 2.5 3.8 0.7 0.5 3.3 5.9497 0.9497 0.8 3.3 0.1 4.5 2.7 75th 9.6 4.6 2.4 2.9 4.8972 1.8 2.8 1.7575 1.2 3.0 0.3 4.9497 0.2 1.7 4.5 0.1 3.7 5.6 4.9497 0.6 3.4 3.48129 1st 5.7 3.9497 0.3818 2.6 5.4 0.5 3.8 0.28481 0.8 2.5 0.0675 2.3 1.8 3.45398 0.7 2.9661 2.7 1.3 1.36174 0.2 6.33613 0.5 1.8 1.4 3.2403 2.7 6.8 3.38645 0.9984 5.0061 1.3 85th 9.9 4.8 1.7228 3.4724 2.8 1.2978 2.6 5.4 1.7 8.5 2.0 2.3 1.2 3.6 7.7133 S 0.9 3.0 3.9497 0.7 3.0 3.4 6.44029 0.29636 0.1 3.9497 0.3 3.9497 0.3 2.8 1.37410 0.4 2.3 7.4 15th 7.9495 1.7 0.6 3.9497 0.0 0.3 2.4 4.9497 0.7 2.2138 2.4 4.9 1.1 2.4 8.2 5th 6.4 3.9497 M 8.9 0.7 6.2 3.9497 0.7 4.9 25th 7.2 5.8 4.3 4.0 0.6 0.6 1.9497 0.2 1.3 1.46768 0.0 4.8 0.9497 0.9497 0.4 0.0 1.4 2.9 7.39924 0.6 8.3 0.1 2.7 0.1 1.4 1.17179 0.4 0.8 1.7 2.4941 3.2 2.7 3.2 4.9497 0.8089 2.1 0.9497 0.1 1.9 3.0 4.1 1.2 0.3 3.8 2.3 4.7 2.2 1.0 6.1 2.8490 1.7 3.1 3.5 7.

3 0.0 0.0 1.9 10.1 0.1 1.8030 1.6 2.4 2.26837 0.9497 0.0 5.37410 0.2978 2.9661 2.1 2.1 4.6 1.2 2.8 3.9 4.28481 0.34908 0.6 2.5 0.9497 0.9 2.7 0.2 1.9497 0.3 3.6 2.7 2.4 2.9495 1.6901 2.5 3.8 2.0675 2.2 1.3 1.7 4.1 2.0 0.9497 0.2138 2.5 7.6 3.9497 0.9 3.8 1.1 0.1 3.9497 M 8.6 3.continued 99 .8 1.5 3.3 4.6 3.4 0.8 2.8 4.0 0.8972 1.0 3.5 2.4 5.9497 0.0 0.5785 2.5 4.3 6.0 0.5 1.33613 0.9 1.9984 5.0 2.1357 2.0 0.9497 0.3 Length velocity conditional on age Table 18 Boys 2-month length increments (cm) .41274 0.4 4.5 6.4 4.9497 0.6 4.36174 0.9 1.9497 0.7 +1SD 9.5 5.7 2.5 5.0 8.8 2.9497 0.9 Median 8.7 4.5 0.0 -2SD 6.9497 0.0 0.4941 3.1 4.4 5.9497 0.5716 4.3 1.2 0.7 2.48129 -3SD 5.5 5.0 0.2 0.3 4.7 0.2 4.7 1.2403 2.1 2.8 9.0 7.4 3.0 3.3 0.6 3.1 1.0 0.7 0.7228 3.5 3.4 4.4 +3SD 11.7 1.5 7.1 4.4 4.9497 0.44029 0.9497 0.45398 0.2 3.2 0.3 1.1 -1SD 7.5 3.Interval 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 11-13 mo 12-14 mo 13-15 mo 14-16 mo 15-17 mo 16-18 mo 17-19 mo 18-20 mo 19-21 mo 20-22 mo 21-23 mo 22-24 mo L 0.0 1.8 2.9497 0.13400 0.6 1.9497 0.7 3.1 3.24323 0.46768 0.9 0.6 4.30505 0.1 2.2 0.9497 0.0 4.0 4.5 4.3 0.39924 0.31391 0.2 1.7133 S 0.29636 0.8 4.9 2.8 1.8490 1.9497 0.0061 1.42656 0.9 1.0 2.6 5.7 2.9497 0.2 5.7 1.6 2.8 1.9 0.6 0.6 4.5 1.9 1.8089 2.5 +2SD 10.2 5.6 8.9497 0.3 2.32400 0.0 6.4820 6.9 5.4 0.17179 0.0 0.14062 0.4 3.8 3.4 6.7 3.8 0.9497 0.38645 0.4 1.3818 2.4 4.0 0.20929 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.5 3.7575 1.8 3.9497 0.4724 2.2 3.5 4.

36737 0.8 0.1 3.5303 2.7 2.3 99th 10.8 3.0 0.7 3.9 1.9 0.4 3.45033 1st 5.6 3.6 0.4 4.3 2.0 0.3 1.9918 0.3 1.9918 0.0000 2.2236 2.9918 0.3 1.6 1.3 4.1 97th 10.2 3.7750 S 0.9 1.2 4.6 4.4 1.5 4.3 0.9 6.0 3.0 3.1 0.1574 4.9 0.6 0.3 3.9918 0.0 8.7 2.1827 3.2 6.0 2.2 1.1 3.9918 0.8 0.9023 6.29751 0.9 2.0 4.4 1.3 0.29192 0.4 4.7 2.6 1.5 3.8 4.25995 0.4 2.2 1.4 5.5 2.23941 0.4 1.4 2.0470 1.3 2.7 2.0 1.6 Length velocity conditional on age Interval 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 11-13 mo 12-14 mo 13-15 mo 14-16 mo 15-17 mo 16-18 mo 17-19 mo 18-20 mo 19-21 mo 20-22 mo 21-23 mo 22-24 mo .2 3.4 3.7 0.9 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.4 3.0 1.9 3.1684 2.6 95th 9.1 4.3 4.21092 0.7 0.7 5.0 0.35425 0.1 1.9918 0.9 1.5 0.7 3.5 8.4 2.8 75th 8.7 1.6 3.8 1.6 0.4 3.15004 0.0 5.5 3.3 3.6 1.6 2.8764 2.1113 2.6284 2.8 0.2 3.2879 2.6 5.0 2.1 4.9918 0.3 2.8 1.7 2.3 3.3 1.2 4.8 2.6 1.1 2.2 3.9918 0.9918 0.6 7.9918 0.9 4.9 3.0 1.9918 0.2 1.8 2.7 3.7 7.8 3.9 6.7 0.3 5th 6.4 2.17732 0.6 3.5 2.2 3.7 0.43859 0.6 2.9822 1.2 1.5 4.2 4.6 3.6 3.3 1.1 1.9 2.0 2.8 2.2 3.3 0.4 0.9 4.4 3.6 4.6 1.5965 3.4 2.9918 0.1 5.5 0.4 4.4 2.5 3.2 4.3 1.8192 1.8 1.1 2.7 1.8 3.4 6.8 5.7 5.7 4.3775 5.1 4.9918 0.5 0.9 3.1 1.9 1.0 0.7 3.2 1.7444 2.1 3.6 0.9918 0.40358 0.8682 1.2 3.7 4.8 3.6 2.0 4.8 1.5 15th 6.3 6.9225 1.5 0.9918 0.2 2.31612 0.4 3.9918 M 7.2877 3.1 1.1 7.9918 0.9 0.14123 0.1 3.41519 0.4 5.38003 0.0 2.0 3.9918 0.8 4.3 1.9918 0.3 4.7 3.9918 0.0 1.8 1.7 3.4 1.1 4.6 1.28638 0.0 1.6 3.1 2.3 3.3 3.7 3.5 1.1 5.4 1.39199 0.2 4.8 4.0 3rd 5.5 1.4 0.4 0.7 0.5 2.0 5.3621 2.9 25th 7.6 1.0 6.2 1.8 3.27597 0.0 2.7 8.3 1.8 3.32828 0.1 4.0 0.2 3.7 3.5 3.9918 0.9 0.8 2.5 1.0 0.100 Table 19 Girls 2-month length increments (cm) L 0.2 2.7 2.2 2.9 3.6 3.2 50th 7.6 2.4 2.1 0.5 4.2 0.2 4.9918 0.4425 2.42686 0.2 3.3 85th 9.9918 0.2 1.0 2.0 3.34112 0.6 3.30553 0.7 0.

3 6.5 2.2 1.9 2.2 4.40358 0.4 5.2 Length velocity conditional on age Table 19 Girls 2-month length increments (cm) .8 4.1 0.8 3.4 0.8 1.9918 0.34112 0.0 3.9918 0.0 1.5 4.0 4.5 1.6 +2SD 10.2 0.2 4.6 2.5 1.0000 2.0 0.7 0.0 3.35425 0.7 2.0 Median 7.0 2.7 4.9918 0.32828 0.4 4.1827 3.9 3.3 2.2 3.21092 0.9918 0.3 4.4 0.5 2.9023 6.1 4.5 0.3 0.2 2.9918 0.1 0.0 2.7 4.6 2.1 8.2877 3.1 0.4 3.42686 0.3 3.3 7.28638 0.1 0.8 1.7444 2.9 1.43859 0.27597 0.7 1.2 1.8 3.6 3.9918 0.9 2.4 4.1 0.9 6.41519 0.8 3.9 4.4 3.3 0.8 1.2 0.4 2.9 7.9918 M 7.6 4.9918 0.4 +3SD 11.9 1.2 -1SD 6.14123 0.15004 0.9918 0.9918 0.7 3.4 2.2 4.3 9.3 2.9 0.5 4.30553 0.7 3.1574 4.8 2.0 0.2 5.7 2.1684 2.4425 2.1 5.6 3.9918 0.36737 0.25995 0.8682 1.9918 0.6284 2.4 1.9225 1.7750 S 0.5 3.9918 0.2 1.9822 1.2 2.6 1.7 5.4 2.5 3.5 1.9918 0.3 3.7 2.6 3.7 2.3 4.8192 1.1 5.7 0.0 2.2236 2.2 3.9 3.0470 1.29192 0.5 3.1 3.6 0.1 1.3 0.5 4.8764 2.1 1.31612 0.9918 0.7 4.3 1.0 -2SD 5.0 6.0 0.9 1.0 0.7 0.4 1.1 1.0 7.1 1.0 3.Interval 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 11-13 mo 12-14 mo 13-15 mo 14-16 mo 15-17 mo 16-18 mo 17-19 mo 18-20 mo 19-21 mo 20-22 mo 21-23 mo 22-24 mo L 0.3621 2.1 0.continued 101 .29751 0.9918 0.5 3.1 1.45033 -3SD 4.5965 3.1 2.8 +1SD 9.2 2.6 1.3 4.3 1.0 1.8 0.9918 0.4 2.6 4.9918 0.5 5.7 3.4 0.39199 0.8 5.9 1.2879 2.5 4.3 4.1113 2.9918 0.2 3.3 7.3775 5.1 3.38003 0.1 0.2 5.1 0.23941 0.6 4.5 0.4 5.4 0.9918 0.0 6.9918 0.9918 0.2 4.8 4.17732 0.9 2.1 0.5303 2.9918 0.4 1.

2317 5.7 6.3 5.0 5.4 7.0 0.6 2.5 5.5 2.0649 2.0 1.4 3.8 9.7 25th 10.3 1.7 0.9 11.2 1.7 4.5 4.3594 4.3 2.7 3rd 9.1 5.4950 7.27641 0.2 3.5430 3.1 2.9 5.1 3.8 10.3 2.8792 0.3 5.4 2.5 4.6 6.21513 0.4189 3.9 5.7 5.4 9.6058 6.8 5.3 7.5 3.2920 3.0 5th 9.3 85th 12.8792 M 11.6 5.9 3.9 3.9 2.7 4.9 0.9 1.8 0.0 6.4 1.8792 0.6 3.2 5.8792 0.9 2.0 1.4 4.4 4.0 4.22535 0.5 2.2 2.8 2.8792 0.7 2.32487 0.0 2.3243 4.8 3.18096 0.5 9.29508 0.8 1.7 1.1 2.6 2.28590 0.5 1.5 1.0 1.1 1.3 8.0 3.7818 3.2 6.4 4.9 3.31089 0.6 4.8792 0.1 6.0 5.1 5.6 11.9 4.3 3.4 1.5 5.3 10.8 1.4 2.8792 0.8 2.7 2.3 3.8 1.3 4.2 2.6 4.7 4.7 3.8792 0.6 1.1 4.0 1.3 5.8 4.2 3.4 2.8 4.4 5.4 5.6 8.7 5.3 2.7 2.2 2.8 5.8792 0.4 7.7 4.7 1.6 4.4 1.1 2.9 2.9758 2.7940 2.9 3.9 2.0 2.4 2.6 5.9 1.15474 0.6 1.1 4.4 2.30351 0.8792 0.8792 0.1 5.2 3.0 50th 11.2 5.5 3.25157 0.6 4.9 1.6 75th 12.4 4.25876 0.5 1.4 6.7 3.8792 0.34377 1st 8.2 4.2 5.2 1.8 1.9 7.7 2.11285 0.102 Table 20 Boys 3-month length increments (cm) L 0.6 1.4 8.1717 3.7 3.9 7.7 6.8792 0.1 2.1 3.5 3.4 99th 14.8 2.12700 0.2 5.4 1.6 4.8792 0.7 4.33332 0.7 4.8 3.8792 0.1 7.8792 0.3 5.8 Length velocity conditional on age Interval 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo 10-13 mo 11-14 mo 12-15 mo 13-16 mo 14-17 mo 15-18 mo 16-19 mo 17-20 mo 18-21 mo 19-22 mo 20-23 mo 21-24 mo .2 97th 13.4 6.4 6.1002 3.5 1.4 4.8 3.5 7.8 8.6405 S 0.3 4.5 12.6 8.3 10.1 3.6 2.7433 4.3 4.7 3.5 3.6611 3.8 2.5 6.0 3.2 15th 10.0 2.23308 0.9 4.2 6.4 5.5 2.7 5.9 0.8792 0.4 3.8 3.9 3.3 1.9 4.7 3.24526 0.6 4.4 5.1 2.4 5.8792 0.8792 0.4 5.4 3.8792 0.6 2.1 4.3 1.1 2.8 4.31767 0.20103 0.1 4.3 1.6 95th 13.0 7.5 4.8 4.8507 2.4 4.3 3.4 3.3 4.2 3.5 5.7265 2.2 2.0 5.1 1.2 1.6 3.9068 2.1 3.0 4.8792 0.5 6.3 6.4458 9.26713 0.9200 3.7 6.9 8.0 4.3 4.2 2.8 7.8792 0.1 8.9 2.23935 0.2 5.5 4.

4 5.4 6.8792 0.8792 0.4 13.8 7.5 4.1717 3.8792 0.5 2.6 0.8792 0.8 2.32487 0.9 2.2 2.3243 4.8792 M 11.6 4.7 4.9 0.3 1.20103 0.4189 3.7 3.0 1.4 6.25157 0.0 5.2 5.8792 0.9 4.8 3.0 3.15474 0.4 0.1 4.3 6.1 3.9200 3.1 6.continued 103 .1 1.6 1.0 0.4 6.4 5.5 3.7 3.8792 0.6 +2SD 14.6 6.1 4.8792 0.8 3.7 3.3 2.7 0.8507 2.3 5.4950 7.2 1.9 4.6611 3.23308 0.1 11.9 1.2 11.27641 0.5430 3.8 1.3 4.8 5.12700 0.5 7.6 0.1 1.4 3.8 4.7 4.7433 4.4 0.4 5.8792 0.1 1.2 3.9 2.0 2.4 1.23935 0.7 4.26713 0.3 0.8 6.34377 -3SD 7.25876 0.5 7.7 5.8792 0.5 6.29508 0.8792 0.8 5.5 Length velocity conditional on age Table 20 Boys 3-month length increments (cm) .9 3.7 6.8792 0.21513 0.24526 0.8792 0.3 4.4 3.7 8.9 5.8 5.18096 0.0 2.8792 0.1 6.2 3.8 1.3 1.5 0.7 8.1 2.7265 2.6 5.8792 0.7 6.Interval 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo 10-13 mo 11-14 mo 12-15 mo 13-16 mo 14-17 mo 15-18 mo 16-19 mo 17-20 mo 18-21 mo 19-22 mo 20-23 mo 21-24 mo L 0.8 2.7 3.31089 0.4 5.8 6.4 1.9 7.8 3.9 7.0 4.2 1.3594 4.1 4.2 4.8792 0.0649 2.4 9.0 3.5 2.6 7.4 4.2 5.1 5.7 10.5 +3SD 15.9 1.8 4.7 5.4 2.3 3.2920 3.9 10.8 1.5 1.0 1.1002 3.0 2.9 3.3 4.6 2.28590 0.2 3.33332 0.2 9.0 8.8792 0.6 5.2 -2SD 8.0 4.6405 S 0.8792 0.3 2.9 2.3 1.3 3.7 4.7 5.2 1.8792 0.1 5.6 5.0 0.7940 2.8792 0.7 2.8792 0.6 4.6 +1SD 12.9758 2.31767 0.6058 6.2317 5.9068 2.7818 3.1 3.4 7.2 2.0 2.8 Median 11.7 1.8 2.11285 0.8792 0.9 -1SD 10.22535 0.3 6.2 0.2 8.5 6.1 2.30351 0.4458 9.

1 5.8 4.7743 0.9 6.7 1.0 0.32567 1st 7.0 4.3 2.3 5.4 1.0 8.2 4.2 4.20988 0.6 7.1971 0.2 3.2 2.9 4.2 6.6 3.3 3.1 4.8692 0.8 2.0 2.1 1.3 4.7 5.1 3.4 3.9 0.7 4.3 2.17798 0.9 2.7 4.2 2.104 Table 21 Girls 3-month length increments (cm) L M 0.6 5.7 4.28388 0.6 5.2 4.4 4.6 9.0 7.9 10.2934 0.8538 4.5 2.5 5.0 1.3 1.2 97th 13.9 5.5 6.0 3.5 2.2 3.7 3.6 8.9 1.4 2.7 4.5967 0.7 3.4811 0.9 Length velocity conditional on age Interval 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo 10-13 mo 11-14 mo 12-15 mo 13-16 mo 14-17 mo 15-18 mo 16-19 mo 17-20 mo 18-21 mo 19-22 mo 20-23 mo 21-24 mo .9 2.0 7.24257 0.7 1.6 5.8538 2.3 6.0 4.27635 0.8 9.9 2.8538 3.6 1.3 6.0 6.4 9.8 7.8538 8.2 5.4 99th 13.7 3.8538 3.9 0.9428 0.6 6.8538 4.7 4.3 4.5 3.1173 0.25988 0.6 95th 12.8538 4.8538 3.21849 0.7 1.8 4.3 7.1 2.31896 0.6 2.2 2.0 1.3 5.1 5.6 4.2051 0.7 5.8538 3.30582 0.4 3.5 11.7 4.3 2.8538 3.1 1.0 3.6 3.2 5.4 5.7 2.1 6.5 4.9 4.1 5th 8.4 3.5 4.1 2.3 3.3 2.6834 0.3 8.1 4.8538 5.5 3.9 1.8 2.8 3.8538 7.3844 0.6 1.8538 10.1 2.4 4.8576 0.9 6.7 5.23503 0.19661 0.29869 0.8 3rd 8.3 1.5 2.2 5.4 4.8 1.8 8.25105 0.3 7.6 6.3 2.8 5.8 8.9 2.29130 0.9 5.9 3.1 2.8 2.0 4.6 3.2 1.0 5.8 6.4 5.1 5.8 1.5 4.0 3.15574 0.3 2.4 1.6 2.0 2.13505 0.1 2.4 5.6 1.7779 0.6 3.8 3.8 3.1 4.1 50th 10.1 3.0 9.7 1.2 4.8538 3.0 4.31251 0.4 4.4 1.5 4.5 1.3 4.8538 5.0 5.9 1.5 1.3 4.5 1.4 2.9 1.7 10.5892 0.0 1.3 85th 11.6 2.2 2.0 4.4 2.0 11.1 5.6 3.8538 3.9 2.0 1.8538 2.0 3.3 1.1 3.9 5.22383 0.26843 0.0 4.0 3.1 5.8 5.3 6.6 2.1 4.9 4.6 6.7 6.11683 0.7091 S 0.9427 0.9 2.7 6.5 2.8 5.0 2.8538 3.7 75th 11.22876 0.4 5.8538 2.5 7.9 2.2 5.4 2.2 5.8 4.6 4.8 25th 9.8538 4.1 5.9 3.7 2.0329 0.0 6.2 4.5 4.0295 0.8538 3.6 5.8538 2.1554 0.1 6.9 3.2 1.9 4.3922 0.6 7.4 5.7174 0.3 15th 9.2 3.1455 0.5 3.4 3.5 1.8 4.7 3.8 5.7 2.6 2.5 5.

2 1.2 6.0 8.8 Median 10.continued 105 .5967 0.1 11.0 2.9 1.0 6.7 3.4 2.2 1.8538 3.17798 0.3844 0.1 6.5 4.6 4.29869 0.7 3.9 2.8 2.2934 0.7 +1SD 11.1173 0.1 6.6 0.1 7.4 12.8538 2.3 3.0295 0.15574 0.8538 3.6 5.3922 0.5 +3SD 14.8538 2.4 0.8 5.30582 0.3 1.8538 8.8538 4.9 0.4 10.5 0.13505 0.3 6.8538 3.7174 0.8692 0.1 5.9427 0.6834 0.5892 0.3 2.2 9.4 6.6 3.9 3.28388 0.2 6.4 2.4 5.31251 0.9 2.6 1.0 5.6 2.8 4.11683 0.0 4.1971 0.20988 0.7 1.21849 0.4 4.2 4.8 2.9 5.7 5.29130 0.8538 3.6 8.2 2.1 3.7 6.9 1.5 2.5 1.9 4.4 4.2051 0.7091 S 0.9 3.0329 0.2 5.9428 0.5 5.8538 3.8538 10.0 3.4 7.3 1.3 -2SD 8.24257 0.22876 0.4 1.7 3.8538 4.8 2.0 2.9 2.5 6.8538 5.4 3.8538 3.3 4.0 1.2 4.1554 0.Interval 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo 10-13 mo 11-14 mo 12-15 mo 13-16 mo 14-17 mo 15-18 mo 16-19 mo 17-20 mo 18-21 mo 19-22 mo 20-23 mo 21-24 mo L M 0.4 1.6 4.7 4.22383 0.6 9.1 5.26843 0.6 +2SD 13.5 1.0 4.7 5.1 3.1 2.7 2.5 5.8538 3.8538 2.0 3.2 3.0 1.8538 3.19661 0.0 0.8 4.8538 3.2 4.25105 0.9 3.3 2.8 1.7743 0.0 -1SD 9.2 5.9 1.8538 2.3 3.4 8.1455 0.27635 0.31896 0.3 3.0 4.1 1.2 6.25988 0.3 1.3 7.8576 0.8538 7.2 6.7 5.3 7.32567 -3SD 7.2 2.2 5.2 8.0 4.1 5.9 4.23503 0.8 10.7 1.6 6.7 0.7 4.8538 4.9 2.1 4.8 7.9 6.8 0.7 6.3 5.5 Length velocity conditional on age Table 21 Girls 3-month length increments (cm) .9 5.4 5.5 2.6 0.4 3.2 3.9 5.7779 0.1 2.8538 4.6 5.0 5.8538 5.5 3.4811 0.4 6.1 1.4 7.8 3.8 7.0 3.4 0.1 2.2 1.

7 5.1 3.6 14.7 7.9 3.3 5.7 4.4 10.20707 0.0138 1.4 3.8 2.20286 0.16955 0.6058 S 0.1 4.4886 9.7 2.5 4.17780 0.5 10.7 3.9 2.3 99th 17.2 6.3 4.2 5.3 14.3 2.4 6.7601 6.1 8.1 4.9 12.6 1.7 2.7773 4.4 6.2 5.0 2.6756 5.3 4.2 2.7018 6.4 5.1 4.1 5.0 3.6 2.0138 1.7 3.0 4.3 3.6 5.3 4.5 4.4 5.24530 1st 10.5 5.7 3.8 6.9 4.0138 1.6 3.4 3.5 7.6 9.5 2.6 4.9770 11.0138 1.4 6.8 2.9 5th 11.8 5.0 1.0 4.0 10.5 9.9623 4.5 3rd 11.0 6.4487 4.1 4.4 9.7 2.4 4.0138 1.0138 M 13.3 5.7 25th 13.0 5.0704 5.6 6.0138 1.1 2.7 1.23577 0.2 85th 15.4 2.8 6.0 3.7 12.1833 4.0 2.5 2.2 6.5 4.8 5.6 5.0138 1.3 8.3 4.3 13.0 6.2 4.8 4.9 1.0 2.6 4.7 4.1 6.0 5.8 4.21158 0.6 9.0 3.13954 0.5 6.0 5.3 5.4 6.4 4.8 5.5 5.3939 5.3 7.9 2.21644 0.6 4.7 10.6 5.7 Length velocity conditional on age Interval 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 9-13 mo 10-14 mo 11-15 mo 12-16 mo 13-17 mo 14-18 mo 15-19 mo 16-20 mo 17-21 mo 18-22 mo 19-23 mo 20-24 mo .2 8.6 2.1 5.5 3.3 6.0138 1.3 3.0 3.0 5.0138 1.2 5.2 3.2 6.8 8.0138 1.0 4.7 6.6 3.3 6.8 7.24063 0.6 3.2 2.6 6.1 15th 12.0 7.6 8.6 8.22619 0.5 3.2 6.23092 0.6 6.19512 0.4 12.8 6.3 10.1 3.5 5.1 3.0 4.2 7.3 5.0138 1.8 3.15624 0.4 5.9 5.9 6.1 11.6 9.0 11.1 7.3 7.2 5.8 3.8 8.5 3.1 97th 16.0 1.2 3.0 8.0138 1.7 4.3 8.8 4.0 3.106 Table 22 Boys 4-month length increments (cm) L 1.19880 0.22124 0.8 5.8 3.0138 1.1 2.19138 0.3 2.1 5.8 5.10113 0.0138 1.4 7.12006 0.0138 1.3123 4.6 4.4 2.2 3.0 3.6 7.8 6.9 10.6 7.2 2.7 5.7 8.6 7.8 2.5 3.9 5.9 2.1 2.9 5.3048 7.4 2.9 4.1699 4.9584 3.8 4.0 50th 14.1 6.7 3.9 7.3 4.0138 1.8 11.8 6.9 5.5 5.8 1.6 4.9 5.2 7.7 5.3 4.0138 1.6815 3.6 75th 14.8600 3.0 6.4 3.9 4.0138 1.8 4.7663 3.8 2.18311 0.5 95th 16.4 6.1 7.0138 1.3 6.8 6.2 3.4 5.6 2.1 5.6014 4.0680 3.0138 1.4 5.18754 0.3 2.

3 4.3 2.2 3.0138 1.8 1.4 3.1 6.5 6.5 5.1699 4.9 10.1 6.6 10.4 3.12006 0.6 5.13954 0.19138 0.2 Length velocity conditional on age Table 22 Boys 4-month length increments (cm) .0 0.0138 1.0 6.5 6.8 4.18311 0.7 6.0138 1.21158 0.2 2.4 6.9 2.5 5.6 4.0138 1.7 Median 14.3 3.5 2.0138 1.17780 0.6 +1SD 15.7 6.0138 1.1 5.7 7.0 1.3123 4.6 2.5 2.0 11.9 4.6058 S 0.2 11.4 4.20286 0.9584 3.5 1.0 2.1 4.3 6.3048 7.8 4.4 7.3 2.5 +2SD 16.20707 0.7 6.Interval 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 9-13 mo 10-14 mo 11-15 mo 12-16 mo 13-17 mo 14-18 mo 15-19 mo 16-20 mo 17-21 mo 18-22 mo 19-23 mo 20-24 mo L 1.8600 3.6815 3.1 3.23092 0.15624 0.0 4.7 1.4 3.0138 M 13.0138 1.3 8.9 5.9 5.7018 6.0 7.0 4.6756 5.7773 4.4 4.8 -1SD 12.5 9.6 4.0704 5.0 8.2 7.22124 0.3 5.9 3.0138 1.0138 1.6 5.2 11.0138 1.24530 -3SD 9.0138 1.22619 0.6 9.0138 1.3 6.19512 0.1 8.8 7.2 3.9 10.6 6.6014 4.4 4.2 15.4 +3SD 18.0138 1.16955 0.4 10.5 5.0 5.7601 6.18754 0.4 7.0 1.0 6.1 7.1833 4.4 2.7 7.3 2.2 5.2 7.7 2.3939 5.continued 107 .0138 1.4 12.0 3.3 4.9 2.8 3.9 -2SD 11.2 2.7 5.3 1.7 3.1 5.7663 3.0138 1.2 4.9623 4.9 1.5 3.4487 4.9 7.1 3.9 6.4 5.10113 0.7 5.2 5.4 8.6 3.8 14.1 9.8 2.9770 11.1 6.0138 1.9 3.8 8.2 9.7 3.9 1.7 5.3 7.2 5.4886 9.0138 1.7 4.4 1.0138 1.1 2.1 8.6 7.9 6.21644 0.0138 1.4 5.4 6.8 3.23577 0.8 6.2 4.2 1.4 5.19880 0.7 5.1 1.24063 0.0138 1.6 1.0 3.8 6.7 6.8 2.0680 3.6 4.0 4.0 2.6 13.

108

**Table 23 Girls 4-month length increments (cm)
**

L

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

M

13.0081

10.6621

8.7302

7.4606

6.5992

6.0664

5.7273

5.4731

5.2575

5.0550

4.8763

4.7084

4.5658

4.4427

4.3256

4.2141

4.0974

3.9825

3.8660

3.7559

3.6558

S

0.10744

0.12126

0.13625

0.15069

0.16368

0.17240

0.17782

0.18189

0.18562

0.18974

0.19407

0.19893

0.20385

0.20880

0.21372

0.21816

0.22240

0.22623

0.22998

0.23357

0.23694

1st

9.8

7.7

6.1

4.9

4.2

3.7

3.5

3.3

3.1

2.9

2.8

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.8

3rd

10.4

8.3

6.5

5.4

4.6

4.2

3.9

3.7

3.5

3.3

3.2

3.0

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

5th

10.7

8.6

6.8

5.7

4.9

4.4

4.1

3.9

3.7

3.5

3.4

3.2

3.1

3.0

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.3

15th

11.6

9.3

7.5

6.3

5.5

5.0

4.7

4.5

4.3

4.1

3.9

3.8

3.6

3.5

3.4

3.3

3.2

3.1

3.0

2.9

2.8

25th

12.1

9.8

7.9

6.7

5.9

5.4

5.0

4.8

4.6

4.4

4.2

4.1

3.9

3.8

3.7

3.6

3.5

3.4

3.3

3.2

3.1

50th

13.0

10.7

8.7

7.5

6.6

6.1

5.7

5.5

5.3

5.1

4.9

4.7

4.6

4.4

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.9

3.8

3.7

75th

14.0

11.5

9.5

8.2

7.3

6.8

6.4

6.2

5.9

5.7

5.5

5.3

5.2

5.1

5.0

4.8

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.4

4.2

85th

14.5

12.0

10.0

8.6

7.7

7.2

6.8

6.5

6.3

6.1

5.9

5.7

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.2

5.1

4.9

4.8

4.7

4.6

95th

15.3

12.8

10.7

9.4

8.4

7.8

7.4

7.2

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.3

6.1

6.0

5.9

5.8

5.6

5.5

5.4

5.2

5.1

97th

15.7

13.1

11.0

9.6

8.7

8.1

7.7

7.4

7.1

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.4

6.2

6.1

6.0

5.9

5.7

5.6

5.5

5.3

99th

16.3

13.7

11.6

10.2

9.2

8.6

8.2

7.9

7.6

7.4

7.2

7.0

6.8

6.7

6.6

6.4

6.3

6.2

6.0

5.9

5.8

Length velocity conditional on age

Interval

0-4 mo

1-5 mo

2-6 mo

3-7 mo

4-8 mo

5-9 mo

6-10 mo

7-11 mo

8-12 mo

9-13 mo

10-14 mo

11-15 mo

12-16 mo

13-17 mo

14-18 mo

15-19 mo

16-20 mo

17-21 mo

18-22 mo

19-23 mo

20-24 mo

Interval

0-4 mo

1-5 mo

2-6 mo

3-7 mo

4-8 mo

5-9 mo

6-10 mo

7-11 mo

8-12 mo

9-13 mo

10-14 mo

11-15 mo

12-16 mo

13-17 mo

14-18 mo

15-19 mo

16-20 mo

17-21 mo

18-22 mo

19-23 mo

20-24 mo

L

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

0.8123

M

13.0081

10.6621

8.7302

7.4606

6.5992

6.0664

5.7273

5.4731

5.2575

5.0550

4.8763

4.7084

4.5658

4.4427

4.3256

4.2141

4.0974

3.9825

3.8660

3.7559

3.6558

S

0.10744

0.12126

0.13625

0.15069

0.16368

0.17240

0.17782

0.18189

0.18562

0.18974

0.19407

0.19893

0.20385

0.20880

0.21372

0.21816

0.22240

0.22623

0.22998

0.23357

0.23694

-3SD

9.0

6.9

5.3

4.2

3.5

3.1

2.8

2.7

2.5

2.4

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.9

1.7

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.3

-2SD

10.3

8.1

6.4

5.3

4.5

4.0

3.8

3.6

3.4

3.2

3.1

2.9

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

-1SD

11.6

9.4

7.6

6.4

5.5

5.0

4.7

4.5

4.3

4.1

3.9

3.8

3.7

3.5

3.4

3.3

3.2

3.1

3.0

2.9

2.8

Median

13.0

10.7

8.7

7.5

6.6

6.1

5.7

5.5

5.3

5.1

4.9

4.7

4.6

4.4

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.9

3.8

3.7

+1SD

14.4

12.0

9.9

8.6

7.7

7.1

6.8

6.5

6.2

6.0

5.8

5.7

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.2

5.0

4.9

4.8

4.7

4.5

+2SD

15.9

13.3

11.2

9.8

8.8

8.2

7.8

7.5

7.3

7.0

6.8

6.6

6.5

6.4

6.2

6.1

6.0

5.9

5.7

5.6

5.5

+3SD

17.3

14.7

12.4

11.0

10.0

9.3

8.9

8.6

8.3

8.1

7.9

7.7

7.5

7.4

7.2

7.1

7.0

6.8

6.7

6.5

6.4

Length velocity conditional on age

Table 23 Girls 4-month length increments (cm) - continued

109

110

**Table 24 Boys 6-month length increments (cm)
**

Interval

0-6 mo

1-7 mo

2-8 mo

3-9 mo

4-10 mo

5-11 mo

6-12 mo

7-13 mo

8-14 mo

9-15 mo

10-16 mo

11-17 mo

12-18 mo

13-19 mo

14-20 mo

15-21 mo

16-22 mo

17-23 mo

18-24 mo

L

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

M

17.6547

14.7110

12.3097

10.5768

9.4000

8.6282

8.1114

7.7366

7.4335

7.1621

6.9165

6.6927

6.4830

6.2862

6.1061

5.9431

5.7899

5.6425

5.5018

S

0.09452

0.10935

0.12383

0.13570

0.14407

0.14919

0.15162

0.15255

0.15299

0.15364

0.15479

0.15649

0.15863

0.16108

0.16362

0.16610

0.16861

0.17124

0.17392

1st

13.8

11.0

8.8

7.3

6.3

5.7

5.3

5.0

4.8

4.7

4.5

4.3

4.1

4.0

3.8

3.7

3.6

3.4

3.3

3rd

14.5

11.7

9.5

7.9

6.9

6.2

5.8

5.6

5.3

5.1

4.9

4.8

4.6

4.4

4.3

4.1

4.0

3.9

3.7

5th

14.9

12.1

9.8

8.2

7.2

6.5

6.1

5.8

5.6

5.4

5.2

5.0

4.8

4.6

4.5

4.3

4.2

4.1

4.0

15th

15.9

13.1

10.7

9.1

8.0

7.3

6.8

6.5

6.3

6.0

5.8

5.6

5.4

5.2

5.1

4.9

4.8

4.7

4.5

25th

16.5

13.6

11.3

9.6

8.5

7.8

7.3

6.9

6.7

6.4

6.2

6.0

5.8

5.6

5.4

5.3

5.1

5.0

4.9

50th

17.7

14.7

12.3

10.6

9.4

8.6

8.1

7.7

7.4

7.2

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.3

6.1

5.9

5.8

5.6

5.5

75th

18.8

15.8

13.3

11.5

10.3

9.5

8.9

8.5

8.2

7.9

7.6

7.4

7.2

7.0

6.8

6.6

6.5

6.3

6.2

85th

19.4

16.4

13.9

12.1

10.8

10.0

9.4

9.0

8.6

8.3

8.0

7.8

7.6

7.3

7.1

7.0

6.8

6.7

6.5

95th

20.4

17.4

14.8

13.0

11.7

10.8

10.2

9.7

9.3

9.0

8.7

8.4

8.2

8.0

7.8

7.6

7.4

7.3

7.1

97th

20.8

17.8

15.2

13.3

12.0

11.1

10.5

10.0

9.6

9.3

9.0

8.7

8.4

8.2

8.0

7.8

7.7

7.5

7.3

99th

21.6

18.5

15.9

14.0

12.6

11.7

11.0

10.5

10.1

9.8

9.4

9.2

8.9

8.7

8.5

8.3

8.1

7.9

7.8

Length velocity conditional on age

Interval

0-6 mo

1-7 mo

2-8 mo

3-9 mo

4-10 mo

5-11 mo

6-12 mo

7-13 mo

8-14 mo

9-15 mo

10-16 mo

11-17 mo

12-18 mo

13-19 mo

14-20 mo

15-21 mo

16-22 mo

17-23 mo

18-24 mo

L

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

0.9027

M

17.6547

14.7110

12.3097

10.5768

9.4000

8.6282

8.1114

7.7366

7.4335

7.1621

6.9165

6.6927

6.4830

6.2862

6.1061

5.9431

5.7899

5.6425

5.5018

S

0.09452

0.10935

0.12383

0.13570

0.14407

0.14919

0.15162

0.15255

0.15299

0.15364

0.15479

0.15649

0.15863

0.16108

0.16362

0.16610

0.16861

0.17124

0.17392

-3SD

12.7

10.0

7.8

6.4

5.4

4.9

4.5

4.3

4.1

3.9

3.8

3.6

3.5

3.3

3.2

3.1

2.9

2.8

2.7

-2SD

14.3

11.5

9.3

7.7

6.7

6.1

5.7

5.4

5.2

5.0

4.8

4.6

4.5

4.3

4.1

4.0

3.9

3.7

3.6

-1SD

16.0

13.1

10.8

9.2

8.1

7.4

6.9

6.6

6.3

6.1

5.9

5.7

5.5

5.3

5.1

5.0

4.8

4.7

4.6

Median

17.7

14.7

12.3

10.6

9.4

8.6

8.1

7.7

7.4

7.2

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.3

6.1

5.9

5.8

5.6

5.5

+1SD

19.3

16.3

13.8

12.0

10.8

9.9

9.3

8.9

8.6

8.3

8.0

7.7

7.5

7.3

7.1

6.9

6.8

6.6

6.5

+2SD

21.0

18.0

15.4

13.5

12.1

11.2

10.6

10.1

9.7

9.4

9.1

8.8

8.6

8.3

8.1

7.9

7.8

7.6

7.4

+3SD

22.7

19.6

17.0

15.0

13.5

12.6

11.9

11.3

10.9

10.5

10.2

9.9

9.6

9.4

9.2

9.0

8.8

8.6

8.4

Length velocity conditional on age

Table 24 Boys 6-month length increments (cm) - continued

111

112

**Table 25 Girls 6-month length increments (cm)
**

Interval

0-6 mo

1-7 mo

2-8 mo

3-9 mo

4-10 mo

5-11 mo

6-12 mo

7-13 mo

8-14 mo

9-15 mo

10-16 mo

11-17 mo

12-18 mo

13-19 mo

14-20 mo

15-21 mo

16-22 mo

17-23 mo

18-24 mo

L

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

0.7138

M

16.4915

13.8733

11.8137

10.3499

9.3426

8.6770

8.2244

7.8787

7.5879

7.3259

7.0897

6.8778

6.6823

6.4984

6.3217

6.1484

5.9770

5.8083

5.6454

S

0.09904

0.10884

0.11821

0.12639

0.13290

0.13782

0.14171

0.14512

0.14836

0.15166

0.15514

0.15880

0.16252

0.16617

0.16964

0.17287

0.17591

0.17884

0.18169

1st

12.8

10.5

8.7

7.4

6.6

6.0

5.6

5.4

5.1

4.9

4.7

4.5

4.3

4.1

4.0

3.8

3.7

3.5

3.4

3rd

13.5

11.1

9.3

8.0

7.1

6.5

6.1

5.8

5.6

5.3

5.1

4.9

4.7

4.6

4.4

4.2

4.1

4.0

3.8

5th

13.9

11.5

9.6

8.3

7.4

6.8

6.4

6.1

5.8

5.6

5.3

5.2

5.0

4.8

4.6

4.5

4.3

4.2

4.0

15th

14.8

12.3

10.4

9.0

8.1

7.5

7.0

6.7

6.4

6.2

6.0

5.8

5.6

5.4

5.2

5.1

4.9

4.8

4.6

25th

15.4

12.9

10.9

9.5

8.5

7.9

7.4

7.1

6.8

6.6

6.4

6.2

6.0

5.8

5.6

5.4

5.3

5.1

5.0

50th

16.5

13.9

11.8

10.3

9.3

8.7

8.2

7.9

7.6

7.3

7.1

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.3

6.1

6.0

5.8

5.6

75th

17.6

14.9

12.8

11.2

10.2

9.5

9.0

8.7

8.4

8.1

7.8

7.6

7.4

7.2

7.1

6.9

6.7

6.5

6.3

85th

18.2

15.5

13.3

11.7

10.7

9.9

9.5

9.1

8.8

8.5

8.3

8.0

7.8

7.6

7.5

7.3

7.1

6.9

6.7

95th

19.2

16.4

14.2

12.6

11.4

10.7

10.2

9.8

9.5

9.2

9.0

8.7

8.5

8.3

8.2

8.0

7.8

7.6

7.4

97th

19.6

16.8

14.5

12.9

11.8

11.0

10.5

10.1

9.8

9.5

9.2

9.0

8.8

8.6

8.4

8.2

8.0

7.9

7.7

99th

20.4

17.5

15.2

13.5

12.4

11.6

11.1

10.7

10.3

10.0

9.8

9.5

9.3

9.1

9.0

8.8

8.6

8.4

8.2

Length velocity conditional on age

9 6.8083 5.1 3.4915 13.7 6.2 4.2 9.5 6.6 9.8 +3SD 21.8778 6.6454 S 0.4 8.8733 11.7138 0.9 11.3 9.2 8.7138 0.2244 7.4 6.5 3.6 7.0897 6.7138 0.8 -2SD 13.14171 0.17591 0.8 5.6 18.7 5.2 3.4 13.9 12.6 5.6 10.6 10.6 9.5 11.1 6.6 4.7138 0.3 5.9 11.14836 0.17884 0.2 14.1 6.8 6.7138 0.4 7.3 11.3 7.9 6.3 8.6770 8.14512 0.5 13.0 7.0 5.9770 5.7138 0.1 8.3259 7.0 8.13782 0.3 12.4 5.4 9.16252 0.8 6.18169 -3SD 11.8 4.4 5.10884 0.3217 6.7138 0.1 8.12639 0.9 9.17287 0.7 8.6 8.8 4.9 9.9 10.15166 0.1 4.3499 9.3 4.2 10.16617 0.2 8.1 6.8 9.4 10.7138 0.4 9.7 -1SD 14.6 7.0 4.2 7.2 5.2 10.9 Length velocity conditional on age Table 25 Girls 6-month length increments (cm) .7 4.13290 0.7 13.1 7.8 9.4 4.5 8.8 5.8 3.2 11.0 7.0 4.5 11.0 14.16964 0.7138 M 16.7 5.continued 113 .Interval 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 7-13 mo 8-14 mo 9-15 mo 10-16 mo 11-17 mo 12-18 mo 13-19 mo 14-20 mo 15-21 mo 16-22 mo 17-23 mo 18-24 mo L 0.1 6.8137 10.8 3.7138 0.4 9.0 9.09904 0.8 5.5879 7.7 +2SD 19.8 8.7138 0.11821 0.1 15.8 7.3426 8.8787 7.0 9.7 3.0 2.3 9.7 10.4 9.6 9.7 8.1484 5.0 8.7138 0.2 7.6 Median 16.7138 0.9 7.7138 0.8 17.6 +1SD 18.0 6.1 5.9 11.4 4.8 7.4 10.8 10.4984 6.7138 0.5 6.0 3.5 7.1 11.3 5.6823 6.6 16.7138 0.0 3.0 5.3 6.2 6.4 3.15514 0.7138 0.0 4.0 5.7138 0.15880 0.1 7.2 10.6 7.5 13.7138 0.

0 0. respectively.4 -1.9 0.3 13.5 1.0 0.0 0.8 -1.8 10.05.6 -0.5 0.6 -1.1 -0.4 1.6 0.9 2.1 0.7 -1.2625 z2 0.0 0. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.0 0.3 0. df(ν)=1.1 0. df(σ)=7.6 -1. .4241 z3 -1.3 0.8 16.4 -1.7 -0. mean.6 0.8 -0.8 1. variance or skewness.0 -2.0 0.2 13.0 8.9 -0.0105 Note: Absolute values of z1.9 -0.114 Length velocity conditional on age Appendix A4 Diagnostics A4.8 -0.0 0.4 0.0 -1.5 -0.7 1.1a 2-month intervals for boys Table A4.3 -1.7 0. τ=2)] for 2-month length velocity for boys Age (days) 55 to 76 76 to 107 107 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 738 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo 14-16 mo 16-18 mo 18-20 mo 20-22 mo 22-24 mo N 422 417 416 413 416 412 417 409 404 411 405 415 410 407 412 415 414 7015 z1 -0.1 -0.1 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.0 31.9 0.8 0.3 -0.4 -0.9 0. df(µ)=9.1 1.0 -2.1 1.0 1.9 -0.6 0.

df(ν)=1.Length velocity conditional on age 115 20-22 mo 22-24 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo 14-16 mo 16-18 mo 18-20 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo Figure A4. df(µ)=9.1 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.05. τ=2)] for 2-month length velocity for boys . df(σ)=7.

8 0.4 0. σ.6 0.2 1.2 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 8 6 4 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0.4 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4.0.2 Fitting of the µ.3 0.4 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 2-mo length increment (cm) 116 2 .0 1. and ν curves of selected model for 2-month length velocity for boys Length velocity conditional on age 1.

97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month length velocity for boys 117 Figure A4.3 . 10th. 90th. 50th.10 Length velocity conditional on age Fitted 6 4 2 97th 90th 50th 10th 3rd 0 2-mo length increment (cm) 8 Empirical 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 3rd.

50th.10 118 Fitted 6 4 95th 2 5th 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month length velocity for boys Length velocity conditional on age 75th 50th 25th 0 2-mo length increment (cm) 8 Empirical . 75th.4 5th. 25th.

2 2 2 50th Centile 0.2 0.2 2 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 6 8 10 14 18 22 6 8 10 14 18 22 14 18 22 22 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 0.0 -0.2 0.0 0.2 4 95th Centile 0.0 4 4 75th Centile -0.0 -0.0 0.0 0.2 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 2-mo length increment (cm) 0.2 25th Centile -0.0 0.2 10th Centile -0.2 2 90th Centile 2 6 0.0 -0.2 0.2 0.0 4 8 10 -0.2 5th Centile Length velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 Age (months) 119 Figure A4.2 -0.2 0.2 0.2 8 10 18 97th Centile 0.2 -0.5 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month length velocity for boys .4 6 8 10 14 18 22 0.2 6 14 0.

1 0.1 -0.5170 z3 0.120 Length velocity conditional on age A4.4 0. .7 -0.5 -0.05.9 0. df(σ)=7.8 -1.0 0.8 1.8 12.3 5.3 0.9 -0.7 0.4 0.8 -0. respectively.4 0. mean.2 -1.6 -0.8 -0.0 0.6 0.1 16.7 -0.7 1.8 -2.0 -0.9 0.9 2.0004 Note: Absolute values of z1.2 1.4 -0.5 -1.0 -0.6 0.4 0.8 0.0 0.4 0.8 -3.2 -0.4 -0. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.5 -0.3 -0.1b 2-month intervals for girls Table A4.7 -0.2 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.1 13.2 -0.8 7.3 -2.4 -0.6 1.9 0.6 -0.6 42. df(µ)=10.0 0. τ=2)] for 2-month length velocity for girls Age (days) 58 to 76 76 to 107 107 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 738 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo 14-16 mo 16-18 mo 18-20 mo 20-22 mo 22-24 mo N 446 443 441 445 441 444 441 444 438 437 444 449 442 442 439 433 435 7504 z1 0.5606 z2 0.6 -0.0 2. df(ν)=1. variance or skewness.1 0.

df(σ)=7. τ=2)] for 2-month length velocity for girls .05.6 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(ν)=1. df(µ)=10.Length velocity conditional on age 121 20-22 mo 22-24 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo 14-16 mo 16-18 mo 18-20 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo Figure A4.

0.15 0.45 0.2 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 2-mo length increment (cm) 122 2 .8 1.25 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0. and ν curves of selected model for 2-month length velocity for girls Length velocity conditional on age 0.0 1.7 Fitting of the µ.6 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4. σ.35 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 0.

10 Length velocity conditional on age Fitted 6 4 97th 90th 2 2-mo length increment (cm) 8 Empirical 50th 0 10th 3rd 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 3rd.8 . 10th. 50th. 90th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month length velocity for girls 123 Figure A4.

95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month length velocity for girls Length velocity conditional on age 75th 0 2-mo length increment (cm) 8 Empirical . 75th. 50th. 25th.9 5th.10 124 Fitted 6 4 95th 2 50th 25th 5th 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4.

1 0.1 0.0 0.1 8 10 18 97th Centile 0.0 4 8 10 -0.0 -0.0 4 4 75th Centile -0.1 2 2 50th Centile 0.1 0.1 10th Centile -0.1 0.1 2 90th Centile 2 6 0.1 25th Centile -0.1 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 2-mo length increment (cm) 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 2 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 6 8 10 14 18 22 6 8 10 14 18 22 14 18 22 22 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 0.1 4 95th Centile 0.0 -0.4 6 8 10 14 18 22 0.1 0.10 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month length velocity for girls .0 0.1 6 14 0.1 0.1 -0.1 5th Centile Length velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 2 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 Age (months) 125 Figure A4.0 0.0 0.

50th. 90th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month length velocity for boys Length velocity conditional on age 97th 90th 4 3-mo length increment (cm) 12 Fitted Empirical .126 14 A4.11 3rd.2a 3-month intervals for boys 10 8 6 50th 2 10th 3rd 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A4. 10th.

14

Length velocity conditional on age

10

8

6

95th

4

75th

50th

25th

5th

2

3-mo length increment (cm)

12

Fitted

Empirical

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

14

Age (months)

127

Figure A4.12 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month length velocity for boys

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

0.2

0.0

-0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.2

0.0

0.2

10th Centile

3

4

5

7

8

9 10

12

14

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

7

8

9 10

12

14

9 10

12

14

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

12

14

0.2

-0.2

0.0

0.2

-0.2

6

8

97th Centile

0.0

0.2

0.0

5

7

0.2

4

95th Centile

-0.2

4

6

-0.2

3

90th Centile

3

5

0.0

0.2

0.0

4

4

75th Centile

-0.2

0.0

-0.2

3

3

50th Centile

0.2

25th Centile

6

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

Age (months)

Figure A4.13 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month length velocity for boys

Length velocity conditional on age

Empirical-Fitted Centile for 3-mo length increment (cm)

0.2

5th Centile

128

3rd Centile

Length velocity conditional on age

A4.2b 3-month intervals for girls

Fitted

10

8

6

97th

90th

4

3-mo length increment (cm)

12

Empirical

50th

2

10th

3rd

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

14

Age (months)

129

Figure A4.14 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th, 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month length velocity for girls

130

Fitted

10

8

6

95th

4

50th

25th

5th

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

14

Age (months)

Figure A4.15 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month length velocity for girls

Length velocity conditional on age

75th

2

3-mo length increment (cm)

12

Empirical

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

0.2

0.0

-0.2

0.0

0.2

10th Centile

-0.2

0.0

-0.2

3

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

7

8

9 10

12

14

9 10

12

14

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

12

14

0.2

-0.2

0.0

0.2

-0.2

6

8

97th Centile

0.0

0.2

5

7

0.2

4

95th Centile

0.0

4

6

-0.2

3

90th Centile

3

5

0.0

0.2

0.0

4

4

75th Centile

-0.2

0.0

-0.2

3

3

50th Centile

0.2

25th Centile

-0.2

Empirical-Fitted Centile for 3-mo length increment (cm)

0.2

5th Centile

Length velocity conditional on age

3rd Centile

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

12

14

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

Age (months)

131

Figure A4.16 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month length velocity for girls

2 0. .1 9.2 1.5 20.3 1.0 0.5 10.2 -0.1 -0.0 0.2 -1.3 1.5 -0.1 -0. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.3 0.0 -0.8 2.2 2.9 -0.4 -1. respectively.9 0.0 -2. variance or skewness.1 7. df(ν)=1.4 -0.1 -0.5 0.4 -0.1 -0.8 0.9 1.4 0. df(µ)=8.2 -0.4 14.0 0.5688 z3 -0.0 0.1184 Note: Absolute values of z1.9 0.132 Length velocity conditional on age A4.3 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.3a 4-month intervals for boys Table A4.8 -1.4 0.1 0.2 -0.3 0. df(σ)=5.9 -0. τ=2)] for 4-month length velocity for boys Age (days) 113 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 750 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo N 418 416 420 413 411 408 407 413 415 402 413 409 413 408 417 6183 z1 -0.6 0.05. mean.2 -0.0 -1.4 -0.2 0.2463 z2 0.7 -0.0 0.5 12.3 0.

Length velocity conditional on age 133 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo Figure A4. df(σ)=5. df(µ)=8.05. df(ν)=1.17 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. τ=2)] for 4-month length velocity for boys .

18 Fitting of the µ.4 Age (months) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4.14 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 14 12 10 8 6 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 4 6 8 10 Age (months) 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.6 0.10 0.22 0.2 1. σ.0 1.8 1.18 0.0. and ν curves of selected model for 4-month length velocity for boys Length velocity conditional on age Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 4-mo length increment (cm) 134 4 .

97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month length velocity for boys . 90th.19 3rd.12 10 8 6 4 97th 90th 50th 10th 3rd 2 4-mo length increment (cm) 14 16 Length velocity conditional on age Fitted Empirical 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 135 Figure A4. 10th. 50th.

25th. 50th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month length velocity for boys Length velocity conditional on age 95th 2 4-mo length increment (cm) 14 16 136 Fitted Empirical .20 5th. 75th.12 10 8 6 4 75th 50th 25th 5th 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4.

1 0.1 0.3 -0.1 6 95th Centile -0.3 0.3 0.1 -0.3 14 22 0.1 18 4 97th Centile -0.1 -0.1 -0.3 8 10 0.3 25th Centile -0.6 8 10 14 18 22 0.3 5th Centile Length velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 Age (months) 137 Figure A4.1 0.3 -0.1 0.3 10th Centile -0.3 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.3 -0.21 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month length velocity for boys .3 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 4-mo length increment (cm) 0.1 6 14 -0.3 4 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 8 10 14 18 22 14 18 22 6 22 8 10 14 18 22 0.3 0.1 -0.3 4 4 50th Centile 0.1 8 10 18 -0.3 6 6 75th Centile -0.1 0.3 -0.3 4 90th Centile 4 8 10 0.1 -0.1 0.

7 0.0 0. .0 0.9 0.6 0. df(µ)=8.138 Length velocity conditional on age A4.7 -0.3 -0.0 1.6557 Note: Absolute values of z1.5 11.7 1.0 0.4 -0.5 1.8 1.5 -1. variance or skewness.2 9.0 0.3 1.5 -1.4 -0.4 14.5 0.5 -0.5 -0.7 -0.0 -0. df(σ)=5.2 0.3 -0.3 0.5 0. df(ν)=1.2918 z2 0.0 0. τ=2)] for 4-month length velocity for girls Age (days) 119 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 749 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo N 446 444 442 443 438 445 441 436 443 444 441 448 434 435 440 6620 z1 0.2 -0.4 1.1 -1.8 -0.0 -0. mean.05.5 -0.1 1.0 8.0 -0.9 0.6849 z3 0.0 0.8 -0. respectively.3b 4-month intervals for girls Table A4.6 -0.0 0.5 7.4 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.1 0.2 12.6 -0.1 -1.9 0. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.

df(µ)=8. df(ν)=1. τ=2)] for 4-month length velocity for girls .22 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(σ)=5.Length velocity conditional on age 139 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo Figure A4.05.

20 0. σ.6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0.12 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 12 10 8 6 4 24 4 6 8 10 Age (months) 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.0 Age (months) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4. and ν curves of selected model for 4-month length velocity for girls Length velocity conditional on age Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 4-mo length increment (cm) 0.23 Fitting of the µ.16 0.6 0.8 1.24 140 4 .4 0.

12 10 8 6 4 97th 90th 50th 10th 3rd 2 4-mo length increment (cm) 14 16 Length velocity conditional on age Fitted Empirical 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 141 Figure A4. 90th. 10th. 50th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month length velocity for girls .24 3rd.

12 10 8 6 4 75th 50th 25th 5th 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4.25 5th. 75th. 25th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month length velocity for girls Length velocity conditional on age 95th 2 4-mo length increment (cm) 14 16 142 Fitted Empirical . 50th.

2 25th Centile -0.0 -0.0 6 14 -0.1 0.26 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month length velocity for girls .2 5th Centile Length velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 Age (months) 143 Figure A4.2 0.2 4 90th Centile 4 8 10 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 10th Centile -0.2 4 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 8 10 14 18 22 14 18 22 6 22 8 10 14 18 22 0.0 0.2 0.6 8 10 14 18 22 0.0 -0.0 0.2 14 22 0.1 0.1 8 10 18 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 4 4 50th Centile 0.0 -0.0 18 4 97th Centile -0.2 0.1 -0.2 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 4-mo length increment (cm) 0.2 8 10 0.0 6 95th Centile 0.2 6 6 75th Centile 0.2 -0.0 0.

respectively.5 0.05.6 1. variance or skewness.3 0.6 -0.0 0.5 10.8 0.0 0.2 -1.7 0.6 18.4 -0.4a 6-month intervals for boys Table A4.5 1.6 1.0 0.7 1. τ=2)] for 6-month length velocity for boys Age (days) 175 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 750 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 8-14 mo 10-16 mo 12-18 mo 14-20 mo 16-22 mo 18-24 mo N 423 417 416 409 403 414 419 411 402 411 413 409 410 5357 z1 0. .3 -0.4 -1.8584 z3 0. df(ν)=1.0 -1.1 0.2 -0.144 Length velocity conditional on age A4.5 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.6 6.5 5.6 -0.9 12.1 0.3 0. df(σ)=5.3 8.1963 z2 0.5 -0.0 0.2 -2.8 0.8 -0.5 -0.1 -0. df(µ)=7.0 0.0 0.2 0. mean.1 1.1 1.5 -1.0920 Note: Absolute values of z1. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.4 -0.7 0.1 -1.5 -0.

τ=2)] for 6-month length velocity for boys .27 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(µ)=7.Length velocity conditional on age 145 18-24 mo 10-16 mo 12-18 mo 14-20 mo 16-22 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 8-14 mo 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo Figure A4.05. df(ν)=1. df(σ)=5.

14 0. σ.8 0.12 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 11 0.16 0.4 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 6-mo length increment (cm) 146 6 7 8 9 .6 0.16 18 20 22 0.0 1.18 14 0.2 1.4 6 7 8 9 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4. and ν curves of selected model for 6-month length velocity for boys Length velocity conditional on age 1. 28 Fitting of the µ.10 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 24 6 7 8 9 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0.

97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month length velocity for boys .20 15 10 6-mo length increment (cm) Length velocity conditional on age Fitted Empirical 97th 90th 5 50th 10th 3rd 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 147 Figure A4. 50th.29 3rd. 10th. 90th.

95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month length velocity for boys Length velocity conditional on age 95th 5 6-mo length increment (cm) 20 148 Fitted Empirical . 25th.15 10 75th 50th 25th 5th 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4. 75th. 50th.30 5th.

2 -0.2 0.0 0.2 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 75th Centile 0.0 0.0 -0.2 0.0 0.31 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month length velocity for boys .2 95th Centile -0.0 0.2 0.2 -0.2 6 -0.0 8 6 50th Centile -0.2 8 0.0 0.2 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 6-mo length increment (cm) 5th Centile Length velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 149 Figure A4.2 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.2 97th Centile -0.0 0.2 0.2 6 90th Centile 6 8 0.2 0.0 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 -0.2 25th Centile 6 10th Centile 0.2 0.2 -0.8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.

0 1.6 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.1 -0.1 0.3 -0.7 1.2 0.0 0.4 -1.4646 Note: Absolute values of z1.05.1 -1.4 -1. .1 -0.6 0.4 -0.4 -0.3 -1.2 6.5 0.6 -0.7 -0.1 0.2 0. df(µ)=7.2 0.0 0. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.3058 z2 0.3 11.1 0.7 -0.9 0. τ=2)] for 6-month length velocity for girls Age (days) 178 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 749 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 8-14 mo 10-16 mo 12-18 mo 14-20 mo 16-22 mo 18-24 mo N 447 442 439 444 440 438 446 443 436 447 441 430 446 5739 z1 1.150 Length velocity conditional on age A4.3 0.4 1. variance or skewness.8 12.1 -0. df(σ)=4.8 -0. respectively.3 7.6 0.5 0.5 -0. mean.4b 6-month intervals for girls Table A4.2 9.0 -1.6 -1.5757 z3 1.1 -0. df(ν)=1.0 1.5 -0.5 0.0 10.7 0.

32 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(µ)=7. df(σ)=4. df(ν)=1. τ=2)] for 6-month length velocity for girls .Length velocity conditional on age 151 18-24 mo 10-16 mo 12-18 mo 14-20 mo 16-22 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 8-14 mo 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo Figure A4.05.

0 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 6-mo length increment (cm) 152 6 7 8 9 .2 6 7 8 9 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4. σ.8 1.6 0.10 0.14 0.0.16 0.33 Fitting of the µ.18 0. and ν curves of selected model for 6-month length velocity for girls Length velocity conditional on age 0.12 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 16 14 12 10 8 6 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 7 8 9 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0.4 0.

10th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month length velocity for girls .20 Length velocity conditional on age Fitted 15 10 97th 90th 50th 5 6-mo length increment (cm) Empirical 10th 3rd 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 153 Figure A4. 90th. 50th.34 3rd.

20 154 Fitted 15 10 75th 50th 25th 5th 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A4. 25th. 75th. 50th.35 5th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month length velocity for girls Length velocity conditional on age 95th 5 6-mo length increment (cm) Empirical .

2 0.2 0.4 -0.2 0.4 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.4 6 90th Centile 6 8 0.2 0.0 -0.4 6 -0.4 0.2 0.4 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 75th Centile 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.0 8 6 50th Centile -0.0 0.4 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 6-mo length increment (cm) 5th Centile Length velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 155 Figure A4.4 0.4 95th Centile -0.36 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month length velocity for girls .4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.2 0.4 -0.2 0.4 97th Centile 0.4 0.0 8 0.0 -0.2 0.0 -0.4 0.4 25th Centile 6 10th Centile 0.4 0.0 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 -0.

.

df(ν)=4.and 6-month head circumference increments conditional on age. 1-7. and for girls 24 out of 6629 (0. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0.49%) between -0. section A5. 18-24 months.1) indicate an adequate fit of the parameters µ and σ (p-values > 0.55 and -0.001 cm. The model yielding the first smallest GAIC(5) was selected in favour of a smoother median curve. The smallest GAIC(5) value corresponded to df(ν)=1 yet the ν curve using this was an under-smoothed fit of the empirical Box-Cox power values. and the model BCPE(x=age0. CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE VELOCITY STANDARDS The objective was to create sex-specific velocity curves for 2-.30 and -0.05. for the 4-month increments for boys 19 out of 6178 (0.008 cm.05. ….31%) between -0. The overall Q-test p-values (Table A5. Thus a choice was made to use df(ν)=4.01 to permit their inclusion in BCPE modelling. tables generated from the 4-month increment curves provide estimated centiles for ages 0-4. for the 3-month increments for boys 4 out of 4536 (0. and for girls 26 out of 5316 (0. σ and ν seemed adequate when compared to the empirical values (Figure A5. . 3-. …. Neither criterion GAIC(3) nor GAIC(4) was able to select the best degrees of freedom for the parameter µ.1) from this model agree with the Q-test results. df(µ)=8 and df(σ)=4 were used to continue with a search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2.5.05 cm. 4. 1-4.and 3-month intervals were modelled using data up to age 14 months. fixing λ=0.5 shows the distribution of empirical minus fitted centile differences with no evidence of systematic bias except for a slight over-estimation of the 75th. The fitted centile curves and empirical centiles are shown in figures A5. The worm plots (Figure A5.70 and -0.10%) between -0. tables generated from the 3-month increment curves provide estimated centiles for ages 0-3. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A5. The fitted curves of the parameters µ. negative increments were recoded as "no growth" by assigning the nominal value of +0.04%) between -0. ν=1 and τ=2.4. Table 26 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 2-month head circumference velocities between birth and 12 months. 5. Comparisons between the model using the negative values (adding a delta value to all observations) and the model using recoded values showed that the recoding had no impact on the model specifications and results were comparable to those of length. As was the case for length. 90th and 95th centiles by about 0. 10-12 months.05.05 cm. df(µ)=8. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. 1-5. 9-12 months. It was only with GAIC(5) that the search results indicated minima values.85 and -0. τ=2) was further evaluated.1a. Figure A5. df(σ)=4.2).09%) between -0. and tables generated from the 6-month increment curves provide estimated centiles for ages 0-6. …. …. and they indicate close concordance between the two. To avoid the right-edge effect.15 and -0.3 and A5.04 cm. Thus.05 cm.02 cm.05) with residual skewness (absolute z3 values > 2) in only one out of 12 age groups (7-9 mo). and for girls 6 out of 5747 (0. the effect of recoding the negative values on the final centiles was assessed using the girls' 2-month head circumference increments (the group with the largest number of negative increments).30 and -0. which was primarily supported by criteria GAIC(3) and GAIC(4).1 2-month intervals Boys There were 4947 2-month boys' head circumference increments from birth to 14 months.36%) between -0.30%) between -0.05 cm. By the same rationale applied to length increments.05 cm and for girls 5 out of 4869 (0. 1-3. 20-24 months.30 and -0. Tables generated from the 2-month increment curves provide estimated centiles for ages 0-2. The numbers involved were: for the 2-month increments for boys 15 out of 4947 (0.45 and -0.10%) between -0. the 2.157 - . for the 6-month increments for boys 2 out of 5353 (0.

fixing λ=0. section A5.11 of the selected model indicate an adequate fit of the data. section A5. the overall Q-test p-values for the median. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. the GAIC(3) reached more than one local minima values. σ and ν parameter curves with their respective sample estimates (Figure A5. 5.8 to A5. Table 28 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 3-month head circumference velocities between birth and 12 months.6) show similar results to those of the Q-test.2) show overall Q-test for µ and σ with p-values above 0. Similarly. Once more. which closely followed the respective empirical point estimates.2a. and centile residuals depict slight over-estimation by about 0. . followed by the search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2. There was no evident bias when comparing fitted µ. The next minimum for the GAIC(3) was yielded by a model of considerably higher degrees of freedom and lesser smoothness (df(µ)=11 and df(σ)=4). ν=1 and τ=2.15 show no sizeable bias comparing the empirical and fitted centiles. df(ν)=4 . The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=1 and the model BCPE(x=age0. fixing λ=0. variance and skewness were all non-significant. The GAIC(3) reached more than one local minima. Table 27 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 2-month head circumference velocities between birth and 12 months. df(σ)=4.05. For the parameter ν. the worm plots shown in Figure A5.05.05 indicating an adequate fit of these parameters.1b. For the selected model.7 displays the fitted curves of the parameters µ and σ. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. τ=2) was further evaluated. df(µ)=8. the model with df(µ)=7 and df(σ)=4 was selected. the first occurring for the model with df(µ)=7 and df(σ)=4. τ=2) was further evaluated.05 cm of the 75th and higher centiles (Figures A5. The worm plots (Figure A5. The next minimum for the GAIC(3) came from a model of considerably higher degrees of freedom and lesser smoothness (df(µ)=13 and df(σ)=4). indicating an adequate fit of the boys' 3-month head circumference increments. the first occurring for the model with df(µ)=8 and df(σ)=4. The diagnostic results are presented in Appendix A5.05. the model with df(µ)=8 and df(σ)=4 was further examined and the next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. Figure A5. Similar to the boys.12). The diagnostic test results are presented in Appendix A5. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=4 and the model BCPE(x=age0.05. ν=1 and τ=2.13 to A5. To maintain the smoother fit (with the lower degrees of freedom for µ). df(ν)=1.05. In Table A5.2 3-month intervals Boys There were 4536 boys' 3-month observed head circumference increments from birth to 14 months. and the centile residuals. df(µ)=7. the Q-test results (Table A5.158 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Girls There were 5316 girls' 2-month head circumference increments from birth to 14 months.05. In favour of greater smoothness. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. the overall Q-test was significant indicating residual skewness (absolute z3 values > 2) in two out of 12 age groups.10). df(σ)=4. comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles are in close agreement. the model fitting a constant for the parameter ν also approximates fairly well the fluctuations observed empirically. Figures A5.3.

The overall significance. section A5. In Table A5. With penalty 5 (GAIC(5)) the first occurring minimum value was associated with the model with df(µ)=7 and df(σ)=4. i. was selected and the model BCPE(x=age0.05 cm in the 10th centile and an equally negligible over-estimation in the 90th centile.4.19) and centile residuals (A5. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. ν=1 and τ=2. the model BCPE(x=age0. fixing λ=0.5) and worm plots (Figure A5. fixing λ=0. Notably.17 of the fitted parameters.21) from this model indicated an adequate fit of the data with the overall Q-test p-values for the three parameters being non-significant at the 5% level. df(ν)=2. df(ν)=3. The diagnostic test results are presented in Appendix A5. the latter showing an average under-estimation of 0. τ=2) was further evaluated. The choice that provided the smoother ν curve. Hence. . one group with a U-shaped worm and another with an inverted U-shaped worm).2b.23. ν=1 and τ=2. Thus. df(µ)=10.05. and the same applied to the skewness parameter ν (2 out of 11 z3 values exceed absolute value 2). Figure A5.22 shows the fitted µ. The next three plots (figures A5. while the smallest GAIC(5) indicated df(ν)=2. there were fluctuations notably in the empirical curve of the parameter ν that were smoothed out by the selected model. τ=2) was selected and further evaluated. Examining figure A5.3a. section A5. σ and ν curves against their corresponding empirical estimates. Using GAIC(3) there was no minimum value and that was also the case when the penalty was raised to 4. the overall Qtest for the median parameter µ was significant. df(ν)=2.Head circumference velocity conditional on age 159 Girls There were 4869 girls' 3-month observed head circumference increments from birth to 14 months. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=4. A5. the GAIC(5) indicated a smaller value only with considerably higher degrees of freedom and lesser smoothness (df(µ)=15 or higher and df(σ)=4). The model with df(µ)=10 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3). The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=3.25) show no evidence of bias when comparing fitted against empirical centiles or centile residuals. the model with df(µ)=7 and df(σ)=4 was used to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. but none of the z1 values exceed absolute value 2. The adequacy of the fitted model was indicated by the comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles (A5.05 cm. leaving a final sample of 6177 observations for the modeling exercise.e. the ν parameter empirical curve exhibits fluctuations which are reasonably smoothed by the fitted curve.05. df(σ)=5.18 and A5. except for a slight over-estimation in the 75th.e. The worm plots (Figure A5.20). especially for the median might be due in part to the small number of age groups (11) for this interval relative to the number of degrees of freedom necessary for fitting the parameter. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. Next.05.24 and A5. 5.16) confirm findings of the Q-tests (i.05. df(σ)=4.3 4-month intervals Boys There were 6178 boys' 4-month head circumference increments from birth to 24 months. Table 29 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 3-month head circumference velocities between birth and 12 months.05.05. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. The diagnostic test results are presented in Appendix A5. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. df(µ)=7. one of which was excluded as an outlier. The Q-test results (Table A5. which leaves a small number of degrees of freedom for the overall Q-test statistics. 90th and 95th centiles by about 0.

26) from this model reflect residual skewness in the same age group as indicated by the Q-test results. .3b. ν=1 and τ=2.05. one of which was excluded as an outlier. Table 31 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 4-month head circumference velocities between birth and 24 months. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. section A5. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. τ=2) was selected and further evaluated.05. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed.05. the model BCPE(x=age0.4a. df(ν)=2. Girls There were 6629 girls' 4-month head circumference increments from birth to 24 months. The diagnostic test results are presented in Appendix A5.33. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=2 and the model BCPE(x=age0. The Q-test results (Table A5.7) and worm plots (Figure A5. fixing λ=0.27 shows adequate fitting of the parameters µ and σ with the respective sample estimates and a reasonable smoothing of the fluctuations in the empirical curve for ν by the selected model. The overall Q-test p-values (in Table A5. section A5. The model with df(µ)=9 and df(σ)=4 provided the smallest GAIC(3).05.4 6-month intervals Boys There were 5353 boys' 6-month head circumference increments from birth to 24 months. 5.05.160 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Table 30 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 4-month head circumference velocities between birth and 24 months. ν=1 and τ=2. The diagnostic test results are presented in Appendix A5. The model with df(µ)=10 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3). residual skewness occurred in only two out of 15 age groups. Figures A5.31) from this model indicated an adequate fit of the data with the overall Q-test p-values for the three parameters being non-significant at the 5% level. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. one of which was excluded as an outlier. fixing λ=0. Figure A5. Hence. df(µ)=9. The ν parameter fitted curve smoothes out reasonably well the fluctuations exhibited by the empirical curve.30).05.6) indicate an adequate fit of the median parameter µ and σ curves. For the skewness parameter ν although the overall Q-test was significant. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=2. The worm plots (Figure A5. df(σ)=5. σ and ν curves against their corresponding empirical estimates. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0.05 cm and a similar over-estimation in the 75th and higher centiles (Figure A5.35 show some evidence of bias in the comparison of fitted against empirical centiles and centile residual plots at the lowest centiles (between the 3rd and the 10th centiles) but the magnitude of the biases is negligible. leaving a final sample of 6628 observations for the modeling exercise. A5. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed. df(ν)=2. τ=2) was further evaluated. leaving a final sample of 5352 observations for the modelling exercise. df(µ)=10. Figure A5.34 and A5. df(σ)=4.28 and A5. Comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles and centile residuals depict a reasonable fit of the data (Figures A5.29) with a slight underestimation in the 10th centile by about 0.32 shows the fitted µ.

Comparisons between fitted and empirical centiles and the centile residuals depict a reasonable fit of the data (Figures A5. one of which was excluded as an outlier. Girls There were 5747 girls' 6-month head circumference increments from birth to 24 months. Table A5. The overall Q-test p-values were all nonsignificant.8 summarizes Q-test results.38 to A5.05. Table 33 presents the predicted centiles for girls' 6-month head circumference velocities between birth and 24 months. τ=2) was further evaluated. The best value of the age-transformation power was λ=0. fixing λ=0. df(µ)=9. section A5. df(σ)=5.05. df(ν)=2.05. The smallest GAIC(3) value corresponded to df(ν)=2 and the model BCPE(x=age0. The search for the best df(µ) and df(σ) followed.36) from this model partially reflect the variance misfit in one age group (18-24 mo).Head circumference velocity conditional on age 161 Table 32 presents the predicted centiles for boys' 6-month head circumference velocities between birth and 24 months. Figure A5. Similar to boys. indicating an adequate fit of the median and skewness parameters and a slight misfit of the σ parameter curve in the last two age groups (out of 13). leaving a final sample of 5746 observations for the modelling exercise. The worm plots (Figure A5. The next step was to search for the best degrees of freedom to fit the parameter ν for skewness fixing τ=2 and keeping the degrees of freedom for the previously selected µ and σ curves. there is a slight indication of bias but the magnitude also is negligible.4b. . σ and ν by the selected model.37 shows adequate fitting of the three parameters µ. ν=1 and τ=2.40). The diagnostic test results are presented in Appendix A5. The model with df(µ)=9 and df(σ)=5 provided the smallest GAIC(3).

8 1.44007 -3SD 2.7 1.8 0.9 2.5 3.7 75th 5.4 2.7 1.2 1.4 0.2 3.2 1.3714 2.6 0.2 3.0 0.5 0.9598 M 4.4 0.0747 1.7 2.9 1.4 2.1 3.0 -2SD 3.9 2.1 1.7 1.9 1.1 1.3 2.7 1.1 1.0 0.5 2.8 2.2 2.6 0.9577 0.0 2.2 0.16382 0.8 1.4 0.0 95th 5.7 1.4 1.23798 0.6 2.4381 1.4 1.8 0.3 0.5 1.8985 0.9267 0.9 3.1 1.6878 3.2 1.7879 0.9 3.5 1.6 0.1 5th 3.2 0.8 1.6 3.0 1.9 -1SD Median 3.5 50th 4.9379 0.3 +3SD 7.5 1.5 1.1 1.5 1.0 +2SD 6.0 2.7 2.8731 0.6 1.3 1.4 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Interval 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 162 Table 26 Boys 2-month head circumference increments (cm) .20700 0.2 97th 6.5 1.15634 0.8 1.9 1.9 0.0 3rd 3.1 1.0 1.4 1.9598 M 4.6 0.4 0.8 1.4 2.31173 0.6 85th 5.20700 0.2 15th 3.8985 0.9577 0.8 1.7184 1.5 0.8 0.3 1.5 2.1 1.2 0.5170 2.4 1.5 0.2 1.6659 S 0.7141 0.4 0.2 1.4 1.5 1.7879 0.5 2.6 0.9 2.2 0.0747 1.5607 0.5 1.7141 0.5 2.27392 0.6210 0.2 1.2 2.0106 0.7615 0.1 1.3 0.3 2.5 4.0 5.0 2.2 2.7 3.9267 0.5 0.39591 0.9 0.2 99th 6.6 1.0 0.1 0.18097 0.16093 0.4 1.4 1.7 0.1 0.6878 3.7184 1.9 3.8 0.8 2.7 2.6 1.8 2.9379 0.4 1.1 Interval 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo L 0.5607 0.9 2.9 4.3 0.23798 0.1 2.5 2.3714 2.6210 0.9 4.35212 0.7 1.8 0.3 2.18097 0.0 0.5 1.2 1.44007 1st 3.7 0.35212 0.1 0.1 0.31173 0.7 1.0 0.0 2.39591 0.1 1.16093 0.8 0.8 1.9 1.2 1.1 4.2 0.1 1.3 0.4 2.7 3.L 0.8 1.3 3.3 2.8731 0.7 0.7 +1SD 5.0 1.4 3.5 2.0106 0.3 2.2009 1.4 25th 4.3 0.5 0.4 1.9 0.6219 0.7 2.9 2.1 0.7 0.3 1.7615 0.3 1.4 1.3 1.27392 0.3 2.5 1.2009 1.1 0.16382 0.4 1.9 0.5 1.8 1.0 0.4 3.2 4.6219 0.5 3.15634 0.0 0.0 1.8482 0.6659 S 0.5170 2.4381 1.8482 0.

8 0.3 0.0 1.7 0.6 2.7 1.0 1.7 0.5 0.4 0.1 2.22476 0.0 0.7 3.2 1.4 1.8 1.25281 0.15953 0.8807 0.3 0.8807 0.7 1.5 0.0 -2SD 3.8807 0.1 1.1 1.6 0.9599 1.3 3.28607 0.6 1.4 2.7 4.7 75th 4.8 1.1 1.0 1.7 1.8807 M 4.40034 0.18107 0.8 1.8807 0.4 1.3539 3.35933 0.8 0.0 0.32161 0.8 2.9 1.8471 0.8807 M 4.8807 0.0 0.0 2.7 1.7384 0.4 2.25281 0.1 97th 5.4 1.0 1.1 0.4 0.8807 0.8 0.2 1.0 0.4 3.8807 0.7 0.8807 0.1035 2.4 1.4 1.6524 1.7 2.8 0.4 1.1035 2.8 0.3473 1.3473 1.4 3.5 0.5 50th 4.8 0.6 2.3 1.6 0.8807 0.6 1.2 3.6552 S 0.2 0.1 3.7 1.8807 0.1 0.2 0.1762 0.8 4.28607 0.1 3.1 0.6 85th 5.8807 0.5 1.2 2.8807 0.8 0.6552 S 0.1 0.5 1.2 1.9 0.3 2.2 15th 3.8 0.6 2.3 1.2 2.4 0.6 2.8807 0.1762 0.6 1.0 1.9921 0.1 -1SD 3.1 1.7 +1SD 5.2 1.1 0.9921 0.6 1.44193 -3SD 2.7 3.7384 0.8 2.9 2.9 0.1 5th 3.3 1.0 0.7 2.4 2.6 0.9599 1.8 1.8 2.2 1.0 1.3 2.2 2.2 0.3 1.4 25th 3.8 3.1 1.5 1.5 2.7 0.5 2.0 0.2 2.6 1.7 1.0 95th 5.6 1.32161 0.20017 0.20017 0.8807 0.3 1.0 3rd 3.2 1.9 1.4 2.6 2.5 4.6 0.9 1.2 1.3981 1.8471 0.5 1.3 1.0 0.4 0.1 2.3539 3.1 2.0 4.8 1.9 2.4 1.8807 0.5 0.6 1.0 1.8 2.3 +3SD 6.2 99th 6.1 3.4 0.15953 0.3 0.8 2.6 1.44193 1st 2.5 0.8807 0.6 1.5 1.8807 0.18107 0.7 1.2 1.8 1.8 0.Interval 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo L 0.5 2.8807 0.0 3.9 1.3 0.2 0.0 1.4 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Table 27 Girls 2-month head circumference increments (cm) 163 .5 4.3 1.6524 1.9 1.2 0.4 2.2 2.4 1.16706 0.2 1.2 2.7 0.1 2.35933 0.3 1.9 Interval 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo L 0.22476 0.16706 0.0 +2SD 5.1 0.8807 0.1 1.1 0.3981 1.40034 0.4 Median 4.6 0.8807 0.3 2.4 0.5 0.5 1.

7 1.20021 0.4 1.0419 4.8 2.2 1.2 2.4 -1SD 5.9 50th 6.6 5.0 3.14382 0.9903 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.4137 0.4 1.6 3.4 2.8 2.1 0.0 1.6704 1.2321 1.4737 0.1 3.4 2.29648 1st 4.8 3.0 0.5 2.7 1.8 3.4 2.1 1.164 Table 28 Boys 3-month head circumference increments (cm) L 0.8568 2.0 0.5 3.22358 0.9028 0.4737 0.3 0.8 0.0 4.7 2.1 4.6 0.7 1.6 0.13624 0.20021 0.27193 0.4 2.3 2.4858 0.0 1.7 2.6 97th 7.8 1.8123 0.2 1.2 4.2 1.8 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Interval 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo .8 3.15846 0.2 2.4214 1.1 1.4 2.6 1.4 5.8 1.4 +2SD 7.6 1.6 4.4 3.9903 1.3 2.2 2.4 1.9 2.6 2.0 2.5 3.9 1.4 2.3 1.2 3.0 1.17799 0.6 2.0 0.4944 2.2 1.1 0.1 75th 6.4 1.5 3.17799 0.3 3rd 4.3840 1.8 0.5 1.6 2.1 -2SD 4.6 0.5 3.8 2.6 1.9602 0.2321 1.5 2.0 4.9 5.5 1.7 25th 5.7 2.5 2.6 1.4 2.5 0.6 1.24758 0.13725 0.7 1.1 +1SD 6.9 2.6 1.7 +3SD 8.0 1.9 5.7 3.8 3.4 1.6 6.0 2.4 0.13624 0.9852 M 6.0419 4.1 0.1 1.1 0.2 1.5132 3.9 2.6 2.13725 0.9 0.4 2.9852 M 6.15846 0.5 5th 4.4944 2.7 2.7074 0.4 95th 7.6 0.9 1.5992 0.9 0.4214 1.1 1.8568 2.5 3.7558 0.8123 0.9 3.4137 0.9 1.6704 1.0 85th 6.1 2.3840 1.8 4.7 0.6 4.2 4.5 4.9 3.29648 -3SD 3.3 2.7074 0.0 1.9 0.9 2.9 1.3 0.7 1.7558 0.7 3.2 1.4 3.8 4.7 4.24758 0.8 Median 6.5992 0.3 1.9602 0.0768 S 0.22358 0.0768 S 0.3 2.5132 3.8 2.0 3.2 3.7 0.0 2.2 3.0 1.4 3.4858 0.9028 0.3 2.6 5.27193 0.1 1.0 6.6 2.4 2.2 2.1 1.2 4.14382 0.6 15th 5.3 2.7 99th 8.8 1.9 0.7 1.0 3.4 2.9 3.3 Interval 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo L 0.8 5.3 2.

9 2.2025 1.7 1.8 3.8756 0.0 2.5 1.14611 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.5 2.7 1.2025 1.7 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.3 5.0 5.3 3.8 2.8 0.7 4.6316 0.2 2.5 0.5408 0.8 2.5 2.7 +3SD 8.9976 M 5.4 1.6 1.7 2.6 3.4 +2SD 7.4 1.5 2.9 2.6 4.9 0.7066 0.6 0.8 2.0 1.4 3.5 1.0 0.0 1.2 2.9201 0.6 3.9 1.7161 2.9 0.22644 0.4 1.2 3.1 0.8 3.1 2.3 2.4 2.8 3.8 2.1 4.4 2.6316 0.0 2.5 1.6 2.9 1.2 6.8 1.7 99th 7.14611 0.24920 0.1 2.9 1.3 2.5 1.1 0.3 1.6 4.6 3.2 5.1 1.3 2.8 3.6 0.6 2.2 4.15573 0.2 2.4 1.1837 3.9605 0.14155 0.2 1.2 0.2594 2.8 2.4252 0.4 4.6 2.7 0.8262 0.5 4.3 2.1 1.0 2.7 2.4 1.2 4.2 3.6 1.3 2.4252 0.3903 1.9 1.7066 0.9 2.27282 0.24920 0.5 3.9451 1.6363 1.6 2.4 4.7 3.9605 0.4 2.20505 0.5 1.1 3.3 1.5 5th 4.8 1.9976 M 5.0 0.4 -1SD 4.16952 0.2 1.0690 S 0.6 1.5408 0.8 1.2 3.0 0.0 0.0 85th 6.6363 1.16952 0.1837 3.8756 0.6 97th 7.7 0.9201 0.7 2.9451 1.2 1.1 +1SD 6.7 2.4 1.4 0.0 0.5 2.2991 1.7 25th 5.6 1.18602 0.2991 1.4 4.9 1.27282 0.5 3.8 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Table 29 Girls 3-month head circumference increments (cm) 165 .2 3.29743 -3SD 3.2 2.3 3rd 4.2 1.6 0.6 0.2 2.20505 0.9 4.3 1.4 95th 7.9 50th 5.3 1.2 1.8262 0.3 1.2 1.3 Interval 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo L 0.1 75th 6.5 1.1 -2SD 4.22644 0.0690 S 0.1 3.2 2.7704 0.1 3.3 3.4 1.8 3.5822 4.5 15th 4.8 0.9 2.3 1.7 3.14155 0.6 5.8 Median 5.4 2.7 1.8 3.8 0.9 0.2 0.7161 2.0 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.18602 0.8 3.9 1.Interval 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo L 0.3903 1.29743 1st 3.2594 2.7704 0.2 2.15573 0.5822 4.9 1.

0 0.3 1.2 1.2 0.21918 0.6277 0.4 50th 7.7 1.1 15th 6.1133 5.5 2.0 3.2 4.6 1.4 0.9 5.3 3.3 2.4 1.2 1.7 1.5 1.9278 0.2 1.7 1.46942 0.26394 0.5 4.2 2.7 0.0780 1.7 6.4 0.2 0.1 0.7 85th 8.2 0.8 1.9166 0.3 25th 6.9 1.6 2.43237 0.4 3.7 1.4 0.6 0.1 1.0 0.9414 0.9 0.5 1.8 0.39409 0.5 3.2 5.3 0.2 1.7 0.9255 2.0 3.1 1.8359 0.5 1.12713 0.2 1.9 2.1 0.4 1.7 6.6 0.8 0.5 75th 7.0 1.2 0.35292 0.7179 0.9 0.9550 M 7.8 1.5 0.9 3.1 1.3 2.8 2.6 1.30970 0.1 1.3 0.1 5th 5.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 1.6 2.7 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.0 2.9 4.8 0.9 0.3 1.45102 0.1 0.8 0.9 2.5248 S 0.9009 0.2 0.2 1.5 5.5 3.1 3.1 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Interval 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 9-13 mo 10-14 mo 11-15 mo 12-16 mo 13-17 mo 14-18 mo 15-19 mo 16-20 mo 17-21 mo 18-22 mo 19-23 mo 20-24 mo 166 Table 30 Boys 4-month head circumference increments (cm) .5076 0.6557 0.2 0.4 0.19784 0.9 3.3 0.2 0.8532 0.3 0.9301 0.9 2.4 1.8 4.0 99th 9.0 1.8808 0.4 0.5 0.8 95th 8.4 1.9518 0.7 2.1 3.7719 0.4 4.1 1.9500 0.6 0.1 0.1 1.5575 0.7 3.1 0.16106 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.5 2.4 1.5 2.1 1.6637 0.2 4.3 1.2 2.1 1.6 0.4 0.28656 0.4 1.24082 0.2 2.4 1.1844 1.7070 0.0 1.5 0.4 1.5 1.8 4.0 3rd 5.3 0.4 0.7 0.0 0.9 3.8 1.2 4.1 6.6 0.1 1.2702 3.5185 2.0 2.9535 0.7696 1.9 0.6 0.0 1.7 3.3 0.5 0.8 0.9480 0.4 2.4 0.7605 0.4 2.8 1.9 0.7 0.0 1.7 4.3 1.3 1.3368 1.6 4.1 5.3 1.48711 1st 5.2 0.9452 0.1 0.2 1.14592 0.L 0.3 1.1 0.1 0.7 5.1 1.8180 0.8 2.7 1.8 1.5301 1.2 1.7 2.8 0.5 2.4 2.2 0.3 4.4 7.4 1.4212 0.4806 4.8 1.0 0.1 2.8 3.0457 0.4 0.2 2.4 2.2 0.5 0.13454 0.2 2.0 4.12440 0.6 0.5840 0.2 1.41387 0.5 2.4 0.9 1.4 3.2 1.5 1.1 1.9 0.0 0.0 97th 8.9357 0.7 0.3 3.9 6.2 1.17841 0.37421 0.0 0.6 0.9 0.4 2.8 0.5923 0.3 1.0 1.0 1.33162 0.0 1.6 0.5 0.4506 2.3279 0.7 3.

4 1.4 0.1 1.9301 0.9 0.6277 0.8 0.37421 0.35292 0.8180 0.9 2.5 4.2 1.5 2.7 1.0 0.8 6.5 4.9 2.4 2.5 0.3 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Table 30 Boys 4-month head circumference increments (cm) .9535 0.1 7.7 2.1 1.3279 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.6 0.4212 0.9 0.8 0.6 1.5 3.4 1.0 6.2 2.16106 0.4806 4.7 1.5 1.0457 0.2 4.0 -2SD 5.45102 0.9480 0.1 0.6 0.48711 -3SD 4.0 2.5 0.8 3.9 2.5248 S 0.6 0.6 0.7 2.9518 0.26394 0.7696 1.9 1.7179 0.4 0.5185 2.0 0.9255 2.0 1.0 3.1 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.8 1.30970 0.1 0.43237 0.7605 0.4 0.9 0.9 3.8359 0.3 2.5301 1.2 0.8 +2SD 9.2 4.1 0.6 1.0 -1SD Median 6.0 5.4506 2.0 7.3 0.2 2.0 0.41387 0.6 2.5 0.7 0.7070 0.0 0.9452 0.8 0.1 0.7 4.28656 0.7 1.4 3.3 1.1 4.5 0.5 +1SD 8.6 2.2 1.5 1.5076 0.7 0.17841 0.8 0.9 0.5923 0.2 0.39409 0.3 0.9414 0.0 0.13454 0.8808 0.0 2.33162 0.1 1.24082 0.14592 0.5 2.1 1.2 0.5575 0.21918 0.9 1.8532 0.6 1.5 1.9 3.4 1.7 0.4 1.9550 M 7.9 1.0 3.2 1.3 0.0 0.3 3.1 0.5 1.0 1.3 1.5 2.0 0.0780 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.7 2.5 1.1 1.continued 167 .2 0.2702 3.3 7.Interval 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 9-13 mo 10-14 mo 11-15 mo 12-16 mo 13-17 mo 14-18 mo 15-19 mo 16-20 mo 17-21 mo 18-22 mo 19-23 mo 20-24 mo L 0.19784 0.6 1.6637 0.1844 1.12440 0.9166 0.9 1.0 +3SD 10.12713 0.4 1.4 0.6557 0.9278 0.2 1.4 2.3368 1.8 5.0 0.3 1.9009 0.46942 0.9 0.3 0.1 1.6 1.2 5.6 3.1133 5.5840 0.2 0.4 2.6 2.9 4.9500 0.2 3.7719 0.9357 0.5 3.0 1.

5 1.12888 0.1 1.5 0.7353 1.7 1.3 5.7 3.8 95th 8.2 3.8 4.3 0.5 1.4 1.52538 0.7 0.L 0.9573 0.5473 0.1 4.8391 0.1 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Interval 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 9-13 mo 10-14 mo 11-15 mo 12-16 mo 13-17 mo 14-18 mo 15-19 mo 16-20 mo 17-21 mo 18-22 mo 19-23 mo 20-24 mo 168 Table 31 Girls 4-month head circumference increments (cm) .6605 5.1 1.0 0.8 1.6 0.0 99th 8.0154 3.2 25th 6.9 0.0750 4.5 0.28575 0.6 1.4 2.8 2.1 2.3 1.3542 2.3 1.8 6.1 1.2 0.55112 1st 4.4 2.6 3.3 4.1 1.6 5.7 1.47350 0.0 1.6 1.2 0.8664 0.19915 0.0 2.3 1.0 0.2 5.5215 0.2 1.0 0.4 0.6 3.0344 1.26147 0.4 1.2 1.9 0.8 1.4 1.8 0.4 1.8 5.0 3rd 5.5 2.1 1.41976 0.3 0.6 0.9 3.4 2.5 1.4 4.0642 0.0 1.0 1.6952 0.7748 0.9 0.4 1.2 1.23888 0.2 2.9 2.4 2.6457 0.9 0.1 1.8 1.0952 M 6.5 75th 7.9172 0.5 1.3 0.7 1.44691 0.4 2.6 1.7 85th 7.9 0.39238 0.4 0.5902 0.3296 1.5 1.4 0.1 0.7 0.0 3.0 0.7940 0.5013 S 0.0 1.0 1.9 0.0 0.6 3.8 3.1 0.7 1.1 1.3 0.8 4.8 1.6 0.8672 0.4 0.0 0.16676 0.9808 0.0 4.4 3.6953 0.3 50th 6.0 0.6 4.8085 0.8 2.2 1.0 0.0271 1.2 1.5 1.0 0.3 1.0 15th 5.1 1.4 0.1 0.1 3.0 5th 5.1 1.7 0.0 0.5 0.8 1.7 0.0 0.8 2.2 2.1 4.8 0.6 0.3 0.1 1.3 0.0661 1.6 3.9 3.4 1.49958 0.6 2.31149 0.1 1.1 0.5 2.2 2.3 1.3 1.3945 2.1 1.2 0.8 0.9608 0.36514 0.1 6.21812 0.4 1.7 0.5 4.3 1.9 1.9996 1.4 3.1 4.0175 1.5 3.9 1.0 2.1 0.8 3.3 2.1 1.7 0.5 1.9 0.6 0.0 1.4 2.13444 0.2 0.6469 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.15397 0.0 1.1 1.3 1.6 0.2 1.5073 1.4 2.6 1.6 1.3 1.8931 0.9397 0.7 0.0 2.0810 1.7 0.7 5.2 2.0 3.0 0.7411 0.4 3.5 0.5 0.9 97th 8.1864 1.0506 1.5953 0.8 1.7374 0.7 1.0 1.1 0.0 3.0 0.14318 0.4 5.8419 2.3 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.18192 0.1 0.2 0.2 1.4 6.7 2.4 1.3 2.6 0.33813 0.4 0.1 2.6 2.7 2.5 0.8 0.5 2.3 1.5 2.4 0.6 1.8 2.

9 0.0 0.9808 0.13444 0.9 0.3 2.3 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Table 31 Girls 4-month head circumference increments (cm) .1 0.9 0.4 1.8 3.0 0.44691 0.7 1.5 5.0 0.4 1.9 2.9 1.0 4.8 1.9 5.5215 0.4 3.5013 S 0.15397 0.8419 2.8 +2SD 8.5 7.0 0.4 5.6 2.5 0.0 -2SD 5.26147 0.9 1.2 2.9 1.3 1.5 1.6952 0.0175 1.5 2.5 1.3 0.12888 0.0 0.33813 0.0 0.7 4.8672 0.8 0.continued 169 .5 4.7374 0.7 1.0506 1.9 1.8 0.4 1.3296 1.3 5.1 1.0 -1SD Median 5.5953 0.6 2.8664 0.41976 0.4 3.3 3.7353 1.14318 0.28575 0.8931 0.2 1.0 0.0 2.0750 4.4 1.2 0.6457 0.3 2.18192 0.0 1.3 0.2 1.3 0.6 0.0 0.2 4.2 2.1 1.5 5.8 3.8 2.7 1.7 0.23888 0.0 0.21812 0.0642 0.3 0.2 0.9 2.6 1.5 1.9397 0.6 1.7748 0.5 0.0 0.9172 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.19915 0.55112 -3SD 4.47350 0.1 1.0344 1.9 1.2 1.1 0.8 2.0271 1.7 0.1 1.6953 0.0 0.3945 2.2 0.8391 0.8 4.4 2.3 1.0154 3.9608 0.Interval 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 9-13 mo 10-14 mo 11-15 mo 12-16 mo 13-17 mo 14-18 mo 15-19 mo 16-20 mo 17-21 mo 18-22 mo 19-23 mo 20-24 mo L 0.36514 0.2 0.5 1.6 0.7411 0.52538 0.2 1.0 0.2 0.0810 1.7 0.5 0.2 0.8 0.5 +1SD 7.0 1.3542 2.1 0.9 1.4 0.3 2.4 1.5473 0.5 1.0952 M 6.1 0.6 0.6469 0.0 3.9 2.7 1.7 1.3 0.5902 0.6605 5.1 3.1864 1.9996 1.31149 0.4 2.9 3.5 1.4 0.39238 0.3 1.49958 0.3 0.8085 0.16676 0.7 1.4 0.4 1.9 0.5 0.0661 1.6 3.9573 0.4 1.4 2.7940 0.0 0.8 2.4 2.0 +3SD 9.5 6.2 2.9 3.7 0.0 2.5073 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.8 6.

3 9.8 0.8511 S 0.6 0.5 1.4 1.5066 4.2 2.1676 1.6 1.2 2.6 0.26021 0.5 0.8218 0.5260 3.1 0.9 1.1 1.4 2.1 3.7 3.8 1.6616 0.9 0.8 0.5465 0.8 0.5 1.8 2.4 0.0 3.2 1.9 4.3 1.0 1.4988 0.9 5.0 7.4 3.7 1.0 0.4 1.7 2.2 2.7 2.9 4.5888 0.9 3.14708 0.1 1.9439 5.3 3.4 2.9 1.0 1.4441 0.7 1.9 2.4 1.1 1.6 1.6 3.0 0.4 1.2 95th 10.9 0.7985 1.6 4.8633 0.20363 0.4 0.2 2.8 0.3 2.11688 0.13512 0.8 8.7 1.2 1.8825 0.2122 2.6 1.3 1.5 4.3 1.5 2.9 1.3 1.2 2.5 2.0 0.2 6.0461 1.2 6.6 3.8431 0.1 2.9 1.7 0.9 6.0 4.7226 0.8 3.1 4.7 1.3 1.12498 0.7 5.27339 0.1 4.7 0.5 3.9 0.8 2.8 6.1 2.4 3.3 5.5 0.7 2.24672 0.5 3.6 0.2 4.3 1.7499 0.1 3.1 0.9 2.9 0.2 1.8 2.2 3.28632 0.4 1.8 1.1 0.7983 3.3 2.7 4.L 0.0078 0.4211 1.0 85th 9.5932 1.11010 0.8640 6.0 1.7354 2.8 1.6 2.1 1.8 0.3 97th 10.4 3.5 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Interval 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 7-13 mo 8-14 mo 9-15 mo 10-16 mo 11-17 mo 12-18 mo 13-19 mo 14-20 mo 15-21 mo 16-22 mo 17-23 mo 18-24 mo 170 Table 32 Boys 6-month head circumference increments (cm) .9512 M 8.4 2.4 2.7 1.7 0.6269 0.32406 0.7 50th 8.8976 0.6 1.4 5.18884 0.6 0.3 1.9 0.4 0.5 0.0785 1.8 4.4 1.4 99th 11.2 3.4 1.8 1.6 2.1 1.2 2.2 5.2 4.2 0.9 6.6 2.1 1.9 75th 9.1 1.17427 0.8 3.9 3.5 1.3 1.6933 0.29903 0.9 5.8 1.9184 0.33648 1st 6.2 1.8 3.5 6.1 2.9009 0.3 2.3 5th 7.7 0.2 3rd 7.2 1.9 2.9 0.8 0.7 4.7 1.6 1.7 1.8 5.8 2.5 0.8 1.5 7.2795 1.31159 0.6 8.8 1.3511 2.6 6.0 1.21837 0.6 1.4 1.3 0.5 2.0 5.8 0.7 0.2 2.1 1.5 0.5 1.5 4.6 1.4 0.16026 0.2 4.9 0.3 6.5 0.23280 0.5 1.4 2.3 0.9483 0.4 15th 7.7993 0.7754 0.5 1.9 7.1 1.2 1.1 5.9351 0.6 25th 8.

5 0.9 1.1 0.32406 0.4 3.9 2.9 8.8218 0.2 6.1 0.6 7.0 1.7 6.9 4.4441 0.6616 0.7226 0.3 -1SD Median 7.1 2.2 1.3 2.6269 0.6 2.0 4.4 2.5 3.7 3.28632 0.7 2.13512 0.3 0.3511 2.8825 0.5066 4.17427 0.4 2.9 +1SD 9.9 0.6 2.4 0.8 3.7 3.5932 1.8 2.5 0.0 1.2 2.8 2.0 5.1676 1.3 1.8 1.0 -2SD 7.0461 1.33648 -3SD 6.7 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Table 32 Boys 6-month head circumference increments (cm) .12498 0.6 1.4211 1.3 3.31159 0.5260 3.1 0.9 4.0 0.9 1.29903 0.6 0.7499 0.9184 0.8 6.0 5.5888 0.9 0.4 1.8 2.8511 S 0.7 1.11688 0.0 1.8 2.8640 6.1 0.6 0.9 0.3 1.14708 0.7354 2.7 1.5 1.3 3.4988 0.2 1.8 5.0785 1.8 1.Interval 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 7-13 mo 8-14 mo 9-15 mo 10-16 mo 11-17 mo 12-18 mo 13-19 mo 14-20 mo 15-21 mo 16-22 mo 17-23 mo 18-24 mo L 0.2 2.8 1.2 3.8633 0.16026 0.8 1.0 1.23280 0.21837 0.9512 M 8.8 1.2 2.1 1.8976 0.5 2.7 3.2122 2.9 6.6 1.8431 0.9351 0.6 4.3 3.7 7.7 0.5 3.3 0.9009 0.2 4.7983 3.5 2.4 3.6933 0.6 0.6 0.27339 0.5465 0.2 0.6 2.11010 0.8 0.4 1.0 1.9 7.1 9.7 0.9483 0.6 1.7985 1.4 0.18884 0.2 2.4 0.9 8.7 3.3 1.2 5.4 1.3 2.continued 171 .9 2.2 1.2795 1.4 +3SD 12.26021 0.7754 0.9 1.2 0.2 4.9 4.1 +2SD 10.4 1.8 1.2 1.7993 0.7 1.1 0.2 2.4 4.8 1.2 0.6 0.9 0.3 0.5 5.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 2.9439 5.24672 0.5 1.8 5.20363 0.0078 0.

5 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Interval 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 7-13 mo 8-14 mo 9-15 mo 10-16 mo 11-17 mo 12-18 mo 13-19 mo 14-20 mo 15-21 mo 16-22 mo 17-23 mo 18-24 mo 172 Table 33 Girls 6-month head circumference increments (cm) .2111 1.1336 2.5 2.3 1.9172 0.0 0.0 0.31516 0.3410 3.3 2.8 0.1 2.1 1.7 2.1 1.2 1.0 1.8 0.5863 0.2 1.7 4.6 0.1 3.0 3.3 1.0 4.7 1.8884 0.5 1.2 2.3 5.2683 6.4 2.8 2.7186 0.4 0.9819 0.2 2.35116 1st 6.30032 0.8 0.9 1.0200 M 8.5 2.3 2.7 1.11607 0.0506 0.2 2.9708 0.2 1.0 0.2 1.3 4.3 3.8 3.6748 3.8 1.9 3.3 6.9149 0.7 0.26722 0.6 1.8 5.4 0.8 1.4 1.3 7.0 1.11997 0.8262 0.6 2.4 0.0 4.1 1.1 4.5 1.4 1.3 2.5 3.5 3.1 1.6 50th 8.5 0.5 4.2 4.0 0.6 4.3 2.3 5.2206 4.2 0.0 2.6 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.7 4.0288 1.23248 0.1 6.6 0.4 1.9 1.3426 0.8 2.5 0.32846 0.4 1.7 1.0 2.8 75th 8.7 2.7 2.2 2.2 3.7 0.7 3.8 0.1 1.0 4.6890 2.8 0.18258 0.5 0.14324 0.7 3.5 2.1 1.6 0.3 0.6 1.21524 0.7 1.2 1.3 97th 10.7 0.2 95th 10.2 8.9 1.16777 0.9 1.7567 0.4 4.1 2.9 5.5 5.9 0.4 0.8494 S 0.9 1.1 85th 9.4 2.1 0.9446 0.0 1.0 5.7 1.6 3.2 1.8 3.0 1.4 3.3 1.4 99th 10.1 1.5037 5.5 1.1 2.2 1.1 2.8 4.8 0.2 4.9 5.9 0.6 6.5 2.8 3.3226 2.2608 0.0 7.8 1.3 1.2 2.5 5.6 3.3166 1.1249 1.6 1.9 0.9959 1.12590 0.0 0.1 1.7 4.28419 0.3 1.6777 0.7 1.4 5.4 1.6 5.6 1.3 0.0 3.6 1.3 2.9 1.15447 0.5 6.9 0.2 1.8 1.4 0.9 2.5 1.1 3rd 6.3 3.34024 0.24989 0.9 7.5 25th 7.7978 1.0 3.7 8.8 2.8581 0.6 0.6 2.7 1.2 0.7 0.6 1.9 6.3 2.8 5.6338 0.4 1.5 0.L 0.3 5th 6.4140 0.8 1.5 1.1 3.9 0.7 4.6 2.4 2.0 1.6098 1.7 0.7 2.5344 0.4 15th 7.19851 0.4774 0.0 1.13381 0.8 1.2 3.2 2.4500 1.7925 0.

0 1.2 0.8 6.8 1.23248 0.3426 0.8 2.2 2.5037 5.35116 -3SD 5.6777 0.7 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Table 33 Girls 6-month head circumference increments (cm) .2111 1.0 1.34024 0.7186 0.0200 M 8.1 7.9 0.3 2.3 1.1 2.7 0.7 4.8 1.2 2.9708 0.3 2.2 3.2 2.8262 0.9 0.7 2.4 +3SD 11.2 1.2 2.9172 0.3 8.3 5.18258 0.6 0.6 1.8494 S 0.3 1.9959 1.9 4.3 0.14324 0.2683 6.6 2.7 1.1 0.4 2.1 +2SD 10.0288 1.2608 0.9819 0.8 1.2206 4.3 2.4 2.6890 2.13381 0.5 0.1 0.3 7.21524 0.2 6.30032 0.5344 0.4 2.6 0.6 1.6 5.6 5.4774 0.7925 0.6098 1.0 -2SD 6.4 6.0 1.6338 0.3166 1.9 1.5863 0.0 0.7567 0.2 2.9 2.6 1.6 3.5 1.1 0.4 8.1 2.11997 0.24989 0.2 3.5 0.8 1.3 3.continued 173 .3 1.8 4.3 0.4 1.7 1.0 0.0506 0.1 1.8 4.1336 2.2 0.7 1.7 3.5 0.5 4.5 2.3 5.1 0.2 0.5 9.26722 0.3 1.8 1.1249 1.12590 0.8 0.9 1.5 1.0 3.2 1.2 3.5 1.7 1.7 1.3 3.32846 0.4 1.8 +1SD 9.8884 0.9 4.9149 0.0 1.7 2.3 0.1 4.9 2.6 2.6 0.8 2.6748 3.4500 1.16777 0.0 1.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 3.4 4.11607 0.15447 0.6 3.7978 1.3 0.6 2.5 5.9446 0.2 3.19851 0.31516 0.4 3.7 4.5 1.3226 2.8581 0.8 2.Interval 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 7-13 mo 8-14 mo 9-15 mo 10-16 mo 11-17 mo 12-18 mo 13-19 mo 14-20 mo 15-21 mo 16-22 mo 17-23 mo 18-24 mo L 0.2 -1SD Median 7.5 0.4140 0.3410 3.0 0.0 2.8 1.28419 0.3 5.9 0.9 1.2 0.6 4.7 3.

1419 z2 1.5 0. variance or skewness.0 0.2 -0.7 -1.5 9. mean.5 0.5 -1.9 4. τ=2)] for 2-month head circumference velocity for boys Age (days) 55 to 76 76 to 107 107 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 433 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo N 423 416 415 413 415 412 416 407 403 409 404 414 4947 z1 0.2 -1.8 -0.6 -0. df(σ)=4. respectively.7 -1.1a 2-month intervals for boys Table A5.2 -0.1 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.2 8.9 -0.4 -0.6 2. .5 10.1 1.8 1.0403 Note: Absolute values of z1. df(µ)=8.05.1 -0.9 -0.0 0.4 0.5 0.4 -1.1 0.5 0.3 -0.7 1.9 1.6 6.3 1.0 -0.1 -0. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.0 0.174 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Appendix A5 Diagnostics A5. df(ν)=4.0 -1.1 16.0 0.3 0.3574 z3 -0.3 1.2 0.

df(σ)=4.Head circumference velocity conditional on age 175 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo Figure A5.1 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(ν)=4. τ=2)] for 2-month head circumference velocity for boys .05. df(µ)=8.

2 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 4 3 2 1 14 2 3 4 5 6 Age (months) 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 0.2 Age (months) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A5.2 Fitting of the µ. and ν curves of selected model for 2-month head circumference velocity for boys Head circumference velocity conditional on age Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 2-mo head circum.4 0. increment (cm) 176 2 .0 1.3 0.4 0.6 0.5 3 0.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0.8 1. σ.2 0.

90th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month head circumference velocity for boys 177 Figure A5. 10th. 50th.3 . increment (cm) 5 Empirical 0 50th 10th 3rd 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) 3rd.6 Head circumference velocity conditional on age Fitted 4 3 2 97th 90th 1 2-mo head circum.

4 5th.6 178 Fitted 4 3 2 0 1 95th 75th 50th 25th 5th 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A5. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month head circumference velocity for boys Head circumference velocity conditional on age 2-mo head circum. 75th. increment (cm) 5 Empirical . 50th. 25th.

0 -0.10 10th Centile -0.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 -0.10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 50th Centile 0.0 0.0 11 11 75th Centile -0.10 -0.0 0.10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14 14 11 14 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14 11 14 0.10 0.10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 90th Centile 14 0.10 5th Centile Head circumference velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 14 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Age (months) 179 Figure A5.10 0.5 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month head circumference velocity for boys .10 95th Centile 0.10 11 14 97th Centile 0. increment (cm) 0.0 -0.11 14 0.10 0.10 -0.10 25th Centile 11 0.0 -0.0 0.10 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 2-mo head circum.10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -0.10 0.10 0.0 0.10 0.

7 -1.1 -1. df(µ)=8.6 2.7 0. τ=2)] for 2-month head circumference velocity for girls Age (days) 58 to 76 76 to 107 107 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 433 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo N 446 443 441 444 441 444 441 444 437 439 445 451 5316 z1 0.4 9.3 0.8 0. df(ν)=1. respectively.0 1.0011 Note: Absolute values of z1.5 0.4 31. variance or skewness.4 -0.7 -2.9 -0.1b 2-month intervals for girls Table A5.6 1.0 0. .05.2 0.1 0.4 -1.3 -2. df(σ)=4.2737 z2 0.180 Head circumference velocity conditional on age A5.4 0.9 1.1 4.1 5. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.7 0.2255 z3 -0.3 12.9 1.7 1.0 1. mean.4 0.2 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.2 0.2 -0.0 0.2 -0.6 -0.3 -1.7 1.1 0.1 -1.1 11.7 -0.1 0.9 -0.

Head circumference velocity conditional on age 181 8-10 mo 9-11 mo 10-12 mo 12-14 mo 4-6 mo 5-7 mo 6-8 mo 7-9 mo 0-2 mo 1-3 mo 2-4 mo 3-5 mo Figure A5. df(σ)=4.05.6 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(µ)=8. τ=2)] for 2-month head circumference velocity for girls . df(ν)=1.

and ν curves of selected model for 2-month head circumference velocity for girls Head circumference velocity conditional on age 1.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0.9 0.2 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 4 3 2 1 14 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) 0.8 0.4 0.7 0.6 0. increment (cm) 182 2 .5 3 0.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A5.7 Fitting of the µ.0 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 2-mo head circum.3 0. σ.

8 . 50th. increment (cm) 5 Empirical 50th 0 10th 3rd 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) 3rd.Head circumference velocity conditional on age Fitted 4 3 2 97th 90th 1 2-mo head circum. 10th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month head circumference velocity for girls 183 Figure A5. 90th.

75th. increment (cm) 5 Empirical . 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 2-month head circumference velocity for girls Head circumference velocity conditional on age 2-mo head circum. 25th.9 5th.184 Fitted 4 3 2 0 1 95th 75th 50th 25th 5th 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A5. 50th.

10 5th Centile Head circumference velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 14 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Age (months) 185 Figure A5.10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 50th Centile 0.11 14 0.10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14 14 11 14 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14 11 14 0.10 0. increment (cm) 0.10 0.10 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 2-month head circumference velocity for girls .0 0.10 95th Centile 0.10 10th Centile -0.10 11 14 97th Centile 0.10 0.10 0.10 25th Centile 11 0.10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -0.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 -0.0 0.10 0.10 -0.10 -0.0 0.10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 90th Centile 14 0.10 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 2-mo head circum.0 -0.0 0.0 -0.0 -0.10 0.0 11 11 75th Centile -0.

0 0.0 -0.2 -1. respectively.0 0. df(µ)=7.186 Head circumference velocity conditional on age A5.5 0.3 2. mean.8 0.3 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.4380 Note: Absolute values of z1. τ=2)] for 3-month head circumference velocity for boys Age (days) 88 to 107 107 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 433 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo 11-14 mo N 419 414 416 416 410 412 410 403 414 409 413 4536 z1 0.2 0.6375 z2 1.5872 z3 -1.3 -1.2 -0. .6 6.8 0.5 4.1 -0.2 -0.0 1.0 0.5 -0.5 0. df(σ)=4.9 -0.7 0.6 0.8 7.05. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.0 8.1 0.8 0. variance or skewness.0 0.3 1.5 0.5 -0.1 -0.0 0.2 0.1 0.3 -0.9 0. df(ν)=4.9 7.1 0.4 -1.2a 3-month intervals for boys Table A5.

05.11 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(µ)=7. df(σ)=4.Head circumference velocity conditional on age 187 8-11 mo 9-12 mo 11-14 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6mo Figure A5. τ=2)] for 3-month head circumference velocity for boys . df(ν)=4.

increment (cm) 188 3 .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A5. and ν curves of selected model for 3-month head circumference velocity for boys Head circumference velocity conditional on age 1.15 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 6 5 4 3 2 1 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) 0. σ.6 0.20 0.8 0.0 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 3-mo head circum.4 0.30 0.12 Fitting of the µ.35 4 0.25 0.

13 3rd. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month head circumference velocity for boys . 10th. increment (cm) Empirical 97th 90th 50th 10th 3rd 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) 189 Figure A5. 50th. 90th.Head circumference velocity conditional on age Fitted 6 4 2 3-mo head circum.

190 Fitted 6 4 2 95th 75th 50th 25th 5th 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A5. 75th.14 5th. 50th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month head circumference velocity for boys Head circumference velocity conditional on age 3-mo head circum. increment (cm) Empirical . 25th.

05 0.05 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 7 8 9 10 12 14 9 10 12 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 12 14 0.05 5 7 0.05 0.0 0.05 6 8 97th Centile 0.05 -0.05 0.05 3 90th Centile 3 5 0.05 4 95th Centile 0.05 -0.05 25th Centile -0.0 0.05 0.05 -0.0 0.0 4 4 75th Centile -0. increment (cm) 5th Centile Head circumference velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Age (months) 191 Figure A5.05 3 3 50th Centile 0.0 -0.05 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 3-mo head circum.0 0.05 -0.15 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month head circumference velocity for boys .05 0.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 0.05 10th Centile 0.0 0.0 -0.0 4 6 -0.

df(µ)=7.6 10.7 4.7 1.7 -0.8 0.7 0.2 -0. df(ν)=2.1 -2. respectively.5 -0.5 -0.8 1.0 -1.6 0.5067 z3 -1.192 Head circumference velocity conditional on age A5.5 1.0 0.4 0. df(σ)=4.0 0.1 -1.4 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. variance or skewness.0303 z2 1.0052 Note: Absolute values of z1.1 -1.0 0.1 -0.1 -0.5 9.8 8.4 0.4 1.2 7. mean. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.2 1.4 -1.05.3 1.2b 3-month intervals for girls Table A5.1 1.5 0.3 -1. .0 -0.6 2. τ=2)] for 3-month head circumference velocity for girls Age (days) 88 to 107 107 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 433 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 8-11 mo 9-12 mo 11-14 mo N 447 442 443 442 441 441 444 440 436 448 445 4869 z1 0.4 1.3 0.4 23.1 -1.

05.Head circumference velocity conditional on age 193 8-11 mo 9-12 mo 11-14 mo 4-7 mo 5-8 mo 6-9 mo 7-10 mo 0-3 mo 1-4 mo 2-5 mo 3-6 mo Figure A5. τ=2)] for 3-month head circumference velocity for girls . df(µ)=7. df(ν)=2.16 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(σ)=4.

increment (cm) 194 3 .0.6 0.4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A5.20 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 5 4 3 2 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) 0.8 0.0 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 3-mo head circum.25 0.15 0.30 0. σ. and ν curves of selected model for 3-month head circumference velocity for girls Head circumference velocity conditional on age 1.17 Fitting of the µ.35 0.

increment (cm) 6 Empirical 97th 90th 50th 0 10th 3rd 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) 195 Figure A5. 90th. 50th. 10th.Head circumference velocity conditional on age Fitted 4 2 3-mo head circum. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month head circumference velocity for girls .18 3rd.

50th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 3-month head circumference velocity for girls Head circumference velocity conditional on age 3-mo head circum. increment (cm) 6 Empirical .196 Fitted 4 2 0 95th 75th 50th 25th 5th 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 Age (months) Figure A5. 75th. 25th.19 5th.

0 -0.10 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 7 8 9 10 12 14 9 10 12 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 12 14 0.20 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 3-month head circumference velocity for girls .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 0.10 0.10 5 7 0.0 0.0 4 4 75th Centile -0.0 0.10 0.10 -0.10 10th Centile -0.10 0.10 6 8 97th Centile 0.0 -0.10 25th Centile -0.10 0.10 4 95th Centile 0. increment (cm) 0.10 3 3 50th Centile 0.10 -0.0 -0.10 0.10 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 3-mo head circum.10 3 90th Centile 3 5 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.0 4 6 -0.10 5th Centile Head circumference velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Age (months) 197 Figure A5.

3 0.5 16.4 0.4 -1.4 1. respectively.5 -0. variance or skewness.4 12.05.2 0.4 1.3 -0.6 5. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.0 0.8 0.2 -1.6 1.3 7. τ=2)] for 4-month head circumference velocity for boys Age (days) 119 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 750 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo N 418 416 419 412 410 407 406 412 414 402 413 409 415 407 417 6177 z1 0.1724 Note: Absolute values of z1.5 0.0 -0.5 0.5 -0.7 0.198 Head circumference velocity conditional on age A5.5 0.3a 4-month intervals for boys Table A5.2 -0. df(µ)=10.5 -0.0 -0.1 5.5 0.8315 z3 -1.2 -1.5 -0.2 -0.0 0.2 -0.6 1.4 -1.4 0.2 0.0 -0.3 -0.1 -0.3515 z2 1. df(σ)=5. mean.4 0.6 0.3 -1.5 0.6 1. df(ν)=3.6 0.0 0.7 0. .4 12.3 -0.0 -1.5 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.1 0.

τ=2)] for 4-month head circumference velocity for boys .21 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(ν)=3.05. df(σ)=5.Head circumference velocity conditional on age 199 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo Figure A5. df(µ)=10.

22 Fitting of the µ.3 0. increment (cm) 200 4 .0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A5.8 0.5 6 0.0 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 4-mo head circum.2 0.8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 0.6 0.2 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 6 4 2 24 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 0.4 0.4 0. σ. and ν curves of selected model for 4-month head circumference velocity for boys Head circumference velocity conditional on age 1.

90th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month head circumference velocity for boys . 50th. 10th.23 3rd.Head circumference velocity conditional on age 2 4 6 Fitted 97th 90th 50th 10th 3rd 0 4-mo head circumference increment (cm) 8 Empirical 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 201 Figure A5.

75th.24 5th. 50th.202 2 4 6 Fitted 0 95th 75th 50th 25th 5th 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A5. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month head circumference velocity for boys Head circumference velocity conditional on age 4-mo head circumference increment (cm) 8 Empirical . 25th.

15 22 -0.15 -0.05 8 10 -0.05 0.05 4 -0.05 18 -0.15 6 -0.15 0.0.15 -0.15 -0.05 4 90th Centile 4 8 10 0.05 6 14 -0.15 6 95th Centile -0.15 4 25th Centile -0.05 0.05 8 10 18 0.15 10th Centile 0.15 14 22 97th Centile 0.05 -0.05 0.05 -0.05 0.05 -0.15 18 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 -0.15 14 -0.15 0.15 -0.05 0.15 6 4 50th Centile 0.05 0.15 8 10 6 75th Centile 0.15 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 18 22 8 10 14 18 22 4 6 22 8 10 14 18 22 0.25 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month head circumference velocity for boys .05 14 -0.05 0.05 0.15 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 4-mo head circumference increment (cm) 5th Centile Head circumference velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 Age (months) 203 Figure A5.

6 2.5 -0.5 1.8 -1.4 -0.3498 z2 0.7 -0.3 13.4 14.5 -0.2 -0. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.0 0.9 -2. mean.7 5.4 -0.5 -0.7 0.7 -3.2611 z3 -1.204 Head circumference velocity conditional on age A5. .5 0.0 -1. df(σ)=5.3 0.3 0.6 0.0 0. df(ν)=2.8 -0.1 0.2 -0. variance or skewness.6 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.7 -0.8 1.1 1.6 5. respectively. df(µ)=10.0 1.7 0.6 0.1 0.1 -0.3 -0.4 -0.8 1.4 -1.0008 Note: Absolute values of z1.1 -0.05.0 0.8 -1.9 1. τ=2)] for 4-month head circumference velocity for girls Age (days) 119 to 137 137 to 168 168 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 749 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo N 446 445 442 442 438 445 440 438 444 445 443 449 436 436 439 6628 z1 1.3 0.3b 4-month intervals for girls Table A5.2 -0.6 0.2 35.6 -0.2 0.4 0.7 12.

df(ν)=2.05. τ=2)] for 4-month head circumference velocity for girls .26 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0. df(µ)=10. df(σ)=5.Head circumference velocity conditional on age 205 16-20 mo 18-22 mo 20-24 mo 8-12 mo 10-14 mo 12-16 mo 14-18 mo 4-8 mo 5-9 mo 6-10 mo 7-11 mo 0-4 mo 1-5 mo 2-6 mo 3-7 mo Figure A5.

2 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 4 6 8 10 Age (months) 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0. and ν curves of selected model for 4-month head circumference velocity for girls Head circumference velocity conditional on age Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 4-mo head circum.3 0.8 1.4 0.27 Fitting of the µ.6 0.5 0.4 0.0 Age (months) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A5. σ. increment (cm) 206 4 .0.

10th. 50th. 90th.28 3rd.Head circumference velocity conditional on age 2 4 6 Fitted 97th 90th 50th 10th 3rd 0 4-mo head circumference increment (cm) 8 Empirical 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 207 Figure A5. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month head circumference velocity for girls .

50th. 25th.29 5th. 75th. 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 4-month head circumference velocity for girls Head circumference velocity conditional on age 4-mo head circumference increment (cm) 8 Empirical .208 2 4 6 Fitted 0 95th 75th 50th 25th 5th 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A5.

6 8 10 14 18 22 0.10 0.10 -0.0 0.10 4 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 8 10 14 18 22 8 10 14 18 22 18 4 6 22 8 10 14 18 22 0.10 -0.30 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 4-month head circumference velocity for girls .10 4 4 50th Centile 0.10 0.10 6 95th Centile 0.0 0.10 0.10 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 4-mo head circumference increment (cm) 5th Centile Head circumference velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 4 6 8 10 14 18 22 Age (months) 209 Figure A5.0 6 14 -0.0 0.10 25th Centile -0.10 0.10 10th Centile 0.10 -0.0 -0.10 0.10 8 10 18 0.0 -0.10 4 90th Centile 4 8 10 0.0 0.10 -0.0 0.0 6 6 75th Centile -0.10 14 22 97th Centile 0.

4a 6-month intervals for boys Table A5.5 -0.5 0.0 -0.3 0.0 0. z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of.0 -0.4 -0.1 -0.1 10.4 0.3 11.210 Head circumference velocity conditional on age A5.0 0.7 0.7 Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.4 -0.1 0.2 0.0 -0.5 -0. df(σ)=4. respectively. . df(ν)=2.3 1.3 -0.2 -1.5 0.0 1.9 0.5 0. τ=2)] for 6-month head circumference velocity for boys Age (days) 175 to 198 198 to 229 229 to 259 259 to 289 289 to 320 320 to 350 350 to 396 396 to 457 457 to 518 518 to 579 579 to 640 640 to 701 701 to 750 Overall Q stats degrees of freedom p-value Group 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 8-14 mo 10-16 mo 12-18 mo 14-20 mo 16-22 mo 18-24 mo N 423 416 415 407 402 414 418 411 403 410 415 408 410 5352 z1 1.5 -1.3 0.2 0.0 7.8 0.3 -0.7562 z3 -0.2 5.2 -0.3 0.0 0.8 -0.2586 z2 1.5 0. df(µ)=9.1 -0.2 0.6 8.4 0. variance or skewness.7 0.3 4.5 0.6846 Note: Absolute values of z1.8 -1.05. mean.

df(ν)=2.Head circumference velocity conditional on age 211 18-24 mo 10-16 mo 12-18 mo 14-20 mo 16-22 mo 4-10 mo 5-11 mo 6-12 mo 8-14 mo 0-6 mo 1-7 mo 2-8 mo 3-9 mo Figure A5. df(σ)=4. df(µ)=9. τ=2)] for 6-month head circumference velocity for boys .31 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.05.

11 14 16 18 20 22 0. and ν curves of selected model for 6-month head circumference velocity for boys Head circumference velocity conditional on age 6 7 8 9 24 Age (months) 1.32 Fitting of the µ.8 0. increment (cm) 212 6 7 8 9 .4 0.2 11 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A5.25 0.15 St Dev Box-Cox Transformed 8 6 4 2 24 6 7 8 9 11 14 16 18 20 22 0.6 0.20 0.30 0.0 Age (months) Box-Cox Transform Power Median of 6-mo head circum. σ.

33 3rd. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month head circumference velocity for boys . 90th. 10th.10 8 6 4 2 97th 90th 50th 10th 3rd 0 6-mo head circumference increment (cm) Head circumference velocity conditional on age Fitted Empirical 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 213 Figure A5. 50th.

8

6

4

2

0

95th

75th

50th

25th

5th

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

Age (months)

Figure A5.34 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month head circumference velocity for boys

Head circumference velocity conditional on age

6-mo head circumference increment (cm)

10

214

Fitted

Empirical

8

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

0.2

0.0

-0.2

6

8

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

0.2

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

6

8

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

0.2

97th Centile

0.0

-0.2

0.0

0.1

0.2

95th Centile

-0.2

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

75th Centile

0.0

8

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.0

8

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

-0.2

6

90th Centile

6

8

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.0

8

6

50th Centile

-0.2

-0.2

0.0

0.1

0.2

25th Centile

6

10th Centile

0.1

0.2

-0.2

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.0

-0.2

6

-0.2

Empirical-Fitted Centile for 6-mo head circumference increment (cm)

5th Centile

Head circumference velocity conditional on age

3rd Centile

6

8

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

6

8

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Age (months)

215

Figure A5.35 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month head circumference velocity for boys

216

Head circumference velocity conditional on age

**A5.4b 6-month intervals for girls
**

Table A5.8

**Q-test for z-scores from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.05, df(µ)=9, df(σ)=5, df(ν)=2,
**

τ=2)] for 6-month head circumference velocity for girls

Age (days)

178 to 198

198 to 229

229 to 259

259 to 289

289 to 320

320 to 350

350 to 396

396 to 457

457 to 518

518 to 579

579 to 640

640 to 701

701 to 749

Overall Q stats

degrees of freedom

p-value

Group

0-6 mo

1-7 mo

2-8 mo

3-9 mo

4-10 mo

5-11 mo

6-12 mo

8-14 mo

10-16 mo

12-18 mo

14-20 mo

16-22 mo

18-24 mo

N

447

443

439

443

439

440

447

444

437

448

443

432

444

5746

z1

1.7

-0.9

-1.2

0.5

0.2

0.1

0.1

-0.3

0.3

-0.2

-0.2

-0.9

0.8

7.3

4.0

0.1226

z2

0.7

-0.8

-0.3

0.6

0.1

-1.2

0.5

0.0

0.1

-0.5

0.6

2.6

-2.0

15.0

10.0

0.1310

z3

-1.8

1.4

0.9

-0.8

0.8

0.9

-0.2

0.1

1.8

-0.9

-1.3

0.9

0.3

14.7

11.0

0.1967

**Note: Absolute values of z1, z2 or z3 larger than 2 indicate misfit of, respectively, mean,
**

variance or skewness.

Head circumference velocity conditional on age

217

18-24 mo

10-16 mo

12-18 mo

14-20 mo

16-22 mo

4-10 mo

5-11 mo

6-12 mo

8-14 mo

0-6 mo

1-7 mo

2-8 mo

3-9 mo

**Figure A5.36 Worm plots from selected model [BCPE(x=age0.05, df(µ)=9, df(σ)=5, df(ν)=2, τ=2)]
**

for 6-month head circumference velocity for girls

14

16

18

20

22

0.35

0.30

0.25

0.20

0.15

St Dev Box-Cox Transformed

8

6

4

24

6 7 8 9

11

14

16

18

20

22

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

11

14

16

18

20

22

24

Age (months)

Figure A5.37 Fitting of the µ, σ, and ν curves of selected model for 6-month head circumference velocity for girls

Head circumference velocity conditional on age

6 7 8 9

24

Age (months)

1.0

Age (months)

Box-Cox Transform Power

Median of 6-mo head circum. increment (cm)

2

11

218

6 7 8 9

50th.38 3rd. 90th. 97th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month head circumference velocity for girls . 10th.10 8 6 4 2 97th 90th 50th 10th 3rd 0 6-mo head circumference increment (cm) Head circumference velocity conditional on age Fitted Empirical 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 219 Figure A5.

95th smoothed centile curves and empirical values: 6-month head circumference velocity for girls Head circumference velocity conditional on age 6-mo head circumference increment (cm) 10 220 Fitted Empirical . 75th. 25th.39 5th. 50th.8 6 4 2 0 95th 75th 50th 25th 5th 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) Figure A5.

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.0 8 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 -0.0 8 6 50th Centile -0.1 0.2 Empirical-Fitted Centile for 6-mo head circumference increment (cm) 5th Centile Head circumference velocity conditional on age 3rd Centile 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (months) 221 Figure A5.0 -0.0 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 -0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 97th Centile 0.2 95th Centile -0.2 0.2 25th Centile 6 10th Centile 0.2 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.2 -0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 75th Centile 0.0 -0.2 6 -0.2 0.0 -0.2 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.2 6 90th Centile 6 8 0.1 0.40 Centile residuals from fitting selected model for 6-month head circumference velocity for girls .1 0.

.

to subtract delta from the predicted centiles. M(t) and S(t). the increment is negative and its absolute value is greater than δ). LENGTH AND HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE The same method used to calculate centiles and z-scores for the attained growth standards based on weight is used to calculate centiles and z-scores for the velocity standards based on weight. respectively. Children experience weight losses and. When a child's increment is less than -δ (i. length and head circumference increments. respectively. Beyond these limits. consequently. the standard deviation at each age was fixed to the distance between ±2 SD and ±3 SD. This approach avoids making assumptions about the distribution of data beyond the limits of the observed values (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Thus. Briefly. it was necessary to add a constant value δ (delta) to all increments to shift their distribution above zero and.e. To calculate individual z scores. Calculate zind ⎡( y + δ ) ⎤ M (t )⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = S (t ) L(t ) . the computation of percentiles and z-scores for these standards uses formulae based on a restricted application of the LMS method as used for the attained growth weight-based indicators. 2006a). the correction applied for skewed attained growth standards beyond -3 SD or +3 SD will be used. COMPUTATION OF CENTILES AND Z-SCORES FOR VELOCITIES BASED ON WEIGHT. M and S values of the model are fitted on the shifted observations. before the BCPE could be applied to these data. For all indicators. the tabulated fitted values of Box-Cox power. between -3 SD and +3 SD). Given the value of δ for the corresponding standard. − 3 ≤ Zα ≤ 3 The following procedure is recommended to calculate a z-score for an individual child with weight increment y at the visit age t: 1. the centiles were calculated as follows: C100α (t ) = M (t )[1 + L(t ) S (t ) Z α ] 1 L (t ) −δ . M(t) and S(t) are based on the shifted BCPE distribution.5). the values of L(t). subsequently. limiting the Box-Cox normal distribution to the interval corresponding to z-scores where empirical data were available (i. Centiles and z-scores for weight velocities conditional on age Note that in this case.e.6. δ is first added to the child's increment and then the L. weight increments occur in negative values while the BCPE distribution can handle only positive values. since in reality such an increment lies below -3 SD. Adjustment to the basic methodology had to be applied for weight velocities conditional on age (see section 2. median and coefficient of variation corresponding to the visit age t are denoted by L(t).223 - L (t ) −1 .

SD23 pos is the difference between the cut-offs +3 SD and +2 SD calculated at t by the LMS method: SD 23 pos = M (t )[1 + L(t ) * S (t ) * (3)] 1 L (t ) − M (t )[1 + L(t ) * S (t ) * (2)] 1 L (t ) .20130 * 0. Compute the final z-score * z ind (z ) of the child for that indicator as: * ind ⎧ z ind if ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ ( y + δ ) − SD3 pos ⎞ ⎪ ⎟⎟ if = ⎨ 3 + ⎜⎜ SD pos 23 ⎠ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 3 + ⎛⎜ ( y + δ ) − SD3neg ⎞⎟ if ⎟ ⎜ ⎪ SD 23neg ⎠ ⎝ ⎩ z ind ≤ 3 z ind > 3 z ind < −3 where SD3 pos is the cut-off +3 SD calculated at t by the LMS method: SD3 pos = M (t )[1 + L(t ) * S (t ) * (3)] 1 L (t ) .20130.5891 δ=600. z ind M=1541. and SD23neg is the difference between the cut-offs -2 SD and -3 SD calculated at t by the LMS method: SD23neg = M (t )[1 + L(t ) * S (t ) * (−2)] 1 L (t ) − M (t )[1 + L(t ) * S (t ) * (−3)] 1 L (t ) To illustrate the procedure. S=0.5891. L=0. ⎡(2200 + 600) ⎤ 1541.3670.55 >3 . Child 1: 6-month-old boy with an increment.e.5891 0.224 Computation of centiles and z-scores 2. examples with the 2-month interval weight velocity conditional on age for boys follow. weight gain 2200 g between 4 and 6 months.3670⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = 0. SD3neg is the cut-off -3 SD calculated at t by the LMS method: SD 3neg = M (t )[1 + L (t ) * S (t ) * ( −3) ] 1 L (t ) . −1 = 3. i.

85 ⎛ (2200 + 600 ) − 2583.0.5891) ( 0. S=0.8078.11 Child 2: 18-month-old boy with an increment of -500 g (weight loss of 500 g) between 16 and 18 months.9680 * [1 + 0.45 ⎛ (− 500 + 600) − 165. −1 = 2.3670 * [1 + (0.96 − 2212.31 <-3 SD 2neg = 1000.9680.28462.5891) * 0.31615 * (−2)] 1 SD3neg = 1000.9071.31615 * (−3)] SD 23neg = 413.20130 * (2)] SD 23 pos = 2583. S=0.8078 * 0.96 ⎞ * ⇒ z ind = 3+⎜ ⎟ = 3. L=0.11 = 371.28462 0.10 − 165.31615. 0.27 ≥-3 and ≤3 (LMS z-score) .65 = 247.8078 = 413.8078 δ=600.7191.3670 * [1 + (0.8078 * 0.96 = 2212.7191 * 0.9680 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = 0.65 ⎞ * ⇒ z ind = −3 + ⎜ ⎟ = -3. z ind M=1000.9680 * [1 + 0.9071⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = 0.65 Child 3: 13-month-old boy with a weight gain of 1200 g between 11 and 13 months. L=0.5891) = 2583.10 = 165. ⎡(− 500 + 600) ⎤ 1000.85 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ( 0.27 247.8078 −1 = −3.45 ⎝ ⎠ 0.7191 z ind δ=600.8078 1 0.20130 * (3)] 1 SD 2 pos = 1541. ⎡(1200 + 600 ) ⎤ 1057 .5891) * 0.58 371.31615 * 0.Computation of centiles and z-scores 225 SD3 pos = 1541. M=1057.

− 3 ≤ Zα ≤ 3 The following procedure is recommended to calculate a z-score for an individual child with length or head circumference increment y at the visit age t: 1. Calculate L (t ) z ind 2.226 Computation of centiles and z-scores Centiles and z-scores for length and head circumference velocities conditional on age The centiles were calculated as follows: C100α (t ) = M (t )[1 + L(t ) S (t ) Z α ] 1 L (t ) . SD23 pos is the difference between the cut-offs +3 SD and +2 SD calculated at t by the LMS method: SD 23 pos = M (t )[1 + L(t ) * S (t ) * (3)] 1 L (t ) − M (t )[1 + L(t ) * S (t ) * (2)] 1 L (t ) . Compute the final z-score * z ind ⎡y ⎤ −1 ⎢ M (t )⎥⎦ =⎣ S (t ) L(t ) (z ) of the child for that indicator as: * ind ⎧ z ind if ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ y − SD3 pos ⎞ ⎪ ⎟⎟ if = ⎨ 3 + ⎜⎜ 23 SD pos ⎠ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 3 + ⎛⎜ y − SD3neg ⎞⎟ if ⎜ SD 23neg ⎟ ⎪ ⎠ ⎝ ⎩ z ind ≤ 3 z ind > 3 z ind < −3 where SD3 pos is the cut-off +3 SD calculated at t by the LMS method: SD3 pos = M (t )[1 + L(t ) * S (t ) * (3)] 1 L (t ) . SD3neg is the cut-off -3 SD calculated at t by the LMS method: SD 3neg = M (t )[1 + L (t ) * S (t ) * ( −3) ] 1 L (t ) . .

L=0.98 ⎠ 1 0.e.9428. M=3.47 1 0.5 [ ] 3.70 Child 3: 6-month-old girl with a length gain of 8. 0.2051 * [1 + 0.9428 ] = 0.5 − 0.70 = 0.8538 = 3.8538 * 0.5 cm between 15 and 18 months. −1 0.23503* 0.5 − 6.8538 = 1.17798 * 0.5 [ ] 3.8538 z ind S=0. 7.8538 z ind S=0.98 ⎛ 7.8538 = −3. Child 1: 12-month-old girl with an increment. [8.28388 * (−3)] SD 23neg = 1.17798.77 ⎠ 1 0.72 = 5.23503 * (2)] SD 23 pos = 6.8538.8692 * [1 + 0. −1 0.8538 = 1.8538 z ind S=0.72 − 5.8692 * [1 + 0.80 ⎝ 0. M=5.74 Child 2: 18-month-old girl with an increment of 0.74 = 0.2051 = 0.77 ⎛ 0.8692.Computation of centiles and z-scores 227 and SD23neg is the difference between the cut-offs -2 SD and -3 SD calculated at t by the LMS method: SD23neg = M (t )[1 + L(t ) * S (t ) * (−2)] 1 L (t ) − M (t )[1 + L(t ) * S (t ) * (−3)] 1 L (t ) To illustrate the procedure. length gain 7.8538 * 0.0 cm between 3 and 6 months.28388 * 0.8538 = 0. L=0.2051 * [1 + 0. −1 0.0 5.23503. L=0.23503 * (3)] 1 0.8538 SD 2 pos = 3. M=3.8538 * 0. examples with the 3-month interval length velocity conditional on age for girls follow.28388.2051.26 ⎝ 0.70 ⎞ * ⇒ z ind = −3 + ⎜ ⎟ = −3.28 <-3 SD 2neg = 3.28388 * (−2)] SD3neg = 3. i.79 >3 SD3 pos = 3.72 ⎞ * ⇒ z ind = 3+⎜ ⎟ = 3.8538.5 cm between 9 and 12 months.8538 = 6.8692 = 0 .90 ≥-3 and ≤3 (LMS z-score) .47 − 0.8538.8538 * 0.

.

With the exception of tables 15 and 17 (velocity in g/d). Others who have developed velocity references have observed similar losses (WHO Working Group on Infant Growth. 1989). Additionally for weight. all velocity tools of the WHO Child Growth Standards are increment standards describing the distribution of growth increments over variable intervals. likely indicating catch-up growth. length and head circumference centiles conditional on age. They include weight. in variable measurement intervals. With specific reference to weight.and 6-month increment tables are independent of each other and the clinician should use the one that most closely approximates the interval over which the child is seen. 4. The standards are presented for the age span birth to 24 months. the 5th centile indicates a loss of about 100g between 10 and 11 months and also between 11 and 12 months (Table 4). empirical centiles of velocity in 1. Alternating or irregular patterns of high and low velocities may occur in successive periods even in the absence of morbidity. negative increments occur generally after 6 months of age and are captured in the lowest centiles. They coincide with the weaning period. Growth progresses at a rapidly decelerating rate from birth. 1992). It is important to note that losses that are tolerable in short intervals might not be acceptable in longer intervals. the growth velocities of individual children in the WHO standards are characterized by very high variability in consecutive growth intervals. the . except perhaps at the median. Appendix B summarizes specifications of the BCPE models for each of the growth velocity standards. to be the sum of the two corresponding 1-month intervals. DISCUSSION The intrinsic biological complexity of the dynamics of human growth made the construction of the standards presented in this report more challenging than was the case for the attained growth standards (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. reaching a near-plateau by the end of the first year and continues to taper off gently through the second year. which can be acceptable for 1-month intervals at that age. 3-. 1994).. 1991.229 - . As is the case for attained growth. the standards presented in this report are sex-specific. For example. However. This section seeks to provide guidance for the use and interpretation of the standards based on insights gained during construction of the velocity standards and feedback from clinicians who participated in reviewing and field-testing the velocity tools.. even if final published figures did not include them since only a narrow range of centiles were presented (Guo et al. and when they become more active and start to explore their environment. when children are more exposed to food contamination. However.7.to 6-months) presented for the main age-conditioned tools of these standards cannot capture the short-span saltation and stasis described by Lampl and coworkers. examination of individual growth trajectories has shown saltatory increments in short (≤24 hours) intervals followed by periods (2-63 days) of no measurable growth (Lampl et al. losses or slow gains (related to morbidity or otherwise) in a given period are normally followed by higher velocities. Roche et al. Although the intervals (1. This is because one cannot expect the growth rate in a given 2-month period. This is the expected overall pattern of growth under conditions of adequate nutrition and psychosocial care with no chronic infections or unusual rates and/or severity of acute infections: the pattern that underpins the general expectation that infants will double their weight by age 6 months and triple it by 12 months. the centile corresponding to an increment between age 2 and 3 months is not associated with the centile corresponding to half of the increment in the 2-month interval between ages 1 and 3 months. 2006a. Velocity conditional on age The overall pattern of the (age-conditioned) centiles depicts the age-dependent changes in velocity that characterize human postnatal growth.or 2-week intervals from birth to 60 days are presented. It is not unusual for a child to grow at the 95th velocity centile one month and at the 20th the next while continuing to track on the attained weight-for-age chart. 2-. 2007). With regard to weight. For example.. The 1-.

Differences between individual z-scores when applying the two methods were relatively minor. To explore how conditional gain SD scores compare with the increment centiles presented in this report. contrary to shifts that would have reflected regression to the mean. This .5) of attained growth at the start (time1) of specified intervals. i. 1995) was applied for adjusting for regression to the mean on 1.and 2-month weight increments. Alternative approaches to constructing conditional weight gain references Others have approached the construction of conditional weight gain references by applying methodologies that adjust not only for age but also for regression to the mean (Wright et al. the published formula to calculate SDgain (the z-score associated with the change in WA z-score between visits) was applied. 1997). relatively high at ages 0-1 or 0-2 months (in the assumed direction of regression to the mean). Ninety percent of the differences were between -0. two sets of children were selected: one in the lower bound (WA z-scores between -2. the published methodology (Cole.5 and +2. weight gain is calculated in terms of the change (compared with the initial measurement) in the infant's attained weight SD score adjusted for regression to the mean (Cole. calculation of this conditional gain SD score requires computerization and thus limits the potential for its application.5) i. The change in their z-scores at the end (time2) of 1.33 and +0. 1995).230 Discussion same 5th centile for a 2-month interval at the same age (10 to 12 months) indicates a gain of about 30g (Table 6). but they dropped rapidly thereafter to near 0.5). The theoretical basis for this approach is the expectation that over time infant weights drift towards the median from the tails of the distribution. 1994. 30-52% (1-month intervals) and 28-47% (2-month intervals) of weights shifted further from the mean. WA drifted further from the median for 21% and 13% of children. respectively. corresponding average changes in WA z-scores were.or 2-month periods were examined to observe what proportion deviated from the assumption of regression to the mean (Table C1). The first step was to calculate the attained weight-for-age (WA) z-score for each child at each of the visits.5) and the other in the upper bound (WA z-scores between +1.5 to +2. 27% (age 0-1 month) and 20% (age 0-2 months) drifted away from the mean. this approach has not gained currency in clinical settings.and 2-month intervals were derived. Cole. Distributions of pairwise differences between the z-scores from the two methods were also examined (figures C3 and C4). Using this approach. growth in snapshots of 1. Cole. the respective correlation matrices for the 1.5 and -1.e. Similar findings were observed for the upper bound (time1 zscores between +1. To assess the magnitude of the impact of regression to the mean.29 (for 2-month intervals). In effect.or 2-month intervals was consistent with regression to the mean between birth and 1 or 2 months but the phenomenon was much less evident at later ages. Next. The formula for this calculation hinges on the correlation between the initial and second SD scores. The SDgain values were compared with z-scores of the age-conditioned 1. In summary. Despite its theoretical advantages.5 and -1. As expected.27 and +0.and 2-month interval weight increments (results are presented in Appendix C). implying that there was time for recovery within the longer interval. In the older age groups. this tendency was observed for 37-55% (1-month intervals) and 30-54% (2-month intervals). the results were consistent with regression to the mean only for initial ages 0-1 months and 0-2 months. For the lower bound (time1 z-scores between -2.34 (for 1-month intervals) and between -0.e. Plots of empirical densities showed that the distributions of the z-scores from the two methods overlap for each respective test interval (figures C1 and C2). 1995. For the remaining ages. Then. which determines the expected slope of the change in the child's size between the two points of measurement.

Even in the absence of such difficulties.and 2-week intervals from birth to 2 months. the data suggest that 75% of newborns recover their birth weight by day 7. indicators of successful breastfeeding such as infant breastfeeding behaviour and the timing of stage II lactogenesis (i. are composite figures reflecting. It is understood that recovery depends on what percentage of birth weight was lost and successful initiation of lactation. it is important to adopt a holistic approach by looking at the child's overall health status and clinical signs. The overall breastfeeding profile and some aspects of its initiation among the infants included in these standards were published elsewhere (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. It was not possible to estimate from these data precisely when infants should recover their birth weight following weight loss that is common in the first few postnatal days. . rather than focus only on weight gain. These centiles (birth to 60 days) provide a description of weekly and biweekly changes in velocity. visits to the clinic take place at random ages. as these are necessary for maintaining successful infant nutrition. In most cases. The g/d figures are derived by calculating individual daily increments for newborns in each of the birth weight categories and then estimating centiles directly from the raw g/d values. illustrating the inadequacy of rules of thumb such as "infants should gain 200 g/week or 30 g/d in the first 3 months". Tables of weight velocity from birth to 60 days These tables present physiological weight losses that occur in the early postnatal period but that are not usually included in available reference data. and breastfeeding technique (position and attachment). Considering the 25th centile (0 g increment from birth to 7 days). suggesting that recovery of birth weight could be achieved in less than one week. particularly in the first week. However. The differences in the first two weeks (birth to 7 and 7-14 days) were less clear-cut. In-depth comparisons between the sexes were made in the process of deriving these centiles. hence increments per day are likely to be handier to use than weekly or fortnightly increments. losses followed by recovery. as described below this report provides sexspecific centiles for weight increments conditional on birth weight in 1. on average. When mother-child dyads experience breastfeeding difficulties in the early postpartum period. Such estimations overlook the dramatic changes that characterize growth in the first few months and the high variability within an individual child's growth rate in succeeding intervals.e. Net increments at the median (0 to 7 days) are positive for both boys and girls. 2006d).Discussion 231 raises questions regarding the impact those differences have on clinical management and the method's conceptual and practical accessibility for users in disparate settings. This involves also assessing mother-child interaction. and these daily increments offer a flexible option for evaluating growth over fractions of the tabulated time blocks. For the age period when the largest impact of regression to the mean is observed. Centiles are presented both for net increments and for velocity in g/d. It is important to note that the g/d figures. lactation performance and weight gain are monitored every few days. the onset of a copious milk supply). boys' net increments in the 2-week intervals between 14 and 60 days were higher than girls' increments by values of 50-100 g. The complexity of growth velocity is not adequately reflected in the usual presentation of gross estimations of growth rate over wide age spans. It is important to note that the g/d figures are not the simple average of the gross gains or losses reported in corresponding weekly and fortnightly tables. but it was interesting to observe that the weight losses (depicted in the 5th and 10th centiles) between birth and day 7 were slightly attenuated in girls compared to boys.

the centiles from the various birth-weight categories were very similar. Reviewers rejected them on substantive grounds. Moreover. the probability of two consecutive 1-month or 2-month weight increments falling below the 5th centile is 0. This implies that younger children at the same starting weight end up with a higher final weight after 1. as infants grow older the lower centile values (25th and below) become less than the day-today variability in weight. 1981). there is a significant negative association between age and final weight. If the 15th centile is chosen. Examining the 1-month interval centiles for boys. The day-to-day variability (SD) is about twice this level.. respectively. If this were not the case. a negative correlation between birth weight and early growth rate would have been more likely because postnatal catch-up and catch-down growth would have been observed.and 2-month intervals compared to those at older ages. and it appears that the weight gain selected as the minimum was the 25th centile. making detection of a minimum weight at this level impossible.232 Discussion Contrary to speculation that weight velocity would vary by birth weight. Minimum weight gain tables Tables of weight gain conditional on starting weight were requested by users of the table of "expected minimum gains in weight" in community-based growth promotion programmes mainly in Central America (Griffiths et al.. is flawed. Faulty measurements can lead to grossly erroneous judgements regarding a child's growth. Griffiths and McGuire.8%. The accuracy of growth assessment is improved greatly if measurements are replicated independently and the values .e.5 kg. little is known about them (Martorell et al. The AIN (Atención Integral al Niño) tables were developed using data from 112 children born between 1972 and 1974 and followed from birth to 2 years by the Centro Latinoamericano de Perinatología (Martell et al. otherwise. The situation is even worse if the 15th or 5th centiles are selected (e. For girls that start at 12. Low or high anthropometric values observed in the WHO standards represent the physiological extremes of normality among children in the absence of intrauterine growth problems. a starting weight of 12 kg implies a loss of 100 g and 200 g in the final weight for the 15th and 5th centile. the 25th centile value for final weight is only 100 g greater than the starting weight. for starting weights greater than about 8. this probability increases to only 2% and 1. i. In the WHO standards. 100 g differences are seen between starting and 25th centile final weights at even lower weights.g. Overall considerations Measurement error. Firstly. 2005).3%. Measurements of growth are subject to error from multiple sources.and 2-month weight gains conditional on starting weight were produced and circulated for peer review. e. the selection of single minimum thresholds introduces the notion of centile tracking in velocity that is contrary to normal physiological growth in individual children. about 8 kg. examining the 1-month interval for girls. that young children of the same weight grow at the same rate irrespective of age. starting at 5 kg. Tables of 1. The values of expected weight do not take into account sex or age. In the WHO standards. and they were thus excluded from the final standards. The original AIN table provides single values of expected minimum weight gains in 30-day or 60-day intervals relative to the child's starting weight. Such values are bound to be too low for some infants/children and too high for others of the same starting weight. For girls.7 kg. Secondly. Thirdly. respectively). the 25th centile final weight is 100 g less than the starting weight. 1996. it is impossible to select "expected minimum weight gains" that would be appropriate for all infants or children with the same starting weight. the basic assumption of the AIN table..g. leading to the conclusion that velocities can be collapsed into a single column. 2002).

whether a given treatment produced the expected change in growth rate. the timing of clinic visits is dictated by uncontrollable factors. 2. it can be achieved in research contexts (WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group.Discussion 233 averaged. some variation was allowed around the intervals. the allowable deviations from the exact planned age were ±3 days.g. however. 2008). If the 3-month interval 11-14 months is referred to instead. Measurement intervals in field application. for the newborn. 2006b) and where resources permit. say exactly 2 months. respectively. a boy weighed at 11 months returns at 13 months and 24 days having gained 600 g. or over a series of intervals. In constructing the standards. in endocrinology).4 months of age). The practical advantage of this approach is that use of the standards allows for equally slight deviations without a need to correct observed increments through interpolation. or in the context of interventions to promote growth (e. M and S values from consecutive age intervals and to calculate the child's z-score as described in Chapter 6. Table 6). The assumption made is that the rate of growth was constant over this period. thereby minimizing random measurement errors in observed growth.6 and 13. MGRS measurements were undertaken to assure the highest level of reliability.4 and 13. velocity assessment should be done at scheduled visits that coincide with the ages and intervals (1. Clinical usefulness of growth velocity. there is no need to interpolate as the visit falls within the allowable difference (±7 days). but the starting and ending ages do not coincide with those tabulated in the standards (e. in clinical situations caring for children at high risk of growth problems. 6-12 months and 12-24 months. It should be understood that these are compromises whose limitations are especially apparent in the first year when growth decelerates rapidly and the difference in velocity between consecutive periods can be large. however. the knowledge and skills needed to measure children correctly (WHO.g. The simplest approach to dealing with measurement intervals beyond allowable ranges is to interpolate (i. but there is no alternative way of partitioning the increment. prorate) observed increments to the relevant interval or to refer to the next larger interval if appropriate.e. inter alia. This level of reliability is not typical in routine clinical measurement in primary health care settings. A more precise option in the forgoing case (i. the estimated gain is 429 g (600 g/84 days × 60 days). when interval length is on target) is to interpolate the L. In practice. For example. for an increment observed between 11. If this increment is prorated to the 2-month interval 11-13 months. This procedure minimizes the impact of faulty single measurements. Table 8). If the observed interval is on target. 3. For example.6 months of age one would use the reference values tabulated for the 12 to 14-month interval. The questions that a clinician seeks to answer when using a velocity standard include whether a child's growth rate over a specified interval. his increment (600 g) also is just below the 50th centile (665 g. ±5 days and ±7 days. an increment measured over the exact 2-month interval between 11. growth between 2. and ingenuity will be called for in applying the standards. 4 or 6 months) for which the centiles are presented. to assess a two-month increment between 11 months and 13 months of age the observed increment could be validly used as long as the first measurement was no more than 5 days early or late and the second measurement no more than 7 days early or late.5 months carries equal contributions from 2-3 and 3-4 month intervals: a baby girl who gained 310 g would be classified as below the 3rd centile at 2-3 months and as below the 15th centile at 3-4 months. Ideally. It teaches. Similarly. For measurements made at ages 0-6 months. . which is just below the 50th centile (458 g.e.5 to 3. raises concern about underlying morbidity. the recommended practical solution is to use the tabulated reference values for the 11 to 13-month age interval. and the final values used in the creation of these standards were an average of two observations. if breastfeeding has been successfully established. The best clinical judgement in such circumstances requires making a holistic assessment of the child's health. For example. or. The training course on child growth assessment is a tool to assist health care providers in the effective application of the WHO growth standards.

normally growing children. For individual attained growth curves. this probability increases to only 2% and 1. the probability of two consecutive 1-month or 2-month weight increments falling below the 5th centile is 0. Future research will need to determine what patterns of successive velocity thresholds over which specified intervals have the best diagnostic and prognostic validity for specific diseases. Normally growing children can have a very high z-score one month and a very low one the following month. Healy and co-workers chose this limit on the basis that the chance of a false positive diagnosis (i. If the 15th centile is chosen.8%. Ultimately. even if observed only once. 2003).25% (0.g. as indicated earlier. one would expect very low velocity followed by compensatory high velocity (catch-up). For example. for example. prolonged diarrhoea). An important difference with attained growth is that single extreme values of increments are comparatively less worrisome. Nevertheless. if these low velocities occur in two consecutive 1-month versus 3-month intervals? We think it does when we consider the cumulative effect of growth deficits. This raises an important question: Does the interval matter. as the position on the attained growth chart is essential to interpreting the growth rate. without any underlying reason for concern. Others suggest that consecutive increments below the 25th centile should signal growth problems (Healy et al. .e. such extreme z-score values may be seen during the assessment of growth velocity..g. respectively. the variability in successive z-scores tends to be minimal over short periods (there are high correlations between successive attained values). z-scores above +6 and below -6 for attained growth are observed only in very rare conditions like severe dwarfism. or higher weight velocity reflecting catch-up growth when recovering from illness. Thus.. For example. a normally growing child with two successive increments below this centile) is approximately 6. very low z-score values.252). gigantism. should raise the question of whether there is underlying morbidity within the holistic clinical assessment of the child. one would expect successive increments to be repeatedly in the higher ranges. During catch-up growth.3%. only when velocities are repeatedly low should they cause concern. severe cachexia and extreme obesity. e. During periods of severe illness (e. This "tracking" is not usually seen for successive individual growth velocities. However. or vice versa. Chief among them is the lack of correlation between successive increments in healthy. The need for this type of clinical research applies to both high and low velocities. Some authors recommend that two successive increments below a cut-off like the 5th centile be used (Roche and Sun. 1988). growth velocity must always be interpreted in conjunction with attained growth. low weight velocity if the child is overweight and catching down.234 Discussion There are some fundamental differences between velocity and attained (distance) growth that affect how the increment standards should be used and interpreted. a single low value is uninformative.

Bhandari N. Taneja S. de Onis M. 43:711–22. DiCiccio TJ. de Onis M. McGuire JS (2005). Onyango AW. Garza C. Green PJ (1992). 33:1–9. Washington DC: The World Bank. Martorell R. 3-in-1 weight monitoring chart [research letter]. 25(Suppl. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Griffiths M. Victora CG. Cole TJ. Washington. Onyango AW. A New Dimension for Health Reform: The Integrated Community Child Health Program in Honduras.8. Construction of the World Health Organization child growth standards: selection of methods for attained growth curves. Gerard La Forgia. Cole TJ (1997). Martines J. planning and implementation. Smoothing reference centile curves: the LMS method and penalized likelihood. Statistics in Medicine. Martorell R. Roche AF. DC: World Bank Working Paper 57. Promoting the Growth of Children: What Works. Inferential aspects of the Skew Exponential Power Distribution. Frongillo EA. 11:1305–1319. 25:247–265. Himes JH (1986). Chumlea WC. 80:189–195. 99:439–450. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 17:2697–2707. Pan H. for the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2004c). 25(Suppl. 349:102–103. Some physical measurements in the first three years of life. BIBLIOGRAPHY Baumgartner RN. Frongillo EA. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. Goldstein H (1986). de Onis M. 1):S1–S89. van den Broeck J. AC (2004). Efficient statistical modelling of longitudinal data. 25(Suppl. Martines JC for the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006). Bahl R. Conditional reference charts to assess weight gain in British infants. de Onis M. Victora CG. Tool #4. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study: planning. Cole TJ (1995). Statistics in Medicine. Measurement and standardization protocols for anthropometry used in the construction of a new international growth reference. eds. . Falkner F (1958). 1):S15–S26. Borghi E. Molinari L. Presenting information on growth distance and conditional velocity in one chart: practical issues of chart design. Norum KR. Garza C. Lancet. Grummer-Strawn L. The World Bank Nutrition Toolkit. In Health System Innovations in Central America: Lessons and Impact of New Approaches. ed. Incremental growth tables. 73:8–16. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS): Rationale. Statistics in Medicine. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. (2004a). van den Broeck J. Growth performance of affluent Indian children is similar to that in developed countries. Cole TJ (1998). study design and methodology. Archives of Disease in Childhood.235 - . 13:129–141. Dickin K. van Buuren S. Garza C. Rationale and Guidance for Programs. Favin M (1996). de Onis M. Onyango AW. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 1):S27–S36. Annals of Human Biology. for the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2004b). Monti. Bhan MK. Bhan MK (2002). Griffiths M. Food and Nutrition Bulletin.

Ad hoc Advisory Group meeting on the construction of growth velocity standards. Physical growth of Swiss children from birth to 20 years of age. Jun):1–125. Frongillo EA (2004). Alasfoor DH (2004). Science. Nieto F. Zumrawi Y (1988). Pewsey A (2008) Sinh-arcsinh distributions: a broad family giving rise to powerful tests of normality and symmetry. Background document No. Martell M. Defining growth failure in growth monitoring and promotion programs: comparison of minimum expected weight gain vs. Publicación Científica N° 406. Molinari L. Roche AF. The use of short-term increments in length to monitor growth in infancy. Tanner J. Chumlea WC. Oman. Prakash N. Socioeconomic predictors of unconstrained child growth in Muscat. tendency methods. 10:295–302. Journal of Pediatrics.236 Bibliography Guo S. Fomon SJ. Largo RH. 33(9):2041–2052. 2002. 49(4):599–607. Geneva. de Onis M. Human growth: assessment and interpretation. Reference data on gains in weight and length during the first two years of life. Rigby RA. Tenzer SM. Ruggia R. 88:120–5. Frongillo EA (2007). Helvetica Paediatrica Acta. Ziegler EE. Siervogel RM (1991). Acta Paediatrica. Owusu WB. Roche AF. Mohamed AJ. First Zurich longitudinal study of growth and development. Washington. and Belitzky R (1981). Baumgartner RN. Saltation and stasis: A model of human growth. Technical Report 08/06. 52(Suppl. Yang M. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. Nelson SE. Onyango AW. 258:801–3. Jones MC. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Healy MJR. Issler C (1989). Himes JH (1999). Flores R. de Onis M. Mabry RM. Minimum time intervals for serial measurements of growth in recumbent length or stature of individual children. Johnson ML (1992). Prader A. 93:1115–1119. 119:355–62. Lampl M. Lartey A. Martorell R. 23:3053–3076. Roche AF. Crecimiento y desarrollo en los dos primeros años de vida postnatal [Growth and development in the first two years of postanal life]. Himes JH (1980). Linear Growth Retardation in Less Developed Countries. Hurtado E (2002). Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series Vol. In: Waterlow JC. Incremental growth charts. 2. The Open University. Velhuis JD. Guo S. Moore WM (1989). . New York. Factors associated with unconstrained growth among affluent Ghanaian children. Onyango AW. DC: Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Statistics Group. Summary of a presentation given to the Guatemalan Ministry of Health and to USAID personnel on December 4. Smooth centile curves for skew and kurtotic data modelled using the Box-Cox power exponential distribution. 19-21 March 2007. Rogers RR. Development of the WHO standards for growth velocity from birth to two years of age: Statistical and technical issues. Sun SS (2003). Bertolini LA. Vevey/Raven Press. Himes JH. Stasinopoulos DM (2004). Roche AF. 14. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ed. Acta Paediatrica. Statistics in Medicine. Weight and recumbent length from 1 to 12 mo of age: reference data for 1-mo increments. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Breastfeeding in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Darvay S (2000). Geneva: World Health Organization. Clinical longitudinal standards for height and height velocity for North American children. Part II. An evaluation of infant growth. Acta Paediatrica. pp 217 (http://www. Part I. Royston P. . Haschke F. Whitehouse RH. Tanner JM.Bibliography 237 Rigby RA. Suppl. Suppl. weight-for-height and body mass index-forage: Methods and development. accessed 5 December 2008) WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006b). height velocity and weight velocity: British children. The assessment of growth and development in children. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006c). weight. van't Hof MA. 1965. Euro-Growth references on increments in length. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006a).int/childgrowth/publications/en/. London: STORM Research Centre. 450:7–15. 54:507–544. weight-for-length. pp 312 (http://www. WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/height-for-age. Instructions on how to use the GAMLSS package in R. Standards from birth to maturity for height. Statistics in Medicine. 19:2943–2962. Euro-Growth Study Group. Suppl 450:16–26. Stasinopoulos DM (2005). Davies (1985). Archives of Disease in childhood.int/childgrowth/publications/en/. Technical Report 02/04. Rigby RA. height velocity and weight velocity: British children. Generalized additive models for location. 1: S39–47. weight. weight-for-age. Worm plot. WHO Child Growth Standards: Head circumference-for-age. Geneva: World Health Organization. Acta Paediatrica. Tanner JM (1952).who. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society . Fredriks M (2001). weight. London Metropolitan University. accessed 5 December 2008) WHO Working Group on Infant Growth (1994). Archives of Disease in Childhood. 41:454–71. Wright EM (2000). 450:38–46.Applied Statistics. Archives of Disease in childhood. Standards from birth to maturity for height. Takaishi M (1966a). Stasinopoulos DM. scale and shape. 107(3):317–29. triceps skinfold-for-age and subscapular skinfoldfor-age: Methods and development. arm circumference-for-age. Journal of Pediatrics. A simple diagnostic device for modelling growth reference curves. Goodness-of-fit statistics for age-specific reference intervals. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006d). 1965. 41:613–35. 31 Suppl. Akantziliotou C (2004). Whitehouse RH. Tanner JM. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2007). Enrolment and baseline characteristics in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Acta Paediatrica. 20:1259–1277. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. van Buuren S.Series C . Tanner JM.who. Statistics in Medicine. head and arm circumferences during the first 3 years of life. 27(131):10–33. Geneva: World Health Organization. Takaishi M (1966b).

(http://www. 83:351–6. WHO.238 Bibliography WHO (2008). 1. Ad hoc Advisory Group meeting on the construction of growth velocity standards. Geneva. 19-21 March 2007. Birks E. Croft D (1998).who. Matthews JN.int/childgrowth/training/en/. Background document No. Wright CM. Avery A. Wright CM (2007). Wright CM. Training course on child growth assessment. Epstein M. accessed 5 December 2008). . WHO Child Growth Standards: Growth velocity. New chart to evaluate weight faltering. Geneva. What is a normal rate of weight gain in infancy? Acta Paediatrica. Waterston A. Aynsley-Green A (1994). 78(1):40-43. Archives of Disease in childhood.

05 10 5 3 2 6 0.Appendix B Model specifications of the WHO child growth velocity standards Table B1 Degrees of freedom for fitting the parameters of the Box-Cox-power exponential (BCPE) distribution for the models with the best fit to generate standards based on age.05 8 5 1 2 6 0.05 8 5 1 2 4 0. 0-24 months Girls Boys Head circumference velocity conditional on age.05 10 7 1 2 3 0.05 7 5 4 2 2 0.05 7 5 1 2 2 0.05 10 5 2 2 6 0.05 12 6 3 2 3 0.05 8 5 1 2 6 0.05 9 5 2 2 a Age transformation power Degrees of freedom for the cubic splines fitting the median (µ) c Degrees of freedom for the cubic splines fitting the coefficient of variation (σ) d Degrees of freedom for the cubic splines fitting the Box-Cox transformation power (ν) e Parameter related to the kurtosis fixed (τ=2) f Age range is 0 to 12 months for interval equals to 1 g Age range is 0 to 12 months for intervals 2 and 3 b .05 12 5 4 2 3 0.239 - . and head circumference in children 0-24 months of age Standards Sex Boys Weight velocity conditional on age.05 10 5 3 2 1 0.05 9 4 4 2 2 0.05 7 6 1 2 4 0.05 11 5 5 2 6 0.05 9 4 2 2 2 0.05 9 5 5 2 6 0. 0-24 monthsf Girls Boys Length velocity conditional on age.05 7 4 2 2 4 0.05 7 4 4 2 4 0.05 8 4 1 2 3 0.05 8 4 4 2 3 0.05 8 4 4 2 4 0. length.05 9 7 1 2 3 0.05 8 3 2 2 4 0. weight. 0-24 monthsg Girls Interval λa df(µ)b df(σ)c df(ν)d τe 1 0.05 9 4 1 2 2 0.05 7 4 1 2 2 0.

39 0.01 Proportion of children who drift farther away from the mean Average change in z-scores (time2 -time1) .05 0.05 -0.36 0.05 -0.50 meanb 0.240 - Starting at 1.33 0.54 0.08 -0.12 0.47 0.36 0.38 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.09 -0.08 0.03 -0.40 0.03 -0.12 -0.43 0.40 0.27 0.52 0.07 -0.09 0.07 0.40 0.28 0.41 0.45 0.32 -0.05 -0.44 meanb -0.00 -0.Appendix C Results from analyses related to regression to the mean Table C1 Proportions of children falling below/rising above their starting z-scores (time1) after 1.33 0.07 0.01 0.01 -0.35 0.30 0.08 0.31 0.13 0.07 0.05 -0.09 0.or 2-month periods (time2) a b 1-month interval Starting at -2.5 n 65 47 51 47 48 42 45 44 45 51 54 53 54 50 45 51 50 propa 0.32 0.43 0.37 0.06 meanb 0.45 0.11 -0.17 0.06 -0.10 -0.38 0.52 0.45 0.07 0.30 meanb -0.14 0.33 0.48 0.00 0.31 0.06 0.29 0.5 ≤ z ≤ -1.32 0.22 -0.08 0.45 0.33 0.39 0.06 0.34 0.55 0.05 -0.09 0.35 0.10 .03 -0.08 0.62 -0.33 0.00 -0.13 0.5 ≤ z ≤ -1.03 -0.5 Age (months) 0-2 1-3 2-4 3-5 4-6 5-7 6-8 7-9 8-10 9-11 10-12 12-14 14-16 16-18 18-20 20-22 22-24 n 40 48 48 49 52 49 55 57 53 53 47 52 61 57 50 59 68 propa 0.38 propa 0.00 -0.57 0.16 0.08 -0.27 0.40 0.21 0.05 -0.02 0.5 n 64 52 48 49 51 42 44 44 45 50 57 50 propa 0.30 0.45 0.35 0.32 0.03 Starting at 1.05 -0.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.44 0.42 0.48 0.20 0.46 0.46 0.33 0.05 0.5 Age (months) 0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-12 n 42 47 48 50 50 51 56 56 52 53 48 56 2-month interval Starting at -2.47 0.10 0.02 0.28 0.

5 2 2.5 -2 -1.5 -3 -2.5 -1 -.5 4 4.4 .35 Density .5 3 3.5 SD gain SD WHO .05 0 -4.3 .3 .5 -4 -3.5 0 .5 -1 -.45 .05 0 -4.2 .5 3 3.5 1 1.1 .5 1 1.35 Density .5 SD gain SD WHO .5 5 Figure C1 Comparison between 1-month WHO weight increment z-scores and SDgain .25 .5 4 4.25 .5 0 .1 .45 .Appendix C 241 .2 .5 2 2.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -4 -3.5 5 Figure C2 Comparison between 2-month WHO weight increment z-scores and SDgain .4 .15 .15 .

34 1 0 .012 0.33 0.242 Appendix C median 95% -0.5 2 5% SD gain minus SD WHO Figure C3 Differences between 1-month WHO weight increment z-scores and SDgain median 95% -0.5 Density 1.27 0.012 0.29 0 1 Density 2 3 5% SD gain minus SD WHO Figure C4 Differences between 2-month WHO weight increment z-scores and SDgain .