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ljhof bzdL @)&%

sf] kfjg cj;/df xfd|f ;Dk"0f{
kf7s, n]vs, lj1fkgbftf tyf
z'elrGtsx?df ;'v, zflGt /
;d[l4sf] xflb{s d+undo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub{5f}F .
If]Kof:q k|sfzg s]Gb| kl/jf/
jif{ !@, c+s !, @)&% ;fn c;f]h @* ut] cfOtaf/ (Oct. 14, 2018) d"No ?= !).– ca xfd|f] e]6 cfufdL sflQs !! ut] x'g5]
;Qf?9 g]skfleq /8fsf] ;jf]R{ rsf] ca1f, c;nsf] aGbL k|ToIfLs/0f l/6dfly ax; bz}k+ l5

k|r08 cf]nLsf] uLtf ufp“b}
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf eGb} tTsfn l/xfO{sf] dfu ub}{
s]Gb|Lo ;b:o rGb|axfb'/ v8\sf b'uf{k;
| fb h};Ln] bfo/ u/]sf] l/6dfly
…c;nÚnfO{ ;jf]R{ r cbfntn] lnlvt ax;kl5 ;jf]R{ rn] lnlvt hjfkm;lxt

sf7df8f}F . ;Qf?9 bn g]kfn s]lGb|aLrsf] kf6L{ Pstfkl5 k|bz
] OGrfh{, nflu :yfoL sld6L a}7s af]nfpg cfu|x 5g\ . k|bz
] kbflwsf/L 5gf]6sf qmddf
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{leqsf] cfGtl/s laafbsf ;xOGrfh{, k|bz ] sld6L cWoIf / ;lrj u/] klg bz}+ cl3 ;Dej g/x]sf] eGb} Psnf}6L u/]sf] eGb} c;Gt'i6 al/i7 g]tf

hjfkm;lxt # lbgleq pkl:yt aGbLnfO{ # lbgleq cbfntdf
u/fpg lbPsf] cfb]znfO{ ;/sf/n] pkl:yt u/fpg ;/sf/, u[xdGqfno,
nTofPsf] 5 . v8\sfnfO{ lagfsf/0f dsjfgk'/ lhk|sfnufot ljkIfLx?sf]
sf/0f ;lrjfno a}7s g} clglZrt ag]sf] 5gf]6af6 ;'? ljjfbsf sf/0f clxn] a}7s cWoIfåo s]kL cf]nL / k'iksdn bfxfnn] dfwjs'df/ g]kfnn] ;lrjfnodf kq g} kqmfp u/L u}/sfg'gL y'gfdf /fv]sf] -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
5 . tTsflng Pdfn] / dfcf]jfbL g} k|efljt x'g yfn]sf] xf] . ljjfb ;dfwfgsf cfn6fn u/]sf] g]tfx?n] cf/f]k nufPsf -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_

‘/flt ;'Tbf klg cf“vfdf k§L nufOof]’ lx/f;tdf x8\8L dlSsg] ;'O{ nufpg] wDsL Û
sf7df8f} F . g] k fn sDo' l g:6 l/xf ePsf g]skf kf]ln6Ao"/f] ;b:o /flvof] . ToxfF …ljikmf]6s kbfy{Ú d'2f sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 l/xf ePsf g]skf g]tf Pj+ kf]ln6 z/L/sf c+u lauf/L lbg];Ddsf] wDsL
kf6L{sf g]tf sfo{stf{nfO{ ;/sf/n] cf] d k| s fz k' g n] lx/f;tleq nufOof], To;af6 klg pgn] pGd'lQm kf6L{sf g]tf sfo{stf{nfO{ ;/sf/n] Ao"/f] ;b:o kbdaxfb'/ /fO{ …ljsf;Ún] lbPsf] 36gf aflx/ cfPsf] 5 . uPsf]
lu/ˆtf/ ug]{, lx/f;tdf u}/sfg'gL ef]Ug'k/]sf] bb{gfs cj:yfaf/] v'n:t kfP . To;df klg pgL l/xf eP . lu/ˆtf/ ug]{, lx/f;t y'gfdf /fVg] dfgjclwsf/ pNn+ 3 gsf] Pp6f c;f/ !^ ut] sf7df8f} F s f]
y'gfdf /fVg] / em'7f d'2f nufpg] u/]sf 5g\ . uPsf] c;f/ !( ut] To;kl5 nuQ} k'gM lu/ˆtf/ u/L / em' 7 f d' 2 f nufpg ul/Psf] g] k fn6f/l:yt u| f dL0f cfbz{
ul/Psf] ;dfrf/ lg/Gt/ ;fj{hlgs ;f]xL lbg s}nfnL nluof] . ToxfF ebf} ;dfrf/x? k|z:t} ;'Gg / k9\g b]Vg ljBfnoaf6 v'nf sfo{qmd ul//x]sf]
eO/x]sf 5g\ . o:t}aLr g]skfsf @! ut];Dd /flvof] . ToxfF …ad kfOG5 . p;sf] /fhgLlts v'nf / cj:yf lu/ˆtf/kl5 df]/ª, ToxfFaf6
g]tf sfo{stf{ l/xf x'g] / lx/f;t / ljikmf]6Ú / …Hofg dfg]{ pBf]uÚ;DaGwL zflGtk"0f{ sfo{qmddfly w/ks8, bdg lj/f6gu/ pRr cbfntsf] cfb]z
cbfntaf6} k'gM lu/ˆtf/ ug]{ / km]l/ s;'/ u/]sf] cleof]u nufOof] . ToxfF / lx/f;tleq} /x]sf] cj:yf r/d l/xfePkl5 nuQ} ;+vj' f;ef nluPsf]
csf]{ lhNnfdf k'¥ofP/ cleof]u pgL w/f}6Ldf l/xf eP . ToxfFaf6 ?kdf zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s oftgf lyof] . ;+v'jf;ef dfq %& lbg
nufpg] ul/Psf] klg ;dfrf/x? l/xfnuQ} k'gM lu/ˆtf/ u/L ;fpg lbOPsf] 36gfx? klg g;'gs ] f x}gg\ . lx/f;tdf /flvof] . ToxfF /fO{nfO{
k|z:t cfO/x]s} 5g\ . To; qmddf @! ut] g} afFs] nluof] / ToxfF t/ g]skfsf g]tf sfo{stf{dfly ef/tLo sDkgLnfO{ 7]Ssf lbOPsf]
aGbLx?dfly /fHoaf6 ePsf cfuhgLsf] d'2f nufOof] . ToxfF ;/sf/n] bdg oltdf dfq ;Lldt c?0f t];f| ] hnljB't cfof]hgf:yndf
dfgjclwsf/ / sfg'gL clwsf/sf] pgnfO{ c;f]h & ut];Dd /flvof] . /fv]sf] kfOFb}g . lgoGq0fdf lnO{ ad ljikmf]6 / cfuhgL u/fO{ …;+ul7t
uDeL/ pNn+ 3 gsf 36gfx? ToxfFaf6 z'4 tfl/vdf 5fl8of] / cleof]u nufP/ lx/f;tdf /flvPsf ck/fwÚsf] s;'/ u/]sf] cleof]udf
;fj{hlgs ePsf] 5 . 5f8]nuQ} k'gM lu/ˆtf/ u/L bfª lhDd]jf/ g]tfnfO{ k|x/Ln] uDeL/ d2f rnfOof] . xf], ToxL ;+v'jf;ef
o;} a Lr sf7df8f} F , alb{ o f, k'¥ofOof] . ToxfF …ad ljikmf]6Ú / dfgjclwsf/ pNn+ 3 gsf] wDsL lhNnf k|x/Lsf] lx/f;tdf /x]sf] a]nf
s}nfnL, afFs] / bfª u/L (% lbg ;fFem ^ ah] nflhDkf6af6 lu/ˆtf/ …st{Jo HofgÚsf] d'2f rnfof] . ;f]xL lbPsf] kfOPsf] 5 . (* lbg nfdf] uDeL/ cj:yfnfO{ v'n:t u/]sf O{G:k]S6/ -gfd uf]Ko_n] /fO{nfO{ …clxn]
nfdf] lx/f;tdf a;]/ oxL c;f]h !( ul/Psf k'gnfO{ @& ut];Dd /flvof] ljifodf ;jf]R{ rdf aGbL k|ToIfLs/0f k|x/L lx/f;tdf /x]/ l/xfO{ c;f]h 5g\ . pgnfO{ lx/f;tdf /xFbf k|x/L sxfF 5 eGg] t yfxf 5 lgÚ eGb}
ut] ;jf] { R r cbfntn] / hxfF ;fj{hlgs d'2f nufOof] . -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ !( ut] ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] cfb]zdf clws[tn] Hofg lng] ;'O{ nufpg] / -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_

‘cf]nLnfO{ u0ftGqsf] klxnf] lgjf{lrt k|wfgdGqL agfOg' cfkm}+df lj8Djgfk"0f{’
aGbLk|ToIfLs/0f l/6 lgj]bgdflysf] To;kl5 c;f/ @* ut] alb{ o f
ax;kl5 lbPsf] y'gfd'Qm cfb]zaf6 k'¥ofOof] / ToxfF ;fpg !% ;Dd

‘jfdb]jn] @% nfv 3'; dfu]sf lyP’
sf7df8f}F . k"jk{ x| /L dxflg/LIfs ubf{/x]5g\ eGg] yk v'nf;f u/]sf 5g\ . sf7df8f}F . g]skf -qmflGtsf/L /fi6«lj/f]wL ;a} P]g sfg'gx? vf/]h s8f sf/afxL u/, lgd{nf kGtnfO{ lj/f]w ;efdf af]Nb} g]skf -qmflGtsf/L
cRo'ts[i0f v/]nn] cfO{hLkL x'bF f sfFu;
]| of] k':tsdf v/]nn] tTsfnLg u[xdGqL dfcf] j fbL_ ;dly{ t b] z eQm u/, dx+uL / sfnf]ahf/L lgoGq0f Gofo b], ef/tLo lj:tf/jfb d'bf{jfb, dfcf]jfbL_ sf g]tf tyf b]zeQm
/ Pdfn]nfO{ nfvf}+ rGbf lbPsf] v'nf;f jfdb]j uf}tdsf dflg;n] cfk"m;Fu @% hgu0ftflGqs df]rf{, g]kfn sf7df8f}F
u/]sf 5g\ . k"jc{ fO{hLkL cRo'ts[i0f nfv ?k}ofF dfu]sf] bfaL u/]sf 5g\ . / qmflGtsf/L o' j f lnu, g] k fn
v/]nsf] ev{/} k|sflzt cfTdsyfdf r'gfjsf a]nf ljleGg Jofkf/Lx?af6 sf7df8f} F s f] ;+ o ' Q m cfof] h gfdf
o:tf] v'nf;f u/]sf 5g\ . #*) k[i7sf] p7fP/ sfFu; ]| nfO{ #) nfv / Pdfn]nfO{ ul/Psf] sfnf] dfrf{kf;sf] k|bz{gdf
cfTdsyfdf v/]nn] g]kfnsf g]tfx¿ !) nfv lbPsf] v/]nsf] egfO 5 . ;}of}+ qmflGtsf/Lx? ;8sdf plqPsf
t:s/ / dflkmof;Fu slt;Dd ;fF7ufF7 k':tssf] @&@ cf}+ k[i7df elgPsf] 5– 5g\ . dx+ u L, a] / f] h uf/L, xTof–
…/flt sl/a !! ah] kmf]g cfof] . anfTsf/, sfnfkfgL If]q ufoa
k"j8{ LP;kL g/xl/ ;+uf| n } fn] u/]sf kfl/Psf] gSsnL gS;fsf] k|of]u,
/x]5g\ . pgL d]/} pd]/sf x'g\ . d]/} /fi6« 3 ftL gful/stf ljw] o s /
6f]naf;L, d]/f z'elrGts . pgL u}/Goflos ?kdf ul/Psf] ;8s
Pdfn];uF lgs6 lyP . jfdb]j;Fu klg lj:tf/sf] lj/f]wdf cfof]hgf ul/Psf]
lgs6 /x]5g\ eGg] yfxf lyPg .Ú sfnf] dfr{ k f; /Tgkfs{
k':tsdf k"j{8LP;kL ;+u|f}nf;Fusf] zflGtafl6sfaf6 ;'? eO{ afuahf/,
6]lnkmf]g ;Djfb pNn]v ub}{ elgPsf] k'tnL;8s, kßf]bodf]8, k|bz{gLdfu{,
5– …Psb'O{ lbgleq} k'ln;df klx/f] hfFb5} ;'Gw/f, Go"/f]8, OGb|rf]s, c;g x'Fb}
eGg] ;'gs ] f] 5' . …l5§} @% nfv tof/ k'gM zflGtafl6sfdf k'u/] lj/f]w;efdf
ugf];{ \ x}, xf]Og eg] k'ln;df klx/f] kl/0ft ePsf] 5 . sfnf] l6–;6{, sfnf]
hfG5 .Ú em08f / Jofg/;lxt k|bz{g ul/Psf]
g]kfnon] k|sfzg u/]sf] v/]nsf] dfr{kf;df lnlDkofw'/f–sfnfkfgL If]q u/, u}/Goflos ;8s lj:tf/ aGb j[ l 4 ul/Psf] s/ vf/] h u/ hgu0ftflGqs df]rf{ g]kfnsf cWoIf
cfTdsyfleq @% nfv dfluPsf] elgP xfd| } xf] , /fi6« 3 ftL gful/stf u/, a]/f]huf/ o'jfx?nfO{ /f]huf/L nufotsf gf/f nufOPsf] lyof] . ;LkL uh'/n] n] cfk"mx? ufoa kfl/Psf]
-af“sL ^ k]hdf_ ljw] o snufot hglj/f] w L / b], geP eQf b], anfTsf/Lx?nfO{ sfnf] dfr{kf; kZrft\ kl/0ft ePsf] -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
2 @)&% ;fn c;f]h @* ut] cfOtaf/

ljQLo ;+
3 Lotf jf ljQLo ljs]
G b|
L s/0f
ltdL ltd|f] tl/sfn] n8, xfdL xfd|f] tl/sfn] n8\5f}
– s= dfcf]T;] t'ª
✍ ;DkfbsLo nIdLljnf; sf] O /fnf
g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgn] PsfTds
c;dfgtfnfO{ ;dtn -xf]l/h]G6n_
c;Gt'ng eGg] ul/G5 . cfly{s
xf] . ;fy}, ljQLo x:tfGt/0fsf] p2]Zo
;+3Lo / :yfgLo k|fyldstf k"/f ub{}
glthfd"vL klg x'g'kb{5 .
nf]ssNof0fsf/L /fHosf] cjwf/0ff
afx|f+} jif{ k|jz
] sf] cj;/df zf;g k|0ffnLnfO{ lj:yflkt u/L
b]zdf ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnL nfu"
ljsf;sf] cj:yf, k|fs[lts ;|ft] sf]
pkof]uaf6 k|fKt k|ltkmn / s/af6
hgtfnfO{ :6of08{8 ;]jf k|jfx ug'{
klg xf] .
;F u } ;/sf/ hg;] j fk| l t a9L
;+j]bglzn ePsf] kfOG5 . s]Gb|Lo
bz aif]{ hgo'4 / !( lbg] hgcfGbf]ngaf6 k|fKt u0ftGq;Fu} u/]sf] 5 . ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnLdf k|fKt cfdbfgL tyf hg;]jf k|jfx cGt/;/sf/ 6«fG;km/ cyf{t ah]6sf] dfWodaf6 Ps} k|sf/sf] gLlt
o;nfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ tyf g]kfn / g]kfnLsf] :jfledfgsf] /Iff tLg txsf ;/sf/ /x]sf 5g\, ;+3, ug'k{ g]{ bfloTj k'/f ug{sf]] nflu ul/g] ;dfgLs/0f cg'bfgnfO{ d'Vo¿kdf / sfo{qmddf vr{ ug'{ eGbf ;+3Lo
k|b]z / :yfgLo tx . ;+3, k|b]z / vr{ cfsf/df ;/sf/sf txx¿aLr b'O{ ju{df afF8g] ul/G5 . klxnf] zf;g k|0ffnLdf ;a} k|bz ] sf hgtfsf]
ub}{ hgtfnfO{ ;"lrt ug]{ dxfg\ sfo{df yf]/} eP klg ;xof]u :yfgLo txn] ;+ljwfg / sfg'gcg';f/ h'g leGgtf x'G5 Tof] el6{sn c;dfgtf lgzt{ -cgslG8;gn_ ljQLo ;dfg ljsf; x'g' ] u/L vr{ ug'{ sl7g
k'¥ofpg] p2]Zosf ;fy ;'? ul/Psf] o; ;fKtflxsn] P3f/ aif{ g]kfnsf] /fHozlQmsf] k|of]u ug]{ xf] . To:t} cfly{s ljsf;sf] cj:yf, x:tfGt/0f xf] eg] bf];|f] ;zt{ - sfo{ xf] . vr{ ug]{ Ifdtf eg]sf]
k"/f u/]sf] 5 . . o; ;fKtflxsn] k|sfzgsf] k|f/Deb]lv /fi6«, Joj:yf ;+ljwfgn] g} u/]sf] 5 . cfo;|ft] sf] l:ylt tyf vr{ ug'k{ g]{ slG8;gn_ ljQLo x:tfGt/0f cg'bfg /fh:j k|flKt Ifdtf xf] h'g k|b]z /
;+ljwfgn] /fHozlQmsf] afF8kmfF8 u/L, k|fyldstfsf ;DaGwdf k|bz ] k|bz
] / xf] . lgMzt{ lbOg] x:tfGt/0f vf;u/L :yfgLo txaLr km/s km/s x'G5 .
/fli6«otf / u0ftGqnfO{ d"n dGq dfg]/ :jtGq kqsfl/tfsf] ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/ :yfgLo txaLr h'g leGgtf kfOG5 ;/sf/sf] lhDd]jf/L -DofG8]6]8 jfO o;sf/0f cGt/;/sf/ /fh:jsf]
e"ldsfdfnfO{ cFufNb} lgikIf ?kdf ;dfrf/ / ljrf/ k|sfzg Pj+ lhDd]jf/L tyf ef}uf]lns ;Ldf Tof] leGgtfnfO{ xf]l/h]G6n c;dfgtf n_ k"/f ug]{ ljifo;Fu cfa4 x'G5 . afF 8 kmfF 8 Jojl:yt, j} 1 flgs /
lgwf{/0f u/]sf] 5 . g]kfndf ;+3, ;ft elgG5 . rfx] ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnL xf];\ lgMzt{ x:tfGt/0f jNssf] ¿kdf Gofok"0f{ x'g cfjZos x'G5 .
ub} { cfPsf] 5 . b] z df cfd?kdf k| s flzt cGo 5fkf k|b]z / ;ft;o lqkGg :yfgLo jf PsfTds zf;g k| 0 ffnLsf] k|fKt x'G5 / k|fKt ug]{ ;/sf/ ;f] cGt/;/sf/ ljQLo x:tfGt/0f
;~rf/dfWodaf6 k[ys /xFb} If]Kof:q ;fKtflxsn] cfˆgf] 5'§} txx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . ef}uf]lns agfj6, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f xf];\ ;/sf/sf txx¿aLr 6«fG;km/ /sd afF8kmfF8 ug{ :jtGq ug]{ sfo{ cToGt} r'gf}ltk"0f{ x'G5 .
klxrfg agfPsf] 5 . o; ;fKtflxsn] b]zdf JofKt cGofo, hg;+Vof / cfly{s ljsf;sf b[li6n] el6{sn / xf]l/h]G6n ljQLo c;dfgtf x' G 5 . lgMzt{ lbOg] ljQLo g] k fnsf] ;+ l jwfgn] ;/sf/sf
k|bz ] / :yfgLo txx¿ k"0f{t c;dfg kfOG5 . x:tfGt/0ffn] To:tf] cg'bfg k|fKt ug]{ txx¿aLr /fh:jsf] ;dfg
cTofrf/, e|i6frf/ / s'/Lltx?nfO{ gfË]emf/ kfb}{ hgkIfLo / 5g\ . t/, /fhgLlts clwsf/, ljQLo ;+ 3 Lotf jf ljQLo ;/sf/sf] cfo IfdtfnfO{ a9fpF5 / ljt/0fsf] lj:t[t cfwf/, 9fFrf / ;"q
/fli6«otfsf] kIfnfO{ ;jf]{Rr dfGb} ;dfrf/ / n]vx? k|sflzt :6of6;\ / /fhgLlts ;xeflutfsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0f eg]sf] b]zsf] cfly{s hgtfnfO{ s/sf] ef/af6 klg lgdf{0f ug]{, ;dfgLs/0f cg'bfg
b[li6n] eg] ;dfg 5g\ . /fhgLlts ljsf; tNnf] txb]lv ug{ tNnf hf] u fpF 5 . t/, ;zt{ cg' b fg l;kmfl/; ug],{ ;+3, k|bz ] / :yfgLo
ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . xfd|f] k|sfzgsf] d'Vo nIo eg]s} b]zdf JofKt xs clwsf/n] ;DkGg k|bz ] / :yfgLo lgsfox¿nfO{ ljQLo ¿kdf ;Ifd x:tfGt/0f bftf ;/sf/sf] txx¿n] lng ;Sg] cfGtl/s C0fsf]
cGofo, cTofrf/, e|i6frf/ / s'/LltnfO{ h/}b]lv gf·]emf/ kfb}{ txx¿ k|fs[lts / ljQLo ;|f]tsf] agfpg] Ps k|lqmof xf] . ;fy}, ljQLo k|fyldstf cyf{t ;+3 jf k|b]z ;Ldf l;kmfl/; ug],{ k|fs[lts ;|ft] sf]
/fli6«o :jfledfgsf] ljsf; ug{' /x]sf] 5 . xfd|f] o; cleofgsf] b[li6n] km/s km/s Ifdtfsf 5g\ . ;+3Lotfn] /fh:jsf] afF8kmfF8 / vr{ ;/sf/sf /fli6«o k|fy{ldstfx¿df kl/rfng ubf{ ;/sf/sf tLg} txsf]
k|b]z tyf :yfgLo txx¿sf] cfly{s ug]{ clwsf/ tyf ;/sf/sf 7fF8f] tx vr{ ug{ lbOPsf] x'G5 . To:tf nufgL / k|ltkmnsf] lx:;f lgwf{/0fsf]
5f]6f] cjlwdf g} cfdg]kfnL bfh'efO, lbbLalxgLn] xfdLk|lt ;j]{If0f ePsf] 5}g\ eg] k|fs[lts / ;dtn ;/sf/sfaLr kfO{ g ] k|fy{ldstfx¿ b]zJofkL, k|bz ] JofkL nflu cfwf/ to ul/ l;kml/; ug]{,
b]vfPsf] ;b\efj ;x|fgLo 5 . o;af6 xfd|f] xf};nf Pj+d bfloTj ;|f]tsf] 8f6fj]z klg 5}g . tfklg c;dfgtfsf] cWoog klg ub{5 . jf ljifoIf]qd"vL x'g] ub{5g\ . ;zt{ tyf k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] afF8kmfF8
cem} a9\g uPsf] 5 . o;/L xfd|f] cleofgdf ;fy lbO xfdLnfO{ pknAw ePsf tYof+sx¿nfO{ v]nfP/ ljQLo ;+3Lotf ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnL cg'bfg vr{ ug{ :yfgLo ;/sf/x¿ ;DaGwL ljifodf ;+3 / k|b]z, k|b]z
cg'dfgLs/0f ub}{ k|bz ] / :yfgLo sfof{Gjogsf] k|d'v tTj xf] . ;+3Lo :jtGq x'bg} g\ . o:tf] ljQLo 6«fG;km/ k|bz ] tyf k|bz ] / :yfgLo tx tyf
;Nnfx k|bfg ug]{ ;Dk"0f{ kf7s, lj1fkgbftf, ljqm]tf Pj+ txsf] ah]6 / sfo{qmdx¿ ag]sf, zf;g k|0ffnLdf ;fdfGotof s]Gb| :yfgLo tyf k|b]z ;/sf/x¿n] sd :yfgLotxx¿aLr pTkGg x'g ;Sg]
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;Demf}tfsf] gfddf hgo'4 hg;Qf
/fVg] ;/sf/sf] o:tf] /j}ofk|lt
Gofofno dfgjclwsf/ cfof]u ;'/Iff
ltxfO{sf] cf]nL ;Sg] pgsf] v'aLnfO{ s;}n] gsf/]sf]
lyPg . hj @)^! lt/ jfj'/fd
hgcbfntsf] cGTo / lj36g,
hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] lj;h{g / xltof/
lgsfo kqsf/ sltko :jtGq
n]vsx? / cGo kf6L{sf g]tf /
e§/fO{;Fu cGt/lj/f]w rls{of] tj /fHonfO{ x:tfGt/0f k|ltufdL ;+ljwfg sfo{stf{n] cfklQ hgfpFb} /fhgLlts
;/sf/ b]zdf 5 t/ l5d]sL b]zdf lnO/x]sf] ;]N6/ k"/}
c;'/lIft dx;'; x'g yfNof] . To;kl5
lgdf{0f;Dd k'Uof] . clxn] cfP/
hgo'4sf s§/ lj/f]wL hgo'4nfO{
zlQmsf] ?kdf :jLsf/ ub}{ jftf{af6
lgsf; vf]Hg bjfj lbg] s'/f lgs}
olt lg/Lx 5 ls of] xfd|f] cf/f]k x}g :jod\ k|d /ftf/ft g]kfn lelqP/ s]lGb|o cfwf/
Onfsflt/ ;]N6/ l;ˆ6 u/]sf] tYo
pu|jfdkGyL e8\sfj b]Vg] ;Qf];/fk
lv;L–l6p/L ug] { cToGt xn' s f
cy{k"0f{ 5 . o;n] /fHosf] j}slNks
plbodfg zlQm g]skf / To;sf] g]tT[ j
klg w]/} dfWodaf6 klxNo} ;fj{hlgs l6Kk0fL / Jo+Uo ug]{ blIf0fkGyL ljKnj xf] eGg] k|i6 ;+s]6 u/]sf] 5 .
cf]nL pgsf Sofljg]6sf dGqLx? / kf6L{sf g]tf e};s]sf] 5, ToxL ;dodf hldgL ;+zf]wgjfbL lsQfdf lghL /fhgLlts cGTodf of] bnfn k'h
F LjfbL ;+;bLo
df]rf{df b'ZdgnfO{ xfon–sfon hLjg /Iffsf] nflu /fhgLlts Joj:yf b]z / hgtfsf] lxtdf slxNo}
/ sfo{stf{n] asfObf jf]ns ] f] / sfd sf/jfxLn] agfO/x]sf] hgd'lQm ;]gf p;sf] xjfO{
hf;';L / gfO6 lehg x]lnsK6/sf]
z/0ffyL{sf] ?kdf k|jz ] ug{n
' fO{ k|r08
ktgsf] clGtd kf6f]sf] ?kdf a'lemPg
x'g ;Sb}g eGg] s'/f ljutb]lv eGb}
cfPs} xf] . oltj]nf slyt @ ltxfO{sf]
k'li6 u/]sf] s'/f xf] . @ dlxgfeGbf j9L x'bF f;Dd ;kf]6{ / cfqmd0fn] cln j9L Iflt
Joxf]g{ / sltko cj:yfdf df]rf{
eg] cGoyf x'g]5 . o;/L hgo'4sf]
k| d ' v kxnstf{ g] t [ T jstf{ x' F b }
cf]nL ;/sf/ b]zdf 5 t/ olt lg/Lx
5 ls of] xfd|f] cf/f]k x}g :jod\ k|d
g;lsFb} l/l6«6 x'g jfWo ePs} xf], hgo'4sf] d'Vo cjlwe/ qmflGtsf/L cf]nL pgsf Sofljg]6sf dGqLx? /
Pp6f anfTsf/L ck/fwL kQf nufpg ;Sb}g eg] To:tf] cj:yfdf hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] nflu
xjfO{ cfqmd0fsf] k|lt/f]w ug]{ k|ljlw
gfossf] ?kdf rlr{t /xL pbfPsf]
kfq cfh cfˆg} g]t[Tjdf lgld{t
kf6L{sf g]tf / sfo{stf{n] asfObf
jf]ns ] f] / sfd sf/jfxLn] k'li6 u/]sf]
of]eGbf lg/Lxtf / gfnfosLkg c? s] x'g cfjZos lyof], cfk"lt{ x'gk' Yof]{ . l;+uf]
hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] Ps dfq ;femf dfu
/Qm/l~ht Oltxf;df sfnf] kf]Tb}
vngfosdf kl/0ft eO;s] k l5
s'/f xf] . @ dlxgfeGbf j9L x'bF f;Dd
Pp6f anfTsf/L ck/fwL kQf nufpg
ToxL g} lyof] . PG6L Po/ qmfˆ6 ljkg hgo'4sf] Tof] dxfg\ / P]ltxfl;s ;Sb} g eg] of] e Gbf lg/Lxtf /
;S5 < pgLx?s} efiffdf hgtfn] c:jLs[t u/]sf dfq cfk"lt{ x'g ;Sof] eg] b'ZdgnfO{ lj/f;tnfO{ hf]ufpFb} ToxL hudf 6]s/] gfnfosLkg c? s] x'g ;S5 <
k"0f{tof k/f:t ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] hgo'4sf] cw'/f] / cnkq ;kgfnfO{ pgLx?s} efiffdf hgtfn] c:jLs[t
/ xjNbf/ z}nL / :jefjjfx]s c? s'g} vf; cfTdljZjf; lyof] t/ tTsfnLg ;'lk|d
sdf08/ k|r08sf] lbdfudf s] lyof],
k"/f ug{ sf]xL g sf]xL t hGdg} kYof]{
/ ToxL sf]xLdWo] sd/]8 ljKnjnfO{
u/]sf / xjNbf/ z}nL / :jefjjfx]s
c? s'g} vf; Ifdtf / of]Uotf gePsf
Ifdtf / of]Uotf gePsf jfdb]jnfO{ ;f+;b Tolt j]n} yfxf x'g] s'/} ePg .
lj:tf/} jNn yfxf x'g yfNof],
gofF qmflGtsf] g] t [ T jsf] ?kdf
Oltxf;n] hGdfPsf] 5 . o;df cfd
jfdb]jnfO{ ;f+;b jgfpg /fHosf]
s/f]8f}F 9's6' L vr{ ug{s
' f] s] cy{ 5 <
;'lk|d sdf08/ t l5d]sL b]z 5f]8]/ dfcf] j fbL k+ l Qm, zf] l ift–kLl8t cGo tklznsf s'/f t w]/} 5g\,
jgfpg /fHosf] s/f]8f}F 9's6' L vr{ ug{s' f] s] cy{ g]kfn cfO{ s]lGb|o cfwf/ O{nfsf
l5/]sf] s]xL lbgd} ;]N6/ glhs–glhs
d'lQmsfdL cfdhg;d'bfo / l;+uf]
b]zn] uj{ ug{'k5{ . x'g t Ps x"n
Totflt/ ghfcf},+ ;du|df oL bnfnx?n]
ug]{ x/]s ultljlw b]z / ul/j
5 < cGo tklznsf s'/f t w]/} 5g\, Totflt/ lbgx'hF ;f] ad k8\lsg] htf lg:Sof]
Tot} 6fpsf] dfly–dfly b'Zdgsf]
dfG5]x? o;f] klg eG5g\ ls ljKnj
;f+;b dGqL aGg] cj;/ gkfP/ jf
hgtfsf] nflu cy{xLg g} x'G5g\ .
To;}n] cj klg of] bnfn ;+;bLo
x]lnsK6/ 3'Dg] / uf]nfjf/L ug],{ cfkm}nF ] hgo'4sf] gfos / cfhsf] vngfos Joj:yfsf] e|ddf gk/f}+ s]xL r'gf}ltx?
ghfcf},+ ;du|df oL bnfnx?n] ug]{ x/]s ultljlw hgd'lQm ;]gfnfO{ k|ToIf ?kdf clGtd h:t} aGg] dxTjsf+ I ffn] cnu t 5g\ g} tyflk ;Defjgfsf] lIflth
lgb]z
{ gd"ns k|lzIf0f lbP/ glhsjf6 /fhgLlts wf/jf6 cufl8 j9\b5 } g\ . klg v' l n;s] s f] 5 . qmflGt /
b]z / ul/j hgtfsf] nflu cy{xLg g} x'G5g\ . sdf08 u/]sf] vf/f df]rf{ c;kmn
x'g' cflb sf/0fn] pgsf] xf];–xjf;
t/, of] lg/fwf/ cf/f]k / /fhgLlts
k"jf{ux| clg s'07fn] el/Psf] cft+lst
Oltxf;sf] clGtd kf6f] x'bF g} eGg]
;RrfOnfO{ dgg\ ub}{ g]kfnL hgtfsf]
a9\g ;sf];\ . g]kfnL /fhgLltdf cem km'6, ljefhgsf] cGToxLg z[v + nfaf6 qmflGtsf] kIfw/ qmflGtsf/L zlQmsf] pl8;s]sf] pgsf] dgf]jn k"/} lu/]sf] / xtf]T;fxL cleJolQmjfx]s c? x'g} cfzfsf] s] G b| sd/] 8 ljKnjsf]
g] k fnsf] qmflGtsf/L sDo' l gi6 u'h|b} lyof] . o;/L cf/f]k–k|Tof/f]k nflu r'gf}lt / cj;/ ;fd'Gg] cfPsf] /x]5 eGg] cg'dfg unt lyPg . ;Sb}g . lsgls ljKnjn] lxhf];uF } x'bF f g] t [ T jdf uf] n j4 x' F b } PsLs[ t
cfGbf]ngdf @)%@ ;fn kmfNu'g ! 6'6–km'6 / ljefhgn] kf6L{ / sDo'lgi6 lyof] . o;/L ha pgn] glhsaf6 ad kf6L{df of] ;'ljwf lhDd]jf/L d}n] hgqmflGtsf] dfWodaf6 hgtfsf] ;Qf
b]lv ;'? ePsf] hgo'4 To:t} Ps cfGbf]ng /IffTds / sdhf]/ jGb} 6'6–km'6 / ljefhgsf] z[v
+ nfaf6 af?bsf] wdfsf cg'e"t u/] tj kfpg'k5{ eg]/ bfjL u/]sf] / kf6L{n] :yfkgf;+u} gofF Oltxf;sf] lgdf{0f ug]{
ljz] i f / P] l txfl;s /fhgLlts lyof] . @)!& ;fndf /fhf dx]Gb|n] u'h|b} u/]sf] qmflGtsf/L zlQmnfO{ pgnfO{ nfUg yfNof] . sfnn] cfˆgf] cof]Uo 3f]lift ub}{ ;j} cj;/af6 cleofgdf ;l/s jgf}F qmflGt /
kl/36gf lyof] / To;sf] g]tT[ j ug]{ …s'Ú u/]/ lg/+s'z k~rfotL Joj:yf Pstfj4 ug]{ s'/f Tolt ;xh lyPg lk5f ul//x]sf] 5, Toltj]nf pgn] g jl~rt u/]sf] 5 eGg] lg0f{o ePsf] qmflGtsf/L hgtfsf] lht ;'lglZrt 5 .
4 @)&% ;fn c;f]h @* ut] cfOtaf/

kl/ro
– af;'b]j gfy
:jR5 / :j:y df;' kz' aw u/]sf] $% ldg]6 leq
k|fKt df+;k]zLnfO{ lk|mhdf /flv ;Sg'
cl3 jf kl5 ;]tf] b]lvG5 eg] To:tf]
df;'nfO{ ;]tf] df;' elgG5 . df;'df
u/L ksfpFbf @ b]lv # 306f hlt
sf]7fsf] tfkqmddf /flv 6'qmf u/L
kb{5 .
– k;naf6 lg:sg] kmf]xf]/ j:t', v]/
:yfg jf df;' k;ndf sfd ug]{
sfdbf/x?n] Joj:yfkgåf/f lgwf{/0f
rfF8kj{ xf];\ jf ef]het]/ xf];\, kb{5 . pRru'0f:t/sf] df;' pTkfbg x'g] dfof]Unf]jLg (mayoglobin) n] ksfpg' kb{5 . uPsf] 6'qmf df;' tyf cGo kbfy{ ul/Psf] lgod cg';f/ JolQmut
en} 3/df kfx'gf g} lsg gcfcf];\ ug{ df;'df la:tf/} clDnokgf a9\g' g} /ftf] df;' (red meat) jf ;]tf] – df;'nfO{ k6sk6s tftf] lr;f] ug{' Joal:yt t/Lsfn] tx nufpg ;/;kmfO{ / JolQmut rfnrng
df;' s f] kl/sf/ clgjfo{ h:t} kb{5 . df;'df clDnokgf -Ph\ _ %=% df;' (white meat) sf] lgwf{/0f x'b}g o;n] df;'sf] cj:yf / ;lsg] lsl;dsf] x'g'kb{5 . ;' J ojl:yt ug{ ckgfO{ P sf]
dflgG5 . vfg] dflg;sf] ?rLg} geP x'g' kb{5 . PSsf;L clDnokgf a9]df ub{5 . ;]tf] df;'df dfof]Unf]jLg u'0f:t/ lju|G5 . – :jR5 / ;kmf kfgLsf] kof{Kt dfkb08x?sf] /fd|f];Fu kfngf ug{'
klg v'jfpg]n] df;' gv'jfO{ lrQ g} df;' lalu|G5 . df;'nfO{ k6s k6s (mayoglobin) Psbd Go"gdfqfdf !)_ kz' awzfnf leq pknAw Joj:yf ePsf] x'gk' b{5 . kb{5 . sfdbf/sf] st{Ao / bfloTj
a'lemFbg} . o;sf/0f xfdLn] df;' vfg' tftf] lr;f] tftf] ug{' x'bg} o;f] ugf{n] x'G5 . vf;u/L s'v ' /' f (poultry) 6sL{ x'g' kg]{ ;'lawfx?– – df;' laqm]tfn] clgjfo{ ?kdf ;]tf] lgDgcg';f/ x'g'kb{5 .
cufl8 df;'sf] af/]df yfxf kfpg' df;'sf] u'0f:t/ sfod /xFb}g . / df5f (fish) sf] df;'nfO{ white kz' a wzfnf / df;' hfF r / ;kmf sk8fsf] Pk| f ] g – df;'k;n awzfnf jf k|zf]wg
cfjZos 5 . dfgjn] df;' vfg @_ df+zk]zL M df+zk]zL eg]sf] meat elgG5 . o;sf] ;fy} sea lgb]{lzsf @)^$ sf] $-#_ df kz' nufpg'kg]5 { . sIfleq k| a ] z ug] { JolQmn]
yfn]sf] k|rLgsfn b]lv g} xf] . ;'?— kz'k5 + L sf6]kl5 k|fKt x'g] df+zlk08 food nfO{ ;]tf] df;'sf] ?kdf lnO{G5 . awzfnf leq b]xfo adf]hLdsf – df;'sf] u'0f:t/ sfod /fVgsf] Joj:yfkgåf/f lat/0f ul/Psf]
;'?df dfgjx? sfFrf] df;' vfGy] jf cl:y/ z/L/ jf df;'sf] 8Nnf] jf cd]l/sL s[lif ljefusf cg';f/ ^% ;'lawfx? x'g'kg]{ pNn]v 5 . nflu laqmL sIfdf slDtdf rfn' lgwfl{t| klx/g / h'Qf nufP/ dfq
hlta]nf;Dd cfuf]sf] cfljisf/ nf]tf] jf df;'sf] :jtGq cl:tTjjfnf k|ltzteGbf sd (mayoglobin) – kmf]x/ ;+sng u/L tx nufpg] cj:yfsf] lr:ofg -8Lk lk|mhsf]_ k|a]z ug{' kb{5 .
e};s]sf] lyPg . cfuf]sf] cfljisf/ uf+7f] jf d;n (Muscle) xf] . ePsf] a+u'/sf] df;'nfO{ ;]tf] df;' pks/0fsf] kof{Kt Joj:yf . Joj:yf x'gk' b{5 . – sfdbf/sf] gª 5f]6f] / ;kmf
ePkl5 dfgjn] df;'nfO{ kf]n]/ vfg #_g]kfndf df;' pTkfbgsf] l:ylt : cGt/ut /fv]sf] kfO{G5 . – gi6 ul/Psf] df;' awzfnfaf6 – k|of]u ul/g] kfgLsf] lgsf; ;lhn} x'g'kb{5 . gª 6f]Sg] afgL ePsf /
yfn] / kf]ns ] f] df;' sfFrf] df;'sf] &_ k|lt JolQm k|lt lbg df;'sf] aflx/ lgsf;L ubf{ vfg of]Uo / Jojl:yt Joj:yf ePsf] gªdf kfln; /fVg]nfO{ lg?T;flxt
t'ngfdf :jflbnf] x'g'sf ;fy} cfjZostf– df;' ; F u n;k; x' g gkfpg] x'g'kb{5 . ug{' kb{5 .
df;' d f ePsf xflgsf/s afRgsf] nflu df;'sf] cfjZostf Joj:yf . – laqmLsf] nflu /flvPsf] df;'df – sfdbf/sf] 6fpsf]af6 /f} em/]/
ls6f0f'x? gi6 x'guO{ pgLx?sf] kb}g{ . df;' ;]jg ug]{ eGbf zfsfxf/L – pks/0fx? ;kmf ug]{ / lgM;+qmd0f kfgL 5s]g{ ,] df;' kfgLdf 8'jfpg] vfg] s'/fdf kg]{ ;d:ofnfO{ xn
:jf:Yo Åi6k'i6 / :j:y x'g yfNof] $_ ljleGg df;'df kfO{g] kf}li6s vfgf vfg] JolQm :j:Yo /xG5g\ . df;' ug]{ cfjZos Joj:yf . jf kfgLn] lehfPsf] sk8fn] 5f]Kg] ug{ clgjfo{ 6f]kL jf skfn 5f]Kg]
h;sf] sf/0fn] pgLx?sf] dlitissf] tTjx? : k|fl] 6gsf] k|dv ' ;|ft] xf] . Pp6f jo:s – s'v'/f 9'jfgL ul/g] / qm]6 / ug]{ sfo{ ug{ / u/fpg' x'Fb}g . sk8fsf] k|of]hg ug{' kb{5 .
/fd|f] ljsf; x'g uO{ ;f]Rg] zlQmdf JolQmnfO{ b}lgs )=* u|fd k|fl] 6g ;fwgnfO{ ;/;kmfO{ Pj+ lgM;qmd0f – df;' sf6\g] cf}hf/ lvof gkg]{ – sfdbf/sf] xftdf 3fp nfu]sf] jf
j[l4 ljsf; / k|ljlwsf] vf]h x'g k|lt s]=hL=zf/Ll/s tf}nsf b/n] ug]{ Joj:yf . :6]gn]; :6Lnsf] x'gk' b{5 . s'g} vl6/f cflb cfPsf] 5 eg]
yfNof] . o;f] x'gd' f df;'af6 k|fKt cfjZos kb{5 . Pp6f dlxnfnfO{ – awzfnfsf] k|az ] åf/f lgM;+qmd0fsf – k|of]u gePsf] cj:yfdf crfgf], Knfli6ssf] 6]k jf Aof08]h nufP/
kf]ifs tTj g} k|d'v sf/s xf] . b}lgs $^ u|fd / k'?ifnfO{ %^ u|fd nflu cfjZos Joj:yf . 6] j n ;kmf / lem+ u f geGsg] dfq sfddf ;+nUg u/fpg' kb{5 .
z/L/nfO{ cfjZos kg]{ kf]ifs tTjx? %_ /ftf] df;' M df5f / s'v'/fsf] k|f]l6g cfjZos kb{5 . k|ltJolQm – awzfnfsf] k|j]z dfu{df ;kmf lsl;dsf] x'g'kb{5 . – 6fpsf] sGofpg] xft d'vsf] leq
dWo] zf/Ll/s j[l4 ljsf;sf nflu df;'afx]s ;a} vfnsf] df;'nfO{ /ftf] k|ltlbg slt df;' cfjZos kb{5 If]qaf6 kmf]x/ If]qtkm{ pGd'v . – df;'sf] cfsif{0f a9fpgsf] nflu aflx/ ug]{, af/Daf/ vf]Sg] / y'Sg]
k|fl] 6g k|dv' tTj dflgG5 . o;sf] df;'sf] ?kdf lnOG5 . ;fdfGo tof eGg] s'/f p;sf] zf/Ll/s cj:yfdf s'g} lsl;dsf] /+u, cf}iflw, /;fog afgL cflb ePsf sfdbf/nfO{ ;f]
k|d'v >f]tsf] ?kdf df;'nfO{ g} :tgwf/L hgfj/sf] df;'nfO{ /ftf] e/kb{5 . b'Anf] jf sdhf]/ cj:yf k|of]u ug{' xF'b}g . afgL x6fpg nufpg' kb{ 5 .
lnOG5 . df;'g} elgG5 t/ df;'sf] nflu sfl6g] jf zf/Ll/s tGb'/:tsf] nflu b}lgs – aw ul/Psf] kz'sf] leTof{; + , cfGb|f, ;DemfP/ klg afgL gx6]df sfdaf6
cfhef]ln klg df;'nfO{ ksfP/ hgfj/sf] pd]/ cg';f/ klg /ftf] / )=^% u| f d k| l ts] = hL= zf/Ll/s eF'8L, 6fpsf], v'§f, x•L h:tf al~rt u/fpg' kb{5 .
jf sfFrf] df;'sf ljleGg kl/sf/sf ;]tf] df;' elgG5 . h:t}M ao:s tf}nsf] cfwf/df / zf/Ll/s tf}n efux? df;' laqmL k;ndf df;' – kfg vfg], w'dk| fg, r'g, ;'kf/L cflb
?kdf vfg] rng w]/} yf]/} /lxcfPsf] (adult) a+u'/sf] df;'nfO{ /ftf] df;' a9fpgsf] nflu b} l gs ! u| f d n;k; gx'g] u/L cnUu} /fv]sf] vfg] k|yfnfO{ lgif]w ug{' kb{5 .
5 . cem} klg sltko 7fFpdf d/]sf] elgG5 eg] sd pd]/sf] -young _ k|lts]=hL= zf/Ll/s tf}nsf cfwf/df x'g'kb{5 . – sfdbf/ ;kmf ;'Uw/ x'g lgtfGt
l;gf] vfg] rng /lx/x]sf] 5 h;sf a+u'/sf] df;'nfO{ ;]tf] df;' elgG5 . df;' cfjZos kb{5 . o;sf/0f Pp6f df;' aw:yn jf awzfnfaf6 h?/L 5 .
sf/0fn] ljleGg lsl;dsf /f]ux? /ftf] df;' x'g] hgfj/ tyf kG5Lx?df ^* s]=hL= zf/Ll/s tf}n ePsf] laqmL ljt/0f ul/g] df;' k;n ;Dd – Ifo /f]u, 5fnf;DaGwL /f]u tyf
h:t}M emf8f jfGtf, cfpF, /utdf;L, v;L af]sf, e]8f afv|f, e};L /fFuf ao:s dflg;nfO{ k|ltlbg (&=% u|fd 9'jfgL ubf{ sf]N8r]g e]lxsn – cGo ;+qmfds /f]u nfu]sf] JolQmnfO{
/ut 5]g]{ cflb b]vf kb{5g . xfn xfF; tyf kfgL xfF;, sf]onL, k/]jf, tyf xKtfdf %)) u|fd df;' cfjZos uf8Laf6_ 9'jfgL u/]sf] df;' laqmL sfdbf/sf] ?kdf k|of]u ug{' xF'b}g
cfP/ d/]sf] kz'sf] df;' vfg] rngdf
sld cfPsf] ePtf klg k"0f{?kdf aGb
;'td'{ u' { (ostrich) h+unL hgfj/x?
-d[ u , xl/0f cflb_ df;' d f
kb{5 .
*_ df;' s f] e08f/0f
jf;'b]j gfy ljt/0f ug{'kg]{ x'G5 . df;' laqm]tf
bLw{/f]uL jf s'g} /f]usf] ;+qmd0f -
/ To:tf JolQmnfO{ df;'k;n, kz'
awzfnf jf k|zf]wg sIfleq k|jz ]
ePsf] cj:yf 5}g . df;' vfgsf dfof]Unf]ljgsf] k|ltztn] /ftf] df;' tTsfn sf6] s f] tfhfdf;' d f – kfgL k|of]u x'g] ;a} If]qdf 9n 6L=jL, cGo ;?jf /f]u_ gePsf] cyf{t ug{ lbg' xF'b}g .
nflu c:j:y, b'Anf], d/]sf] kz'nfO{ / ;]tf] df;'sf] lgwf{/0f ub{5 . kfgLsf] dfqf a9L x'g,] clDnotf sd lgsf;sf] Aoj:yf . df;' laqmL ljt/0f ug]{ JolQm :jf:Yo !%_ df;' h Go /f] u x?–
klg sf6]/ df;' vfg] rng u|fdL0f dfof]Unf]ljgsf] k|ltzt hlt hflt x'g] / kf]ifs tTj a9L x'g] ePsf]n] – lr;f] kfg{ ' gkg] { sf] 7 fx?df x'g'kb{5 . df;'sf] dfWodaf6 dflg;df ;g]{
tyf zx/L If]qdf ;d]t ljBdfg 5 . sd eof] To; df;'nfO{ ;]tf] df;' / hLjf0f' a[l4sf] nflu clt /fd|f] dfWod cfjZos dfqdf k|fs[lts k|sfz !@_ df;' s f] cf] ; f/ k;f/ ug] { /f]unfO{ df;' hGo /f]ux? (meat
;fdfGotofM Ps hjfgnfO{ jif{e/Ldf hlthlt a9L eof] To;nfO{ /ftf] df;' x'G5 . df;'df sdeGbf sd hLjf0f' / :jR5 xfjfsf nflu ‰ofnx?sf] ;fwgdf x' g ' kg] { Joj:yf– born disease) tyf h'gf]l6s /f]u
!$ s]=hL= df;' cfjZos k5{ . elgG5 . s] x L df;' d f ePsf] x'g' kb{5 o;sf] nflu lk|mhdf /fVg' Aoj:yf . – df;' cf];f/ k;f/ ug]{ ;fwgsf] kz'af6 dflg;df ;g]{ /f]ux? lgDg
kz'kG5L 8fo/L, @)&% cg';f/ cf=j= dfof]Unf]ljg k|ltzt cg';f/ df;'sf] kb{5 . kz'aw u/]/ l8k lk|mhdf – cfktsflng alQsf] cnUu} lelq efudf k|of]u ul/Psf] ;a} cg';f/ /x]sf 5g\–
@)&#–)&$ df #,#@,%$$ d]l6«s juL{s/0f lgDg cg';f/ ul/Psf] 5– /fv]sf] @$ 306fdf u'0f:tl/o df;' Joj:yf . ;fdfu|Lx? lvof gnfUg], lrNnf] df;' s f] :j:ytf k| s [ l t /
6g df;' pTkfbg ePsf] 5 eg] xfn aGb5 . – sf]7fleq ePsf] xfjf aflx/ ˆofFSg] ;tx ePsf], kfgL g;f]:g] ;lhn} nfk/jfxLsf] sf/0fn] nfUg ;Sg]
g]kfndf k|lt JolQm sl/j !@=% – df;'df ePsf] kfgLsf] dfqf s]xL k+vfsf] Joj:yf . ;kmf ug{ ;lsg] / lg=;+qmd0f ubf{ /f] u x?af/] xfdL cgld1 5f} F .
s]=hL= df;' pknAw x'g ;s]sf] sdL eP klg w]/} dfqfdf gi6 x'g – vfg]kfgL k|ofKt gePsf] 7fFpdf k|of]u u/Lg] /;fogn] s'g} c;/ xfn;Dd g]kfndf df;' Joj;foLxf?sf]
5 . g]kfn ;/sf/n] …awzfnfb]lv kfpb}g . df;' ;kmf ug]{ / awzfnf ;kmf gkg]{ vfnsf] ePsf] . ;fy;fy} pkef]Qmfx?nfO{ df;'af6 ;g]{
efG5f;Dd, :jR5 / :j:y df;'Ú /ftf] df;'df kfO{g] kf]ifs tTjx?– – df;'df ePsf hLjf0f'sf] ;+Vof a9g ug]{ kfgL 5'§f5'§} kfO{kaf6 ljt/0f – df;' cf];f/k;f/ ug]{ ;fwgsf] /f]u;DaGwL s'g} lj:t[t hfgsf/L
cleofgsf] 3f]if0ff ul/of] . cfhsf o;df a9L dfqfdf kmnfd (iron), kfpb}g . ug]{ Joj:yf . hl8t ‰ofn 9f]sfx? /fd|/L aGb 5}g . Jojl:yt tl/sfn] kz' hfFr
lbg;Dd hgtfsf] lxtsf] nflu jg]sf] qm] l 6g (cretine) vlgh kbfy{ – df;' s8f x'g] k|s[of l9nf] x'G5 . – kz' jw ug]{ xndf ;kmf :jR5 ug{ ;lsg] lsl;dsf] ePsf], gu/fO{ jw sfo{ ubf{ df;'
dxTjk"0f{ sfg'g kz' awzfnf / df;' (mineral) lh+s / km:kmf]/; tyf – df;' d f OGhfOd / /;folgs tftf] k fgLsf] lgoldt cfk" l t{ – df;' cf];f/k;f/ ug{'kg]{ cjlwe/ pTkfbgsnfO{ ;d]t ljleGg /f]usf]
hf+r P]g, @)%% sfof{Gjog x'g le6fldgx? (nicin, vitamin B12, k|lts[of l9nf] x'G5 . Joj:yf . cfjZos tfkqmd ldnfP/ /fVg lzsf/ x'g] k|jn ;+efjgf x'gs ' f ;fy}
;s]sf] 5}g . oL sfg'gx?sf] sfof{Gjog thimine and reboflavin) / – df;'nfO{ ) b]lv # l8u|L ;]lN;o; – xft w'gsf nflu tftf] / lr;f] ;lsg] lsl;dsf] ePsf], pkef]Qmx?sf] :jf:YonfO{ ;d]t
x'g ckl/xfo{ 5 . xfdLn] s:tf] df;' lnkf]Os{ Pl;8 (lipoic acid) sf] d'Vo tfkqmddf /fVbf & lbg ;Dd df;' kfgL, ;fa'g, a|;sf] Joj:yf . – df;' cf];f/k;f/ ubf{ df;' /fVg k|lts'n c;/ kg{ hfG5 . b"lift df;'
vfg x'g] xf] ;f]af/] Jofks hgr]tgf >f]tsf] ?kdf /ftf] df;'nfO{ lnOG5 . ;'/lIft x'G5 . – awzfnfleqsf] eF'O{sf] ;tx ;kmf k|of]u ul/g] efF8f] leqL efu cf}hf/ jf cJojl:yt tl/sfaf6 laqmL
clej[l4 u/fpg cfjZos 5 . a9L df;' vfFbf x'g] hf]lvd– – df;'nfO{ lk|mhdf dfO{g; !=$ l8u|L If]qaf6 kmf]x/ If]qtkm{ xNsf le/fnf] tyf pks/0f ;kmf / lvof gnfUg] ljt/0f ul/Psf] df;'sf] pkef]un]
!_ df;' M df;' eg]sf] hLjsf] "Harvard School of Public ;]lN;o; tfkqmddf /fVbf !$ lbg eO{ 9ndf hf]l8sf] / hf]l8g] d'vdf ePsf] . hg:jf:Yodf uDeL/ k|fefj kf/]sf]af/]
xf8, g;f, /ut, 5fnf, nfbL, lubL, Health study published in the ;Dd df;' ;'/lIft x'G5 . 5fGg] h8fg ul/Psf] / !#_ df;' s f] cf] ; f/ k;f/ ubf{ Ps ;j]I{ f0fn] hgfPsf] 5 . dflg;nfO{
df;L afx]ssf] /ftf] v}/f] nlrnf] kbfy{ April 2012 issue of the" Archie – lr;f] u/L /fv]sf] df;'nfO{ l8k – awzfnfleqsf leQf, e'OF b{ l] v !=^ ldnfpg' kg] { Joj:yf– nfUg] /f]ux?dWo] ^) b]lv &) k|ltzt
xf] . df+;k];Laf6 df;' aGgsf] nflu of Internal Medicine" cg';f/ lk|mhaf6 laqmL ug{ ;Sg] hlt dfq ld6/ prfO{;Dd l;d]G6n] agfPsf] – df;'sf] cf];f/k;f/ v'Nnf ?kdf cJojl:yt tl/sfaf6 /f]uL kz'x?sf]
@$ 306f ;do nfUb5 . olt b}lgs /ftf] df;' vfFbf SofG;/ / d'6' aflx/ lgsfNg' kb{5 . k6s k6s lrNnf] / O{kf]S;L/]zg /Ë nfufO{ ug{ gkfO{g] . df;'af6 nfUg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . kz'af6
;do;Dd lk|mhdf /fVg' kb{5 clg /f]u x'g] hf]lvd !# k|ltztn] j[l4 df;'nfO{ l8k lk|mhaf6 leq aflx/ To;eGbf dfly 5t;Dd s'g} xNsf – df;' ; F u } cfGb| f e' F 8 L, leqfz, dfG5] d f ;fg] { /f] u (zoonotic
dfq df+;k]zL df;'df kl/0ft x'G5 . x' G 5 . k| z f] l wt df;' (Bacon, u/L tftf] lr;f] ePdf df;'sf] /Ë kf]t]sf] . 6fpsf] , v' § Lh:tf kbfy{ disease) / laqmL ljt/0f ;dodf
8f= wg/fh /tnf / 8f= l8NnL /fd Sausages, Salami, Ham, Hot u'0f:t/ lju|G5 . !!_ df;' k;nsf] dfkb08– cf];f/k;f/ ug{' k/]df df;';Fu cJojl:yt tl/sfdf /fvL ;+/lIft
;] 9 fO{ s f cg' ; f/ …df;' eg] s f] dogs etc.) sf] ;]jgaf6 sl/a @) – kz' jw u/]sf] $% ldg]6 leq – laqmL sIfdf kfgL ghDg] u/L n;k; gx'g] u/L cnu cnu aGb ug{ g;ls z'Id lhjf0f'af6 ;g]{
hgfj/sf tL tGt'x? x'g h'g r} k|ltzteGbf a9L x'G5 t/ ;]tf] df;', df;'nfO{ lk|mhdf /flv;Sg' kb{5 . ;lhn};Fu ;kmf ug{ ;lsg] / u/L n}hfg'kg]{ . /f]uaf/] c1fgtfn] ubf{ pkef]Qmx?n]
vfgsf]?: nflu of]Uo x'G5g\ . dflg;n] df5f, u]8fu'8L, sd lrNnf] ePsf] (_ df;'nfO{ l8k lk|mhdf /fVbf r/fr'?ËL, ls/f, d';f nufot cGo – df;' cf];f/k;f/ ul/g] ;fwg df;' kl/l:yltnfO{ yfxf gkfP/ oL s'/fdf
vfg] df;' d'Vo u/]/ 3/ kfNt' kz'x? b'UwhGo kbfy{ / abfd, cf]v/ h:tf x' g ] kmfO{ b fx?– 3/kfn'jf hgfj/x? h:t} M s's'/, /fVg' cl3 lgM;+qmd0f ul/Psf] x'g' rfF;f] b]vfPsf 5}gg\ . df;' hGo /f]u
/ ;fd'lb|s hLjx?af6 pTkfbg x'G5 .Ú j:t'x?sf] ;]jgn] /ftf] df;' vfFbf – l8k lk|mhdf 5 !* l8u|L ;]lN;o; la/fnf], cflb k|j]z ug{ g;lsg] kg]{ . b'O{ lsl;dn] ;g]{ ub{5 . h:t}–
Meaning of Meat x' g ] hf] l vdeGbf & b] l v !# lr;f] x'g] x'Fbf @$ 306f leq} /f+uf] u/L agfPsf] x'g' kb{5 . – df;' cf];f/k;f/ x'g] df;'sf] !%=!_ ;" I d hLjf0f' a f6 ;g] {
according to Oxford k|ltzt;Dd 36fpFb5 . / a+u'/sf] df;'df x'g ;Sg] tape – k;nsf] leQf ;]tf] 6fon / e'Od F{ f s'g}klg efu hldg jf v'Nnf /f] u x?–
Dictionary "Animal and /ftf] df;' vf“ b f ckgfpg' kg] { worm dg{ uO{ df;' ;'/lIft x'G5 . ;]tf] dfj{n k|of]u ePsf] tyf 7fFpdf g5fO{Psf] / cGo s'g} kz' jwubf{ ckgfpg' kg] {
specially mammal tissue ;fjwfgL– 5 * l8u|L ;]lN;o; tfkqmddf l;lnËaf6 w'nf], d}nf] gv:g] / kfgL j:t'af6 b'lift gePsf] x'g' kg]{ . dfkb08x?nfO{ /fd|f];Fu cg'z/0f
used as food we need to go /utdf lnlk8 k|f]kmfO{ndf a9L ;a} lsl;dfsf hLjf0f'sf] a[l4 b/ gr'lxg] x'g' kb{5 . – df;'sf] cf];f/ k;f/df k|ToIf gu/L tof/ ul/Psf] df;'nfO{ 7Ls
shopping; thereÚs only Snf]i6]/f]n ePsf], d'6' /f]uL, o'l/s /f]lsG5 . – df;' tf}n ug]{ l8lh6n d]l;g - ;+nUg /xg] AolQm Ifo/f]u jf cGo 9+Ën] ;+/If0ft gubf{ z'Id hLjf0f'x?
enough meat in the freezer for Pl;8 / Jn8 k|];/ pRr ePsf] – l8k lk|mhdf /fv]sf] /f+ufsf] df;' t/fh'_ cnUu} k|ofKt 7fpF ePsf] ;+qmfds /f]u nfu]sf] x'g gx'g] . df;'df ;/L ljleGg /f]usf zLsf/
one more dinner." JolQmn] /ftf] df;' vfg' :jf:Yosf] ! jif{;Dd, v;L, e]8fsf] df;' ( x'g' kb{5 . !$_ df;' ; “ u ;DalGwtx?sf] x'g hfG5g\ . z'Id hLjf0f'af6 ;g]{
Flesh of animal, esp nflu pk'Qm x'b}g . dlxgf ;Dd / a+u'/ / s'v'/fsf] – df;' sf6\g] 6]jn' jf :yfgdf l;;f JolQmut ;/;kmfO{ / /f]ux? d'Votof lgDgfg';f/ kfO{Psf
mammals rather than fish or ;] t f] df;' df;' ^ dlxgf;Dd ;'/lIft x'G5 . / hfnL nufO{Psf] e'Oe F{ Gbf slDtdf rfnrng– 5g\ . h:t} – Salmonellosis,
birds, used as food. ;fdfGotof df;' ksfpg'eGbf – l8k lk|mhdf /fv]sf] df;'nfO{ 6'qmf cfwf ld6/ prfO{ ePsf] x'g' kz' awzfnf jf df;' k|zf]wg Campylobacteriosis,
@)&% ;fn c;f]h @* ut] cfOtaf/ 5

Listeriosis,
s;/L lrGg] / vfg] <
Interstinal
Bleeding, Diarrhoea, Listeria
3fF6L af++lËg] / d'5f{ kg]{ .
/f]syfd M laxfg ;j]/} jf ;fFem
Ifo/f]u nfu]sf] z+sf ug{'kg]{ x'G5 .
kmf]S;f] /f]uu|:t ePdf Hj/f] cfpg],
;Sb5 .
/f]usf nIf0fx? M of] /f]usf nIf0f
glbg] .
– s's'/nfO{ sfFrf] df;' vfg glbg] .
– /ut lgsfNbf JofS6]l/ofsf] k|j]z
eP/
mono-cytogenesis, Cholera. ca]nf;Dd cfFug, v]tLaf/L,uf]7df Zjf; km]g{ ufx|f] x'g,] vf]Sg], hlt Ps} gf;sf] b] l vF b } g . k| d ' v – s's/' nfO{ hyfefjL 5f8f g5f]8g] . – 8«]l;Ë ubf{ .
!%=@_ kz' a f6 dflg;df ;g] { a:g' x'bF g} , ;Fw} em'n k|of]u ug],{ ;'uF /' , v'jfPklg hLp gnfUg], tf}n 36b} nIf0fx?df Hj/f] cfpg], hf8f] nfUg], -!!_ n] K 6f] : kfO/f] l ;; – /f;folgs k|bi" f0faf6 .
/f] u x? a+u/' aw'jf u/L kfNg], uf]7–vf]/ ;kmf hfg] ub{5 . cGo c+u /f]uu|:t /x]5 ysfO{ nfUg], 6fpsf] b'Vg] cflb x'g\ . (Leptospirosis): n]K6f]:kfO/f – kz' a]xf]; agfpbf .
kz'kG5Laf6 dflg;df ;g]{ d'Vo ;' U 3/ /fVg] 3/ cfF u g jl/k/L eg] ;f] ;Fu ;DalGwt lnDkm u|lGyx? o; ;+qmd0faf6 :gfo' k|0ffnL k|efljt hfltsf] lhjf0f'sf] ;+qmd0faf6 kz' – df;' ˜handling ubf{ .
h'gf]l6s /f]ux? lgDg cg';f/ 5g\ . h:t}– vfN8fv'N8L k'g]{ / ;/;kmfO{ ug]{ / ;'lgPsf] x'G5 . ePdf o;n] cfFvf, dlit:s / cGo tyf d';f hflt nufot dflg;df !^_ lgisif{
-!_ a8{ ˆn' (b\irbird flu) M jiff{ofd cufl8 s]6fs]6LnfO{ hfkfgL /f]syfd M /f]uL kz' ayfgaf6 c+ux?df c;/ kfg{ ;S5 . ue{jlt x'g] /f]unfO{ n]K6f]:kfO{/f]l;; elgG5 . :jf:Yo x/]s k|f0fLsf] dxTjk"0f{
o;nfO{ Avian Influenza, Avian OG;]kmnfO{l6;lj?4 vf]k nufpg] . x6fpg], uf]7 ;kmf /fVg] / b'w tyf dlxnfdf klxnf] k6s ;+qmd0f ePsf] of] /f]unfO{ d8 lkmj/, Soflgsf]nf ;DklQ xf] . r]tgzLn dfgjn] cfˆgf]
flu tyf Highly Pathogenic -$_ /] l jh (Rabies) M b'UwhGo kbfy{ pdfn]/ dfq ;]jg v08df ue{ ktg x'g] ljsnf+u aRrf lkmj/, j]N; l8lhh, x]d/] l] hs hl08;, :jf:Yosf] af/]df ;w} ;r]t /xg
Avian Influenza– HPAI sf] gfdn] /]ljhaf6 u|l;t hgfj/x? s's'/, ug]{, Ifo/f]usf] kl/If0f u/fO{ /fVg] . hlGdg] jf hGdgf ;fy d[To' x'g :jfDk lkmj/ gfdn] klg lrlgG5 . h?/L 5 . dfgj :jf:Yodf ;r]t /xg'
lrlgG5 . of] /f]usf ljleGg k|hfltx? :ofn, AjfF;f], ˆofp/f], Gofp/L d';f] / -^_ UnfG8;{ (Glanders) M ;S5 . d'Vo nIf0fx? M of] /f]u dflg;df kg]{ y'k}| If]qx?dWo] df;' pTkfbg /
dWo] H5N1 D H7N7 a9L ;+qmfds df+;xf/L rd]/f]sf] 6f]sfOaf6 dflg; of] 3f]8f, vRr/, uyfdf ;+qmfds /f]syfd nfUbf z'?df ˆn' /f]usf] ;+qmd0f em}+ pkef]u If]q klg dxTjk"0f{ If]q xf] .
dflgG5 . of] /f]u s'v'/f, xfF;, 6sL{ tyf cGo :tgwf/L k|f0fLdf ;g]{ ?kdf b]lvg] / dflg;nfO{ ;g{ ;Sg] – la/fnf]n] lb;f ug]{ aFu}rfdf sfd nIf0fx? b]vfk/L nuftf/ 6fpsf] df;' pkef]usf] nflu aw ul/g]
/ h+unL r/fr'?ËLdf efO/;af6 efO/;af6 x'g] k|f0f 3fts /f]unfO{ vt/gfs /f]u xf] . of] /f]u nfu]df ubf{ k~hf nufP/ dfq sfd ug]{ . b'Vg], Hj/f] cfpg], jfGtf x'g], lhp kz'k5 + L /f]uL ePdf dflg;df ;d]t
nfUg] clt ;+qmfds /f]u xf] . hgfp5 . of] /f]u nfu]sf] dflg; tyf pkrf/ x'bF g} . :o'8f]df]g; dfn]O{ gfd sfd ul/;s]kl5 ;fa"g kfgLn] b'Vg], cfFvf /ftf] x'g,] 5fnfdf dl;gf] sltko /f]ux? ;g{ ;S5g . ljZjdf
kG5Ldf b]vfkg]{ d'Vo nIf0fx?– kz' kfgLaf6 8/fpg] ePsf]n] o;nfO{ u/]sf] hLjf0f'n] x'g] of] /f]u nfu]df /fd|/L xft w'g] . a6fl/Psf] 8f]/L h:tf] /ftf] w;f{ x'g] kz'kG5Laf6 dflg;df ( ;o **
– w]/} s'v'/f Ps} k6s dg]{ . xfO8«f] kmf]ljof gfdn] klg lrlgG5 . gfs leq tf/f cfsf/sf] 3fp b]lvG5 – sfFrf] jf /fd|/L gkfs]sf] df;' / s]xLdf sdnlkQ x'g], dlit:ssf] k|sf/sf /f]ux? ;g{ ;Sg] / g]kfndf
– :jf; k|:jf;;DaGwL uDeL/ nIf0f hgfj/df b]vfkg]{ d'Vo nIf0fx?– eg] 5fnf / kmf]S;f] /f]uu|:t x'g la/fnf]nfO{ gv'jfpg] . ;'hg / d[uf}nfn] sfd gug]{ . sl/j ^( k|sf/sf /f]ux? dflg;df
b]vf kg]{ . – l/;fxf, emf]lqmg], emlD6g] / h]kfof] ;S5 . – pdfn]sf] jf Snf]l/g rSsL /fv]sf] /f]syfdM ;/]sf] kfOG5 . df;' pkef]usf] nflu
– 6fpsf] ;'lgg' . ToxL 6f]Sg] :jefj x'g' . nIf0fx? M z'?df kftnf] l;Fufg jf k|zf]lwt kfgL dfq lkpg] . – d';f tyf 5'r'Gb|f] lgoGq0f ug]{ . kflng] kz' k + 5 Lsf] Joj:yfksLo
– l;p/ / nf]tL lgnf] xg' . – cgf}7f] Jojxf/ jf Jojxf/df aUg] / kl5 afSnf] x'g], h'g v}/f]] – kmnkm'n tyf sf+rf] t/sf/L af]qmf – bfgf, kfgL tyf vfB kbfy{df d';f kIfx?sf] ;xL 9+un] kfngf gePdf
– xl/of] 5]g]{ . PSsf;L kl/jt{g cfpg' . /Ësf] x'g,] s]/fp cfsf/sf] luvf{ gfs kmfn]/ jf /fd|/L :jR5 kfgLdf tyf 5'r'Gb|f]sf] lk;fa kg{af6 To:tf kz'kG5Lx?af6 pTkflbt df;'
– v'§fsf] e'Tnf gePsf] efudf – ¥ofn sf9\g] / kIf3ft x'g] . leq b]vf kg]{ / km'6/] 3fp aGg], kvfn]/ dfq vfg] . hf]ufpg] . u'0f:t/Lo x'g ;Sb}g . kz'k5 + L tyf
/Qm>fj e} /ftf] jf j}hgL /+usf] – :jf; km]g{ tyf vfg]s'/f vfg tNnf] a+uf/fsf] lnDkm u|lGy ;'lGgg] – sf+rf] df;'sf] ;+;u{df cfPsf efF8f – 3fp, rf]6k6s nfUbf t'?Gt} ;fa'g kz' k + 5 LhGo pTkfbg kbfy{ x ?
b]lvg' . g;Sg] . ePsf]n] rkfpg cK7\of/f] x'g], 5fnf jt{g, vfgf /fVg] jt{g, ksfpg] kfgLn] /fd|/L ;kmf ug]{ / kfgL pTkfbgdf c;n s[lif k|0ffnL cEof;
– n] o ;{ s' v ' / fsf] k" m n pTkfbg – kfgL b]Vbf t;{g] . /f]uu|:t ePdf lnDkm u|lGy jl/kl/ efF8f tyf cfˆgf] xft /fd|/L ;kmf gl5g]{ k§L afFw/] dfq k'gM sfddf (GAP) Good Agricultural
PSsf;L 36\g] . dflg;df b]vfkg]{ d'Vo nIf0fx?– 3fp b]vf kg],{ kmf]S;f] /f]uu|:t ePdf ug]{ . hfg] . Practice (GAP), c;n kz'kfng
– lunf] / kftnf] af]qmf ePsf] k"mn – z'?df hgfj/n] 6f]s]sf] 7fpFdf ;f; km]g{ ufx|f] x'g] . -!)_ xfO8fl68f]l;; M s's'/ – kz'sf] ;Dks{df cfP klg, kmf]xf]/ cEof; -Good Husbandry
kfg]{ b'Vg], emdemdfpg], lrnfpg] . /f]syfd M dfO{ng] 6]i6 u/L /f]usf] hfltdf nfUg] Olsgf]sf]s hftsf] lkmQ] d}nf 5f]Pkl5 ;fa'g kfgLn] /fd|/L Practice (GHP), c;n :j5tf
– kfgL w]/} lkpg vf]Hg] . – To;kl5 Hj/f] cfpg], hf8f] nfUg], lgbfg ug]{ ,/f]uL kz ayfgaf6 h'sfsf] c08fsf] ;+qmd0faf6 x'g] xftuf]8f w'g] . cEof; (Good Higenic Practice
– gfs d'vaf6 l;ufg / of{n aUg] . ylst x'g], z/L/sf df+;k]zLx? x6fpg], d/]sf] kz' ulx/f] vf8ndf /f]unfO{ xfO8fl68 /f]u jf OsfO{sf] – kfgL pdfn]/ dfq lkpg] . (GHP) c;n pTkfbg cEof;
dflg;df b] v fkg] { d' V o b'Vg], ems{g] uf8\g] . sf]l;;\ elgG5 . – kz'x?sf] lk;fa ldl;Psf] jf (Good Manufacturing Practice
nIf0fx?– – :jf; km]g{ tyf vfg]s'/f vfg -&_ cf] l g{ y f] l ;; nIf0fx? M l;i6 ljsf; ePsf] ldl;g ;Sg] kf]v/L jf tfndf (GMP) cjnDag ug{ cfjZos
– Hj/f] cfpg], 3fF6L b'Vg], ;'Vvf g;Sg] . (Ornithosis) M of] /f]u Snfldl8of z/L/sf] c+u lj:tf/} 7'nf] cfsf/sf] gg'xfpg] . /x]sf] 5 . xfdLn] ;]jg ug]{ kz'hGo
vf]sL nfUg], hLp b'Vg], ysfO{ nfUg], – kfgL b]Vbf t;{g] . l;6f;L gfd u/]sf] l/s]l6\;ofaf6 x'g' jf ;'lGgg', z/L/df c;xh dx;'; !%=#_ df;' hGo /f]u ;g]{ dfWod pTkfbg kbfy{x?df pk/f]Qm c;n
lgdf]lgof x'g] . /f]syfd– vf;u/L ;'ufnfO{ nfUg] ub{5 t/ ug{', l;i6n] ;+qmldt c+unfO{ sfd M /f]uL df;' vfP/, /f]uL df;'df cEof;x?sf] k|dfl0ft ePsf] kz'sf]
pkrf/ M o;sf] pkrf/ – z+sf:kb hgfj/n] 6f]ss ] f] 3fpnfO{ k/]jf, cGo r/fr'?ËL / dflg;df ug{ g;Sg] agfO{lbg klg ;Sg], ePsf lhjf0f'x? af6, xfjfaf6, /f]uL df;' vfPsf] v08df dfq :jR5 /
k|efjsf/L 5}g . t'?Gt} ;fa'g kfgLn] wf]P/ :k|L6 klg b]vf kg{ ;S5 . l;i6sf] ljsf; k|fo sn]hf]df / slxn] df;'sf lhjf0f'x? 5fnfsf] dfWodaf6 :j:y df;' vfPsf] x'G5 . o;n] dfq
/f] s yfdsf pkfox? jf cfof]l8g nufpg] . nIf0fx? M r/fx?df /f]usf] nIf0f sfxLF kmf]S;f] tyf z/L/sf] cGo c+udf k|j]z u/]/ cflb . xfd|f] :jf:YonfO{ kmfObf ug{ ;S5 .
– s'v/' f kmd{df h}ljs ;'/Iff s8fO{sf – 8fS6/sf] ;Nnfx lnO{ vf] k ;fwf/0ftM b]vf kb}{g t/ c;fdfGo klg x'g ;Sg], l;i6sf] cfsf/, c;/ !%=$_ df;' b"lift x'g] sf/0fx? casf lbgdf pkef]Qmfx?n] vf]hL vf]hL
;fy ckgfpg] . nufpg] . l:ylt h:t}M bfgfkfgLdf kl/jt{g, u/]sf] z/L/sf] c+u / l;i6sf] ;+Vof df;'nfO{ b"lift kfg]{ JofS6]l/of xf] . o:tf] df;' vfg] k|of; ug{ h?/L 5 .
– s'v'/f kmfd{df sfd ug]{ JolQmn] – ;Dej eP;Dd z+sf:kb s's/' nfO{ Ps 7fpFjf6 csf{] 7fpFdf :yfgfGt/0f cg';f/ nIf0f klg km/s–km/s b]lvg JofS6]l/o b"lift kfgL, b"lift efF8fs'8+F f, df;'sf] dxTj / dfu lbg k|ltlbg
JolQmut ;/;kmfO{df Wofg lbg] . !) lbg ;Dd y'g/] lgu/fgL /fVg] . ubf{ /f] u sf] :ki6 nIf0f b] v f ;Sg], xfO8fl68 l;i6sf] ljsf; b" l ift cf} h f/, /f] u L sfdbf/sf] a9\ b } uO/x] s f] 5 . ;/sf/n]
– df;' tyf c08f /fd|f] ;Fu ksfP/ – z+sf:kb hgfj/n] 6f]s]sf] 3fp kg{;Sg] . k|d'v nIf0fx?df vfgf lj:tf/} x'Fb} hfg] x'Fbf /f]usf] nIf0f dWodaf6 df;'nfO{ b"lift u/fpb5 . cf=j=@)&$–)&% ;Dddf df;'df
dfq vfg] . v'Nnf /fVg] / gl;nfpg] . gvfg], /ut ldl;Psf] 5]g,{] ;f; km]g{ b]lvg jiff{}+ klg nfUg ;Sg], /f]usf] o;sf] ;fy} lgDgs'/fx? lhDd]jf/ cfTdlge{/ x'g] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] ePklg
– d/]sf / lj/fdL kG5Lsf] df;' gvfg] – l66fg;sf] vf]k nufpg] . ufx|f] x'g,] emf]qmofpg] / l;Fufg kmfNg] . ;'?sf] cj:yfdf dflg;n] yfxf gkfpg] /x]sf] kfO{G5 . Psftkm{ df;'df cfTdlge{/ x'g;s]sf]
/ ga]Rg] . – 3/df kfn] / /fv] s f s' s ' / / -*_ a|;' n] f]l;; (Brucellosis) x'Fbf /f]u lgbfgdf x]Ssf k'¥ofpg – kz' awzfnf, aw:yndf plrt 5}g eg] csf]t{ km{ pknAw df;' klg
– kG5L tyf kG5L hGo kbfy{sf] la/fnf]nfO{ lgoldt ?kdf /]ljh M a' ; ] N nf hfltsf lhjf0f' s f] ;Sb} g g . 7" n f] cfsf/sf] l;i6 k|aGw gx'Fbf . :jR5 / :j:y 5}g eGg] s'/f xfn
cf];f/ k;f/df /f]s nufpg] . /f]u lj?4 vf]k nufpg] . ;+qmd0faf6 kz'x?df ue{ t'lxg], z/L/leq g} km'6g\ uPdf dflg;sf] – kz' awzfnf / aw:ynsf] b] l vPsf] hg:jf:Yosf] l:yltn]
– d/]sf] kG5L vf8n vg]/ uf8g] . -$_ k6s] (Anthrax) M of] /f]u c08sf]if ;'lgg], hf]gL{ ;'lgg], k|hgGdf d[To' ;d]t x'g ;Sg] . jftfj/0faf6 . hgfpF5 . lbg k|ltlbg dflg;x?df
– k+5L;Fu cgfjZos n;k; gug]{ . a] l ;n; PGy| f l;; gfds ;' I d x|f; cfpg] / Hj/f] cfpg] lrGx tyf /f]syfd – kz' aw ug]{ tl/sfsf] 1fgsf] g;g] { d' V o /f] u x? h:t} :jf;
-@_ :jfOg ˆn' (swine flu) lhjf0f'af6 nfU5 . of] /f]u /f]lusf] nIf0f b]vfpg] /f]unfO{ A?;]nf]ln; – s's'/nfO{ 5f]Pkl5 ;fa'g kfgLn] sdL . k|Zjf;;DaGwL /f]u, d'6' /f]u, SofG;/
M OGˆn'PGhf P H1N1 efO/;af6 n;k; ePsf] vfgf, kfgL, xfjf cflb elgG5 . dflg;df b]lvg] a|';]nf]l;; xft /fd|/L w'g] . – kz' awzfnf tyf aw:yndf :6]6 / dw'dx] /f]usf] ljs/fn cj:yfn]
a+u'/dfnfUg] /f]u xf] . of] /f]u xfn af6 ;5{ . of] :kf]/ agfpg] ePsf]n] /f]unfO{ dfN6f lkmj/, c08'nG] 6 lkmj/ – tfhf kmnkm'n tyf sfFrf] t/sf/L s's'/, d';f / ls/fx?af6 ;'/lIft k'li6 u/]sf]5 . oL /f]ux?sf] sf/sdWo]
dflg;df klg b]vf kg]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . o;sf] :kf]/ s8f x'G5 h'g ^) klg elgG5 . :jR5 kfgLdf /fd|/L kvfn]/ dfq gx'g' . xfdLn] pkef]u ug]{ df;' :jR5 / :j:y
a+u/' df b]lvg] d'Vo d'Vo nIf0fx? jif{;Dd df6f]df afFRg ;S5 . dflg;df b]lvg] d'Vo nIf0fx? M vfg] . – plrt 9+un] kz' tyf df;'sf] 9'jfgL gx'g'n] klg xf] eGg] s'/f df;'
M PSsf;L Hj/f] cfpg], emf]qmfpg], nIf0fx? M w/} h;f] s'g} nIf0f Hj/f] cfpg] / 5f]8\g], kl;gf cfpg], – s's'/nfO{ lgoldt ?kdf k/lhjL gubf{ . pkef]Qmfx?n] x]Ssf /fVg} kb{5 . xfdLn]
vf] S g] , gfs / cfF v faf6 t/n gb]vfO{ crfgs dg],{ Hj/f] cfpg], 6fpsf] b'Vg], 9f8 b'Vg], l/+u6f nfUg], lj?4 pko'Qm cf}ifwL lbg] . – df;'df 5fnf tyf /f} ldl;P/ . pkef]u ug]{ df;' :jR5 / :j:y x'bF f
alu/xg], ?3f nfUg], cfFvf /ftf] x'g] ;f; km]g{ ufx|f] x'g], cfFvf /ftf] x'g], 3F'+8f / hf]gL{ ;'lGgg] cflb . – s's'/nfO{ l;i6 ePsf] df;' vfg – kmf]x/L kz' aw ugf{n] . dfq :j:YonfO{ kmfObf k'Ub5 .
/ ;'lgg], Zjf; km]g{ sl7gfO{ x'g] / k]6 9fl8g], d/]kl5 gfs, d'v, dnåf/ kz'df b]lvg] d'Vo nIf0fx?˜ M
vfgf gvfg] .
dflg;df b] l vg] d' V o d' V o
cflbaf6 ghDg] /ut aUg] .
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kz'x?df ue{ t'lxg], d/]sf] aRrf
hlGdg] ue{d} aRrf ;'Sg], ;fn
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nIf0fx? M Hj/f] cfpg], 3fF6L b'Vg],
6fpsf] b'Vg], z/L/ s6s6 vfg],vf]sL
– w] / } /f] u b] l vg] 7fpF d f kz'
lrlsT;s jf kz' k|fljlwssf]
cl8\sg], afFemf]kg b]lvg], c08sf]if
;'lGg] cflb .
;+xtfdf /x]sf d'Vo Joj:yfx?
nfUg],s'g} s'g}df jfGtf cfO/xg] / l;kmfl/;df vf]k nufpg] . /f]syfd ♦ hah{:tL s/0fL u/L Hofg df/]df cfhLjg -hLljt /x];Dd_ s}b x'g,]
kvfnf nfUg], :jf; km]g{ sl7g – d/]sf kz'nfO{ ulx/f] vf8n vg]/ – pdfn]sf] jf k|zf]wg u/]sf] b'w dfq
x'g,] lgdf]lgof x'g] . uf8g]\ . ;]jg ug]{ . ♦ qm'/ oftgf lbO{ jf lgd{dtfk"js
{ Hofg df/]df cfhLjg -hLljt /x];Dd_
/f]syfd M ;+qmldt JolQmn] xfF5o\ F' – k6\ss ] f] z+sf nfu]sf] /f]uL kz'nfO{ – /f] u L kz' n fO{ cnu /fVg] jf s}b x'g,]
ubf{ / vf]Sbf gfs, d'v ;kmf ?dfnn] slxNo} klg lr/kmf/ ug{' x'bF g} . ayfgaf6 x6fpg] .
5f]k/] dfq ug],{ k|To]s k6s ;fa'g – /f]lu kz'nfO{ ayfgaf6 cnUu} – lj/fdL kz'nfO{ cGo kz';uF ;+;u{ ♦ ;fj{hlgs ?kdf pkef]u x'g] k]o jf vfB kbfy{df ljif xfnL Hofg
kfgLn] xft ;kmf ug],{ ;+qmldt /f]luaf6 /fVg] . gu/fpg] .
6f9f /xg], ;+qmldt ePsf]] yfxf kfPkl5 – /f]lusf] ;Dk{sdf cfPsf] kz'nfO{ – kz' n fO{ A?;] n f] l ;;sf] vf] k df/]df cfhLjg -hLljt /x];Dd_ s}b x'g] .
Ps xKtf 3/d} cf/fd ug],{ JolQmut kz' lrlsT;s jf kz' k|fljlwssf] nufpg] .
;/;kmfO{df Wofg lbg] . ;Nnfxdf pkrf/ u/fpg] . – uf]7 tyf JolQmut ;/;kmfO{df
-#_hfkfgL
hfkfgL OG;] k mnfO6L; -%_ af] e fOg 6o" a /s' n f] l ;; Wofg lbg] .
(Japanese Encephalitis) M of] (Bovine Tuberculosis) M ufO{ -(_ 6S;f] K nfHdf] l ;;
/f]u kz'kG5Lsf] z/L/df efO/;sf] e}+;Ldf nfUg] Ifo/f]unfO{ af]efOg (Toxoplasmosis) : of] /f] u
j[l4 ljsf;af6 x'g] eP tfklg So'nS] ; 6o"a/s'nf]l;; elgG5 . of] /f]u Toxoplasmosis gondii gfds
hftsf] kf]yL nfDv'§]n] ;fb{5 . of] dfO{ q mf] a ] S 6] l /of af] l e; gfds z' I d k/hLljaf6 dflg; tyf
/f]u efb|bl] v sflt{s ;Dd b]vf k5{ . hLjf0f'af6 nfUb5 . dflg;, ufO{, kz'x?df nfU5 . la/fnf]sf] cfGb|fdf g] k fn ;/sf/
nIf0fx? M z'?df Hj/f] cfpg],
6fpsf] b'Vg], jfsjfs nfUg], jfGtf
e};L+df of] /f]un] a9L c;/ ub{5 .
nIf0fx? M lagf s'g} sf/0f kfNt'
kfO{g] of] k/lhljsf] c08f la/fnf]n]
lb;f u/]sf] :yfgdf dlxgf} lbg;Dd
;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
x'g] / cfn:ofg dx;'; x'g] . s]xL
lbgkl5 gzf;DaGwL nIf0f b]vf kg],{
hgfj/sf] :jf:Yo l:ylt sdhf]/ x'g]
/ zf/Ll/s tf}n 36b} hfg] ePdf
klg afFrL /xG5 h;sf] ;+qmd0faf6
kz' tyf dflg;df of] /f]u nfUg
;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu
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ltdL lemFufx¿nfO{ d}n] cl/Ëfn
agfpg vf]h]/ 7"nf] ulNt u/]+ .
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p8]5g / k"mn k"mndf a;]5g . ;Fw}
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k|d'vn] Ps lbg lemFufx¿nfO{ hDdf lb;f lk;fjd} k'u5 ] g . sfo{stf{x¿n] of] t hgo'4sf] e]ndf ul8\sg] afbn xf]
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rN5 < ;a} n ] xfd| f ] ;/sf/nfO{ cl/·fn aGg] xf]nf eg]/ v'j lbg kv]{ klg Pp6fn] klg dx
c;kmn kfg{ if8\oGq u/]sf 5g\ . lk/f] l nP5g . t} klg cfk\ m gf] k| d ' v sf] gNofPkl5 p;n] 5fgljg ug{ s]xL of] t cfsfzaf6 r6\ofª kfg]{ afbn xf]
s;}nfO{ dtnj 5}g . vfnL kb dfu]sf] lem+ufx¿sf] 5fgljg ;ldlt agfP5 .
cfb] z ePkl5 lemF u fx¿ cl/·fnsf]
5 k};f dfu]sf] 5 . d}n] sxfFaf6 5fgljg ;ldltn] cfˆgf
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af]6 5 d;Fu < hfpm k}n] sfnf] lxF8]5g . hlt lrn] klg Pp6f klg / rl/q cg';f/ pgLx¿ s'g} xfntdf
cl/Ëfn eP/ ;/sf/sf] lj/f]w ug]n { fO{ lj/f]wLn] P]of ag]g5 . j? Kof§ kf/]/ cl/Ëfn / dfx'/L aGg g;Sg] j? xfdLdfly r6\ofª kfg{ vf]Hof}
s} o g lemF u fx¿nfO{ pQfg] kfl/lbP5g .
lrn / ;f]qfd kf/ . To;kl5 aNn
cfpm Û ;/sf/ k|d'v lemFufsf] s'/f cfˆgf P] / ] u} / ] x ¿nfO{ lj/f] w L lrNg k7fPkl5 xtfxtLsf] vj/
lem+ufnfO{ lem+ufs} sfd lbof] eg] gfd
cg';f/sf] sfd klg x'g] / ;/sf/sf]
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k/]5g . n' ca hGdhft lemFuf s;/L lbg ;dfrf/ ;'Gbf klg sfo{stf{ cl/·fnn] lrn]/ of}6f klg ug{ ;lsg] k| l tj] b g a' e mfP5 .
cl/Ëfn aGg] xf] n f eg] / v' j lj/f] w Lsf] xtfxtL ePsf] vj/ g;' g ] k l5 k| d ' v lemF u fn] km] l / To;kl5 lem+uf k|d'vn] km]l/ of}6f xfdLnfO{ d';nwf/] kfgLn] n'yS'| s} lehfpg vf]Hof}
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cfb]z ePkl5 lemFufx¿ cl/Ëfnsf] lbP5 – ltdL dfsfkm'OxF ¿ km]l/ lem+uf
ltdL lemFufx¿nfO{ d}n] cl/·fn agfpg vf]h]/ 7"nf] ulNt u/]+ .
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lgb]z{ g kl5 e]nfdf u8u8fx6 tfnL
' sf] gofF xfdL slQ klg xlRsPgf}+
lj/f]wL lrNg k7fPkl5 xtfxtLsf] lemFufx¿nfO{ k"mndf a:gf ;fy efpGg eP5 . yl/ yl/sf ah]5 / ;j}n] gf/f nufo5g– xfdL slQ klg lrl;Pgf}+
vj/ ;'Gg ;/sf/ k|d'v lemFuf] k"mnsf af;gf lemFufx¿nfO{ lkml6Ss} dg k/]g5 . lb;f lk;fjsf] xfd|f lem+u] k|d'v –cd/ /x'g Û
6]lnlehg cufl8 /fv]/ a;]5 . s}og uGwdf cEo:t lem+ufx¿sf gfsn] k"mnsf] uGw k6Ss} krfPg5 lem+uf lem+uf –Ps xf}+
lbg ;dfrf/ ;'Gbf klg sfo{stf{
cl/Ëfnn] lrn]/ of}6f klg lj/f]wLsf]
/ pgLx¿ efu]/ lb;f lk;fjd} k'u]5g . lem+ufx¿sf] ;/sf/– lhGbfjfb
;Dk"0f{ lem+uf lj/f]wLx¿– d'bf{jfb Û
lsgls Tof] s[lqd afbn lyof]
xtfxtL ePsf] vj/ g;'gk] l5 k|dv ' / k}n] b]zel/sf k"mnx¿af6 dx k/]sf lemFufx¿nfO{ k"mndf a:gf ;fy a]n'sf 6]lnlehgn] lem+ufx¿sf] p;sf] uh{g vf]qmf] lyof]
lemFufn] km]l/ ;a}nfO{ hDdf kf/]/ gofF hDdf u/ . dgUu] hDdf u/]kl5 clg efpGg eP5 . yl/ yl/sf k"mnsf e]nf eJo / zfgbf/ ?kdf ;kmn
pbL{ hf/L ub}{ eg]5–Ú dfsfkm'OF xf] Û a;L a;L dx vfpnf . k|dv
' sf] cfb]z af;gf lemFufx¿nfO{ lkml6Ss} dg ePsf] ;dfrf/ k|;f/0f u/]5 . p;sf] jiff{ Ifl0fs lyof]

s's/' sf] d"No & nfv Û
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn k|x/Lsf] s's/ gfd M a|'s tflndk|fKt s's/' ;f/lyl;4 ePsf] 5 . :yfkgf ul/Psf] xf] . @)$& ;fndf
To;}n] t xfdL,
bfjf gfnem}+ cl3 a9\of}+
kvf{nleq xf];\ jf aflx/ xf];\
tflnd s]Gb|leq ck/fw cg';Gwfgdf hft M Nofa|f]8/ g]kfn k|x/L;Fu clxn] *) cf]6f s's/' ;]jf b]ze/L lj:tf/ ug{ s]Gb|Lo
lqmofzLn sltko s's'/ g]kfnd} d"No M #% b]lv $) xhf/ ?k}ofF - tflnd k|fKt s's/ 5g\ . h;nfO{ k|x/L s's'/ tflnd s]Gb| agfOof] / xfdLn] qmflGtsf] Hjfnf afln/Xof}+
pTkfbg ePsf] xf] eg] eg] sltko aRrf_ k|x/Ln] ck/fw cg';Gwfg, vf]hL tyf % j6} If]qLo k|x/L sfof{nodf s's'/
ljb] z af6 cfoft ul/Psf] xf] . pTkfbg ePsf] b]z M g]kfn p2f/, eL8 lgoGq0f tyf ;'/Iffsf] zfvf :yfkgf eof] . clxn] s's'/ d'lQmsf uLt ufO/Xof}+
g]kfndf ck/fw cg';Gwfgdf ;3fpg nflu k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfn zfvfnfO{ k|fb]lzs ;+/rgfcg';f/
cd]l/sf, ef/tnufot b]zaf6 s's/' gfd M h'n6] k| x /Ln] g;s] s f y' k | } cg' ; Gwfg ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 .
:jtGqtfsf gf/f nufO/Xof}+
cfoft ul/Psf] 5 . To:t}, Pp6f hft M hd{g ;]km8{ s's/' sf] ;xof]uaf6 ;kmn ePsf] 5 . k|fb]lzs txdf ePsf s's/ ltd|f x/ oftgfsf b:tfj]hx?df
s's'/sf] d"No aRrf cj:yfdf #%– d"No M #% b]lv $) xhf/ ?k}ofF -aRrf_ clxn] g]kfn k|x/Ln] k|of]u ul//x]sf zfvfnfO{ lhNnf tx;Dd lj:tf/ ug{
$) xhf/b]lv & nfv ?k}ofF;Dd pTkfbg ePsf] b]z M g]kfn clwsf+z s's'/ :jb]zL pTkfbg xf] . ;s] ck/fw cg';Gwfg ;xh x'g] k|x/L lgw{Ss x:tfIf/ ub}{ cl3 a9\of}+
k/]sf] 5 . ck/fw cg';Gwfgsf If]qdf sltko ljb]zaf6 cfoft ul/Psf] a'emfO{ 5 . @)@^ ;fns} ;+/rgfdf
cAan dflgPsf s]xL s's'/sf] d"No gfd M e'G6L 5 . vf;u/L ef/t, cd]l/sf / w]/yf]/ kl/jt{g eP/ clxn] klg
/ pTkfbg ePsf] b]zaf/] a'emf}+ . hft M hd{g ;]km8{ a]nf?;af6 g]kfn k|x/Ln] s's'/ s's/ :s"n ;+rfngdf 5 . t/ h;af6 xf/ vfP/
gfd M hf]nL s's/' nfO{ tflnd lbg] :yfgsf] cefj
hft M An8 xfp08 5 . tflnd lbg]hgzlQm klg 5}g . cflv/ ltd|f] s[lqd afbn
d"No M & nfv ?k}ofF obL s's'/nfO{ k|efjsf/L tflnd
pTkfbg ePsf] b]z M a]nf?; k|bfg ug{ ;s] ck/fw cg';Gwfg;Fu}
cfkm}+ kmf6\g afWo eof]
gfd M ;f]n ck/fw Go"gLs/0fdf lgs} ;lhnf] x'g] ;Totfsf] gLnf] cfsfzdf
hft M 8r\ ;]km8{ k|x/L clws[tsf] egfO{ 5 . la8Dagf
d"No M @ nfv %) xhf/ ?k}ofF - of] klg 5 ls, s' s ' / n] u/] s f] cfkm}+ x/fpg afWo eof]
aRrf_ cg';GwfgnfO{ cbfntn] cflwsfl/s
pTkfbg ePsf] b]z M cd]l/sf dfGb}g . s's/' n] k|x/L cg';GwfgnfO{
;xh agfpg] xf], g ls s's'/n] g} lsgls Tof] s[lqd afbn
gfd M 8]gL ;a} s'/f k|dfl0ft ug{ ;S5 . ljZj
hft M ljun Oltxf;nfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] cd]l/sL ;d'Gb|sf] Hjf/ef6faf6 p7]sf] lyPg
d"No M @ nfv %) xhf/ ?k}ofF - cbfntn] rflxF s' s ' / n] u/] s f]
aRrf_ d"No M #% b]lv $) xhf/ ?k}ofF -aRrf_ NofPsf] 5 . k|foM tL b]zn] g]kfn cg';GwfgnfO{ t'ngfTds ?kdf a9L
a? To;af6 s'ga} n] f x/fPsf] lyof]
pTkfbg ePsf] b]z M ef/t pTkfbg ePsf] b]z M g]kfn k|x/LnfO{ ;xof]u:j?k k|bfg u/]sf] dfGotf lbG5 . s's/' n] sf]xL ck/fwL g t To;df jiff{ lyof]
oL nufot a]lNhPg ;]km8{ / ss/ s's/' g} clxn] k|x/Lsf] ;f/ly ePsf] eP, gePsf] k|dfl0ft ub}g{ , oBlk,
gfd M lnhf :kflgon k|hfltsf s's/' klg g]kfn 5 . s's/ ljb]zaf6 cfoft ubf{ k|x/LnfO{ lgisif{df k'of{pg ;xh g t To;df r6\ofª lyof]
hft M hd{g ;]km8{ k|x/L;+u 5 . h;n] ;F£g], ;'Gg], x]g{] / dx+uf] kg]{ ePsfn] clxn] :yfgLo agfpF5 . g]kfndf cg';Gwfg ug]{
d"No M #% b]lv $) xhf/ ?k}ofF - :d/0f ug{ ;Sg] ljz]if Ifdtf /fVb5 . s's'/nfO{ g} tflnd lbg] cEof; ;'? s's'/sf] ;+Vof a9fpg] / cfjZos
dfq To;df s[lqd x':;' lyof]
aRrf_ h'gzlQmnfO{ tflnddfkm{t ck/fwL ePsf] 5 . t/, g]kfnsf s's'/nfO{ tflnd k|bfg ug]{ xf] eg] ck/fw To;nfO{ p7fpg] k'/fgf] k|ljlw lyof]
pTkfbg ePsf] b]z M g]kfn klxrfg ug{ k|of]u ul/G5 . ljlzi6 ck/fw cg';Gwfg ug]{ u/L tflnd Go"gLs/0fdf 7"nf] 6]jf k'Ug]5 .
Ifdtf ePsf * k|hfltsf s's/' g]kfn lbg] bIf hgzlQmsf] cefj 5 . To;}n] t p;n] r6\ofª kfg{ ;s]g
gfd M /]:So' k|x/L;Fu 5 . s's/' x? x]bf{ hlt km/s s's/' nfO{ ;'/Iff tyf cg';Gwfgsf
hft M hd{g ;]km8{ km/s 5g\, pgLx?sf] Ifdtf klg km/s nflu k|of]u ug]{ rng gf}nf] xf]Og .
To;}n] t p;n] kfgL jiff{pg ;s]g
d"No M #% b]lv $) xhf/ ?k}ofF - x'G5 . s'g} s's/' ljkb\sf ;dodf k| f lrgsfnb] l v g} cg' ; Gwfgdf
;fj{hlgs /,
aRrf_ p2f/sf nflu k|efjzfnL x'G5g\ eg] s's'/sf] k|of]u ePsf] Oltxf; 5 .
pTkfbg ePsf] b]z M g]kfn s'g} ck/fwL klxrfg ug{ . s's/' sf] g]kfn k|x/Ln] eg] cg';Gwfgsf nflu :yfgdf kmf]xf]/ cGttM pm ;a} 7fpFaf6
u'0fcg';f/ g} tflnd k|bfg ul/G5 . /, @)@^ ;fnkl5 dfq} s's'/sf] k|of]u
gfd M l;of kf]Vt agfOG5 . ;Fu} O{dfgbfl/tf, ug{ yfn]sf] xf] . dn]l;of ;/sf/n] kmfn]df nlHht / eoeLt eP/ kmf6\of]
hft M uf]N8]g l/l6«e/ akmfl/tf / st{Jolgi6kg klg s's/' sf] b'O{ j6f s's/' pkxf/ lbPkl5 dfq}
hl/jfgfdf lsgls pm k|f0flagfsf]
d"No M #% b]lv $) xhf/ ?k}ofF - ljz]if u'0f xf] . h;sf/0f s's/' nfO{ k|x/Ln] ;'/Iff / cg';Gwfgdf s's/' sf]
aRrf_ ;lhn} tflnd lbg ;lsG5 . /, l;s]sf] k|of]u ug{ yfn]sf] xf] . @)#@ ;fndf s[lqd afbn lyof]
pTkfbg ePsf] b]z M g]kfn s'/fnfO{ s's/' n] Odfgbf/k"js{ k|of]u tTsflng k|x/L gfoa lg/LIfs;lxt kl/G5 .
u5{ . To;}n] k|x/Lsf nflu clxn] !) hgfsf] b/aGbLdf …s's'/ zfvfÚ @)&%–)^–!& -b/af/ dfu{ k|x/L lx/f;t, sf7df8f}F
@)&% ;fn c;f]h @* ut] cfOtaf/ 7
cy{tGq w/fzoL aGg] lglZrt
sf] qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ <
qmflGtsf/L / ;'wf/jfbL b'O{ vfnsf
kqsf/ sDo'lg:6 cfGbf]ngdf b]lvPsf
l;4fGt / dfu{bz{g ckgfpg' k5{ .
clxn]sf] ;fk]Iftfdf ljZjdf s'g} klg
cj:yfdf b]vfP/ e|d >[hgf ug]{ ju{
a}/Lsf] rfnafhLaf6 ar]/ /fhgLlt ug{]'
kqsf/x? clxn] gjk|ltlqmofjfbL ag]sf
5g\ . nIo / p2]Zo x/fPkl5 :jtM
sf7df8f}F . g]kfnsf] cy{tGq lgof{teGbf
cfoftd'vL 5 . a;]l{ g g]kfnndf cfoft
x'g] ;fdu|Lsf] ;+Vof / dfqf a9\b} 5 . cfly{s
jif{ @)&#–&$ sf] tYofÍ cg';f/ g]kfnsf]
cfoft b]zsf] s'n ah]6eGbf a9L d"No
hfkfgaf6
;fpgdfM $% s/f]8 * nfv &*
xhf/ ?k}ofF
ebf}dfM ! ca{ # s/f]8 #@ nfv ()
xhf/ ?k}ofF
a/fa/sf] ePsf] 5 . To:t}, cfly{s jif{ of] tYof+ssf cg';f/ b]zdf cfoft x'g]
5g\ . k|ltlqmofjfbL kqsf/eGbf 5'§} klxrfg kf6L{ qmflGtsf/L x'g dfn]dfjfbsf] dfu{ sfo{ sl7g 5 eGg] s'/f klg Vofn ug{' qmflGtsf/Lx? pN6f] k|ltlqmofjfbdf @)&$–&%sf] kl5Nnf] b'O{ dlxgfsf] tYof+s a:t' / To;sf] dfqf al9/x]sf] 5 . h'g
b]vfpg' pgLx?sf] nflu r'gf}lt ag]sf] 5 . bz{gnfO{ cfTd;ft u/]sf] x'gk' 5{ . ;Qf h?/L 5 . ?kfGt/0f x'G5g\ . o;tkm{ klg ;f]r– klg eofjx 5 . x]/f},+ rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] b]zsf] cy{tGqsf nflu b'vb kIf xf] . rfn'
;'wf/jfbL / qmflGtsf/LaLrsf] kl/ro / / ;]gf lgdf{0f nfdf] ;dosf] cEof;af6 ;dfh juL{o 5, kqsf/x? stflt/ lar/ ug{ qmflGtsf/Lx? tof/ x'gk' b{5 . kl5Nnf] b'O{ dlxgfdf s'g b]zaf6 slt cly{s jif{sf] klxnf] b'O{ dlxgfdf g]kfnn]
klxrfg klg km/s x'G5 eGg] hfgsf/Lsf] dfq lgdf{0f x'g] laifo ePsfn] bL3{sflng nfUg] xf] < b]zL—ljb]zL k|ltlqmofjfbLx?n] qmflGtsf/Lx? wfuf] l5g]sf] rËf em}+ x'g] d"No a/fa/sf] ;fdfg cfoft eof] < s'n @ va{ #@ ca{ #$ s/f]8 ^^ nfv !@
ef/taf6 xhf/ ?k}ofF a/fa/sf] cfoft u/]sf] 5 .
l:ylt gcfcf];\ . klxnf] ;jfn /fhgLlts ;fpgdfM &! ca{ #) nfv (* xhf/ g]kfnn] ;fdfg cfoft ug]{ !%% b]zx?dWo]
ljgf]b bfxfn df]rf{df cfk"mnfO{ kmsf{pg] l:yltdf hfg'
/ p2]Zo k|oTglt/ nfg' a'l4dfgL x'G5 .
?k}ofF
ebf}dfM ! va{ $^ ca{ @@ s/f]8 &
;a}eGbf a9L ef/taf6 ^@ bzdnba (
k|ltztsf] coft u/]sf] 5 eg] rLgaf6 !@
qmflGtsf/L kf6L{df cfa4 x'gx ] ? qmflGtsf/L kqsf/x?n] la;{g} gx'g] kIf nfv ^% xhf/ ?k}ofF bzdnj % k|ltzt cfoft u/]sf] 5 . /
s] 5 eg] g]kfndf !) jif{;Dd eLif0f rLgaf6 afFsL cGo b]zx?af6 u/]sf] 5 . rfn' cly{s
qmflGtsf/L / ;'wf/jfbL jf hgo'4 eof] . Tolta]nf xhf/f}—+ nfvf}+ ;fpgdfM ! va{ $( ca{ #( s/f]8
@) nfv $ xhf/ ?k}ofF
jif{sf] klxnf] b'O{ dlxgfdf g]kfnn] em08}
;f9] @ va{ a/fa/sf] cfoft u/]sf] 5 .
afdkGyL kf6L{df cfa4 x'gx ] ? lx+;s| 36gfx? 36] . tL 36gfx? ju{ ebf}dfM @( ca{ !# s/f] @% nfv oxL+ cg'kftdf cGo dlxgfx?df klg
;fk]lIft lyP, s]xL uNtL jf la/fPsf *$ xhf/ ?k}ofF cfoft x'g] xf] eg] of] cfly{s jif{df g]kfnsf]
;'wf/jfbL kqsf/ eg]/ a'‰bf ;xL 36gf kfP Ps csf{n] ltnnfO{ kxf8 k| m fG;af6 cfoft /sd cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{sf] eGbf
agfP/ k|rf/ u/] . Tolta]nf qmflGtsf/L ;fpgdfM !@ ca{ *@ s/f]8 #@ a9L x'g] ;+efjgf 5 . b'O{ ltxfO{ a9L
x'G5 . g]kfndf sDo'lg:6 gfdsf cyf{t hgkIfLo kqsf/x?n] cfk"mnfO{ nfv (& xhf/ ?k}ofF gful/s s[lif k];fdf cfj4 ePsf] b]zdf
ebf}dfM !@ ca{ (^ s/f]8 ^% nfv bfn, rfdnb]lv kmnk"mn / t/sf/L ;d]t
kf6L{x? w]/} 5g\ t/ tL ;a} s'zn agfP cyf{t nfn / lgk"0f{ l;4 #* xhf/ ?k}ofF ljb]zaf6 Nofpg'kg]{ k6\of/nfUbf] oyfy{
u/] . hgo'4 z'? ubf{ zf]ifs ju{;u+ b' j O{ ef]lu/x]sf 5f},+ xfdLx? . rfn" cfly{s jif{
qmflGtsf/L x}gg\ . pgLx?n] ;a} yf]s lyof] . pgLx?n] ;dfhdf k'/} ;fpgdfM @ ca{ !* s/f]8 *( nfv b'O{ dlxgfdf dfq} !) ca{ ?k}ofF a/fa/sf]
cfk"mnfO{ sDo'lg:6 gfd /fv]/ hgtfnfO{ em'SofO/x]sf 5g\ . ;Qf sAhfdf lnPsf] a]nf lyof] . zf]lift &% xhf/ ?k}ofF vfBfGg cfoft ePsf] tYof+s 5 .
ju{l;t s]xL klg lyPg . lyof] t s]jn ebf}dfM % ca{ (@ nfv @) xhf/ lhp
lhp““ bfbf kz'
kqsf/ ;+u7gx?n] klg To;} ul//x]sf 5g\ . la8Dagf rflxF s] 5 qmflGtsf/L /fhgLlts kf6L{ . ldl8ofdf ?k}ofF
Sofg8faf6 ?k}ofF
! ca{ ^! s/f]8 %( nfv $( xhf/

eg] sDo'lg:6 gfdsf tL ;'wf/jfbL kf6L{x? pgLx?sf] kf6L{nfO{ k'/} zf]ifs ju{sf] sAhf ePsf]n] zf]lift ;fpgdfM ! ca{ (& s/f]8 !% nfv kz'af6 pTkflbt vfB ;du|L -c08f,
ju{sf] kIfaf6 36]sf gLlt lakl/tsf !( xhf/ ?k}ofF dxnufot_
;a} hgtfsf] kf6L{ atfpF5g\ . tL kf6L{df cfa4 kqsf/ ;+u7gx? 36gfx? cfˆgf] ;fk]Iftfdf ltnnfO{ kxf8 ebf}dfM @ ca{ ^( s/f]8 #% nfv $# s/f]8 ($ nfv $ xhf/ ?k}ofF
agfpg] jf gLltut / ;kmn 36gfx? @$ xhf/ ?k}ofF t/sf/L
klg cfk"mnfO{ lgjuL{o ;f]r / lrGtgsf] em}+ Jojxf/ b]vfp5g\ . ;a} n'sfpg] ub{y] . zf]lift ju{ cyf{t l:jh/Nof08af6 ^ ca{ !! s/f]8 &! nfv @* xhf/
;fpgdfM ! ca{ $& s/f]8 %% nfv ?k}ofF
)))))) dfcf]jfbLsf] ldl8ofdf kx'r F gePsf]n] (! xhf/ ?k}ofF kmnk" m n
To;} ug{ ;Sb}gy] . To;} sf/0f uNtL x'g ebf}dfM @ ca{ *^ s/f]8 ^( nfv # ca{ !^ s/f]8 &$ nfv (% xhf/
kqsf/ ldqx? klxnf cfˆgf] kf6L{sf] gLltut ;jfndf 5nkmn cufl8 glbg dfcf]jfbLn] kmnfd] cg'zf;gdf $& xhf/ ?k}ofF ?k}ofF
a9fpm . gLltdf km/skgf gePkl5 em'08 dfq agfP/ lab|fx] sf] jf ;Qf g]tf tyf sfo{stf{x?nfO{ /fv]sf] lyof] . yfONof08af6 lrof/ skmL
kqsf/x? klg ToxL e"ldsfdf lyP . ;fpgdfM ! ca{ @) s/f]8 *( nfv ! ca{ &# s/f]8 @$ nfv (% xhf/
tfa]bf/Lsf ukm lbP/ qmflGt la/f]wL tTjx?nfO{ /ldtf b]vfpg'sf] s'g} zf]ifs ju{ jf /fHokIfsf] eg] cg'zf;g $@ xhf/ ?k}ofF
ebf}dfM @ ca{ %( s/f]8 !^ nfv
?k}ofF
lrgL tyf ld7fO{
cy{ /xg] 5}g . kqsf/ s]jn va/ pTkfbg ug]{ / k|rf/ ug]{ dfq x}g, Tolta]nf emg\ sdhf]/ eP/ ;z:q ## xhf/ ?k}ofF ! ca{ !^ s/f]8 ^ nfv !@ xhf/
xltof/wf/Lx?n] cgluGtL ck/fwx? u/] . ch] { l G6gfaf6 ?k}ofF
kf6L{sf] nfOg ;f]‰ofpg] clestf{ klg x'g\ . lga{uL{o bfjL ul/Psf] hgklIfo kqsf/x?n] lgSs} hf]lvd df]Nb} ;fpgdfM ! ca{ !@ s/f]8 ^ nfv cgfh
To;sf] e08fkmf]/ lg/Gt/ ul//x] . &% xhf/ ?k}ofF !) ca{ %& s/f]8 *( nfv $ xhf/
dxf;+3sf] k|efjaf6 d'Qm ge} qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ aGg ;lsGg eGg] klg dfcf]jfbL kIfaf6 c~hfg jf e'nj; ebf}dfM ! ca{ (& s/f]8 %@ nfv ?k}ofF
^& xhf/ ?k}ofF ;' t L{ h Go j:t'
Vofn /fVg' h?/L 5 . aQmJoafhL / u'6ut k|efjn] kf6L{sf g]tT[ jnfO{ s]xL 36gfx? eP . To;sf] arfp ug]{ dn] l ;ofaf6 %* s/f]8 $) nfv &) xhf/ ?k}ofF
sfo{ klg kqsf/n] s'zntfk"js { u/]sf ;fpgdfM (^ s/f]8 * nfv ^ xhf/ g'g / ;Nkm/
laeflht cj:yfdf b]vfP/ e|d >[hgf ug]{ ju{ a}/Lsf] rfnafhLaf6 ar]/ lyP . tL 36gfx?df dfcf]jfbLn] ?k}ofF $ ca{ %$ s/f]8 $) nfv !(
/fhgLlt ug{]' sfo{ sl7g 5 eGg] s'/f klg Vofn ug{' h?/L 5 . ;DalGwt kIf;Fu dfkmL dfUb} cfOGbf ebf}dfM ! ca{ &^ s/f]8 $% nfv xhf/ ?k}ofF
To:tf e'n gug]{ jfrfx? u/] . To;nfO{ (& xhf/ ?k}ofF k] o kbfy{
blIf0f clk| m sfaf6 ! ca{ %@ s/f]8 *@ nfv *% xhf/
cefj cfd ?kdf b]lvPsf] 5 . qmflGtsf/L hgo'4sf] af6f]df lx+8g\ ] k|lta4tf x'g' if8\oGqsf] hfnf] km}nfP/ kqsf/sf] ;femf hgtfaLrdf k'¥ofpg] sfo{df qmflGt˜sf/L ;fpgdfM (@ s/f]8 !& nfv #* ?k}ofF
/ hgkIfLo sfdsf/jfxLaf6 cfˆgf] kl/ro k5{ . ju{;3+ if{ ;~rfng x'bF f u[xo'4n] ;+u7gsf] ?kdf dxf;+3 agfOlbPsf kqsf/ ;Ifd eP . /fHo kIfn] eg] xhf/ ?k}ofF tof/L cgfh -lk7f] , kfp8/
l:yflkt ug{ g;Sg]x? klg cfk"mnfO{ k'h
F L lgdf{0fdf ;d:of Nofpg] / jfXo 5g\ . dxf;+3 lgj{uL{o 5 eGg] e|ddf To;f] u/]g, a? emg\ ck/fwdfly csf]{ ebf}dfM ! ca{ (! s/f]8 *& nfv b" w nufot_
qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ eGg k'us ] f 5g\ . k'hF L la:yflkt x'g] x'gfn] k'h
F L lgdf{0fsf] kf/]sf 5g\ . hgkIfLo elgPsf sltko ck/fwsf z[v + nfx? a9fpFb} nu] . %& xhf/ ?k}ofF ! ca{ ^@ s/f]8 (* nfv *( xhf/
qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ eGg]x? clwsf+z g} cfkmFd} f Pp6f cjlw kf/ gul/ ;dfhjfbdf k'Ug ;+u7gx? / kqsf/x? klg ToxL ;f]rsf pgLx?sf kqsf/x? lg/Lx h:t} eP, ;fpbL c/aaf6 ?k}ofF
?dlNnPsf 5g\ . To;} sf/0fn] cfˆgfnfO{ ;lsGg eGg] tYonfO{ :jLsf/]/ qmflGtsf] ;fy dxf;+ 3 df cfa4 5g\ . cToGt sdhf]/ . kqsf/nfO{ To:tf] ;fpgdfM (! s/f]8 ^^ nfv %# v]nf}gf tyf v]ns'bsf ;fdfg
xhf/ ?k}ofF $* s/f]8 !$ nfv $# xhf/ ?k}ofF
a}rfl/s ?kdf Pst[t ug{ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ . Go"gtd sfo{qmd gofF hgjfb g} x'G5 k|ltlqmofjfbLsf if8\oGq lrg{ / pgLx?;Fu agfpg] d'VotM k'ln; / To;kl5 zfxL ebf}dfM ! ca{ &( s/f]8 %# nfv On] S 6« f ] l gS; ;fdfg
qmflGtsf/L g]tT[ jx? g} cIfd b]lvPsf 5g\, eGg] dfGotfdf /xg' k5{ . o:tf] kf6L{ ;DaGw laR5]b ug{ hgkIfLo kqsf/x? ;]gfx? lyP . hgtfsf] ;fd'lxs sTn]cfd, %% xhf/ ?k}ofF !( ca{ &% s/f]8 ## nfv !(
afXo k|efjaf6 dfq cfˆgf] c/fhs u'6 dfq qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ x'g] cl3 ;g{'k5{ / k|ltlqmofjfbLsf] u}/sfg'gL ckx/0f tyf a]kQf, u}/sfg'gL 6sL{ a f6 xhf/ ?k}ofF
agfpg dfq ;kmn b]lvPsf 5g\ . ePsf]n] Tof] kf6L{ lgdf{0f clxn]sf] e08fkmf]/df nfUg'k5{ . qmflGtsf/L ;}lgs y'gfdf /fVg] / oftgf lb+b} xTof ;fpgdfM *& s/f]8 (& nfv *& ;jf/L ;fwg
qmflGtsf/L kf6L{df cfa4 x'gx] ? cfjZostf xf] . qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ elgPsf kqsf/x?sf] Tof] ;fx; 5 < ug],{ ;fd'lxs anTsf/ / xTof ;Qf;Lg xhf/ ?k}ofF @% ca{ ^ s/f]8 %^ nfv (! xhf/
ebf}dfM ! ca{ $$ s/f]8 @^ nfv ?k}ofF
qmflGtsf/L / ;'wf/jfbL jf afdkGyL ;+u7g klg To:tf] kf6L{ cGtu{t dfq To;f] gu/L qmflGtsf/Ln] cfˆgf] cl:tTj lelhnfGt], k'ln; / zfxL;]gfaf6 o:tf] ** xhf/ ?k}ofF kmnfd tyf l:6n
kf6L{df cfa4 x'gx] ? ;'wf/jfbL kqsf/ /xg ;S5 . gq t ;'wf/jfbn] ufFhLP/ /Iff ug{ d'l:sn k5{ . qmflGtsf/L vfnsf aa{/ zf;g eof] . k|ltlqmofjfbL o' q m] g af6 !& ca{ !* s/f]8 ^( nfv $ xhf/
eg]/ a'‰bf ;xL x'G5 . g]kfndf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{nfO{ k|efljt kfg{ k'Ug] ub{5g\ . kqsf/sf] qmflGtdf ldl8of df]rf{sf] kqsf/x? klg qmflGtsf/Lsf] ;xfotfaf6 ;fpgdfM *^ s/f]8 ^( nfv @) ?k}ofF
gfdsf kf6L{x? w]/} 5g\ t/ tL ;a} kqsf/ ldqx? klxnf cfˆgf] kf6L{sf] lhDd]jf/L lng] ;fx; 5 ls 5}g < k6s– a:t'jfbL / tYok/s va/sf] cfz ug{ xhf/ ?k}ofF s6g
qmflGtsf/L x}gg\ . pgLx?n] cfk"mnfO{ gLltut ;jfndf 5nkmn cufl8 k6s kf6L{n] Tof] df]rf{ ;DxfNg lhDd]jf/L yfn]sf lyP . pgLx? klg k'ln; / ;]gfsf] ebf}dfM ! ca{ @^ s/f]8 &% nfv * !& ca{ * s/f]8 (( nfv * xhf/
sDo'lg:6 gfd /fv]/ hgtfnfO{ a9fpm . gLltdf km/skgf gePkl5 em'08 lbFbf klG5Psf] ;dfrf/df slQsf] ;Totf lzsf/ eP t/ o;df k'ln; / ;]gfn] xhf/ ?k}ofF ?k}ofF
OG8f] g ] l ;ofaf6 l;Ns
em'SofO/x]sf 5g\ . kqsf/ ;+u7gx?n] dfq agfP/ lab|fx] sf] jf ;Qf tfa]bf/Lsf 5 < dxf;+3sf ;]jf tyf ;'ljwfsf nflu slxNo} dfkmL dfu]gg\ / :jLsf/]gg\ klg . ;fpgdfM *$ s/f]8 * nfv ^! $ s/f]8 #$ nfv $ xhf/ ?k}ofF
klg To;} ul//x]sf 5g\ . la8Dagf rflxF ukm lbP/ qmflGt la/f]wL tTjx?nfO{ ;+u7g k|of]u ul/Psf] t x}g eg]/ g]tT[ jn] clxn] klg ltg} ;]gf, ltg} k'ln; / xhf/ ?k}ofF sfuhhGo ;fdu| L
s] 5 eg] sDo'lg:6 gfdsf tL ;'wf/jfbL /ldtf b]vfpg'sf] s'g} cy{ /xg] 5}g . z+sf ubf{ cfk"mn] klg ;f]Rg] k|of; u/]sf] ltg} lelhnfGt] /fhgLlts cf8df /x]sf ebf}dfM @ ca{ * s/f]8 ^( nfv %) ^& s/f]8 *& nfv && xhf/ ?k}ofF
kf6L{x? pgLx?sf] kf6L{nfO{ ;a} hgtfsf] kqsf/ s]jn va/ pTkfbg ug]{ / k|rf/ 5 ls 5}g < hgqmflGtdf k|rf/ ;]gfsf] ck/fwL lelhnfGt] ;dfhdf au|N] tL 5g\ . xhf/ ?k}ofF kmf] 6 f] u | l kms ;fdu| L
kf6L{ atfpF5g\ . tL kf6L{df cfa4 kqsf/ ug]{ dfq x}g, kf6L{sf] nfOg ;f]‰ofpg] e"ldsf v]Ng] lhDd]jf/Laf6 klG5P/ sf]xL qmflGtsf/L kqsf/sf] bfloTj klg p:t} cd] l /sf @* s/f]8 (^ nfv !) xhf/ ?k}ofF
;fpgdfM *! s/f]8 * nfv !& cf} i flwhGo pTkfbg
;+u7gx? klg cfk"mnfO{ lgjuL{o ;f]r / clestf{ klg x'g\ . lga{uL{o bfjL ul/Psf] klg qmflGtsf/L aGg ;Sb}gg\ . qmflGtsf/L 5 . qmflGtsf/L kqsf/sf] nflu Tof] a]nfsf] xhf/ ?k}ofF * ca{ ^^ s/f]8 (# xhf/ ?k}ofF
lrGtgsf] em}+ Jojxf/ b]vfp5g\ . dxf;+3sf] k|efjaf6 d'Qm ge} qmflGtsf/L kqsf/n] kf6L{bl] v cfk"m;Ddsf] ;f]rfOnfO{ g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ clxn] klg vfFrf] 5 . ebf}dfM ! ca{ $^ s/f]8 #^ nfv rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] b'O{ dlxgfdf
qmflGtsf/L x'g lgZro klg s]xL kqsf/ aGg ;lsGg eGg] klg Vofn km/flsnf] agfpg' k5{ . d'VotM cfˆgf] k|ltlqmofjfbL tTjx?n] dfkmL kfpg' x'Gg . #% xhf/ ?k}ofF g]kfnn] u/]sf] cfoft kmnkm'n, t/sf/L /
;t{x? x'G5g\ . sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] cfk"mnfO{ /fVg' h?/L 5 . aQmJoafhL / u'6ut qmflGtsf/L bfloTjnfO{ slxNo} e'Ng' x'bF g} . of] g} clxn] ;dosf] klg dfu xf] . kqsf/n] sf] l /ofaf6 vfBfGgnufotsf j:t' / To;sf] d"No
qmflGtsf/L agfpg qmflGtsf/L gLlt, k|efjn] kf6L{sf g]tT[ jnfO{ laeflht klxn]sf s}of}+ hgkIfLo / qmflGtsf/L of] s'/fnfO{ a'‰g' h?/L 5 . ;fpgdfM &^ s/f]8 ^$ nfv (% x]g{] xf] eg] g]kfnn] cfTdlge{/ cy{tGqsf
xhf/ ?k}ofF nflu cem} Jofks k|of; ug{ h?/L 5 .
ebf}dfM ! ca{ ^^ s/f]8 &@ nfv cfoftnfO{ g36fP;Dd d'ns ' sf] vf;

t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+
&( xhf/ ?k}ofF ljsf; ;Dej gePsf] lj1x?sf] egfO{
leotgfdaf6 5 . tYofªscg';f/ b]zsf] cy{cj:yf lgs}
;fpgdfM &$ s/f]8 @( nfv %# hh{/ 5 . cfoftsf] t'ngfdf lgof{t
xhf/ ?k}ofF cTof;nfUbf] 5 . b]zdf ;d[l4sf] 7"nf
ebf}dfM ! ca{ %^ s/f]8 #$ nfv s'/f ePklg cy{tGqnfO{ cfTdlge{/ agfpg]
*^ xhf/ ?k}ofF s'g} 7f]; kxn ePsf] 5}g . pTkfbgeGbf

OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+ c:6« ] l nofaf6
;fpgdfM ^# s/f]8 ^% nfv !^
xhf/ ?k}ofF
ebf}dfM ! ca{ ^% s/f]8 $% nfv
#@ xhf/ ?k}ofF
cfoftdf hf]8 lbPsf sf/0f b]zsf] cy{l:ylt
bogLo cj:yfdf k'us ] f] xf] .
cfjZostf eGbf sd pTkfbg,
l;ldt pBf]u, gofF pBf]u vf]Ng] kxnsf]
cefj, gLltut ;d:of / nufgL ug]{
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8 hd{ g L
;fpgdfM ^! s/f]8 $) nfv ^#
xhf/ ?k}ofF
jftfj/0fs} cefj x'g' h:tf sf/0fn]
cfoft / lgof{t larsf] vf8n lgs} ulx/f]
xf] . ca klg :jb]zdf g} j:t' pTkfbgnfO{
kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&! ebf}dfM ! ca{ # s/f]8 *( nfv !( hf]8 glbg] xf] eg] b]zsf] cy{tGq emg\
xhf/ ?k}ofF w/f;foL aGg] lglZrt 5 .
8 @)&%
sf= lh=;fn
k|= c;f]
sf= hb= @* ut] cfOtaf/
g+= !^#÷@)^#÷^$

cf]nLnfO{==== ;/sf/sf s'sT[ ox?sf] e08fkmf]/ ub}{ lx/f;tdf===== jfdb]jn]=====
;Ldf If] q sf] vf] h L / tL If] q
;8s ;+3if{nfO{ pTsif{df k'¥ofpg' kg]{
s'/fdf hf]8 lbP .
/fltsf] ;dodf aofg lnFbf wDsLsf]
efiff k|of]u u/]sf] /fO{n] atfP .
klg lstfjsf] se/df rflxF @) nfvsf]
rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . cfTdsyfsf] kl5Nnf]
‘k|;] dfly c+sz
' nufpg lb“bg} f}’“
g/flvPsf gSsnL gS;fx? x6fpmsf] lj/f]w ;efnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ g]skf sf7df8f}F . g]kfnL sf7df8f}Fsf ;efklt z]/axfb'/ b]pjfn] g]kfnL k|];
;+3if{df plqO;s]sf] atfPsf 5g\ . hjfkmdf d g]kfnleq cfˆgf] dft[el" d kfgfdf elgPsf] 5– …d tkfO{nfO{ :jtGqtfdfly c+sz ' nufpg glbg] atfPsf 5g\ . z'qmaf/ g]kfn k|;
] o'lgog
-qmflGtsf/L dfcfjfbL_ sf7df8f}F lhNnf / df6f]df 5 eGg] k|i6 yfxf eg]sf] jfdb]jsxfF nlulbG5', tkfO{ @) nfv
pgsf cg';f/ b]zsf hgtf ca w]/} O~rfh{ ;'/z ] >]i7n] b]znfO{ abNg lrtjgsf] cf7f}F clwj]zg tyf gjlgld{t ejgsf] pb\3f6g ub}{ ;efklt
;r] t eO;s] s f 5g\ / /fli6« o :d/0f ;'gfP . s/sfkdf aofg lbg tof/ kfg{;' \ . tkfO{ g} cfOhLkL aGg'xG' 5, b]pjfn] k|];dfly ;/sf/n] c+s'z nufP To;sf] k|ltsf/ ug]{ r]tfjgL lbP .
lx+8s] fx? cf:yf / ljrf/ a]r/] kltt gnufpg klg pgn] k| x /L Uof/]G6L .Ú k|x/L dxflg/LIfsh:tf]
:jfledfg arfpsf nflu Ps h'6 ePkl5 b]z klg a]Rg] xb;Dd k'us ] f]
eP/ p7\g] tof/Ldf nflu/x]sf 5g\ . clws[tx?nfO{ cfk"mn] eg]sf] s'/f klg ;fj{hlgs pRr cf]xf]bfdf a;]sf
jt{dfg cj:yfnfO{ pNn]v ub}{ ;'u+ /' sf] ;lDemP . JolQmn] af]ns ] f], n]vs
] f] jf ;+st] u/]sf]
o;cl3 klg /fli6«o :jfledfgsf vf]/ ;kmf ug{ k;]sfx? g} ;'u+ /' df
;fy} hgtfsf hghLljsf tyf ToxL d];f]df pgL O{G:k]S6/ - s'/fnfO{ ;fdfGo dfGg ;lsFbg} . olb
?kfGt/0f ePsf] atfPsf 5g\ . b]zdf lg/LIfs_n] …tkfO{ sxfF x'g'x'G5 < tTsfnLg Pdfn] l gs6 elgPsf
hgkIfLo zf;g Joj:yfsf /f]huf/Lsf] Joj:yf gu/]/ o'jfx? ljb]z
s'/fx?;lxt ;+3if{sf] leGg :j?k sxfFnfO{ sxfF NofOPsf] 5 < eGg] k"j8{ LP;kL g/xl/ ;+uf| n } fn] tTsfnLg
k7fO{ /]ld6]G; lnP/ df]hd:tL ug]{ a'em]s} xf]nf, ca ;do w]/} 5}gÚ eg]sf] cfO{hLkL v/]n;Fu jfdb]j uf}tdsf] gfd
lnP/ hgtfsf dfemdf k'lu/x]sf] ;/sf/n] ;d[l4sf] s'/f ug{' cfkm}dF f
atfPsf uh'/]nn] cf]nL–bfxfnsf] s'/f ;lDemFb} g]tf /fO{n] eg] …tkfO{nfO{ lnP/ @)–@% nfv ?k}ofF 3'; dfu]s}
nfhdbf]{ ePsf] pNn]v ub}{ >]i7n] x•L dlSsg] ;'O{ lbg] dflysf] cfb]z x'g\ eg] Tof] uDeL/ kmf}hbf/L ck/fw
r'gfjL u7aGwg aGbfsf] ;do / o'jfsf dfux?nfO{ lnP/ x:tfIf/
clxn]sf cf]nL–bfxfn kf6L{ g]skfsf] 5, b' M v gdfGg' x f] n f . @@ lbg xf] . of] ;fdfGo cfTdsyfsf] ljifo dfq}
;+sng tyf ;+3if{sf sfo{qmdx? kl5af6 z/L/sf] ;a} xf8 dlSsg xf]Og . o;/L 3'; dfUg] JolQmnfO{ v/]nn]
ax'dtsf] ;/sf/ ag]sf] ;dodf lg/Gt/ cl3 a9fO/x]sf] s'/f atfP .
cfsfz–kftfn km/s cfPsf] atfpFb} z'? x'G5 . s'/f a'‰g';\ eg]/ Tof] To;a]n} lsg sf/jfxL u/]gg\ < pgL
g]tf >]i7n] b]zdf ;d[l4sf gfddf OG:k] S 6/n] wDsL lbPsf] clxn] To;a]nf k|x/Lsf] pRr cf]xf]bfd} lyP .
g]tf uh'/n ] n] b]zsf] ;'wf/ / k|ultsf ;Ldfgfx? a]lrg], gbLx? a]lrg],
nflu ax' d tsf] hgfb] z lbPsf emnemnL ;lDemD5' .Ú /fO{n] eg] t/, 3'; dfu]s} xf] eg] o;af/] 5fgljg
o'jfx? a]lrg], jgh+un kmF8fgL ul/g], …g] t fnfO{ t o:tf] wDsL lbg] n ] gu/]/ v/]nn] clxn] lstfadf dfq} lsg
hgtfn] cfk" m x? e| d df k/] s f] ;fj{hlgs :ynx? jiff}{+sf nflu
v'Nndv'Nnf :jLsf/ u/]sf] atfPsf sfo{stf{nfO{ s] u/] xf]nfg\ < ;xh} n]v] < v/]nsf] cfTdsyf k9\bf o:tf]
lnhdf lbg], t:s/, u'08f, sfnf cg'dfg nufpg ;lsG5 .Ú xfn} k|Zg p7\5 . lsgeg], 3'; lbg]dfq} xf]Og,
5g\ . pQm uNtL ca ;/sf/n] u/]sf ahfl/of / dflkmofx? df}nfpg] of]
b]zsf] :jfledfg lj/f]wL /fi6«3ftL, g]skfsf csf{ kf]ln6Ao"/f] ;b:o dfUg] klg ck/fwL g} dflgG5g\ . v/]nn]
;/sf/sf] gLlt / ljlwsf lj?4 ca cf]dk|sfz k'g;Fu} l/xfePkl5 ;f]xL cfˆgf] k':tsdf ;+uf| n } fn] @% nfv
hg3ftL tyf hglj/f]wL sfdx?sf ljb|fx] sf] cfudg h?/L ePsf] atfP .
lj?4df ;+3if{df plqP/ ;Rofpg] lbg a]n'sf dfOtL3/ d08nfdf dfu]sf] Ps jfSodf n]v] klg o;af/] …s'g} klg axfgfdf k|];dfly c+s'z nufpg lbFb}gf}+ . xfdL k|ltsf/ u5f}+Ú–
ca ufoa kfl/Psf ;Ldf If]qx?sf] cfof]lht aGbL :jfut tyf dGtJo yk ljj/0f pNn]v ul/Psf] 5}g .
hgtfn] k|ltj4tf hfx]/ ul//x]sf vf]hL / lbNnLn] cf]nL ;/sf/nfO{ pgn] eg] . k|; ] nfO{ :jtGq x'g lbg'kg]{ pNn]v ub}{ pgn] ;+ljwfgn] lbPsf]
eGb} uh' / ] n n] clxn] s f] ;/sf/ sfo{ q mddf af] N b} g] t f /fO{ n ] cflv/ tTsfnLg cfOhLkL v/]n;Fu clwsf/ ;a} sfof{Gjog gePsf] / To;nfO{ sfof{Gjogsf] lbzfdf n}hfg'kg]{
k7fPsf] / ;/sf/L sfof{nox?df lx/f;tleq cfk" m n] ;/sf/af6 @% nfv 3'; dfUg] k"jk{ x| /L sf] lyP
dlkmofsf] r+u'ndf k"/} km;]sf] / em'08\ofOPsf gSsnL gS;fx?sf] vf]hL atfP . …g]kfn k|; ] o'lgog :jtGq ;+u7g xf] . o;df kf6L{n] s'g} x:tIf]k
t:s/, 7]s]bf/ tyf anfTsf/Lx?n] ef]Ug'k/]sf] bafa / qf; clg wDsLsf] eGg] v/]nn] k':tsdf v'nfPs} 5g\ . ub}{gÚ– pgn] eg] . sfo{qmddf g]kfnL sf7df8f}Fsf dxfdGqL 8f= zzf+s
tyf g:6 ug]{ sfo{ cfk"mx?sf] casf km]xl/:tf ;fj{hlgs u/]sf lyP . pgLdfly 5fgljg eP/ tYo kQf
o;nfO{ g6]l//x]sf] cj:yfdf ca sfo{qmdx?df /x]sf eGb} >]i7n] s;}n] sf]O/fnf, g]kfn k|]; o'lgogsf s]Gb|Lo cWoIf ab|L l;Ub]n, k|b]z gDa/–# sL
;+3if{sf] ljsNk g/x]sf] s'/fdf hf]8 o;af6 gful/sn] afF R g kfpg] gnufpg] xf] eg] of] k|Zgn] jfdb]j ;f+;b uLtf jfUn]nufotn] z'esfdgf dGtJo JoQm u/]sf lyP . sfo{qmdsf]
klg oL gSsnL gS;fx?sf] k|of]u, dfgjclwsf/sf] 7f8f] pNn+ 3 g uf}tdnfO{ ;d]t nv]l6/xg] b]lvG5 .
lbPsf 5g\ . laqmL–ljt/0f tyf :6f]/ gug{ clu|d k|;
] o'lgognfO{ ejg lgdf{0fsf nflu e/tk'/l:yt a;]gLdf hUuf pknAw
jt{dfg k|d cf]nLsf] :yfgdf cGo ;/sf/n] ul//x]sf] atfpFb} lx/f;t zfob oxL sf/0fn] x'gk' 5{, g]skf u/fpg] jl/i7 ;dfh;]jL d}ofFb]jL >]i7, ejg lgdf{0fsf nflu !! nfv ?k}ofF
r]tfjgL;d]t lbP . / sf/fuf/x?sf] cg'udg ug{ /fli6«o g]tf uf}tdn] v/]nsf] k':ts lg:sgf;fy
sf]xL d'v ld7fP/ a:g'kg]{ cj:yf To;}u/L qmflGtsf/L o'jf lnusf ;xof]u ug]{ ;f+;b uLtf jfUn]nufot ejg lgdf{0fdf ;xof]u ug]{ ;a}nfO{
klg g/x]sf] eGb} uh'/]nn] casf] dfgjclwsf/ cfof] u nufot k|ltlqmof lbPsf 5g\ . g]tf uf}tdn] ;Ddfgkqn] ;Ddfg ul/Psf] lyof] .
s] G b| L o cWoIf cld/ dxh{ g ;/f]sf/jfnf kIfx?;Fu cfu|x u/] . v/]nsf] cfTdsyfdfly l6Kk0fL ub}{
;+3if{n] qmdzM /fi6«JofkL :j?k lnP/ …cfsfzÚn] jfd elgPsf] ax'dtsf] ;jf]R{ r cbfnt NofPsf] eGg] s'g} /]s8{ k| r 08=====
cl3 a9L t:s/, 7]sb] f/ / dflkmofsf] ;/sf/ /x]sf a]nf b]zsf o'jfx?n]
/flt===== eg]sf 5g\– …v/]nsf] cfTdsyfdf d}n]
klg /xg] 5}g . e}/xjf lhNnf cbfntn] btf{ u/fPsf 5g eg] k|jQmf gf/fo0fsfhL
jt{dfg cf]nL ;/sf/nfO{ ˆofFs]/ l/6 k¥of] / l/6dflysf] ;'g'jfO{af6 s'g kqsf/ k7fP/ @) nfv ?k}ofF
/fhwfgL ;x/df sfnf] dfr{kf; ug{ k|:tfj u/]+ < @) nfvsf] k|:tfj lnP/ c;f]h $ ut] l/xf u/]nuQ} k'gM lu/ˆtf/ >]i7n] c;Gt'li6 hgfPsf 5g . oBlk
5f8\g] atfPsf 5g\ . cf]nLn] of] afWo x'g' cfkm}d F f lgs} kL8fbfoL s'/f l/xf ePsf x'g\ . ToxfFaf6 ;/sf/n] u/L v8\sfnfO{ dsjfgk'/sf] kfn'ªdf g]tf g]kfnsf] kqdfly s'g} 5nkmn ePsf]
;/sf/ ˆofFSg] eg]/ ;+ljwfgdf klg k'gM lu/ˆtf/ ug]{ ;fx; u/]g . l/xf cfpg] Tof] kqsf/ sf] lyof] < Tof] v/]nn]
/x]sf] atfP . pgn] b]z agfpg] s'/f k'li6 ug{k' b{5 . cfˆgf] cfTdsyfdf a;df cfuhgL u/]sf] cleof]udf 5}g . g]tfx?sf] sfo{Jo:ttfsf] sf/0f
gn]v]sf] s'/f unf{g\ eGb} uh'/]nn] t lgs} 6f9fsf] x'g uof], t/ ;fdfGo eP t/ pgnfO{ sf7df8f}aF f6 s]Gb|Lo dsjfgk'/ k|x/Lsf] lhk|sf lx/f;tdf b]vfpb} af/Daf/ :ylut ;lrjfno a}7s
eg] lxhf]sf lbgdf /fhf kmNg] s'/f cg';Gwfg Ao"/f]sf ;fbf kf]zfssf d]/faf/] tyfgfd h] kfof] ToxL em"7f]
b}lgs hghLljsfsf s'/fx? klg lgs} c;To s'/f n]v/] rl/q xTof ug{ c;f]h !) ut]bl] v /fVb} cfPsf] 5 . af]nfOP klg a:g] lglZrt gePsf]
klg ;+ljwfgdf n]vs ] f] lyPg t/ /fhf si6 ;fWo x'Fb} uPsfn] ca ;8sdf k| x /Ln] lu/ˆtf/ u/] s f] lyof] . pgnfO{ lagfsf/0f u}/sfg'gL y'gfdf /fv]sf] g]tfx?sf] egfO{ 5 .
cfGbf] n gaf6 kmflnP . g] k fnsf] To;kl5 lu/ˆtf/sf] klxnf] /fte/ vf] H g] <Ú To;f] t cfTdsyfdf
hgtf pqg'sf] ljsNk g/x]sf] atfP . k"jc{ fOhLkL v/]nn] k|x/L ;+u7g leqsf] eGb} l/xfO{sf] dfu;lxt b'uf{k;| fb h};Ln] al/i7 g]tf emngfy vgfnn] kf6L{
b'ef{Uok"0f{ lj/f;t pKsfpFb} g]tf jfd eGg]sf] ax'dtsf] ;/sf/ /x]sf dfgl;s oftgf r/d ?kdf lbPsf] c;f]h !$ ut] ;jf]R{ r cbfntdf aGbL leq c;Gt'li6 r'lnPsf] :jLsf/ ub}{
uh'/]nn] eg] u0ftGq :yfkgfsf] pgsf] egfO{ 5 . kf6L{ s f] l;:6d / ul/dfnfO{ hf]ufpg cbfnt
a]nf lbg klg /ft h:t} sfnf ePsf uPsf] eg]sf 5g\ . oBlk cfˆgf] d'2f k|ToIfLs/0f l/6 lgj]bg bfo/ u/]sf lyP . tTsfn :yfoL ;ldlt a}7s af]nfP/
cfGbf] n gnfO{ lvl;l6p/L ub} { 5g\ eGb} dxh{gn] lbgbfxf8} 5f]/L lhDd]jf/Laf/] lgs} s]/sf/ ul/Psf] ;f]xL l/6dflysf] ax;kl5 ef]lnkN6 ;dfwfg vf]Hg cfu|x u/]sf 5g\ . kf6L{
aonuf8f r9]/ cd]l/sf k'Ug] ;kgf / kf6L{ g]t[Tjaf/] w]/} k|Zg ul/Psf] lhtfpgsf nflu ;jf] { R rsf
r]nLx? anfTs[t eO{ dfl/g', Pl;8 GofofwLzx?;Fu ljrf}lnofdfkm{t cfk"mn] !% ut] GofofwLz rf]nG] b|zd;]/ ha/fsf] lalw / l;4fGtcg';f/ rNg g;s]sf]
b]v]sf] eGg] ltgL cf]nL u0ftGqsf] 5s]{/ xTof ul/Og', dx+uLn] 9f8 lyof] . Tof] kfPkl5 pgn] cfk"mn] Psn Ohnf;n] aGbL v8\sfnfO{ # atfpFb} pgn] g]tf, sfo{stf{sf] ;Ddfg
klxnf] lgjf{lrt k|wfgdGqL agfOg' s/sfkdf aofg glbg] / em' 7 f eg;'g u/]sf] klg v/]nn] 7fpF–7fpFdf
;] s fpg' , t:s/L ;+ : yfut x' g ' , v'nfPsf 5g\ . lbgleq cyf{t c;f]h !* ut] laxfg ePg eg] kf6L{ alnof] gaGg] ts{ cufl8
cfkm}Fdf lj8Djgfk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 . g]tf ;/sf/n] b} l gs pkef] u sf cleof]u :jLsfg{ afWo gkfg{ eg]kl5 !) ah] kqmfp ug{ ' s f] lnlvt ;f/]sf 5g\ . tTsflng g]skf / dfcf]jfbL
uh'/n ] n] b]z aflx/af6 b]lvPsf] eGbf aofg lng v8f ePsf clws[tx? tTsfnLg cfOhLkL v/] n n]
;fdfgx?df sld;g vfP/ d"No sfFu|];nfO{ #) nfv ?k}ofF / g]skf hjfkm;lxt cbfntdf pkl:yt s]Gb|aLr PsLs/0f ePsf] % dlxgf x'bF f
s}of}+ uDeL/ vt/fdf /x]sf] atfpFb} a9fpg' oL ;a} hglj/f]wL xs{t k5fl8 x6]sf] pgsf] cg'ej 5 . u/fpg ;/sf/, u[xdGqfno, dsjfgk'/ ;d]t tNnf] txsf sld6Lsf] PsLs/0f
c? kf6L{x?df /x]sf OdfGbf/ g]tf ef] l nkN6 k| x /L rf} s Ldf Pdfn]nfO{ !) nfv ?k}ofF r'gfj vr{
ePsfn] ca hgtfsf nflu ;8sdf h'6fOlbPsf] cfTdsyfdf pNn]v k|x/L, cbfntnufot ljkIfLx?sf] 6'ªU\ ofpg g;Sg' b'vb ePsf] pgsf]
tyf sfo{stf{x?nfO{ of] vt/faf6 b]z pqg' afx]s cGo ;a} ljsNk ;/sf/n] k'¥ofpg'cl3;Dd pgnfO{ xTs8L / gfddf cfb]z lbPsf] lyof] . t/, l6Kk0fL lyof] . ;/sf/sf]
arfpg ;8s ;+3if{df pqg / of] cfFvfdf sfnf] k§L afFw]/} /flvof] . u/]sf 5g\ . v/]nn] n]v]sf 5g\–
g} aGb u/]sf] atfP . Psflt/ b]z …Pdfn] g]tf dfwjs'df/ g]kfnn] pQm cfb]zsf] pNn+3g ub}{ !) lbgkl5 dfq sfdsf/jfxLk|lt c;Gt'li6 JoQm ub}{
;+3if{nfO{ ljb|fx] df kl/0ft ug{ cfXjfg /f]O/x]sf], ;Ldf ldlrO/x]sf], hgtf /flt ;'Tg] a]nf vfg]s'/f vfg]a]nf aGbL v8sfnfO{ a'waf/ ;jf]{Rr pgn] To;dfly ;d]t ;dLIff cfjZos
;d]t u/] . clxn]sf] cj:yfnfO{ b]v/] ;d]t k§L gvf]lnPsf] pgn] atfP . /sd kf6L{ s f] vftfdf hDdf
cfqmf]lzt eO/x]sf, ;r]t dflg;x?n] ul/lbg'eP5 .Ú Tof] /sd tTsfnLg NofOPsf] xf] . bz}+ labf z'? eO;s]sf] /x]sf] atfP . ptf kf6L{leq jfdb]j
ljåfg, j'l4hLjL tyf o'jfx? ;8sdf cu'jfO ul//x]sf / csf]{lt/ t:s/, qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ ;+u7gn] zlgaf/ hgfpFb} ;jf]R{ rn] cfufdL sflt{s * uf}tdsf] ;+;b k|jz ] u/fpg] k|k~rn]
pqg tof/ /x]sf] cfˆgf] df]rf{nfO{ /fhwfgLdf cfof] h gf u/] s f] pkTosf ck/fw dxfzfvfsf k|x/L
7]s]bf/, e|i6frf/L tyf dflkmofx? clwsf/L e/t hL;Ldfkm{ t ut] k]zLsf pkl:yt u/fpg kq hf/L ljefhgsf] /]vf sf]/s ] f] 5 . rf}tkmL{
;Gb]z k7fO/x]sf] atfpFb} uh'/]nn] ;NanfO/x]sf] åGåk"0f{ cj:yfdf cGt/lqmof sfo{qmddf g]tf k'gn] u/]kl5 dsjfgk'/} lkmtf{ u/fOPsf] xf] . cfnf]rgfaf6 xlRsPsf uf}td cGttM
hgtfsf] dgf] e fjgfdf cfPsf] lx/f;tleq /x] s f aGbLx?sf] Jofkf/Lx?af6 p7fP/ bnsf g]tfnfO{
cfk" m x? b] z / hgtfsf kIfdf a' e mfPsf] k" j { c fOhLkL v/] n n] pgnfO{ & hgfsf] k|x/L 6f]nLn] gf!em ;+;b k|jz ] sf] OR5faf6 aflxl/g afWo
ljb| f ] x fTds kl/jt{ g nfO{ b] z sf] ;+3if{sf sfo{qmdx? lnP/ cl3 dfgjclwsf/sf] uDeL/ eO/x]sf] s'/f #!!! gDa/sf] lgnf] /+usf] dlxGb| ag]sf 5g\ . pgnfO{ ha/h:t ;fy
:jfledfg arfpg] cfGbf]ngtkm{ v'n:t u/]sf . …s§/kGyLn] h;/L atfPsf 5g\ .
al9/x]sf] atfP . tTsfnLg cfOhLkL v/] n n] sDkgLsf] lksck Eofgdf /fv]/ lkmtf{ lbF b } cfPsf cWoIf k' i ksdn
g]tT[ j ug{' cfhsf] cfjZostf /x]sf] lj/f]w;efsf cWoIf tyf b]hdf] xfdLnfO{ ;'Tbf, vfFbf;d]t cfFvfdf nluPsf] 5 . ;fy} ;jf]R{ r cbfntsf] bfxfn;d]t cfˆgf] dtaf6 kl5 x6\g
s'/fdf hf]8 lbP . k§L nufOof] . ;dodf kfgL vfgf / ljdfg:ynsf] t:s/L /f]Sg cfk"mn] k|of;
sf7df8f}s F f cWoIf vu]Gb| 5GTofnn] u/]sf] cfTdsyfdf n]vs ] f 5g\ . v/]nn] cfb]z pNn+3g u/]sf] eGb} ;/sf/sf] afWo ag] s f 5g\ . bnleqsf]
;f] lj/f]w ;efdf af]Nb} g]skf - ca ljb]zL bnfn ;/sf/sf] lj?4df vfg]s'/f lbOPgg\ . o;af6 klg rf}tkmL{ rsf]{ cfnf]rgf ePsf] 5 . ;dLs/0fdf ;d]t k|efj kg{ ;Sg]
qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL_ # g+= k|b]zsf ;/sf/ dfgjclwsf/sf] /Iffdf slt sfFu;]| sf g]tf / /fhf;Fu cfˆgf] ;DaGw
;8sdf pqg'kg]{ s'/fdf hf]8 lb+b} /fd|f] /x]sf] / dfcf]jfbLk|lt s8f ?k O{Grfh{ v8\sfnfO{ lrtjg, wflbª x'bF } b]vk] l5 ;dofg'sn ' kl/jt{g ug{ ;Sg]
O~rfh{ /fdl;+x >L;n] jt{dfg ;/sf/ To;sf nflu cfk"mx? g]t[Tj ug{ r/d u}/lhDd]jf/ 5g\ eGg] k|df0f k[YjL /fhdfu{ eP/ cfh} laxfg ( ah] bfxfnn] Ps k6s k'gM cfk"mnfO{ To;/L
sDo'lg:6sf] ;/sf/ klg gePsf] / lbG5Ú pgn] k|Zg u/], …#)–#@ hgf ckgfPsf] pgsf] cfTdsyfdf k9\g
tDtof/ /x] s f] atfPsf lyP . kfOG5 . sfFu;]| g]tf v'daxfb'/nfO{ eg] sf7df8f}F NofOPsf] lyof] . g} pEofPsf x'g\ . z'qmaf/ sf7df8f}dF f
;Qfwf/L bn g]skf klg sDo'lgi6 g} qmflGtsf/L o'jf lnu sf7df8f}F lhNnf aGbL /fVg] -c6fpg]_ Pp6f sf]7f (& v8\sfnfO{ oxL c;f]h $ ?kGb]xL cfof]lht Ps sfo{qmddf bfxfn ;/sf/
g/x]sf] atfpFb} o;n] lgdf{0f ul/g] hgf;Dd aGbLnfO{ /flvPsf] 5 . oxL v/]nn] t:s/x?;Fu ;fF7ufF7 ePsf]
;x;+of]hs bz{g zdf{sf] :jfut g]tfsf ?kdf lrlqt u/]sf 5g\ . jfdb]j lhNnf cbfntn] w/f}6L lnO{ l/xf ug{ / ;/sf/sf] g]tT[ jstf{ s]kL zdf{
eg]sf] ;dfhjfb ;fdflhs hgjfbL efif0fåf/f :jfut ul/Psf] pQm /fHon] dfgjclwsf/sf] kfngf cfb]z lbP klg nuQ} v8\sfnfO{ k|x/Ln] cf]nLsf] ;kmntf ;'gfpFb} lyP . jfdb]j
:t/sf] klg gePsf] atfPsf 5g\ . u/]sf] <Ú To;/L aGbLnfO{ 6';S' s a:g] uf}td u[xdGqL x'bF f pgn] dfcf]jfbLnfO{
lj/f]w;efsf] ;~rfng c;n tfdfªn] kmfObf k'¥ofPsf] / oxL ljifon] pgL;Fu k'gM lu/ˆtf/ u/L c;f]h !) ut] uf}tdsf] ;+;b k|jz ] df ;lqmo ag]sf
pgn] jt{dfg ;Qfwf/L g]skfn] u/]sf] u/]sf lyP . sfnfkfgLljgf gS;fsf] 7fpFdf /x]sf] lx/f;t afFs]df ePsf] dsjfgk'/ k'¥ofPsf] lyof] . dsjfgk'/df bfxfn eljiodf cNkdtdf kg{ ;Sg]
hgtf em'Sofpg] e|dsf] v]tL 5;ft pgsf] egfO{ 5 . cfˆgf] cGt/lj/f]w ;'? ePsf] v/]nsf]
k|of]u, s/ j[l4, anfTsf/, xTof, sfnf ts{ 5 . v'daxfb'/;Fusf] cGt/lj/f]w k|x/Ln] v8\sfnfO{ ;fpg @( ut] b]lvPkl5 cf]nLnfO{ kmsfpg] bfpdf
dlxgfd} c;kmn ePsf] , b] z sf ahf/L, a9\bf] dx+uL, u}/Goflos ;8s cfk" m k' u ] s f] ;a} lhNnfsf kfn'ªdf a;df cfuhgL u/]/ …;+ul7t plePsf 5g\ . pgsf] of] egfO{n] klg
;Ldfx? cltqmldt dfq xf] O g, lx/f;tsf] cj:yf eojx /x]sf] rflxF t:s/x?sf sf/0fn] ePsf] v/]nsf]
lj:tf/ / /fi6« 3 ftL gful/stf ts{ 5 . ck/fwÚ u/]sf] s;'/df d'2f rnfOPsf] cf]nLnfO{ tTsfn lr9\ofpg x'bF g} eGg]
ef/tdf kfl/Psf], gSsnL gS;fx? ljw] o ssf lj?4df b] z eQm atfP . afFs]sf] lx/f;t aGb sf]7f 5 . kf6L{ sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf ;fj{hlgs cfzo b]lvG5 . s]xL ;docl3 dfq
;/sf/L sfof{nox?df em'08\ofOPsf], hgu0ftflGqs df]rf{ g]kfn sf7df8f}F ePsf] / aGbLn] clS;hg ;d]t ;jf]{Rrsf]===== oftfoft r9]/ sf7df8f}F cfpFb} ubf{ ;/sf/n] ;f]r] cg'?k sfd ug{ g;s]sf]
c;dfg ;lGw;+emf}tf cfFvf lrDn]/ / qmflGtsf/L o'jf lnu sf7df8f}Fsf] k"0f{?kdf k|fKt ug{ sl7g /x]sf] gfddf oxL c;f]h !% ut] ;f]daf/ ut ebf} % ut] a]n'sf wflbªsf] cleJolQm lbPsf pgsf] z'qmaf/sf]
sfof{ G jogdf NofOPsf] , dx+ u L ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf cfof]lht lj/f]w atfP . s'v/' fsf vf]/eGbf klg tNnf] cfb]z lbPsf] lyof] . v8\sfnfO{ gf}la;]af6 ;fbf kf]zfssf 8]9 bh{g xfpefp lgs} km/s lyof] . /, eGb} lyP–
r/dr'nLdf k'¥ofOPsf], e|i6, t:s/ ¥ofnLdf sfnfkfgL g/x]sf] gS;f :t/sf] lx/f;tx? /x]sf] pgn] atfP . tf]lsPsf] ;dodf pkl:yt gu/fP/ ;LcfO{aL k|x/Lsf] 6f]nLn] lu/ˆtf/ u/]sf] cf]nL g]tT[ jsf] ;/sf/ Oltxf;s} ;kmn .
tyf dflkmofx?sf] ;+ / Ifs / vf/]h u/, /fi6«3ftL ;lGw;Demf}tf lx/f;t 5] p af6f] eP/ lxF 8 \ g ] ;/sf/n] cfb]zsf] pNn+3g u/]sf] lyof] . To;kl5 & ut] a'6jn nluPsf] uf}tdnfO{ ;+;bdf k|jz ] u/fpg cf]nL
cleefjssf ?kdf ;/sf/nfO{ vf/]h u/, a9\bf] dx+uL lgoGq0f u/, dflg;x? b'u{Gwn] gfs, d'v y'g]/ l/6 lgj]bsn] h};Ln] atfP . h};Ln] lyof] . ToxfF …ad ljikmf]6Úsf] d'2f ;sf/fTds lyPgg\ . pgL lgs6 dflgPsf
:yflkt ul/Psf] eGb} >L;n] o;sf e| i 6frf/LnfO{ sf/jfxL u/, lxF8g\ ] u/]sf] kfOPsf] cg'elt atfP . l/6 lgj]bg c;f]h !$ ut] bfo/ rnfOPsf] lyof] . lu/ˆtf/kl5 em08} g]tfx?s} egfO{ klg k'li6 u5{ . x'g t
lj?4df ;+3if{ g} Psdfq pQd ljsNk dlxnflx+;f cGTo u/, hglj/f]wL /fli6«o dfgjlwsf/ / ;+rf/sdL{nfO{ u/]sf lyP . @$ 306f a]kQf agfO{ r/d zf/Ll/s cf]nLn] ;fj{hlgs ?kdf of] ljifodf st}
/x] s f] atfP . ;fd| f Hojfb, P] g sfg' g vf/] h u/, /fi6« 3 ftL lx/f;t / sf/fuf/sf] cjnf]sg / o;}aLr, …c;nÚnfO{ aGbL k|ToIfLs/0f / dfgl;s oftgf lbO{ ef]lnkN6 ^ ut] l6Kk0fL u/]sf 5}gg\ . bfxfnnfO{ casf]
lj:tf/jfb, dflkmof, t:s/ tyf gful/stf ljw] o s vf/] h u/, cg'udg ug{ cfu|x u/]sf 5g\ . l/6 lgj]bgdflysf] ax;df pkl:yt dxfgu/Lo k|x/L kl/;/ 6]s'af6 dxflwj]zg;Dd cf]nLnfO{ ;fydf lng'kg]{
e|i6frf/Lx?nfO{ v'Nnf cfsfz t/ qmflGtsf/L o'jf lnu– lhGbfjfb, lx/f;tleqsf] eojx / bb{gfs u/fpg a'waf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf ;fj{hlgs ul/Psf] lyof] . To;sf] afWotf klg 5 . To;}n] uf}td k|s/0faf6
hgtfnfO{ cfjfhljxLg agfpg b]hdf] g]kfn– lhGbfjfb, qmflGtsf/L cj:yfaf/] k':ts n]v]/ jt{dfg NofOk'¥ofOPsf] lyof] . t/ bz}+ labf z'? ef]lnkN6 & ut] laxfg cfGtl/s bfxfn cf]nLnfO{ lr9\ofpg rfxFbg} g\ .
lgif]lwt Onfsfx? 3f]if0ff ul/P klg dfcf] j fbL– lhGbfjfb, /fli6« o ;fdflhs bnfn kmf;LjfbL ;/sf/Úsf] eO;s]sf]n] ax;} gu/fO{ lkmtf{ k7fOPsf] p8fgaf6 a'6jn nluPsf] lyof] . ToxfF To;}n] klg pgsf] cleJolQm cf]nLsf]
tL ;a} hgtfsf ann] lg:sfd / :jfwLgtfsf] /Iff u/f}+ cflb uuge]bL e08fkmf]/ ug]{ klg pgn] hfgsf/L 5 . labf ePsf]n] aGbL v8sf xflh/L pgnfO{ …ad ljikmf]6Úsf] cleof]udf d'2f dxfgtfdf s]lGb|t ePsf] cg'dfg ug{
km':;f ;flat ePsf] atfpFb} >L;n] gf/fx? nufOPsf lyP . lbPsf 5g\ . ;d]t x'g ;s]gg . o;af6 aGbLnfO{ rnfOPsf] lyof] . yflnPsf] 5 .
If]Kof:q k|sfzg s]Gb|åf/f k|sflzt, ;Dkfbs M /fh]Gb|k|;fb lrdf}l/of, sfof{no M yfkfufpF, sf7df8f}F, df]afOn M (*$!$)#*%!,
E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com,website: www.janakhabar.com d'bs
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