Harappa Environment

During this period, the climate of the region was moist with humid land; dense forests grew where animals like tiger, elephants and rhinoceros roamed. The forests provided timber for brick kilns, which supplied bricks to the cities.

Date of Harappan Culture
This civilization belonged to the Chalcolithic period. In this age, a new metal called bronze by mixing tin and copper came to be produced. It was harder and better suited to meet the needs of the people. The better tools led to intensive cultivation. Iron was not known to the Indus Valley people. According to Sir John Marshall, the Hindus Valley Civilization may be dated between 3250 B.C. arid 2750 B.C.

The Harappan culture spread to Sindh, Gujarat. Undivided Punjab (including Harayana), Jammu, Western parts of Uttar Pradesh and Northern parts of Rajasthan (Kalibangan). The remains found in these places are similar to those found in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.

Contacts with other civilizations in Harappa
The indus Valley people had overseas trade contacts with Sumeria, Babylonia and Egypt, Thus India ranks with the ancient Western cultures of Burner, Akkad, Babylon, Egypt and Assyria.

Planned Cities in Harappa
Mohenjo and Harappa were the planned cities. They were the two biggest cities, 600 km apart. They had similar planning, layout and technique in construction. They were probably the twin capitals. Mohenjo-daro, means ‘the mound of the dead’. The city of Mohenjo-dato could be divided into three parts-the Citadel, the lower town arid the small huts on the outer limits of the city.

The Citadel in Harappa
It was the raised part of the city. It has often been described as a fort or administrative block. People might have lived here. The ruling classes included priests and wealthy merchants. The citadel had massive walls. Those walls provided protection against the floods of the Indus river. The citadel consisted of important buildings like the Granary and the Assembly or Town Halls, We also come across the Great Bath here.

The Great Bath
it was situated in the citadel, it measures 1.88 meters X 7.01 meters and is 2.43 meters deep. It had two flights or steps on oTher side, It was made of burnt bricks and mortar, it was provided with two openings one at the top (to let in water) and the other a the bottom (used as an outlet), The idea was to clean the Bath periodically. 1”here were small rooms around tile Bath. They were probably used as dress changing rooms. One of the rooms contained a big well.

The Granary in harappa
In Mohenjo-daro the arqost building is the Granary. It s 45,71 meters long and 15.23 meters wide. InHarappa there were 6 granaries. To the sooth of the granaries, there were circular brick platforms. They were meant for threshing grain.

Town Hall in Harappa
The Town Hall is an imposing structure with 69 meters long arid 23.4 meters wide. The thickness of the walls varied from 1.2 to 1.5 meters. lt might have been used as an administrative block, an assembly hall, a prayer hall, or as a hall for cultural shows.

Lower Town in Harappa
Below the citadel laid a lower town. It was inhabited by petty merchants and craftsmen. This town was divided into rectangular blocks by wide roads. The roads run from north to south and east to west. These roads cut each other at right angles. Here, the remains of brick houses can be seen. The drainage system is praiseworthy. Provision was made for street lighting.

Harappan Houses
The houses were one or two storey high. All the houses were made of baked bricks of uniform size. Every house had two or more rooms, a bath-room, a kitchen and a courtyard. The houses were also provided with doors and small windows The grinding stones were found close to the hearth

Drainage System in Harappa
The kitchen and the bathroom had drains leading out. The main drain was running alongside the main roads. The drains were lined with bricks. Most of them were covered. There were flights of steps leading to drains. The drains were cleaned periodically.

Occupations of the people in Harappa
The Indus people were farmers, weavers, potters, metal workers, toy makers, jewelers, stone cutters and traders Agriculture was the most important occupation In the fertile soils, farmers cultivated two crops a year They were the first who had grown paddy They knew different methods of irrigation. They used ploughs and sickles Pottery was a popular industry. They were skilled in the use of potter’s wheel.

Animal Husbandry in Harappa
The Indus people had domesticated a number of animals such as oxen, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs, asses and camels.

Spinning and Weaving in Harappa
The Indus people were skilled in the art of spinning and weaving. They manufactured woollen cloth from sheep and goats’ hair.

Toy-making and sculptures in Harappa
Manufacture of terracotta (burnt clay) was a major industry of the people. The figures of toys, animals and figurines were manufactured. A miniature toy-cart with a driver pulled by oxen is praiseworthy. Figures of animals such as sacred bull and dove were discovered. The figures of Mother Goddesses were used for religious purposes

Seal-making in Harappa
A large number of seals numbering more than 2000 have been discovered. They carry short inscriptions with carved pictures of animals. The seals were made of terracotta or satellite. They were used for trade. They have provided lot of information about the daily life of the people, their religion, occupations, customs and trade.

Building Industry in Harappa
In building industry, large number of people were employed Manufacture of bricks was an important industry. The bricks were more or less of an uniform size.

Trade in Harappa
The lndus people had engaged themselves in internal and foreign trade The Mesopotamian seals were found in Indus cities and the Indus seals were found in Mesopotamia. Remains of dockyard have been discovered at Lethal in Gujarat. In this dockyard, the ships might have been loaded and unloaded. Thus, the Hindus people were familiar with ships. The merchants were prosperous and lived lavishly. They used sticks with marks to measure articles. They also used various kinds of weights and measures.

Political Organization in Harappa
The city was well administered by a class of wealthy merchants and priests. There was some kind of municipal organization It took care of sanitation and regulated trade. It collected taxes in the form of grains and also maintained law and order in the city

Social Life in Harappa
There were three social groups. The first group or the ruling class lived in the citadel It comprised of wealthy merchants and the high priests. They second group consisted of petty merchants, artisans arid

craftsmen. The laborers belonged to the third group and lived in small huts. Generally speaking, the social organization was more definite

Life of the People in Harappa
The Indus people led prosperous life. They had more time for leisure. There was a very big improvement in their food habits, dress and amusements.

Food in Harappa
Wheat and barley were the staple food of the people. Besides these, they consumed milk, meat, fish, fruits and dates.

Dress and Ornaments in Harappa
The women wore a short skirt. It. was held at the waist with a girdle. The men wore a long, looseunstitched garment Women wore necklaces bangles, bracelets, earrings and waist bands. These were made of gold and silver, bone, stone, ivory and she! Men had also adorned themselves with ornaments like armlets. The rich wore gold and silver jewelry. The poor used shell, copper and silver ornaments. The women combed their hair.

Indus Script in Harappa
Indus Script Most of the inscriptions were engraved on seals They contain only a few words They developed picture writing (Pictographs,,). Altogether about 250 to 400 pictographs were discovered. It is interesting to note that the Indus script has not yet been deciphered.

Religious Life in Harappa
The Papal tree was used as a religious symbol. They worshipped Pasupathi (Siva) and Mother GoddessMother Goddess represented fertility. There are no temple structures among the remains. The Indus people believed in life after death. They buried their dead in huge earthen pots along with food and ornaments. The articles used by them in then’ daily life were also kept in those pots.

Decline of the Indus Civilization
The Indus Civilization was at its peak for about 500 years They lived in the same kind of houses, used the same tools and ate the same food. The city (Mohenjo-daro) was destroyed for a number of times and it was built again and again. The exact causes for the destruction of this great civilization are not known. The cities might have been destroyed by natural disasters like earthquakes, floods or a change in the course of the Indus. The cities declined owing to Aryan invasions also. Deforestation was another cause for the destruction of this civilization The Harappan did not know the use of iron.

Sutra (Buddhism)

The Sutras (Sanskrit; Pali Sutta) are mostly discourses attributed to the Buddha or one of his close disciples. They are all, even those not actually spoken by him, considered to be 'Buddhavacana' or the word of the Buddha, just as in the case of all canonical literature. The Buddha's discourses were perhaps originally organised according to the style in which they were delivered; there were originally nine, but later twelve, of these. The Sanskrit forms are: • Sūtra: prose discourses, especially short declarative discourses. • Geya: mixed prose and verse discourse. Identified with the Sagāthāvagga of the Saṁyutta Nikāya • Vyākarana: explanation, analysis. Discourses in question and answer format. • Gāthā: verse • Udāna: inspired speech • Ityukta: beginning with 'thus has the Bhagavan said'

• Jātaka: story of previous life • Abhutadharma: concerning wonders and miraculous events • Vaipulya either 'extended discourses' or 'those giving joy' (cf Mahayana Texts) • Nidāna: in which the teachings are set within their circumstances of origin • Avadāna: tales of exploits • Upadesha: defined and considered instructions

Jain Agamas
Agamas are canonical texts of Jainism based on Mahavira’s teachings. Mahavira’s preaching were orally compiled by his disciples into various Sutras (texts) which were collectively called Jain canonical or Agamic literature. Traditionally these sutras were orally passed on from teachers (acaryas or gurus) to the disciples for several centuries. The scholars date the composition of Jain agamas at around 6th to 3rd century BCE. The Agamas were composed of the following forty-five texts: • Twelve Angās • Twelve Upanga āgamas (Texts that provide further explanation of Angās) • Six Chedasūtras (Texts relating to the conduct and behaviour of monks and nuns) • Four Mūlasūtras (Scriptures which provide a base in the earlier stages of the monkhood) o Daśavaikālika o Uttarādhyayana o Āvaśyaka o Pindaniryukyti • Ten Prakīrnaka sūtras (Texts on Independent or miscellaneous subjects) • Two Cūlikasūtras (The scriptures which further enhance or decorate the meaning of Angas)

Bhagavatī Sūtra

Bhagwati Sutra gives the valuable information about the life of Bhagwan MAHAVIRA The Jain Scripture Bhagavatī Sūtra (Bh.S.) occupies probably the foremost position if we set out to enlist books with ample possibilities of the study of philosophy and science. Though the basic object of the Bh.S. is to explore the subtle mysteries of philosophy and spirituality, yet at many places there are significant scientific discourses. For example, the Bh.S. describes cosmology, matter,space, time, the medium of motion and the medium of rest, velocity, energy black hole etc. All these pertain to Physics and have been treated quite at length.

Rig Veda
Rig Veda is regarded as the book of Mantra and it possesses the oldest kind of the Sanskrit mantras. It was composed by giving stress on the pronunciation of each letter thus giving a particular meaning and power to each of the letters in it. A majority of the facets of Vedic science including mantra, meditation, yoga and Ayurveda are there in Rig Veda which is still in use. The central history of the Rigveda is that of Indra slaying Vritra (literally "the obstacle"), liberating the rivers; in a variant of the myth, Indra smashes the stone Vala, liberating the cows that were imprisoned within. Rivers and cows are often compared or mythically identified in the Rigveda, for example in 3.33, a notable hymn describing the crossing of two swollen rivers by the cars of the Bharata tribe, Richas refers to a shloka or couplet or mantra, usually two to four sentences long, found in the Hindu religious scriptures, in the Rig Vedas. The origin of Richas is the Sanskrit word which means to praise. Richa can also refer to a verbal composition of celestial sounds called "Shrutis". The Gayatri Mantra is a Richa as well. Richas were recited by the priests or Brahnins. There are 1058 rhichas in Rig Veda

The Yajurveda literature is divided into the White (Shukla) and the Black (Krishna) Yajurveda literature, and the latter is divided into four Branches (Shakas), the most important of which is the Taittiriya Shaka.

Shukla Yajurveda

There are two (nearly identical) shakhas or recensions of the Shukla (White) Yajurveda, both known asVajasaneyi-Samhita (VS): • Vajasaneyi Madhyandiniya (VSM), originally of Bihar • Vajasaneyi Kanva of originally of Kosala (VSK)

Krishna Yajurveda
There • • • •

are four recensions of the Krishna ("black") Yajurveda: Taittirīya saṃhita (TS) originally of Panchala Maitrayani saṃhita (MS) originally of the area south of Kurukshetra Caraka-Katha saṃhita (KS) originally of Madra and Kurukshetra Kapiṣṭhala-Katha saṃhita (KapS) of the southern Panjab, Bahika




Ajatashtru starved his father to death resulting in the end of an able and kind-hearted king's reign. e. who brought Bimbisara the village of Kashi as dowry and also bore him his son Ajathshatru.C.C. He established this sect in the 2nd century B. He extended his kingdom upto Anga in the east and this expansion is considered to have laid the foundation for the vast expansion of the Maurya Empire in future. who hated the king's patronage to the Budhha. In the Pabbaja Sutta of the Sutta Nipatta Atthakatha it is stated that he saw Goutam Budhha for the first time through his palace window. by the famous courtesan. Ambapali. Comparison between Pashupat and some other Shaiva sects Some other Shaiva sects 1. Origin of the The mission is perpe. What is the End of unhappiness End of unhappiness or concept of the and attainment of The attainment of the Final Final Liberation Supreme God. Later Budhha visited Rajgir to fulfill the promise he made to Bimbisara. He was instigated by Devdatta. Ancient Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya (I. was one of the early kings of the ancient indian kingdom of Magadha. IV. 256. His wife was a princess of Kosala. The king wished him luck and requested him to visit Rajgir as soon as he would receive Enlightenment.Brahaman who gave an account of agricultural operations for a season--Sapatha Pashupat Lakulish is the founder of this sect. Result of Samip Mukti (no Attainment of heaven spiritual practice rebirth) (hence there is rebirth) Pashupat Bimbisara (558-491 B. The latter one was a Lichchavi princess from Vaishali. He became a serious disciple of Goutam Budhha and continued to patronized Budhhism for the rest of his life. Bimbisara belonged to the Shishunaga Dynasty and Rajgir was his capital.). He had another son. Mahajanapadas (महाजनपद) literally means "Great kingdoms" (from Sanskrit Maha = great. Liberation (Kaivalya) (Moksha)? attainment of The Supreme Energy and end of unhappiness thereafter 2. Among his other wives there were Khema. 261) make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics (Solas Mahajanapadas) . He was only fifteen when he became the king and he ruled for fifty-two years. This great king was unfortunately imprisoned by his own son Ajatashatru in his intense desire to become the monarch. Jayasena and Chellana also. under the Pandava Pabbata. Causes of the Absent.. It is evident from these facts that Bimbisara used marriage alliances to strengthen his position. Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). pp 252. Silava. the embodied Illusion (asat) soul 3. Bimbisara invited him to visit his court but Budhha refused as he was in search for Enlightenment.g. p 213. the greatest patron of Goutam Budhha.From the Great mission tual. Vimala Kondanna. Maheshvar The cause requires an causes carries out His mission auxillary cause for the independently fulfillment of causation 4.

The 16 Mahajanapadas 1.Kamboja .Panchala 11. Malla 7. Vajji (or Vriji) 6.Surasena 13. Anga 4.Assaka 14.Gandhara 16. Kuru 10.Machcha (or Matsya) 12.which had evolved and flourished in the northern/north-western parts of the Indian sub-continent prior to the rise of Buddhism inIndia. Chedi 8. Magadha 5.Avanti 15. Kasi 2. Kosala 3. Vatsa (or Vamsa) 9.



Meghadutta is one of the finest works of Kalidasa in terms of world literature. a sage curses Shakuntala as she offends him unknowingly by not acknowledging his presence. She was mature and tolerant. It is the second play of Kalidasa after he wrote Malavikagnimitra. She forgives him and they live happily ever after. the Himalaya. They get married and lead a happy life until one day." It is not only a place for lovers who want to find happiness in life. Iravati was sharp and a little impatient. Kalidasa writes: "Himalaya is rich in life. There are also two lyric poems written by Kalidasa known asMeghadutta that stands for cloud messenger and the Ritusamhara that means description of the seasons. The Shakuntalam tells the story of king Dushyant who falls in love with a beautiful girl Shakuntala.) KINGS . The work describes the marriage of Lord Shiva and his consort Parvati. which means dynasty of Raghu. Agnimitra(son of Pushyamitra) was the most celebrated among them. He had two queens Dharani and Iravati. The king then recalls everything and rushes to Shakuntala to apologize for his actions. it is also an ideal retreat for those who want to meditate.C. It begins with a fine description of that giant among mountains. Dushyant's entire memory is wiped off and he doesn't remember his marriage or Shakuntala. After a series of incidents. You have to know the paths they tread by recognizing 'Sarala' trees against whose stem the elephants rub themselves attracted by the sweet milk exuded by the trees. Kumarasambhava' (mention of sati system) One of Kalidasa's greatest works is 'Kumarasambhava'. You can trace the track of lions' by looking at the precious stones spilled from the heads of elephants and not by bloodstains. Clouds in front of the caves look like curtains. Kinnaras and Vidyadhara beauties. a dynasty of Shunga kings. Malavika. Brahma (the God of creation) himself has made this the king of the mountains. Perhaps the most famous and beautiful work of Kalidasa is the Shakuntalam. Vidisha was the capital of his kingdom. Both however were equally devoted to the king and he too. MAURYAN DYNASTY (from 321 to 185 B. which means birth of Kumara and the Raghuvamsha.Works by Kalidas Malavikagnimitra is a five-act drama based on king Agnimitra's love for a beautiful girl. Critics maintain that Kalidasa wrote only the first eight chapters of the epic poem. loved them dearly. Living there are the Siddhas. All the things needed for a sacrifice ('Yajna') are available here. But the sage feels pity for her and gives a solution that he will remember everything if he sees the ring given to her by Dushyant. In his absence. Due to the curse. who happens to be the daughter of a saint. there ruled in south-west India. But she loses the ring one day in the river while bathing. Dharani was the elder of the two. The beauty of the continuity in flawless Sanskrit is unmatched till date. Kalidasa also wrote two epic poems called Kumaarasambhava. the king is asked to travel somewhere. a fisherman who finds the ring inside a fish rushes to the king with the ring. About two thousand years ago.E.

not a complete pacifist despite d remorse at conquest of kalinga . was not metaphysician .greek envoy at his court ASOKA : succeeded in about 269 BC . Alexander of Epirus strongly supported d doctrine of ahimsa . Capital punishment was know and practiced . never mentions nirvana but heaven The Last Mauryas Brihadratha – was assassinated by his senapat Pushymitra ( Shunga dynasty) ADMINISTRATION Centralized Administration : the kings was highest authority .fourth to one –sixth • Pindikara. starved himself in 298BC at Sravanabelagola( Mysore ) .Dhanananda .rajuka ( revenue officer) sthaniks( district officer) Village. to Kautilya : “ sovereignty is possible only with assistance” imp functionaries called Tirthas – 27 adhyakshas( superintendents) Provincial Administration empire was divided into no.known from the Vedic times .prince of royal blood as viceroy Mahamatras. Acc. known as Devanampiya & Piyadassi fought only one war – Kalinga (261 BC) he embarked on conquest by righteousness (Dhamma Vijaya ) won many victories by righteousness. • Pranaya. Ptolemy II Philadephus of Egypt. wine but not sophist nd replied greek sophist were not export Deimachos.rest of the mahamatras Asoka had four provinces Provinces Capital • Magadha ---Pataliputra • North-western ---Taxila Provinces • Western ---Ujjain Province • Southern ---Swarnagiri Province Kalinga with its capital Tosali Mahamatras were assisted by yukta( tax collector).assessed on groups of villages and paid by husbandsmen • Hirayna – paid in cash • Bali. Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia . of provinces. Kathiawar. Antiochus I sent figs. his capital: Pataliputra .C.5 Hellenic Kings . succeeded by his son BINDUSARA : maintained friendly ties with Hellenic west.smallest unit nd officer known as Gramika Land revenues from rural areas – • Bhaga: was levied at the rate of one.CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA ( ascended the throne 322BC) :Identified with Sandrocottus. B4 he came to d throne. Justice And Punishment – the Arthashtra mentions two types of courts • Dharmasthiya. der was governor for each provinces Kumar-mahamatras.analogus with modern civil courts • Kantakasodhan. he dint restore it to its original rulers.analogus with modern criminal courts Seven Penalties Were Imposed On Law-Breakers. Magas of Cyrene .Antiochus II Theos of Syria. he was viceroy of Taxila & Ujjain . wine nd sophist.-abdicted his throne .penalties were . had unlimited power . some parts of Deccan . He requested Antiochus I (Seleucid King of Syria) to send the figs.was levy imposed by the state during emergency periods. he inaugurated new class of officers “ Officers of Righteousness” his personal region was Buddhism.300B. conquered: Guj . overthrew last of the Nandas.

LITERATURE Literature---Chandragupta & bindusara favored Sanskrit & & BRAHMANICAL learning Asokan Inscription – composed mainly in Prakrit language & in brahmi script also used Kharoshthi and Greek scripts kautilya’s Arthashastra Bhadrabahu’s Kalpasutra Buddhist scripture – Katha Vathu Dhamma of Ashoka There is no doubt that Ashoka's personal religion was Buddhism. Indian silk & COTTAN WERE IN MUCH DEMAND IN WESTERN COUNTRIES existence of srenis( guilds) coins of different metals nishka. In Rock Edict VII he says all seeks desire both self control and . In his Bhabru edict he says he had full faith in Buddha. sarad while female spies were called vrishali. Jainism & Buddhism were popular religion .copper heavy taxation The royal highway betn Taxila & Pataliputra was the ancestor of the grand trunk road of 2day. ART &ARCHITECTURE Chandragupta Maurya built his capital & palace apparently of wood. bhikshuki. it is dhamma that had made Asoka of the greatest ruler of Indian history ECONOMICS CONDITION economy was agrarian . introduced stone masonry Palace @ Kumahar near Patna – 80 pillared hall Asoka’s reign the art of sculpture & rock cutting attained great heights.gold purana. rivalry existed between dem yajnas were performed but animal sacrifices had lost much of importance . image worship still not in vogue Asoka’s Dhamma personal religion was Buddhism .silver karshapana. four rock-cut sanctuaries on the Barabar hills nd three on Nagarjuni hills near Gaya( Bihar) Pillar at Sarnath.based on Varna hierarchy Espionage: worked underMahamatyapasurpa 2 types of spies. tishna.santha & sanchara Male spies known as santi. Purdah system was not known but practiced polygamy – was prevalent in royal family slaves were employed in agriculture RELIGION Hinduism . He showed respect to all sects and faiths and believed in using among ethical and moral values of all sects. Dhamma and Sangha. parivarjaki SOCIETY caste system had become very rigid in Asoka’s reign – caste system had become somewhat loose women position – they were respected but they had to face discrimination.eastern India. It was in the Mauryan times that burnt bricks first used in north.

cruelty. inner and outer purity etc are to be pursued vigorously. Agnimitra: son of Pushyamitra & viceroy of Vidisa . Ashoka established hospitals for humans and animals and made liberal donations to the Brahmans and ascetics of different religious sects. truthfulness. was more of federal one . pride and envy are to be avoided and many good deeds like kindness. In Rock Edict XII he pronounces his policy of equal respect to all religious sects more clearly. The Dhamma as explained in Ashoka's edicts is not a religion or a religious system but a moral law. anger. question what is Dhamma? Then he enumerates two basic attributes or constituents of Dhamma: The Shungas : KING Pushyamitra: founder . liberty. attachment to morality. selfcontrol. purity of heart. was instrumental in suppressing the revolt of Vidarbha under Yajnasena Vasumitra: grandson of Pushyamitra.purity of mind. a common code of conduct or an ethical order. referred as senapati. He says such evils as rage. repulsed a major attack of Demetrius ADMINISTRATION RELIGION not a closely-knit centralized rule. In Pillar Edict II Ashoka himself puts the less evil and many good deeds. gentleness.

Bharhut stupa being built . follower of Jainism nd he constructed the caves in Udaigiri THE SATAVAHANAS . besides the fine railings of the Sanchi stupa (despite Buddhist persecution) LITERATURE Mahabhashya.brahmanical influence revived . the practice of Vedic sacrifice was popularized .3rd king of dynasty . THE CHETIS OF KALINGA : inscription ( near Bhubaneswar.Kalidasa ( based on life of Agnimitra) THE KANVAS: founder of dynastyVasudeva Kanva comprised four kings & ruled for 45 years. Orissa) SOURCE OF INFORMATION: Hathigumpha Kharavela .said to have defied the Satavahana ruler Satakarni . Its decline was due to the expansion of Satavahana power in the Deccan and the foreign invasions in the north.Patanjali ( was born at Gonanda in this period)Malavikagnimitra. Pushyamitra is said to have performed two ashvamedha yajnas .

SIMUKA : founder of dynasty .referred to as the ANDHRAS in the puranas. came into prominence in the Deccan after ending the rule of shungas nd kanvas .

potin. also overthrew Parthian & Greeks . capital was at Pratisthan( Paithan. gold may have been used as bullion . Kathiawar. performed two horse sacrifice . the women enjoyed a good deal of importance. Maharathis and mahasenapatis : cream of society amatyas. dasaka.Maharashtra) GUATIMIPUTRA SATAKARNI: saved Deccan from Shaka onslaught s. Vedic sacrifice were performed & Brahmans were paid .3rdclass malakara. BC)rock –cut architecture found in Andhra Amravati stupa – began in about 200 BC but completed in 2ndcentury AD Nagarjunakonda. Gujarat . first satavahana ruler to establish his authority in Andhra country VASHISHTHIPUTRA SATAKARNI:married to the daughter of Rudradaman i but this didn’t prevent him from twice defeating satavahanas YAJNASRI SATAKARNI: recovered north-Konkan and Malwa from the Shakas. lover of navigation & trade. copper and bronze money kingdom was famous for production of rice and cotton ART & ARCHITECTURE many Buddhist chaityas nd vihars were cut out of the solid rock in the north –western Deccan . Vasudeva & others . salt monopoly.prospered most in the 2nd-3rd centuries under the patronage of the Ikshvakus LITERATURE official language – Prakrit all inscription were written in Prakrit & in brahmi script prakrit text called Gathasapati is attributed to a Satavahana king Hala Gupta Dynasty . Mahayana Buddhism commanded considerable following . control over Malwa. lakhaka. Berar VASHISHTHIPUTRA PULAMAYI : son of GUATIMIPUTRA SATAKARNI. vardhaki. mahamatras. family was patriarchal coz succession to the throne passed to the male member RELIGION worshipped a large number of Vaishnava gods such as Krishna. his coins have been found in ANDHRA. managed to salvage whatever damage was done by Nahapana( Shaka King) . most famous chaitya – Karle( 1st cen.King SIMUKA : founder of dynasty HALA: famous king SRI SATAKARNI:ruled for 18 yrs. ship on his coins ADMINISTRATION monarchy was hereditary. there were at least four classes – mahabhojas. Maharashtra. Gama – division below ahara . identified with the Satakarni the Nanaghat inscription ( called as Lord of Deccan &^ husband of Naganika) . Buddhism flourished in Nasik & Junnar areas in the western Deccan ECONOMICS CONDITION In Karimnagar district a blacksmith’s shop has been discovered . taxes on land & income from court fees Satavahanas acted as link between north nd south India ( in trade & exchange of ideas ) SOCIETY Gautamiputra Satakarni – re-established the four –fold Varna system Absorption Of Shakas in Hindu society as Kshatriyas In social hierarchy. dint issue gold coins but coins of lead . Gujarat & Madhya Pradesh .royal domain. bhandagarikas & non-officials – 2nd class vaidya. content simple title of Rajan . taxes – neither burdensome nor many sources of income.4thclass customary to their king to be named after his mother . king also promoted Buddhism . empire was divided into janapadas & aharas. suvarnakara.

Smith prayag prasaTI. performed Ashvamedha sacrifice .married with the Nga princess Kubernaga and allowed his daughter Prabhavati to marry with Rudrasena II.Kalidasa Amarsimha…Chinese Pilgrim FA-Hsien(399-414) visited india …Mehrauli iron pillar inscription near Qutab Minar .Delhi . assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja strengthened his position by matrimonial alliance with Lichchavis(kshratiyas) .EULOGIC INSCRIPTION composed by his minister and court poet Harisena . Towards the end of his reign a tribe in the Narmada valley...a Vakataka King …invaded the shaka Kingdom of Gujrat &Khatiawar . he ruled until 455. but then was faced with invading Hephthalites or "White Huns".A.KINGS Sri Gupta & Ghatatkacha – first two rulers of dynasty Chandra Gupta: son of Ghatatkacha . some coins of samdrugupta represent him as playing on the vina.. Skandagupta: is generally considered the last of the great rulers. known in India as the Huna. killed the Shaka chief Rudrasimha III …Ujjain . He repulsed aHuna attack c. But the expense of the wars drained the empire's resources and contributed to its decline. from the northwest.@nd capital of Guptas … adopted the title of Vikaramaditya …adorned by many scholars …. 455. on old Asokan pillar( @ Allahabad ) .assumed the title of Vikramankaand Kaviraja Chandra Gupta II: in the play Devichandrapuptam of Visakhadatta…Rama Gupta is elder brother of Chandra Gupta II however Gupta records do not refer to Rama Gupta.enumerates the exploits of Chandra gupta II Kumaragupta Chandragupta II was succeeded by his son Kumaragupta I. He defeated the Pushyamitra threat. rose in power to threaten the empire. the lichchavis princess Kumaradevi must have brought to the Guptas the gupta era started in AD 320 Samudra GUPta: has been called Indian Napolean by V. the Pushyamitras. Skandagupta died in 467 and was succeeded by his sonNarasimhagupta Baladitya Administration . follower of brahmanical learning.he granted permission to the Buddhist king of Ceylon-Meghaverman to build monastery @ Bodh Gaya . Known as the Mahendraditya. HArisena described him as the hero of hundred battle .

. theorized upon the Earth’s rotation on its axis Varahamitra.official language of gupta empire …Ramayana and Mahabharata were complied in this period Science and technology Indian notational system –called Arbic by the English . widow marriage was disallowed …the fisrt reference to sati appears in Gupta Times in AD 510 at Eran… Buddhism. of gold coins …called dinars. Thaneshwar & Mathura came into prominence Society and Religion Acc to Naradasmriti( 5th cen) – Brahmanas became richer because oif land grants position of Shudrasimproved slightly .high degree of proficiency…narrative scenes mostaly portray Jataka stories Ajanta : portray panorama the whole human and natural drama literature Sanskrit. Durga . Paramdaivata.most imp officials Economy issued the largest no. Chakravati. the country was divided into into several Bhuktis(provinces) …further divided into Visyas(districts)adopted titles like Parambhattaraka. Deogarh(Jhansi)Nalanda( Buddhist University ) – was set up in 5th century two important styles – Nagara & Dravida stupas : Mirpur Khas(sind).cities like Banaras. Bactria & Iran. called Hindsa by the Arabs themselvesAryabhattacalculated vale 22/7& length of solar year . near Bhagalpur) hindu sculpture. Ellora & Bagh sculpture .family belonged to the Maitraka clan in Saurashtrafounder:Bhatarka. and goddess like Lakshmi ..chaitya nd viharas..astronomer: moon rotated the earth which rotates around the sun Vagabhatta – renowned physician SMALL KINGDOMS Capital: Valabhi IN NORTH Maitrakas of Valabhi:.. Vishnu And Narayana) Art of Painting.Parmeshwar etc...2 metre high bronze image of the Buddha(Sultanganj.golden age of ancient India .mostly found in Ajanta. to worship new god called Krishna .Deogarh temple( mythological themes of Rama. Items of import included Chinese silk in greater quantity & ivory from Ethiopia …Horses too imported from Arabia.disallowed formal education & inheritance of property . now considered as agriculturists rather than slaves but untouchables increased in numbers (chandalas) women position declined .no longer received Royal patronage …Bhagavatism or Vaishnavism overshadowed Mahayana Buddhism Vishnu became a member of trinity of Goods shakti cult gave rise to consorts to gods. permitted to listen to the epics & Puranas . . Paravati . Dhamekh at Sarnath rock-cut architecture.by the fourth century AD Bhagavad-Gita was finally complied Art & Crafts brick temples – Bhitargaon(Kanpur). Kumaraamtyas. Bhatari(Ghazipur).

made himself master of 3 kindoms – Maharashtra.took title of ParamaBhagavata. isanavarman.Dhruvasena II married to the Daughter of Harsh of Kanauj during the time of Dhruvasena IV that the celebrated Sanskrit Epic Bhattikavyam or Ravanavadham was composed by Bhatti overthrown by the Arabs of Sind Maukharis of Gayas:.belonged to Bundelkhand .there arose the kingdom . Mahendra Varman I ….II (733.hostilities between of the Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas of Vengi were strongVijayaaditya III(848-892) : credited with the victories over the Pallavas. Ikshvakus after fall of Satavahanas . Konkan and Karnata killed by Narasimhavarman( Pallava king) in 642 Vikaramaditya (655-6810):son of Pulekesin II .gives name of eight late-gupta kings Gaudas of Bengal :.Kulottunga chola annexed the empire Western Chalukyas of Kalyani descent from the main line of Chalukyas of Vatapi…reestablished by Taila in 973.probably were Kshatriyas. contemporary of Harshvardhana…victory over Harsha in 620.Kumara Gupta: 1st independent ruler of Dynasty Adityasena. succeeded in recovering his paternal dominions from grip of the Pallavas. got a temple of Vishnu constructed Aspad inscription from Gaya.claimed victory over Andhras. Vikaramaditya II(733-746): defeated the The Pallava kirtivarman. they built monument at Nagarjunakonda & Dharanikonda.Sasanka…fought against the rulers of Thaneshwar nd Kanuaj …entered into alliance of Maukhari ruler Small kingdoms of Deccan the Vakatakas :.greaset ruler of dynasty. rule ended with their conquest by the Pallavas Chalukyas- Jayasingha & Ranaraja. founder: Vindyasakti Pravarasena ( son of Vindyasakti) ruled over territories extending from Bundelkhand to Andhara Pradesh Prithvisena: contemporary of the Great Gupta Emperor Samudragupta Rudrasena II: married to Prabhavati (daughter of Chandragupta II) Harisena – belonged to minor branch of Vakataka Vakataka power was destroyed by the kalachuries & THE Kadambas Ajanta cave fresco paintaings were excavated during their rule. Virarajendra in the battle of kudal . established his influence over the whole of Deccan…defeated the Pallava king.757): lost Maharashtra to Dantidurga( Rashtrakuta) Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi founded by Kubja-Vishnu-Vardhana (Pulakesin II’s brother )…transferred his capital from Pishtapura to the ancient city of Vengi(Andhra)….!st two ruler Pulakesin I(535-566) . when he defeated the last Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghvarsha IV Somesvara I(1043-1068) : involved in a protracted war with Cholas 7 was finally defeated by Chola ruler.source of information: Barabar & Nagarjuni inscription first ruler of branch – Yajnavarnma Maukharis of Kanauj :. Karnataka) Pulakesin II(611-642): known as Satyasraya. Sulikas of Orissa & the Gaudas long dual between Maukharies & the later Guptas The Later Guptas:. the Pandyas and the Rashtrakutas they became the allies of the Cholas. founded the fort of Vatapi ( Bijapur.

Virupaksha temple (Pattadakal. the Vishnu temple of Badami.Somesvara II(1068-1076): a tyrannical ruler –was overthrown by his brother Vikramaditya II Tribhuvanamalla(1076-1126): the hero of Bilhana’s Vikramaaditya Charita…he introduced ChalukyaVikrama Era (1076 AD) Jagadekamalla II. known as Amoghvarsha I(814-878)…said to hav built the city of Manyakheta as his capital…. Govinda III Jagattunga(793-814)…succeeded by son Sarva. near Badami) .with the death of him Challukyan power was eclipsed…nd the thorne was usurped by the Kalachuri minister – Vijjala/Vijjana… Achievements of Chalukya Much of the paintings & sculptures of Ajanta & Ellora caves were completed during this region …style of temple –vesara( admixture of the Dravida & Nagara) : famous temple.Mitaksara Rashtrakutas Dantidurga: founder ….succeeded by his son Govinda(773-780) …was deposed by his younger brother Dhruva Nirupama. the Siva temple of Maguti. the Kashi Visveswara temple of LakhundiSanskrit writer : Bilhana-Vikramaaditya Charita and Chaurapanchasika(poet) Vijnanesvara.who occupied Kanchi and Tanjore & defeated a chola army at the battle .last great ruler of the dynasty was Krishna III(939-967).regarded as peak of rashtrakuta…territories ultimately came to his son.succeeded by his uncle Krishna(758-722)….

Rudramba in 1261….they rose to power in Telegana… seat of power shifted from Anmakonda to Telengana…Prolaraja..kakusthavarman. dedicted to Vishnu Hoysaleswara temple @ Helabid .Kesava temple @ Belur( Hasan district).last ruler … kingdom was ravaged by Malik Kafur hoysalas were great temple builders…. CHamundaraya.it was during reign of Rajamala IV(977-985) that his minister & general .had to conflict with the Chalukyas of Vengi and Dhruva Nirupama devotees of Jainism. Hemadri. Kalingas.Mayurasarman….under whom influence grew considerably….of Takkolam(949) Achievements of Rashtrakutas Krishna I –built the rock-cut Kailasa temple @Ellora(latter half of the 8 cen AD).had to submit b4 d muslim invader. erected the celebrated imge of Gomateshvara at Sravanabelagola(983) Yadavas descendents of the Yadu race to which belonged Mahabharata hero Krishna Bhillama V.transferred his capital from Velapura to Dwarasamdudra( Halebid) & made himself independent of Chalukyan Suzerain Vikaramaditya VI… Vira-Ballala I(1172-1215): first to assume the title of Maharajadhiraja …. dedicted to Siva THE THREE EARLY Kingdoms .most energetic ruler during the reign of Mahadeva & Ramachandra. but was defeated by Vira Ballala I Hoysala @ battle of Lakhundi Jaitrapala I1191-1210) – killed the Rudradeva ( Kakatiya ruler )….Amoghvarsha said to have written the earliest book of poems in Kannada Gangas either belonged to the line of Ishvakus or associated with the river Ganga…kingdom included the greater part of Mysore or with Kanvas…founded by Didiga(konganivarman) & Madhava(in 4th cen AD)…early capital was Kuluvala but was trf to Talkad by Harivarma…Durvinita. his most imp work – Chaturvarga-Chinatamani during the reign during the reign of Ramachandra. Vira-Ballala III.Singhana(`1210-1247).Parudriya (poetics work)…. Prataparudradevaimmortalized by Vaidyanatha’s Prata.renowned for his Hindu Dharmashtra flourished .Ravivarman…his capital at Halsi Founder..assumed the male title of Rudradeva Maharaja…succeeded by her grandson.made Devgiri his capital. constructed in Dravidyan style of the Chalukyas …. Malik Kafur… Silaharas Kadambas Hoysalas notable monarch Bhoja(1175-1210): aftr whom d kingdom was conquered by Singhana( Yadava Ruler) founder.a kshatriya named Sala…Bittiga Vishnuvardhana(1110-1140)….army led by Ala-ud-din Khalji then Governor of Kara…invaded Devagiri (1294) Harapala was killed at the behest of Sultan Mubarak Kakatiyas first feudatories of the Later Chalukyas ….greater Brahman minister. Yadavas …succeeded by his daughter.warfare against the western Chalukyas Ganapati – successfully overcame the Cholas.

.referrence of sati Kings were performed Vedic sacrifices…. the Malay archipelago & China… Polity hereditary monarchy…entire kingdom was called mandalam .1014): destroyed the Chera navy @ Thiruvandapuram nd attacted Quilon.who founded Puhar( Kaveripattanam). the Red / Good Chera.captured Madurai but was defeated by the Rashtrakuta ruler.MURUGAN.single source of revenue land tax called Karai… war booty was known as Irai …they had volumionious trade with the Greek /Hellenistic kingdom..Brahmans enjoyed considerable influence and Pandyan king performed Vedic sacrifices The Cholas chief centre of power lay at Uraiyur( famous for cotton trade )… chola king Elara conquered Sri Lanka ( middle of 2nd Century ) nd ruled over it for about 50yrs …were expelled by the Sinhalese national hero.sacked Madurai( pandyan capital) Administration Hereditary monarchy… Rajaraja I . a group of ministers olai: there were corresponding officers in the Chalukyan court .thhe greatest Chera king : Senguttuvan.puhar was harbor area…Pattanam…coastal town .conquest of Kadaram/ kedah Kulottunga I : remained undiminished under his rule except loss of Ceylon Kulottunga III (1178-1210): : was last great Chola Monarch….capital was Madurai…the kingdom profited with the trade with the Roman empire & sent embassies to the Roman emperor.chola capital … last remnants of Chola power were wiped out by the attacks of the Pallavas The Chera flourishing trade with Romans… Romans had set up 2 regiments at Muziris (modern Cranganore ) in the Cgera country …they hav built a temple of Augustus ….Karikala .. Augustus. chola king.The Pandyas first mentioned by Megasthense… kingdom was celebrated for pearls & was ruled by woman …. he is credited with having invaded the North nd crossed the Ganga… Economic country mostly self-sufficing….captured the Pandyan Capital Madurai…also annexed the northern part of Sri Lanka…conquest of Maldive Islands Rajendra I (1014-1044): annexed the rest of Sri Lanka which remained under Chola rule for next 50 yrs. Mahipala of Bengal …he assumed the title Gangaikonda ( in --commemoration of his victories in the Gangetic delta) n& founded the capital – Gangaikonda Cholapuram…naval expedition against revived Sri Vijaya( Sumatra empire) ...involved in the Pandyan wars of succession .village was fundamental unit of administration & looked aftr by7 manrums(panchayats)… Society Religion Brahmans first appear in the South in the Sangam age…captains of the army were invested with the title of enadi ruling class was called arasar…members of lowest class: Kadaisiyar…agriculturist labourers: pariyars.. king Dutugamunu(161-137 BC)….. initiated the system of Prefacing the stone inscription of the reignVelams: the palace servants of the Chola were organized into velams and settled in separate quarters in the capitals udankutaam: the chola monarch had immediate attendants.sent an expedition against Bengal…defeated the Pala Kin g . Egypt & Arabia. below it was nadu.god worshipped by the people… The Imperial Cholas KINGS founder: Vijayalaya( first feudatory of the Pallavas)…captured Tanjore(in 850) Aditya I Chola : wiped out the Pallavas of Kanchi… Parantaka(907-955)…..the ur was town…. Krishna III( battle of Takkolam) lost Tondaimandalam Sundara-Chola: overcame Rashtrakuta & wrested Tondaimandalam 4m him Rajaraja (985.

Jayangondur. criteria to secure the membership of Sabha: ownership of more than Fourth veli( abt an acre nd half) .destinations of those trading with the west… Society the centre of social nd economic life at the time…particularly in the rural areas was the temple….nd encouraged late post-puberty marriage and widow-remarriage… Art and Architecture The masterpiece of chola sculpture is the famous Nataraja (the dancing Siva) bronze image of Chidambaram. were generally seen carrying a pot of wine and a club Saivism.Lingayat/ Virasaiva sect : founded by Basavaraja in 12thcentury. · Iron appears to have arrived in South India without a preceding Copper/Bronze Age or a Chalcolithic Age. knowledge of vedic literature variyam system : local administration were entrusted to committees of 6 to 12 members …. an upper perundanam nd a lower sirudanam… jivitas: the officials were often remunerated by assignments of land suited to their station the empire was divided into convenient areas …the division in ascending order being Vlanadu/mandalam. variety of extreme sects: such as the tantric nd shakti cult Kalamukha sect: ate food out of human skull. was imparted through the medium of the Saivite nd Vaishnavite hymns composed by the Tamils saints…. age between 35 nd 70. the Punch-Marked Coins. nadu and Kurram local self –government ur: assembly of common village . all members of the village could become the member of ur sabha: exclusively Brahman assembly of the brahmadeya villages . . · Historians assign a variety of sources to this period: 1.produced other sects at this time…. Tamilham. worshipped Siva in form of Lingam(phallic emblem). references in the Arthasastra and in the in Asokan Edicts. · It was more or less co-terminus with the beginning of the Iron Age in this part of the sub-continent. organized in two ranks. Tamilkam or Tamizhakam (the Tamil realm). 5. THE SANGAM AGE Historical and Pre-Historical Background · The extreme southern part of India from the Tirupati Hill (Vengadam) also known as Pullikunram in an Aham passage to Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari). 2.Brahmans …temple continued to be the centre of formal education in Sanskrit … oral instruction . 4. the hero-stones. the megaliths and their grave goods. Kalladanar… Religion Sanskrit remained the language of hindu theology nd of the Brahmans…buddhism practically disappeared by the end of the period …Buddha being commonly accepted as an incarnatyion of Vishnu Jainism: survived with a following in Mysore. residence in house built on one’s own land . questioned the authority of the Vedas. Literature Kamban’s version of Ramayana ( in tami)… Kuttan. bounded by sea on the East and the West.The officials tended to form a separate class in society.. 3.memebers called Variyapperumakkal Economy: self – sufficing…overseas trade eas the strength of the chola merchants Persia & Arabia. the Tamil Brahmi cave labels. the early Tamil anthologies.devadasis were commomnly found Brahmans maintained a distinctness….slavery was comman……society was divided into Brahmans & non. much simpler than the Sanskrit learning of colleges . was known as Tamilgam.

Maduraikanchi 7. · The group Pattupattu includes: 1. Narrinai Karuntogai Aingurunuru Padirrupattu Paripadal Kalittogai Ahanamuru Puraanuru. Greeco-Roman accounts. 6. 4. 7. 2. · The next reference is to be found in the contemporary to the lraiyanar Ahappiorul belonging to the ninth century AD. Perumbanarruppadai 5. which was also engulfed by sea. 3. Sirupanarruppadai 4. 8. A scholium of Katyayana on Panini. many texts were lost. · The earliest known phase of this literature is usually designated the Sangam literature for the reason that the anthologies of odes. i. the middle Sangam or Idai Sangam and the last Sangam or Kadai Sangam. the archaeology and numismatics of Roman presence and so on. first Sangam or Talai Sangam. Mullaipattu 6. · The term Sangam was first referred to by Tirunavukkarasu Nayanar (Appar). and the capital as well as the Sangam were again shifted to Madhurai. · These academies were established by the Pandyan kings.6. · The group of Ettuttogai consists of: 1.. · On these occasions of deluge. · In the traditional accounts. · Before the seventh century AD the alternative term for Sangam was Avaiyam or Kudal or its variant Kuttu or Punarkuttu or even Togai. Tirumurugarruppadai 2. the Shiva or Saiva saint belonging to the early seventh century in the Tripputtur Tiruttanndaham. 5. Megasthenes. the first Sangam was constituted at the first Pandyan capital at Ten-Madurai. Nedunalvadai . lyrics and idylls that form the bulk of that literature were composed by a body of Tamil scholars or poets in three successive literary academies called ‘Sangam’. 7.e. Porunararruppadai 3. · Silappadikaram and Kalittogai refer to the “loss of territory by deluge”. · This text talks about three successive Sangams. · On the occasion of a ‘deluge’. an inland city. The Sangam Literature · Tamil is the oldest among the spoken literary languages in South India. occasional sherd of the NBPW (Northern Black Polished Ware). Important Sangam Works · Ettuttogai (the eight anthologies) and Pattupattu (the ten idylls) are the two major groups of texts included in the corpus of Sangam Literature. the Pandyan capital and the Sangam was shifted to Kapatapuram.

· The Agattiyam. Kainnilai (or Innilai) 12. · Silappadikaram and Manimegalai. Kural 13. composed by Agattiyar. Perunkuruhu. Malaipadukanchi · Some scholars have included Tolkapium. is universally regarded as a work of immense importance. Iniya Narpadu 5. the eighteen didactical texts (comprising: 1. Aintinai Aimpadu 8. Tirikadugam 14. Hence. Kurinjipattu 9.8. . Pattinappalai 10. Kar Narpadu 6. the Arthasastra and the Kamasutra. · The Bharatam by Perundevanar are some works which are lost except for a few stanzas quoted by later composers. Palamoli 16. a later day minor form of literature dealing with the ‘King’s sojourn through the streets of the capital city’ the theme is partly Puram and partly Aham but it is in fact Kaikkilai (unilateral love) aspect of Aham literature. Sirupanchachamulam 17. except for a few sutras not by medieval commentators. · In Ula. i. remnants of poems like Togadur Yattirai and Bharatam of Perundevanar in the Sangam corpus.e. a compound of the Dharmasastra. Charakkovai 15. Tolkappiam is the oldest Tamil literary work extant today. Tinaimalai Nurraimpadu 11. a work on the twelve different situations in warfare by Tolkappiar and eleven others. Mudumo Likkanchi 18. Aintinai Elupadu 9. · On the other hand the Kilkkanakku works (the shorter serials) are so called because they consist of poems composed in the Venba metre which permits on an average four lines for each stanza. Nladiyar 2. · The Puram category of literature idealizes love and aspects related to it. · Kakkaippadiniyam. a work on poetics by Kakkaippadiniyar. Kalavali Narpadu 7. Patinenkilkanakku.. · There is another important characterization or division of Sangam literature. · Some other works mentioned by Adiyarkkunallar and which are lost to us are Perunarai. Nammanikkadigai 3. Eladi). into Aham and Puram. Pannirupadalam. · The Ettutogai and Pattupattu are together grouped as Melkanakku (the longer serials) for they consist stanzas composed of metre which permits of a larger numbers of lines. · The Kural by Tiruvalluvar. the twin epics. · Tagadur Yattirai by Panmudiyar. Arisil Kilars and other dealing with Perunjeral Irumporai’s invasion of the capital of Adihaiman Neduman Anji. the Tamil grammatical treatise by Tolkappiyar (supposed to be the disciple of Agastya. the famous saint who is said to have crossed the Vindhyas first and propagated the Brahmanical culture in the South). Tinaimoli Aimpadu 10. Tolkappiyar’s real teacher and the oldest exponent of Tamil grammar is lost. Inna Narpadu 4.

Corroborative Sources Archaeological Evidence · The site of Kaverippatinam. BRW. Isai Nunukkam by Sikandi. exploration yielded the usual pottery types and some urns. · Ettuttogai collection excluding Kallittogai and Paripadal is considered to be the most archaic. and a dying vat besides ordinary Red and Black Pottery. Agattiyam. Jayantam. · Excavations around Madurai at Kudal was given up for lack of results. has yielded a fairly large number of Roman coins. attended by 8. Russet-Coated Painted Ware. · Strabo makes references to the Pandyan embassies to the court of Augustus. Bharatam. also known as Vanji and Vanjimurram. a punchmarked silver coin. “Arkatos” of Ptolemy and the second capital of the Cholas. Guan Nul. level I. also known as Puhar. · All these works deal with musico Adiyarkkunallur mentions Seyirriyam. · It is generally said that three Sangams were held which lasted for 9. belonging to 3rd century BC – 3rd century AD. bone points and potsherds inscribed with the Brahmi script. · It is also believed that the available Sangam literature produced by these assemblies was compiled between AD 300 and AD 600. · At Uraiyur. Panchamarabu and Bharata Senapatiyam.Pancha Bharatiyam (all by Narada). · Kanchipuram yielded some locally made imitations of Roman amphorai. Chronology · The Sangam was a college or an assembly of Tamil poets held under early Pandyan patronage. · There were shell and paste beads. local Rouletted Ware. · Karur. · At Akkadu in Tanjavur. . the ancient Chera capital. some with graffiti marks etc. Muruval. · He is the earliest non-Indian to make any mention of a southern kingdom. a daughter of Herakles. Indra Kaliyam. also known as Koli and Varanam.990 years. Foreign Accounts · Megasthenes gives a quaint account of the Pandyan kingdom “ruled over by the Pandaiya. · The ancient port sites of Korkai. terracotta gamesmen.598 poets and were patronized by 197 Pandyan kings. Rouletted and supposedly Arretine Ware (of Roman inspiration). Roulettted Ware and a brick platform (a dock) – all probably contemporary with the Sangam period. some Roman Amphorai pieces. a Chola capital. · Erambam was a treatise on Mathematics mentioned by Parimelalgar. Tondi and Kodungalur also did not yield any evidence of real cities. Nataka-t-Tamil Nul by Mativanan as important works on dance and drama. to whom he assigned that portion of India which lies southwards and extends to the sea”. · The twin Tamil epics of Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are composed around the sixth century AD. · He also refers to the change of Pandyan capital from Korkai to Madurai. which represents the Sangam period. Kakandi and Sampapati. has yielded a sluice. yielded Black and Red Ware.

· Some sundry information is also gathered from the Purananuru and the Silappadikaram. and Perunjoran Udiyan are applied to him by the poet Mudinagarayar in Puram literature. the Chera capital has been located by some scholars near Musiri (Cranganore) while many others identify it with the inland city of Karur on the Amaravati river in the Coimbatore district. · Musiri or Muziris and Tondi on the west coast of South India. · The titles Vanavaramban ‘one whose kingdom is bounded by the sky’ or ‘by the sea’. Marandai. . · Ptolemy’s accounts also show that the Roman trade with east. · Gajabahu I is known to have ruled in the second half of the 2nd century AD. and his kitchen had become a bye-word for sumptuous feeding. · The site of Vanji. Tondi (Kadalundi). Cochin and South Malabar. Sangam Polity The Cheras · The Cheras ruled over an area comprising north Travancore. Naravu (Naura and Nitrias of the Greek writers) and Bakare (Porkad). · Musiri was their chief port. Korkai and Kaveripattinam on the east were among the chief ports of the Tamil land where foreigners crowded. · It was Gajabahu I of Sri Lanka who was present on the occasion of the installation of a temple to Kannagi the goddess of chastity. read with the Uraiperu Katturai of Silappadikaram.e. which began sometime in the reign of Augustus had by the first quarter of the second century AD reached beyond India to indo-china and Sumatra. · The information on the geneolgoical history of the Cheras largely comes from the Padirrupattu (ten tens).g. · The Sri Lankan chronicle. · Ptolemy wrote half a century later (150 AD) and his work marks a decided advance in the regularity and volume of trade between the Roman Empire and India. Mahavastu. · The Chinese writer Pan Kou (1st Century AD) mentions the kingdom of Houangtche (Kanchi) in his ‘Ts’ien Han Chou’. the Senguttuvan-Gajabahu synchronism.· Pliny the elder mentions many Tamil ports on the west coast. · Udiyanjeral was famous for his lavish hospitality. · The Cheras had the ankusha (elephant-goad) and the bow and arrow for their emblem. i. by the Chera king Senguttuvan. gives us the clue to a crucial datum in Sangam history. composed in 222 AD. · One of the earliest and better known Chera rulers was Udiyanjeral (130 AD). · The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea by an anonymous author (80-96 AD) gives the most elaborate information about the Tamil country which the author calls Damirike. · The Peutingerian tables. · The recent discovery of a ‘Roman factory’ of the first century AD in the proximity of Pondicherry deserves particular mention. etc. · The commentator of Puraunanuru makes out that he supplied the rival armies at Kurukshetra with food. but there were many others e. speak of a temple of Augustus on the west coast of Tamilaham..

· Kuttavan was succeeded by his nephew. · A fierce warrior who was the worshipper of Korraivai changed over to Brahmanism and accepted Nedumbaratayanar as his preceptor. · Next in line was Pal-Yanai Selkelu-Kuttuvan or ‘Kuttuvan of many elephants’. · Udiyanjera I’s royal kitchen was at Kulumur (Ptolemy’s Kourellour) which may have been the original capital of the Cheras. a brother of Nedunjeral Adan. · The poet of Patirrupattu was rewarded with the free gift of 500 villages in Umbark Kadu (elephant forest) and the revenue for 38 years from the southern province of the kingdom. ‘the righteous Kuttuva’ (AD 180). · It was because of this naval victory that Musiri became a safe port and in Guttuvan’s days. · The poet Mamulanar records in Aham (233) that the king gave a memorial offering to the spirits at the anniversary of the Mahabharata war. · He is the hero of the fifth decade of the Patirrupattu and the real of Silappadikaram. the Tamil epic by the Chera Prince Ilango Adigal. a son of Nedunjaral Adan known as Kalankaik Kanni Narmudijera (the Chera with the Kalangay festoon and the fibre crown) who is said to have defeated the Atiyamanas.. Yavana ships called in large numbers. · Early in his reign. and was a contemporary of the poet Parnar. in which the heroes from whom he traced his descent. one of the most celebrated and longest-lived poets of the Sangam era. · He is also praised as having set his bow on the slope of the Himalyas so that his power was known from Cape Comorin to the Himalayas. . the daughter of Veliyan Venman. · He later entered the title of Dharmaputra.e. had died. he is said to have subjugated the chieftain of Mogur known as Palaiyan as well as the chief of Kongar. · This is why he is known as Imayavaramban. · He was the greatest early Chera king. also known as Pirakottiya Senguttuvan or red Chera. · The other son of Nedunjeral Adan was Senguttuvan. who destroyed the efficacy of the sea as a refuge. · He was married to Nallini. · The Yavanas are said to have been punished in a strange way. · He won a great naval victory and got the title ‘Kadal-Pirakkottiya’. · His capital is called Marandai and he fought a war with his contemporary Chola king in which both the monarch lost their lives and their queens performed sati. by this king who ruled for 58 years. later known as Porvaikko-Perunarkilli Chola. · Their arms were pinioned behind their back and ghee was poured on their head. · Udiyanjeral was succeeded by his son Nedunjeral Adan (AD 155) who is said to have subjugated the ‘Kadambu’ clan and conquered seven kings. he is supposed to have got a stone to make an idol of the goddess Kannagi. · He is said to have conquered vast regions from Cape Comorin in the South to the Himalayas in the north ‘where the gods dwell’.· Silappadikaram also records this legend. i. · From the Himalayas.

· Senguttuvan was a great patron of arts and letters and was particularly fond of Kuttu or dancing and the drama which he patronized liberally. seven monarch of the line of Udiyanjeral are mentioned in the Patirruppattu while there is evidence of another line of Cheras in the same Sangam literature. · Senguttuvan repressed this revolt and. · He is also said to have subjugated a rebellious shepherd leader named Kaluvul and captured his fortress. · All together. · Olval-Ko-Perum-Cheral Irumporai may be regarded as the first of their viceroys as he is said in the Colophone to have gone to reign at Karuvur.· The Mogur chief Nannan Palaiyan again rose in revolt with assistance from the Chola and Pandyan rulers. . and placed him on the throne by defeating the rival at Nerivayil. · The sixth decade in which this king is discussed was composed by Naccellaiyar and was married to this king. the hero of the ninth decade of Patirruppattu. · He is said to have fought a battle against ‘the two big kings’ (Pandya and Chola). · He was renowned for his overthrow of the stronghold of Tagadur. · The insignia that his royal decrees bore consisted of the bow. · Establishment of this line was the result of the expansion of the Chera kingdom towards with the north and placement of a viceroy with headquarters at Tondi. the fish. that while fighting against the Cholas in the battle of Venni. · It is recorded that this king won a victory over the combined forces of the Cholas and Pandyas. he is also said to have performed a Yajna Ali Adan. a great warrior in whose phase Arisil Kilar has sung the eighth decade of Patirrupattu. this monarch was the founder of the famous Pattini cult related to the worship of goddess of chastity. · Senguttuvan was succeeded by his half-brother Perunjeral (or Perumcheral) Adan (AD 180) known to Patirrupattu as Adu-Kotpattu Charalatan. This great Chera king reigned for 55 years. who was his brother-in-law. · We learnt from the poems Puram and Aham. · According to Silappadikaram. · This function was attended by king Gajabahu of Sri Lanka. · He is also said to have participated in the civil strife in the Chola kingdom. helped Parum-Killis or NalamKilli. he wore on his chest the crest of jewels of seven ruling princes. · Like his father. · He was the contemporary of the great Chola king Karikal. Perunjeral Adan received a wound in the back and expiated the disgrace by starving himself to death on the battlefield with his swords in hand. sometime late in his reign. · The kingdom seems to have started with Anduvan Ceral Irumporai who died along with the Chola king Prunarkilli in the battle of Por. · The last king of this dynasty was the son of (or cousin of) Irumporai called Ilam-Cheral Irumporai. as a trophy. · Anduvan was succeeded by his son Selvakkadungo Vali Adan was succeeded by his son Perum Cheral Irumporai. the seat of the power of the Adigaiman chieftains. and the tiger.

e. · The Cholas adopted the tiger as their crest while figured on their banner. · He fought a great battle at Venni in which the Pandyas and the Cheras both suffered crushing defeats. · Karikala.000 slaves brought as captives from Sri Lanka. · In later times. ‘Sey of the elephant look’ (AD 210). Gerini connected the word Chola with Sanskrit kala (black) and with kola which in the early days designated the dark-coloured pre-Aryan population of southern India in general. who also promoted the reclamation and settlement of forest land. . but regained his freedom in time to prevent his enemies at home from deposing him.· Another Chola Prince of the northern line deserving mention is Yanaik-Kat-Sey Mandaranjeral Irumporai. · He is also credited with converting the Oliyar community from nomadism to a settled life.. the name was explained as death (kala) to ‘kali’ or death to (‘enemies’) elephants. · He was captured by his Pandya contemporary Nedunjeliyam. · Karikala means ‘the main man with the charred legs’. In this battle eleven minor chieftains were also uprooted. the foremost among the Sangam Cholas. by having his teeth pulled out and fixed on the gate at Tondi as warning. · Killi. from where he brought a large number of prisoners of war whom he used for building a huge embankment of 160 km to tame the Kaveri river. · The Chola dominion came to be known as Tondaimandalam or Cholamandalam in early medieval times with the capital at Uraiyur in Tiruchirapalli dist and subsequently at Kaveripattinam or Puhar founded by the Chola king Perunjeral Adan. a chief. · The famous Chera port Musiri or Muziris was a great centre of indo-Roman trade. · He again defeated a confederacy of nine minor chieftains in a battle at Vakaipparandalai. Valavan and Sembiyan are the other names of the Cholas. and added to the prosperity of the country by multiplying irrigation tanks. · This king was some time later captured by the Chola king Sen-Kanan and later released on request of the poet Poigaiyar but died without water in the Chola prison itself. · Karikala Chola was a very competent ruler and a great warrior. · Karikala maintained a powerful navy. · He made Puhar or Kaverippumapattinam an important port and an alternative capital of the Chola kingdom. which he used to conquer Sri Lanka. · Bhandarkar connected it with Sanskrit ‘Chora’ (thief) while it has been connected with ‘Colam’ which means millet in Tamil. · This was built with the labour of 12. · The poet of Pattinappalai gives an account of the port of Puhar. was the son of Ilanjetcenni. under Sanskritic influences. it seems that a Chola king called Elara conquered Sri Lanka and ruled over it for nearly 50 years. state of industry and commerce under Karikala. · Another important Chera king was Kanaikkalirumporai who punished Muvan. · In the middle of the 2nd Century BC. i. The Cholas · Col.

· The third ruler mentioned in Maduraikkanji was one Nedunjelian. · The same text mentions Pasalai Mudukudumi as the second ruler who is mentioned as the first king in the Velvikkudi grant. · His viceroy at Korkai and perhaps his son and successor was Seliyan. He is generally known for his religious zeal. · Senganan. the victor of Talaiyalanganam. This story is the main theme of the epic Silappadikaram. puts learning above birth and caste. along with his friend and poet Andai. · Senganan Chola is said to have built 70 fine temples of Siva. Killivalavan came to the throne who captured Karur. · The only other figure that stands out from the rest. · He is said to have died of broken heart when the innocence of Kovalan was proved to him by Kannagi. · Another renowned Chola king was Kopperunjolan who also ruled from Uraiyur. · With the rise of Pallavas. the Chola king famed in legend for his devotion to Siva. · Koccenganam come next as Chola king. · A short poem (Puram 183) ascribed to him. · Another Chola king was Ilanjetcenni who captured two fortresses (Seruppali and Pamulur) from the Cheras. called Verri Verceliyan or Ilanjelian. figures as the victor in battle of Por against the Chera Kanaikkal Irumporai. · Palsalai Mudukudumi or Mudukudumi Peruvaludi is praised by three poets in five short poems.· Two sons of Karikala ruled from two different capitals – Nalangilli from Puhar and Nedungilli from Uraiyur. · He is credited with bringing the Pahruli river into existence and organizing the worship of the sea. . · There was a serious quarrel between Kopperunjolan and his two sons and the king ultimately committed suicide. ploughing it with white-mouthed ass and refers to the many big sacrifices he performed. · After Nalangilli. The Pandyas · The Maduraikkanji refers to Nediyon or Vadimbalamba Ninravan as the first Pandya king. · The consequent civil war ended with the death of Nedungilli. was later than the rulers mentioned in the silappadikaram and is known as Nedunjelian (different from Nedunjelian Ariyappadaikadanda). · He seems to have died in a battle with the Pandyan forces. · A description of the way he treated conquered territory. distinguished by the title Ariyappadaikadanda meaning “he who won a victory against an Aryan army”. who wrecked terrible vengeance on the goldsmiths by sacrificing a thousand of them in one day to appease the great goddess who had been Kannagi. the Cholas became only a marginal force in South Indian history. · The Chera king was imprisoned and later released. · Perunarkilli was another Chola king who is the only one among the Sangam kings who performed the Rajasuya sacrifice attended by Chera Mari Venko and Pandya Ugra Peruvaludi. hence the title Palsalai meaning ‘of the many (sacrificial) halls’. the Chera capital.

Poraiyar. · In this campaign. · Ilvandikaippallittunjiya Nanmaran have pilloried in song for his liberality. Tennar (Southerners). Kavuriya (related to the Kauravas). etc.· He came to the throne as a youth and at the very beginning of his reign he had to face a hostile combination of his two neighbouring monarchs aided by five minor chiefs at a place called Palaiyalanganam. etc. · Courts were known as Avai (a corrupt form of Sabha). Olakkam or Irukkai. · The kings in the Sangam texts are known by terms like Kon. · Another king Ugrapperuvaludi subdued the chieftain of Kanapper. the son of the Chera king of the elephant look was captured. Velars or Kurunilaimannar. · He is said to have performed a Vedic sacrifice. · The Pandyan dominion was very wealthy and prosperous on account of the brisk indo-Roman trade. · The Pandyas were known as Minavar (fisherman). Killi (the chief) etc. · The crowned kings acquired many titles. · The Cholas were known as Sennis (leaders). owed their superiority to controlling the rice-producing plains and the transmarine trade set them apart from the less fortunate chiefs called Vels. Kuttuvar (westerners). Puliyar (rulers of Puli Nadu). Mandaram Cheral Irumporai. · The Cheras were known by Vanavar (celestials). but were confined to their respective hills. · The Ventars were the biggest chiefs who held control over larger areas through the subordination of the Kilar who fought for and shared the booty with them. Malaiyar (rulers of mountain land). · Himself a poet. Korravan or Iraivan. . he is said to have caused the Ahananuru to be made. Valavan (rulers of the fertile land). · An Ur-Kilar of the pristine type was a clan based headman with kinship ties with his people. · Velir were the hill chiefs who sometimes subjugated the neighbouring Ur-Kilar for predatory exaction. Sliyar (of the fertile land). velar (hill chiefs) and Ventar (lowl and chiefs). Mannan. The Sangam Government · Clues in the texts points point more or less to a chiefdom level society with three categories of political powers: · Kilar (village headman). Vendan. Marar (Southerners). · Bhutappandiyan took Ollaiyur and his queen is well known by her song on the occasion of her sati. Panchavar (related to the Pandavas). · The Pandyan kings sent embassies to the Roman emperor Augustus and Trojan. constituting the Muventar (three crowned kings). Valudi etc. Ko. Kudavar. Villavar (hunters and bowmen). Chola and Pandya. Sembiyam (descendants of Sibi). Arasavai. · Ko is shortened form of Kon which means cowherd and it is also used as a general term for ‘god’. · Under the Pandyas their capital Madurai and the Pandyan poet Korkai were great centers of trade and commerce. · The Chera.

· The eldest son of the reigning king generally succeeded to the throne by right and this was known as Murai Mudal Kattil. · The crown Prince was known as Komahan while the younger ones were known as Ilango. · The right of succession was called Tayam (a general term for securing a property). · The king’s birthday is celebrated every year and the day was called Perunal (the great day). 5. 6. the tiger of the Chola. the Vanigars). and Enadi (to be conferred on distinguished soldiers). dharma Vinainar (discharging religious duties) and Ayakkanakkar (incharge of revenue collection). 3. · These five consisted of: 1. composed of five divisions and constituting a council. Kavidi (conferred on personal attendants who got tax-free holdings). ministers (armaichchar) priests (purohitar) army chiefs (senapatiyar) envoys or ambassadors (dutar) Spies (orrar). 4. · The coronation ceremony was known as Arasu Kattil Erudal or Mudi Suttu Vila. 4. · There was another institution called Enperayam which consisted of: 1. · The place of the king and the place of the god were both called Koyil (the adobe of Ko). also known as Aimperunkulu. 8. Ilanjeliyan. · These honour were called Marayam and were of three categories viz. 3.· The term Vendan was used only for the three supreme kings and rest were lesser kings who did not wear a regular crown. · The king’s power was restricted by five councils which were known as the ‘five great councils’. · The royal emblem (viz. Ilanjeral etc. Tandira Vinainar (executive officials doing odd clerical job). the bow of the Chera and the carp of the Pandya) was inscribed on the outer gate of the palace. karanattiyalavar (accountants) karumakarar (executive officials) kanakasurram (treasury officials) kadaikappalar (palace guards) nagaramandar (elderly persons in the city) padaittalaivar (chiefs of the infantry) yanai virar (chiefs of the elephantry) ivuli maravar (chiefs of the cavalry) · The kings bestowed titles and honours on their subordinates in recognition of their performance. 2. · The ‘group of five’ was a recognized body of people. Arakkalattu Andanar (judicial advisers). a general term referring to a king was Tamilized form of Rajan. Etti (conferred on leading merchants. Municipal and Village Administration · The village was the fundamental unit of administration and in connection with the management of village . 5. · Some other officials of the Sangam age included Mandirakkanakkar (scribes in-charge of royal correspondence and were also known as Mandira Olai). 7. · Arasan. 2.

Kurram was the subdivision of Nadu. · The Manaram. · Cheri was the suburb of a town or village. · Many towns have been mentioned in the texts but the major ones were Puhar (the famous Chola port and coastal capital). Military Organization · Defending fortresses (Inji. Kaccimurram and Kacchippetu) the capital of Tondainadir. · Pattinam was a term for a coastal town and Puhar was a general term for harbour area. · Kaverippumpattinam was the Pattinam par excellence of Tamilaham and was generally known as Pattinam only.affairs we come across the terms: Manaram. Iyer.R. Podiyil. and uraiyur (the Chola inland capital also known as Koli and Varanam: it was a strongly defended city and its outskirts had burial grounds which were full of stones and hence ‘there were many obstacles to easy movement’.V. Chola.R. · Salai was the trunk road and Teru the street in a town. while Pakkam was a neighbouring area. · Arikamedu was known to the Sangam literature as Virai (modern Viram Pattinam). described as a harbour was probably one of the coastal town like Sopatinam (modern Marakkanam). · The classical writers describe the place as noted for its cotton textiles-argaritic derived from Argaru or Uraiyur. It was one of the velar strongholds known to Sangam literature. · Below the Mandalam a major division was Nadu and we also hear of a unit called Kurram. · Nachchinarkkiyar speaks of the four divisions of Tamilaham: Chera. Pandya and Tondai Mandalams. Ambalam and Avai. Madurai (the Pandyan inland capital). · High battlement walls – Nayil · Moat – Ahali or Kidangu · Towered gates – Parvgal · The fortress of Kanapper had on additional fence of impenetrable forest. · The entire kingdom (big or small) was called Mandalam. · Virai. a small village (Sirur) or an old village (Mudur). Dikishitar. · It was also the capital of the Velir chieftain Virai Veliyan Venman. the Podiyil and the Ambalam seem to be synonymous terms denoting a place where the village assembly (Avai) met to transact local business. Kanchi (also known as Kacci. . Korkai (the Pandyan coastal capital. situated near Korkai. was another major city. Nadu was a subdivision of Kurram and According to U. Purisai or Ahappa) well developed. Musiri (the Chera port) and Vanji or Karur (the Chera capital). · This description is strongly suggestive of the existence megalithic burials. · The Periplus talks of Colchi (Korkai) and its pearl fishiers worked by condemned criminals).S. Kaval (meaning salt pans. situated on Tamraparni river. · The Ur was a town which variously described as a big village (Perur). · According to V. of the Oy clan of Velir. · It was reputed for its pearl fisheries where the Paradavar (fisherman) dived for pearls).

evidently as a missiles to be thrown at the enemy from a distance. · An institution peculiar to the Sangam Tamils was the Kavalmaram. . · Body-armour (tol) made of tiger-skin for the protection of the body. · Tolls and customs duties were Ulugu or Sungam. · Vari was also a generic term meaning income. the sword was taken into a procession and umbrella and drum were sent in advance as a token of march towards the battlefield. and Paduvadu. cattle lifting known as Atandombal in the Tolkappiam. · The duties to be paid to the king were generally known as Kadamai or Padu. viz. · The warriors wore the heroic anklet called Virakkalal on which the heroic deeds of the wearer were inscribed. · Chariots were drawn by oxen or horses. · It was a totemic symbol and was believed that the tree had the power to protect the town. it was therefore. and the Tomaram is mentioned. a Kadimaram or Kavalmaram. · The traditional four fold army – Padai. · The kings – sovereigns as well as the feudatories – maintained with great care a tree in the courtyard of their palaces or near the Manaram or some central place in the town or at some convenient or wellprotected spot. · In the army the van (Tusi) and the rear (Kulai) were distinguished besides the flanks (Pakkam). · Senguttuvan destroyed Palyan’s Vembu (Margosa) and tree and transported it in a huge vehicle drawn by elephants which were yoked to the carriage by strong ropes made of the twisted hair of the women of the enemy land. · Sword (Val) and shield (Kedaham or Kiduhu) were used in close combat. · Extra demands or forced gifts were called Iravu. · A well known unit of territory yielding tax was a Variyam and the tax collecting authority was a Variyar. called ‘Tutelary tree’.· The sufferings of a beleaguered fortress from the subject of a poem by kovur kilar. · The war drum was worshipped as a Diety and crows and kites ate the bali offered.. This was known as the ceremony of Nalkol. · Tributes paid by the feudatories and war booty collected from recently conquered foes were Irai. · Kalangaikkanni Narmudi Cheral defeated the chieftain Nannan (the rules of Puli land) and cut down his Vahai (Albizzia Lebbek) tree. · Generally the war started with a well-known incident. and a cover of leather for the forearm were in use. Revenue Administration · Land tax was called Irai or Karai. · The slain soldiers were believed to attain the ‘heaven of heroes’ (Virasvarga) and were often honoured by the erection of memorial stones (Virakkal or Nadukal). · Before marching.

Kurinji (hilly backwoods). Sangam Society · The stratification in Tamil Sangam society was primarily confined to the binary between the Vyarntor (the high born) and Ilipirappalar (the low born). · Tolkappiyam list of four categories (castes): Andanar (brahmanas). Weights and Measures · Kanam was a measure of gold. Marutam (wet land). · Usually. · A smaller measure of a weight was a Todi which was an equivalent of a Polam. · Iron was also known as Pon. · Pons referred to perhaps the same measure as Kanam. vaisiyar (traders) and velalar (farmers).A. 2. · Silver was called Velli and rarely Ven Pon. Egypt. · Kalanju was a unit of measuring gold. · Popular unit of distance was a Kuppidu. Onnartteru Porul (war-booty and tributes). Kuravar and Vetar or Kadar were the inhabitants of the Kurinji-tinai and hunting and gathering their form of subsistence. · Tuni and Padakku were also cubic measures used for measuring horse gram and other grains. · Nalikai was a measure of time. Ulgu Porul (customs and tolls). . Myanmar (Burma). Palai (parched zones). Nilakanta Shastri). Ayakkarar (toll collectors) etc. · Other than Variyar (land tax collector) we hear of Alumbil Vel (assisted by Ayakkanakkar – revenue accountant). · The Kanavar. · The Padirrupattu commentator equates Ambanam with a Marakkal. arasar (kings).· The rate of revenue was 1/6 of the produce. as tax collecting authorities. · Nail was a much smaller measure equal to one Ulakku or two Alakkus. Kadaram (Malaya) and Java (Yava) and Ulgu was collected on all items. and Neital (littoral). Kavidi (finance minister). Karanattiyalavar.. 3. · Kasu was a kind of coin of the size of a margosa fruit and of the shape of lotus bud. very small in size. · Tamilakam had an extensive trade with Rome. · Tamilham consisted of five Tinais or physiographical divisions viz. · Kural states that the king’s revenues were derived from: 1. Mullai (Pastrol tract). · The grain from the field was measured in Ambanam. · Kasu generally meant a small copper coin. Uru Porul (treasure-troves and escheats or land revenue according to K. the grain measure was called nail and the time measure Nalikai.

Umnar (salt manufacturers) 8. · Menpulam produced paddy and sugarcane and vanpulam grew pulses and dryland grains. Pon-kolavan (goldsmith) 2. which is a stock expression in the poems referring to the labour processes in any Tinai. and converted into flakes (Aval). · Grain was husked in hollows made in the ground (Nila-ural). · Full-time craft specialists in the poems: 1. · Marutam-tinai were inhabited by Ulavar and Toluvar subsisting on plough agriculture. Paratavar (fisherman) 7. Vetar (hunters and food gatherers) 3. signified by Ilaiyarum Mutiyarum Kilaiyutan Tuvunri. Mutiyar means elders and Kilai means agnatic kin.. · Mural paintings – Ovaikkalai. the inhabitants were Kalavar. · Illiyar means youngsters. Panar (wandering bards associated with all the tinails) · On the basis of nature of production the agriculture zone (marutum) was called Menpulam and the rest. Kuravar (shifting agriculturists) 2. · In the Mullai-tinai the inhabitants were Ayar and Idaiyar subsisting on shifting agriculture and animal husbandry. · There is a full length description of a Padini. Eyinar and Maravar living by plunder and cattle lifting. Padalai (one-sided drum). · The term Kilai stands as the Tamil counterpart of Jati. Idaiyar (cattle-keepers) 4. · Traveling troops of dances carried their Yal (lute). Valavar and Minavar dependent on fishing and salt extraction. · Woman enjoyed much freedom of movement in society and the number of women poets of the age is sufficient indication that they were not excluded from the best education then available. excluding Neital. 1. a singing women of the Panar community (Viraliyar) in the Perunanuruppadai in which Karikal himself is described as a master of the seven notes of music. Palai-yal and Sengottiyal are described in detail in different contexts. viz. Kuyavam or kalace-kovan (potter). · The basis of production relations was kinship. · The worship of Kannagi or Pattini (‘the chaste lady’) was perhaps a very early institution and was but an . were collectively called Vanpulam. · Appam (Apupa) or rice-cake soaked in milk was a luxury. · Different kinds of lutes like Periyal. Kallar (plundering cattle lifting-people) 5. · Sati (Tippaidal – falling into flames) was common. · Neital-tinai was inhabited by Paratavar. · We get a total of eight social groups. · The dances of Viralis (professional dancing-girls) took place at night.· Palai-tinai. Kolavan(blacksmith) 3. Ulavar (plough agriculturists) 6.

· These works also mention the spontaneous coming together of the sexes (Kamakkuttam). especially in Aham literature. · The coastal people came to Menpulam to exchange fish and salt for paddy. · Though the Gandharva form of marriage is easily equated to Ualavu (later known as Yalor system). · The material basis of Menpulam was of advanced plough agriculture. the other Aryan forms do not fall in line so easily. the early Tamil kingdoms were located in – Cholas on the Kaveri. · Cultivable tracts in the Vanpulam were called Enal or Punam where millet and gram grew in abundance. arid plains and pastures which were larger than Menpulam which included exclusively the wet-land plains of paddy cultivation. · The courtesans are mentioned at many places in the places in the texts. · The loan of a commodity to be paid back in the same kind and quantity was in vogue and was called Kurittumaretirppai or Kuriyetirppai. · The subsistence farmers of Vanpulam came to Menpulam for exchanging their hill products for paddy and other goods. · The images of the Pattini Devi were preserved in Tamil temples till recently. · Kadam or Kadan meaning debt is mentioned in the texts. Kallar (thieves) and Panar (the bards). · And this is the region. they distinguish secret marriage (Kalavu) from the open alliance contracted with the consent of parents (Karpu). Sangam Age Economy · Vanpulam included all the hill slopes. They were called Parattaiyar or Kanigaiyar. · Sangam texts refer to Ulavar or Toluvar as the tillers of Menpulam.extension of the worship of the goddess of chastity’. · Buffaloes (Erumai) were also used for ploughing. Pandyas on the Tambraparani and Vaigai and Cheras on the Kerala coast. · Later works like the Tolkappiyam and the Kalaviyal say that the Aryans introduced the rituals and ceremonies of marriage (Karanam). . · Tank irrigation (Ayam) and minor dam (Sirai) irrigation are mentioned. Menpulam was the nerve centre of contemporary economic life. last they refer to the eight forms of marriage known to the Sanskrit Dharmasashtra and show great ingenuity in fitting them into framework of the Tamil scheme. · Poems refer to the exchange of goods for goods (Notuttal). · In short. · They knew the technique of harnessing the bullocks (Erutu) at their necks with a cross-bar (Nukam) to a ploughshare (Meli or Nanjil) which was iron-tipped for furrowing. · This become popular with Senaguttuvana’s worship of Kannagi and spread to distant places like Sri Lanka in the South and Malva in the north. · Many of the jobless clans of Vanpulam depended on the produce of menpulam as iravar (beggars). · Avanam or Angadi were the main organized points of exchange (market place).

cotton. It was on the Vaigai delta near Rameshwaram. turmeric. · Pattinappalai mentions how goods brought to the Chola port were piled up and customs officers stamped each bundle with king’s tiger seal. · Purunanuru tells how high-piled sacks of pepper were taken by Yavanas (Romans) in exchange for gold Padirruppattu mentions that a Chera king had warehouses for valuables coming by ship. we know that the Chera port of Musiri imported spikenard from the Ganga. Tumpai (getting ready for war). · Silappadikaram mentions how ships sailed directly from South-East Asia to the Chola coast with special woods. · In these plunder raids. . Torai. camphor and spices. while silk.· Pattanam were the centres of long distance trade. · Fishers and coastal traders called Paratavar imported horses. · At puhar. Agricultural Products · The anthologies mention paddy (Cennel. · Musiri of anthologies was known as Muziris of the Greeks. sandalwood and some kind of white snow. wild paddy (Aivanam. there were merchant colonies speaking different languages. · Uraiyur. · Smithy was another industrial activity which indulged in making weapons of war and the place (factory) was known as Panikkalari. · From the Periplus. tortoise shell and betel leaf came from South-East Asia. · Another city. perhaps also in certain higher transactions. Karanttai (cattle recovering war). Perumcorruvilavu (grand rice feast) and Citucorruvilavu (small rice feast). Tondi has been identified with Ponnani. ginger. pepper. · A subsidiary capital. Vakai (the killing of enemies). Vanji (cheiftains’s attack of a territory). · Three of these. called either Perimula or Perimuda. Korkai and Kavarippattinam are known from anthologies to have been chief ports of three early kingdoms. · Greek records also mention Vaikkarai. · Akkadu village in Tanjavur has been suggested to have been the Arkatos of Ptolemy which was also the second capital of the Cholas. · Certain weights of gold known as Kaame and Kalanju were used as media of exchange in the Pattanam. was famous for cotton cloth. Nilakanta and Netravati as ancient port towns in Kerala. Putunnel). sandle. silk. kanji (defending war). Kalaivennel). Important Ports · Ptolemy lists six coastal places in TN to which he appends the word ‘emporium’. Untattu (social dining and drinking before and after the wars). is described as “the greatest emporium of trade in India”. horse-gram. · The institutionalization of war is clear from the description of Vetcci (cattle raid). Musiri. and many other cereals of coarse variety as main agricultural products. sugarcane. the Chola capital. often cultivated fields (Kalani or Palanam) and settlements were destroyed. a Chola capital. · A walled city called kapadapuram was situated around tambraparani delta.

north of Pondicherry. tigers and elephants were also in demand. was a pearl market and the seat of the Pandyan vice-royalty. which were in great demand in foreign countries. the Tamil Chiruttai became cheetah in English. was a pearl market. west of the Vaigai delta. has a well known temple of murukan. ahil.R. ivory and pearls. Bandar being noted for its pearls and Kodumanam for rare jewels. · Somewhere nearby was the early Pandyan capital of Kapadapuram. English ginger is derieved from Latin Zingiber which in turn was derieved from Tamil Injiver. · Marakanam. Korkai. · Kalaiyur. · The mouth of the Vellaru was an Arab ship building port. sandalwood. turmeric. · Kaveripumppattinam was known to Ptolemy as Khaberis (Puhar of literature). cardamom. located near Kaveripattinam has yielded a structure which was identified as a dock by S. · Pepper. Rao. · Mention is made of the abundance of quartzite precious stones in the hills of the Chera country. · The place called Agarlu in the periplus was situated near Tondi on Palk bay (different from Tondi in Kerala). · Manabalipuram may have been Ptolemy’s mélange (Mavilankai) which is said to have been an emporium. . Kanniyakumari (Cape Comorin) is mentioned as early as Eratosthenes which the Greeks used as a fixed point for navigation. · This is probably the same as Sentil of Tirumurukarruppadai and is certainly one of the earliest Pandyan sacred spots. cinnamon. · Muthupettai. · It is also identifiable with the port of Nirpayarrurai mentioned in Perumpanarruppadai. ginger. a port of the Sangam period. · It exported pearls and muslins. cardamom was from kurundam and sandal was derived from Sandana or Sandu. and also on the coast in the same region was South Madurai. · Bandar and Kodumanam were other ports with a wealth of seaborne imports. · These are supposed to have been the first two Pandyan capitals and the sites of the first two literary academies. Greek Oruza for rice is derived from Tamil Arisi. almug. · Nearby was situated Pasika mentioned in the Arthashastra as a source of pearl. called Kodi. · Vellaiyan-Irrupu (“white man’s settlement”) is located near Kaveripattinam. gems like beryl (an aquamarine gem) and corundum. cheetahs. cotton and cotton fabrics were the main commodities. was one of the earliest points of the South known in the north (Arthashastra) and was used by the Greeks as a fixed point of navigation. rice. · Tirucendur. Tokai in Tamil) are Hebrew words and these were exported to the western world. Ptolemy lists it among the ports.· Pantar in the South of Kerala and Puli (around Tuluva) were ports of the Sangam period. · Monkeys. · Similarly. deer. peacocks. South of the Tambraparani delta. · The end of the peninsula. appears to have been a harbour and is identified with Sopatma of the Periplus and Eyil of Sirupanarruppadai. said in myths to protect the Pandyas from incursions from the sea. · Kapin (Kavi in Tamil) and Tukim (peacock.

are discernible during the Sangam period: 1. the three eyed god (Siva). kottam. · Indra. clearly marked off from each other. stars and planets. probably the two names Chatan and Kanan. The exotic Hindu gods and systems of worship 3. god of Marudam.· We find large hoards of Roman gold coins of the Augustan age in many parts of South India which provide evidence of the brisk trade between Tamilaham and Rome. · Trade with Rome in the first century AD was so lucrative to the Tamils that the Pandyan king sent two embassies to Augustus (20 BC) to win his favour. · Pliny’s reference to an Indian ship carried off to the German coast by wind is also given as evidence. Murugan. ancestor worship. Tirumal. · The whole philosophy of reincarnation. · One text mentions the ships of titan Veliyan bringing gold. were related to death. purai or devlayam. · Three strands of religion. · Inscription’s dated to the first century BC from Sri Lanka mention a Damila Vaija. · The temple was called nagar. There was a special festival instituted in puhar in honour of Indra. · Korravai was the goddess of victory. . sati worship etc. Damila Navika and a Damila Gahapati showing their association with horse trade. · Recent excavations on the red sea coast have brought to light graffiti in Tamil Brahmi characters. fasting etc. The exotic non-Hindu religious faiths and functions. · The direct trade route between Tamilaham and Arabia. · A mere planted log of wood called Kandu was an object of worship for it was believed that a deity resided in that log of wood. · A Jataka (480) also mentions Kaveripattam in the Damila country. · The popularity and prevalence of the Brahmanical Velvi (Yajna) the Sraddha and panda to the dead. · Their rituals were related to animism and other forms of anthropomorphic diety worship. Religion of Sangam Tamils · The religion of the Sangam age was not uniform. the god of the wide ocean. hero worship. are well attested to by the Sangam literature. The indigenous gods and systems of worship 2. Balram and Indra seem to have been the more important. Egypt and Rome had been well established by the date of the periplus. · The hunters of the hill tracts worshipped murugan as the god of the hillock. water. · Among the established gods worshipped according to rituals. · Animism accounts for a good part of Tamil Sangam religion and comprised worship stones. · The fishermen and the people of the coastal regions worshipped varuna. koil. · We have reference to the inability of others to enter the western sea where the Chera led his gold-giving ship. was worshipped by the agriculturists.

· The temple was called Nagar. but many of his attributes (namely. in fact the whole gamut of Saivite legends are found together in the invocatory verse of the Purananuru. . · The worship of this deity was attended by primitive dances known as Velanadal. · Shiva as Ardhanarisvara (half-man half-woman). · The birth of Subramanya from Kali and his warlike achievements like the destruction of the Asura called Sura are favourite themes of the poets. he that is seated under the Baniyan tree) are given in many contexts. · The word Yakacalai is used for Yajnasala. · Kottam. Varuna and Soma (Kubera) are mentioned as the guardians of the four directions: the east. his Ganas. · The name ‘Siva’ is rarely mentioned in the Sangam literature. there are few references to them in this literature. · The reference to the worship of the deity of the forest (Kaduraikadavul). the Yupas. · Umai.· References are not lacking to the performance of Vedic sacrifices and the sacrificial posts. Siva and Rudra. his bull Nandi. meaning the temple of ‘Vishnu’. the three-eyed one. · Indra. those of Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvaludi being the best known. Nagar. the thirty-three Devas and the eleven Ganas are also mentioned in Tirumuruarruopadai. the west and the north respectively. Yama. often identified with Durga. · Vishnu sleeping on the coils of Ananta in Kanchipuram is mentioned in the Perumbanarruppadai. Il or Griha meant place of residence. may be another survival of a similar nature. the South. · There are references both to cremation and burial urns. Krishna. Kalaimaga. · Among the temples in the Sangam age there is specific mention of quite a large number. · Siva. · Though Buddhism and Jainism must have found a footing in the land. cremation and burial appear to have been alternative modes of disposal. in latter-day inscription’s we also read of Vinnagara. Tirumal. and Subrahmanya (better known as Murugan in Tamil) are mentioned together in one poem. · Gods on the basis of caste are also mentioned in the Silappadikaram. hence the expression Vishnugriha also meant ‘temple for Vishnu’. · Ascetics wearing orange robes and carrying a Tridanda (Mukkol) are referred to. before his pyre was kindled. and to judge only from the trend of these references. · There seem to be parallel names in Tamil and in Sanskrit for the same gods – Murugan and Subrahmanya. the one that destroyed the three aerial forts. Balarama. Tirumal and Vishnu. · Brahma (the four faced one). Koil. · Tapas – austerities. he that holds the Trisula. say the sixth or seventh century AD. and the Manimekalai furnishes evidence that both these and other methods of disposal survived together up to a relatively late age. · Some light on the funerary rites of the time is thrown by the references to the wife offering a Pindam (riceball) to her dead husband who was supposed to eat it at the instance of a Pulaiyan. Aylrani (wife of Indra) were some of the goddesses worshipped.

He was the first to establish the Sino-Indian diplomatic relationships.Priyadarsika and Nagananda. But the Sattavahanas had experienced an incredible recovery under Gautamiputra Satakarni. · The culture of Sangam age. · The festival of Indra was held all pomp by Chola king in puhar and Manimekalai calls it “the festival of the thousand-eyed one”. However Gautamiputra ruled till 130 A. According to the Chinese pilgrimXuanzang. Satakarni was the contemporary of Saka Kshatrapas. · The commencement of the festival of Indra (Vira Kalkol) was proclaimed by the beat of drums placed on elephant’s back. After his accession to the throne he merged the two kingdoms of Thanesar and Kannaujand shifted his capital to Kannauj. The first sixteen years of his reign was devoted to the great preparation of the struggle against the Saka . Gautamiputra Satakarni Gautamiputra Satakarni was the famous ruler of Sattavahana dynasty. In his early life he used to be a sunworshipper but later he became the follower of Shaivism and Buddhism. is a synthesis of the Tamil and Aryan cultures. He ruled India for almost forty years. leaving behind no heir to the throne. He wrote three plays in Sanskrit namely Ratnavali. under whom the empire regained a dazzling recovery. the Sattavahanas witnessed a series of decline owing to the Scythian invasion. as a whole. They however extended their sway over Eastern Deccan in the later years. for Vajra is the divine weapon of Indra. He ascended the throne after his elder brother Rajya Vardhanagot murdered by Sasanka. The time period of Gautamiputra`s reign is a controversial subject and till date historians have failed to provide authentic information about that. incised 20 years after the death of Gautamiputra by his mother Devi Gautami Balasri. At this time he was just 16 years of age. the founder of VardhanDynasty. of course had his temple and Kari Kilar advising Pandyan Palyagasalai Mudukudumipperuvaludi. Harshavardhana Harshavardhana was an Indian emperor who belonged to Pushibhukti family. Nahapana and also defeated him in the eighteenth year of his reign. Pahlavas and the Yavanas.D. At the height of his glory his kingdom spanned the Punjab.He is also regarded the greatest of the Sattavahanas since his prosperity even excelled his predecessors. He was a good scholar and a noted author. He was also a great patron of the Nalanda University. Harsha built many Buddhist Stupas. says that his royal umbrella should be lowered when he comes round the temple of the three-eyed one. Harsha was a secular ruler and respected all the religions and faiths. His temple was called Vajrakkottam.· Siva. the destroyer of the Sakas. The exploits and achievements of Gautamiputra Satakarni were commemorated in the Nasik Prasasti. He was born around 580 AD and is believed to be the son of Prabhakar Vardhan. The Sattavahanas who are mentioned in the Puranas as the Andhra were the original inhabitants of Western Deccan. We can find well-documented record of his reign in the work of his court poet Banabhatta. After his death his empire disintegrated. The founder of the Sattavahana dynasty according to Puranas was Simukawho ousted the last Kanva king Susharman from the throne and established the dominion of the Sattavahanas. Bengal. the first historical poetic work in Sanskrit language. who visited the kingdom of Harsha in 636 AD. Since the ascension of Simuka to the throne for the next half-century. Bana wrote Harsha Charita. · The temple of Indra is mentioned in Silappadikaram and in Manimekalai. · Tirumal as Tirumal and as Kannan is quite often mentioned and was worshipped and associated with Valigaon (Baladeva) and with Kaman. the celebrated king of the Sattavahana Dynasty. Another important source about the reign of Gautamiputra Satakarni is the Nasik Prasasti. · Synthesis of the non-Aryan Tamil and the Aryan Vedic deities had begun during this period. Work of the Chinese traveler. King of Gauda. Xuanzang also provides a deep insight into the life during Harshavardhana's rule. Orissa and the entireIndo-Gangetic plain north of the Narmada river. and died in 647 AD. Gautamiputra Satakarni was described in the Nasik Prasasti as "Saka-Yavana Pallava Nisudana".

The territories conquered by Gautamiputra include Asika or Maharashtra. From the Nasik Prasasti it is known that apart from the countries conquered from Nahapana. The mighty conqueror Gautamiputra Satakarni also earned enough prosperity as an able and benevolent ruler. Aparanta or Konkan. According to him. He worked for the well-being and upliftment of the poor and the downtrodden section of his Empire. Gautamiputra extended his sway over the districts watered by the rivers of Rishika. Anupa or Narmada Valley. Gopalachariya however thinks that sub-castes existed during that period. Such a tough and powerful king like Gautamiputra Satakarni towards the end of his reign suffered overthrows in Kardamaka Sakas. Gautamiputra Satakarni was a staunch Brahmanist but he was benign to other religious sects also. As a king he witnessed the ill effects of narrow casteism. defeated and finally was killed. To take avenge Gautamiputra carried out a valiant struggle against the Sakas for two long years and finally killed Saka chief Nahapana and his governor Rishavadatta. the king of the Kshatrapa Sakas. Gautamiputra not only recovered his paternal land Maharashtra. Sanskrit Drama Mudra-Rakshasa is a Sanskrit drama of Visakhadatta. . the Kardamakas emerged. However there is still a keen controversy among the historians whether the region of Andhra. The idea of Digvijay began to haunt the Gautamiputra`s vision. But Dr. Nahapana had seized the Western Deccan from Sattavahanas. the second home of the Sattavahanas and Southern Kosala were part of Gautamiputra`s territory. Pahlavas and the Yavanas. it was not practically possible for Gautamiputra to stop the growth of subcastes. Gautamiputra later uprooted the Yavanas and the Pahlavas from Deccan. Avanti or western Malwa. Being a benevolent ruler Gautamiputra was tolerant towards the other religious groups and introduced administrative reforms for the successful administration of the vast Empire. As a ruler Gautamiputra had a strong sense of public duty. Surutha or Kathiawar. hence can be regarded the greatest among the Sattavahanas. Gautamiputra Satakarni. Gautamiputra was considered the destroyer of the Sakas. A sophisticated and learned king.power under Nahapana.Rakshasa. Akara. which had crept up in the society during the contemporary era. They snatched away most of the districts conquered by Gautamiputra from Nahapana. the Sattavahana Empire attained a successful recovery and thriving prosperity. Mudra. He emphasised on the taxation system and levied taxes in conformity with justice. extending from the Western Ghats to the Eastern Ghats and also included the Travancore region. The Geography of Ptolemy and the Girnar inscription of Rudramana also corroborate the fact. the original homeland of the Sattavahanas. At the same time he stopped the growth of sub castes due to the intermingling of four social orders. The legend of the Saka-Sattavahana struggle during Gautamiputra is also known from a gatha in Nirukti. Muluka or northern Maharashtra. The conquests of Satakarni are known from the Nasik Prasasti. The coins of Nahapana engraved by the name of Gautamiputra. Hence he was a great patron and a promoter of Varnasrama dharma. Gautamiputra Satakarni the illustrious ruler of the Sattavahana Dynasty was successful in unifying the major parts of India under the authority of the Sattavahana Empire. Nahapana defended his capital Brigukachchha from the Sattavahana invasion for two years but the accumulated wealth being exhausted. The overthrow of the Sakas by Gautamiputra constituted the Sattavahanas as a formidable power in South. on which his administration was based. After the fall of the Kshatrapa Sakas. Malwa and North Konkan. Berar. Under Gautamiputra. Nahapana became weak. The Nasik Prasasti also delineated that Gautamiputra was the master of the extensive land lying to the south of the Vindhya Mountain. Kukura or Western Rajputana. To stabilise a strong administrative establishment he introduced twin foundations of Sastric Laws and humanism. testifies his success against the Sakas. a sister branch of Kshatrapas. Saurashtra. due to the multiplication of vocations. but also annexed the Saka kingdom in Gujarat. Godavari and also the regions of Hyderabad and Berar. Vidarbha or Berar.

In this abandoned condition he discovers the forthcoming danger of a dear friend whom Chanakya is about to put to death. lexical category and the semantics of words. BCE) is known only from cryptic references by Yaska (ca. which has an historical interest. He is the Messenger of the Hindus. The author of the play is called in the prelude Visakhadatta. His son and successor Mahendravarman was a versatile genius. However. crushed the power of Chalukyas. 6th-5th c. the king of Gods in Hindu mythology. and is consequently dismissed by him. By means of this analysis Rakshasa is provided by the device of Chanakya.He is the author of the Nirukta. the hostile minister of Nanda. the Ramayana and Panini's grammar.. 5. lived in his court. Yāska ( अअअअअ) was a Sanskrit grammarian who preceded Pānini (fl. The Pallava power reached its glorious heights during the reign of Narsinhavarman II. The work of the very early Indian grammarians has been lost. But his son. and several other minor ones. the work of Sakatayana (roughly 8th c.D. who is mentioned in his text. thePratiharas and the Rashtrakutas. the late king of Palibothra. meaning "eight chapters"). Panini's grammar consists of four parts: . and so on. for example.He is known for his Sanskrit grammar. the Sandracottus of Greek writers. Pāṇini was an Ancient Indian Sanskrit grammarian from Pushkalavati.Mudra-Rakshasa is a Sanskrit drama of Visakhadatta. who unfortunately lost the northern parts of his dominion to the Chalukya king. and the prince Chandragupta. and art and literature flourished in his times. the Senas. and the parties are finally friends. Dandin. The ancient history of India has seen the rise and downfall of several dynasties. He is thought to have succeeded Śākaṭāyana. 6.D. The Pallavas of Kanchi In the last quarter of the 6th century A. the medieval history of India started with the rise of empires such as the Palas. On the contrary the enemies offer him with the rank and power of prime minister. With the end of the 9th century A.D. for Chandragupta. that is the Brahman Chanakya.959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi (अअअअअअअअअअअ Aṣṭādhyāyī. the foundational text of the grammatical branch of the Vedanga. This is said to be a drama. PulekesinII. Narsinhavarman I.D. the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of Vedic religion. He was not a poet of the sphere of Bhavabhuti or Kalidasa but he has a vigorous perception of character and a manly strain of sentiment. 4th c. or on whose behalf. The Aindra (of Indra) school of Sanskrit grammar is one of the eleven schools of grammar mentioned in Panini's Ashtadhyayi. in one rich mix of science and art. SANSKRIT sCHOLARS) 1. particularly for his formulation of the 3. is a leading character in it. One of the views of Sakatayana that was to prove controversial in coming centuries was that most nouns are etymologically derivable from verbs. both as a poetic retelling of the adventures of Rama and a compendium of examples of grammar and rhetoric. The date of its production is apparently the eleventh or twelfth century A. it stands comparison with the best of Sanskrit poetry. the Pallava Empire began to decline and in course of time they were reduced to a mere local tribal power. Ultimately. the Pallava king Sinhavishnu rose to power and conquered the area between the rivers Krishna and Cauveri. after his death. With the aim to save his friend he surrenders himself before the enemies. It is named after Indra in allusion to Lord Indra. Gandhara (fl. the Cholas defeated the Pallava king Aparajita and took over their kingdom towards the close of the 9th century A. assumed to have been active in the 5th or 6th century BC. the great Sanskrit scholar. Bhaṭṭikāvya or "Bhatti's Poem" is one of the boldest experiments in classical literature: written in Sanskrit in the 7th century CE. 3. an old grammarian and expositor of the Vedas. in the formal genre of "great poem" (mahākāvya) it incorprates two of the most powerful Sanskrit traditions. a technical treatise on etymology. BCE) and Panini. 2. an object of suspicion to the prince with whom he took refuge. BC). The purpose of the play is to reunite Rakshasa. 4.As literature. who is well known for his architectural achievements. his sovereign was murdered. 4thcentury BCE. He built many temples. which have left their legacies still resounding in the golden book of Indian history. to the individuals by whom.

Buland Darwaza. Kātyāyana is known for two works: --------The Varttika. it is the most extravagant monument. Sureśvara is the commentator of the Advaita Vedanta school. Anguri Bagh and an ornamental bath housed inside the palace of mirrors or Sheesh Mahal. Agra Fort : The city of Agra is most famous for Taj Mahal. Varttikakara is a Sanskrit word literally meaning a "Commentator". but it is also famous for the Agra Fort. built at the cost of 32 million rupees. also known as Dargah Mosque. it is 2 kms from north west of Taj Mahal. His famous commentaries include the Bŗhadāraņyakopanişad-bhāşya-vārttika and the Taittirīya-vārttika. However.Patañjali is the compiler of the Yoga Sutras. Situated on the banks of river Yamuna. Taj Mahal : Described as a 'tear on the face of eternity'. Along with the Mahābhāsya of Patañjali. an elaboration on Pāṇini grammar. and constituted compulsory education for Brahmin students in the following twelve centuries. 8. Some of the major attractions of Fatehpur Sikri are Diwan-i-khas. Fatehpur Sikri is adorned with largest mosque in Jama Masjid. 2 kms from Purana Famous Mughal Monuments in India . Khwabagh. It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as a memorial for his second wife. Taj is a world Heritage Site and comes in the list of the eight wonder of world. rhombuses. 10. This was one of the six Vedangas. The magnificent town was built by the Mughal Emperor Akbar. India is the treasure trove of historical monuments spread across its length and breath. a series of nine texts on the geometry of altar constructions. 40 kms southwest of Agra. Taj Mahal is undoubtedly one of the world's most marvelous monuments ever built for love. and also the author of the Mahābhāṣya. whether these two works are that of the same author or not remains in some doubt.Earlier the fort was built primarily as a military structure but later on Shah Jahan transferred into the palace and later it became the gilded prison for eight years after his son Aurangzeb seized power in 1658.Śivasūtra: phonology (notations for phonemes specified in 14 lines) Aṣṭadhyāyī: morphology (construction rules for complexes) Dhātupāṭha: list of roots (classes of verbal roots) Gaṇapāṭha: lists classes of primitive nominal stems 7. Akbar visited Sikri to consult the Sufi saint Shaikh Salim Chisti. It is great monument of red sandstone built by Mughal Emperor Akbar between the years 1565 and 1573. Explore some of the greatest architectural monuments and be treated by fascination and glory that leaves the travelers in immense astonishment. The special attractions of the Mahal are Jahangiri Mahal. and Anup Talao.Mumtaz Mahal. which is among the finest Mughal Forts in India. Akbar named his prince as Salim and built his new capital here. dealing with rectangles. --------He also composed one of the later Sulba Sutras. In total some 20. an important collection of aphorisms on Yoga practice. right-sided triangles. located on the Lodhi's road. Presenting the finest example of the Mughal architecture. a major commentary on Panini's Ashtadhyayi. who died giving birth to their 14th child in 1631. who predicted the birth of his son. 9. Panch Mahal.000 people from India ans Central Asia to produce the exquisite marble screens and pietra dura made with thousand of semi precious stones. The complex of monuments and temples presents the greatest example of Indo Islamic architecture. etc. Humayun's Tomb : Humayun's Tomb is the Delhi's first Mughal mausoleum. When the prophecy come true.this text became a core part of the vyākarana (grammar) canon. Fatehpur Sikri : The ghost city of Fatehpur Sikri. Taj is located in the historic city of Agra in India. Diwan-i-Khas. Diwan-i-Am. Over looking the Yamuna river. was the short lived capital of the Mughal Empire for approximately 12 years.

There are many other small monuments inside the Tomb. Constructed of red sand. Humayun's tomb is must visit on the tour to capital city of Delhi. Chief among them are lack-and-yellow marble tomb of Humayun's wife and the tomb of Humayun's barber. the Persian born senior wife of second Mughal emperor Humayun. It was added in the list of World Heritage Site in the year 1993. It was built in the mid 16th century by Haji Begum. inlaid with black and white marble. The octagonal structure is adorned with the double dome that soars to a height of 38 m. The successors of Aurangzeb .the inner shell forms the vaulted ceiling.Quila.

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