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FOLDED-PLATE STRUCTURES

A DISSERTATION
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
Requirements for the award of degree
Of
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
In
CIVIL ENGINEERING
(With specialization in Structural Engineering)

By

SAURABH CHAUHAN

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE
ROORKEE-247667 (INDIA)
MAY, 2016

i
CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION

It is to certify that this work has been carried out in the period from June, 2015 to April, 2016
under the supervision of Dr.VipulPrakash, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian
Institute of Technology Roorkee.

Date: (SaurabhChauhan)
Place: Roorkee. Enrolment No. 14523029

CERTIFICATE
It is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my
knowledge.

Dr. VIPUL PRAKASH


Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my most sincere appreciation and gratitude to Dr. VipulPrakash,


Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee
for his invaluable guidance and continuous encouragement during preparation of this
dissertation.
I would like to thank all my friends and well wishers, for their help and encouragement to
complete this report.I would like to record my sincere gratitude for the blessings of my parents
for their encouragement and moral support during the course of this study. My hearty thanks are
for all those who, directly or indirectly, guided me in every bit of completion of this report.

Date:
Place: Roorkee SAURABH CHAUHAN

ii
ABSTRACT
Folded plates are very efficient structures which have many advantages. There are
various methods available for the analysis of folded plate structures. Some of the popular
methods are the Simpson’s Method and the Whitney’s Method. These methods are accurate for
the design purposes but these are very lengthy and cumbersome. Moreover large quantity of data
can lead to errors and also for analyzing folded plates for different data will take too much time.
Hence there should be a computer model for analyzing the folded plates.
This dissertation work presents analysis of reinforced concrete folded plates by
developing a model based on Simpson’s Method. Programmes have been developed by me in
MATLAB for the analysis of folded plates. The results of these programmes are verified by
developing a Finite Element model in ABAQUS. Various shapes of folded plates are analyzed
by using the MATLAB programmes with varying cross-sectional parameters and graphs are
plotted.

iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION ................................................................................................. i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................. ii

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................... iv

LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... vi

LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................................... ix

NOTATIONS .................................................................................................................................. x

CHAPTER 1 ................................................................................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 GENERAL ......................................................................................................................... 1

1.1.1 Folded Plates .............................................................................................................. 1

1.1.2 Advantages of Folded Plates ...................................................................................... 2

1.1.3 Structural behaviour of folded plates ......................................................................... 2

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF DISSERTATION WORK ................................................................... 2

1.3 METHODOLGY ............................................................................................................... 2

1.4 ORGANISATION OF DISSERTATION ......................................................................... 3

CHAPTER 2 ................................................................................................................................... 4

LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................... 4

2.1. METHOD OF ANALYSIS ............................................................................................. 4

2.1.1 SLAB BEAM METHOD .......................................................................................... 4

2.1.1.1. Primary analysis ..................................................................................................... 4

2.1.1.2. Secondary analysis ................................................................................................. 5

2.1.1.3. Assumptions made in slab beam method ............................................................... 5

2.1.1.4. Purpose of analysis ................................................................................................ 5

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2.2 HISTORICAL REVIEW .................................................................................................. 6

CHAPTER 3 ................................................................................................................................... 7

MODEL FOR ANALYSIS OF FOLDED PLATES ............................................................... 7

CHAPTER 4 ................................................................................................................................. 12

NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .......................................................................... 12

4.1. VALIDATION EXAMPLES ......................................................................................... 12

4.1.1. EXAMPLE 1 .......................................................................................................... 12

4.1.2. EXAMPLE 2 .......................................................................................................... 16

4.1.3. EXAMPLE 3 .......................................................................................................... 18

4.2. VARIATION OF STRESS RESULTANTS WITH RESPECT TO CROSS -


SECTIONAL PARAMETERS .............................................................................................. 22

4.2.1. Trough shape folded plate ...................................................................................... 22

4.2.2. V-shape folded plate .............................................................................................. 31

CHAPTER 5 ................................................................................................................................. 41

CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 41

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 42

APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................... 43

A.1. MATLAB CODE FOR TROUGH SHAPED FOLDED PLATE ................... 43

A.2. MATLAB CODE FOR NORTH LIGHT SHAPE FOLDED PLATE ............ 47

A.3. MATLAB CODE FOR VEE SHAPE FOLDED PLATE ............................... 49

v
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. No. Description Page No.

1.1 Various shapes of folded plates 1


3.1 Actual folded plate roof 7
3.2 End Unit 8
3.3 Interior Unit 8
3.4 Developed section of end unit of folded plate 9
3.5 Bending Moment Diagram 9
4.1 Example 1 12
4.2 End unit, Example 1 12
4.3 Interior unit, Example 1 15
4.4 Example 2 16
4.5 Cross section of Example 2 16
4.6 Example3 18
4.7 End unit, Example 3 18
4.8 Interior unit, Example 3 21
4.9 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 22
folded plates at mid span of end unit
4.10 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 22
folded plates at quarter span of end unit
4.11 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 23
folded plates at mid span of end unit
4.12 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 23
folded plates at quarter span of end unit
4.13 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 24
folded plates at mid span of interior unit
4.14 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 24
folded plates at quarter span of interior unit
4.15 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 24
folded plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit
4.16 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 25
plates at mid span of end unit
4.17 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 25
plates at quarter span of end unit
4.18 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 26
plates at mid span of end unit
4.19 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 26
plates at quarter span of end unit
4.20 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 27
plates at mid span of interior unit
4.21 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 27
plates at quarter span of interior unit

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4.22 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 27
plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit
4.23 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 28
folded plates at mid span of end unit
4.24 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 28
folded plates at quarter span of end unit
4.25 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 29
folded plates at mid span of end unit
4.26 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 29
folded plates at quarter span of end unit
4.27 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 30
folded plates at mid span of interior unit
4.28 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 30
folded plates at quarter span of interior unit
4.29 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 30
folded plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit
4.30 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 31
folded plates at mid span of end unit
4.31 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 31
folded plates at quarter span of end unit
4.32 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 32
folded plates at mid span of end unit
4.33 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 32
folded plates at quarter span of end unit
4.34 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 33
folded plates at mid span of interior unit
4.35 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 33
folded plates at quarter span of interior unit
4.36 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 33
folded plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit
4.37 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 34
plates at mid span of end unit
4.38 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 34
plates at quarter span of end unit
4.39 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 35
plates at mid span of end unit
4.40 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 35
plates at quarter span of end unit
4.41 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 36
plates at mid span of interior unit
4.42 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 36
plates at quarter span of interior unit
4.43 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 36
plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit
4.44 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to size of fold of 37
folded plates at mid span of end unit

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4.45 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to size of fold of 37
folded plates at quarter span of end unit
4.46 Variation of transverse moments with respect to size of fold of 37
folded plates at mid span of end unit
4.47 Variation of transverse moments with respect to size of fold of 37
folded plates at quarter span of end unit
4.48 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to size of fold of 38
folded plates at mid span of interior unit
4.49 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to size of fold of 38
folded plates at quarter span of interior unit
4.50 Variation of transverse moments with respect to size of folded 38
plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit
4.51 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 39
folded plates at mid span of end unit
4.52 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 39
folded plates at quarter span of end unit
4.53 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 39
folded plates at mid span of end unit
4.54 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 39
folded plates at quarter span of end unit
4.55 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 40
folded plates at mid span of interior unit
4.56 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 40
folded plates at quarter span of interior unit
4.57 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 40
folded plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit

viii
LIST OF TABLES

Table No. Description Page No.

4.1 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 13


4.2 Plate loads (values in kg/m span) 13
4.3 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 13
4.4 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 14
4.5 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 14
4.6 Stress resultants at interior unit 15
4.7 Longitudinal stresses at interior units 15
4.8 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 17
4.9 Plate loads (values in kg/m span) 17
4.10 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 17
4.11 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 17
4.12 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 17
4.13 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 19
4.14 Plate loads (values in kg/m span) 19
4.15 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 19
4.16 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 20
4.17 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 20
4.18 Stress resultants at interior span 21
4.19 Longitudinal stresses at interior unit 21

ix
NOTATIONS
A1 Area of bending moment diagram of span 1-2
A2 Area of bending moment diagram of span 2-3
A3Area of bending moment diagram of span 3-4
BMn Bending moment of plate n due to bending in longitudinal direction
𝑏𝑛 Width of plate n
I1 Second moment of area of span 1-2
I2 Second moment of area of span 2-3
L0 Length of span 0-1
L1 Length of span 1-2
L2 Length of span 2-3
L3 Length of span 3-4
Mn Transverse moment at joint n
𝑀1𝑠 Transverse moment at joint 1 calculated by compatibility equations
Pn Plate load for plate n
Rn Reaction at the joint n
𝑡𝑛 Thickness of plate n
Tn Shear force at joint n
W1 Total load at span 0-1
W2 Total load at span 1-2
W3 Total load at span 2-3
X1 Distance between centroid of bending moment diagram of span 1-2 and joint 1
X2 Distance between centroid of bending moment diagram of span 2-3 and joint 3
𝑓1 Longitudinal stress at joint 1
𝑑 Deflection of plate
𝜃 Rotation of plate
𝜃𝑚 ,𝑛 Rotation of plate m due to applying unit rotation at the plate for case n
𝜑 Angle of a plate with respect to horizontal
𝛼 Angle of deflection between two plates measured in clockwise direction

x
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

1.1.1 Folded Plates


Folded plates consist of a series of rectangular plates placed inclined to each other and
joined monolithically along their longitudinal edges. The folded plates can be made into various
shapes. Some of the common shapes are north light type, V type, trapezoidal type and trough
type folded plates. V type folded plates are simplest but it might not provide enough area of
concrete on the compression side moreover it might not provide enough area for reinforcement to
be accommodated in the tension side. Therefore, trough shaped folded plates are more common.
Z shaped folded plates can serve the purpose of north light roofs in factories.

Fig.1.1 Various shapes of folded plates

1
1.1.2 Advantages of Folded Plates
 They can be made for large spans.
 They are cheaper than cylindrical shells due to their easiness in formwork.
 They are aesthetically good.

1.1.3 Structural behaviour of folded plates


External loads are resisted by folded plates by two actions : ‘slab action’ and ‘beam
action’. In slab action, transverse bending of slabs takes place. Due to external loads and
transverse bending of slabs, the reactions at the joints are created but there is no external support
at the joints, so these reactions are counteracted by plate loads. These plate loads causes
longitudinal bending of plates in their own plane which is known as plate action.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF DISSERTATION WORK


 To develop a computer model for the analysis of reinforced cement concrete folded
plates.
 To develop programmes in MATLAB for the analysis of different shapes of folded plates
based on Simpson’s method of analysis of folded plates.
 To validate the computer model by making Finite Element model in ABAQUS.
 To analyze different shapes of folded plates for varying cross-sectional parameters and
span of folded plates.
 To plot the results of analysis in the form of graphs with respect to the cross- sectional
parameters and span

1.3 METHODOLGY
In this dissertation a computer model is made on the basis of Simpson’s method of analysis of
reinforced concrete folded plates. In this method structural action of folded plates is based on
slab action and beam action. In slab action, transverse bending of slabs takes place and hence
loads are transferred to the joints. The slabs are large in depth and relatively small in thickness
hence offers high resistance to bending in their own plane but are flexible out of their planes. The
in plane bending of plates due to plate loads is known as plate action or beam action.

2
1.4 ORGANISATION OF DISSERTATION
The work presented in this dissertation has been divided into six chapters
Chapter 1Introduces about the folded plates, sets out objectives and describes the methodology
used in this dissertation work.
Chapter 2Gives a review of the literature related to the analysis of folded plates. The method of
analysis of reinforced cement concrete folded plates is discussed.
Chapter 3 Presents the detailed model of analysis of folded plates.
Chapter 4 Deals with the application of proposed model of analysis of folded plates. Validation
examples are included in this chapter and graphs of analysis results are plotted with respect to
varying cross-sectional parameters are plotted.
Chapter 5 Conclusions of the present study are provided in this chapter.

3
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. METHOD OF ANALYSIS


The folded plate roofs are analysed by slab beam method.

2.1.1 SLAB BEAM METHOD


The structural action of folded plates consist of two parts, first is the slab action and the
second is the beam action. In slab action, transverse bending of slabs take place and hence loads
are transferred to the joints. The slabs are large in depth and relatively small in thickness hence
offer high resistance to bending in their own plane but are flexible out of their planes.
The loads are transferred to the diaphragms due to the longitudinal bending of slabs in their own
plane. This action is known as plate action.

The analysis is done in two stages:


 Primary analysis and Secondary analysis.

2.1.1.1. Primary analysis


In Primary analysis folded plates are analyzed under the external loads without taking
into consideration the effect of yielding of edges. Transverse bending of slabs take place under
the external loads. These slabs are assumed to be supported on non-yielding joints. This action of
transverse bending of slabs is similar to the action of bending of continuous beams. Transverse
moments are calculated and then joint reactions are calculated considering the effect of external
loading and transverse moments. These reactions are applied in opposite direction in the joints as
there are no external supports present at the joints and then resolved in the plate directions to
give the plate loads. The plates are first assumed to be bending independently in their own plane
in the longitudinal direction which gives stresses in the edges in the longitudinal direction and
then stress compatibility is taken into account by considering shear forces at the edges. These
stresses so calculated are by assuming joints do not deflect. The in plane bending of these plates
causes deflections of plates which are calculated to calculate the rotation of plates. These rotation
of plates causes relative rotation at the joints which cannot be possible since joints are monolithic

4
in construction. Therefore, secondary analysis is required for taking into account compatibility
conditions.

2.1.1.2. Secondary analysis


In secondary analysis, unit moments are applied at the mid span at the joints one by one
in succession which are assumed to vary sinusoidallyalong the length. These unit moments gives
rise to reactions at the joints which in turn give rise to plate loads, longitudinal stresses,
longitudinal shears, plate deflections and plate rotations. Relative rotations at joints are
calculated to form compatibility equations to give the actual transverse moments at joints and
thereby the secondary analysis effect. Then stresses are calculated to give complete solution.

2.1.1.3. Assumptions made in slab beam method


1. The material is homogeneous, elastic and isotropic.
2. The joints are rigid and the structure is monolithic in construction.
3. Each plate is of rectangular shape and is uniform in thickness.
4. Each plate behaves as a one way slab in transverse direction i.e. the length of the plates is
more than two times the width of the plates.
5. For a simply supported structure under uniformly distributed load, the elastic curve of the
structure is indistinguishable from a sine curve.

2.1.1.4. Purpose of analysis


The purpose of analysis is to find out :

1. Transverse moments at the joints. These are calculated to find out the reinforcement
requirements in transverse direction.
2. Plate loads. These are calculated for designing traverses.
3. Longitudinal stresses at the joints. These are calculated to find out the reinforcement
requirements in the longitudinal direction.

5
2.2 HISTORICAL REVIEW
The use of folded plates was first employed in Germany in deep coal bunkers in 1924.
Ehlers published his first paper on folded plates structural analysis in 1930. In this analysis, the
plates were assumed to be hinged to each other at the junctions which prevented longitudinal
sliding between plates but allowed rotation between plates. Due to this the transverse moments
were not considered. In 1932, Gruber presented a rigorous theory which considered rigidity of
joints. He found out that large errors could be made in results if rigidity of the joints were
neglected. In the next few years many European engineers made contributions for the folded
plate analysis. The methods developed by European engineers were mostly based on elastic
theory which led to algebraic and differential equations. After World War second engineers of
USA got interested in folded plate structures. After 1947, engineers of USA had made various
contributions to simplify the analysis of folded plates developing numerical procedures which
were very useful for design.
Winter and Pei, presented the procedure of stress distribution in a paper in 1947. But this method
ignored the joints displacements. In 1954, Gaafar presented a simple method for folded plates
analysis taking joints displacements into consideration. In 1958, Simpson presented a method for
analyzing folded plates which became very popular in design offices. Whitney presented a
method for analyzing folded plates which was a modification of the method originally propose
by Girkmann.Yitzhaki and Vlasov have also presented methods for analyzing folded plates. All
the methods used for analyzing folded plates are discussed in detail in American Society of Civil
Engineers (ASCE) Task Committee on Folded Plate Construction [7]. Among the various
methods available for analyzing folded plates, Simpson’s [1] and Whitney’s [5] methods are
more popular.

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CHAPTER 3

MODEL FOR ANALYSIS OF FOLDED PLATES


In a folded plate structure there is a series of thin rectangular plates connected rigidly
along their edges and spanning between the traverses. It is a very difficult job to apply the
concept of folded plates theory to the complete structure and calculate the stress resultants.
However, it is not necessary to apply the concept of folded plates theory on the whole structure
as the effects of free and outer edges deflections is not significant after fourth joint. The folded
plate structure can thus be reduced to smaller model for making the analysis simple.
The transverse strip of unit length behaves as continuous slab resting on elastic supports
with outer edges deflecting larger than the interior edges. In the interior units the deflections of
the edges are nearly equal hence the transverse moments can be calculated fairly by using the
theory of continuous slabs resting on rigid supports and the longitudinal stress in the joints can
be calculated by using theory of bending of beams. Therefore, the folded plates theory is applied
to end units only.
The actual folded plate structure is divided into two parts : the end units and the interior
units. The end units are analyzed by using the folded plates theory and the interior units are
analyzed by using the conventional beam theory.

Fig.3.1Actual folded plate roof

7
Fig.3.2End Unit

Fig.3.3Interior Unit

For interior units joints 4 and 4’ can be assumed to be rigid as there is sufficient rigidity
achieved upto joint 4.

8
For the end units transverse moments can be found out by using moment distribution
method, but three moments theorem can also be used in order to get closed expression.

Fig.3.4 Developed section of end unit of folded plate

Fig.3.5 Bending Moment Diagram

Applying theorem of three moments at joints 1-2-3

𝐿1 𝐿2 𝐿3 𝐴1 ∗ 𝑋1 𝐴2 ∗ 𝑋2
𝑀1 ∗ + 2 ∗ 𝑀2 ∗ + 𝑀3 ∗ =6∗ +
𝐼1 𝐼2 𝐼3 𝐼1 ∗ 𝐿1 𝐼2 ∗ 𝐿2

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Similarly, theorem of three moments can be applied to joints 2-3-4 and 3-4-4’
respectively. This will provide three equations with three unknowns which can be calculated

After calculating transverse moments joint reactions can be calculated.

𝑀1 − 𝑀2
𝑅1 = 𝑊0 + 𝑊1 −
𝐿1 ∗ cos ∅

𝑊1 𝑊2 𝑀1 − 𝑀2
𝑅2 = + +
2 2 𝐿1 ∗ cos ∅

𝑊2 𝑊3 𝑀2 − 𝑀3 𝑀3 − 𝑀4
𝑅3 = + + −
2 2 𝐿2 𝐿3 ∗ cos ∅

Since, actually there is no external support at the joints so these reactions are applied
equal and opposite at the joints. Now plate loads can be calculated by resolving these reactions.

𝑃1 = 𝑅1 ∗ cot ∅

1
𝑃2 = − ∗ 𝑅1 + 𝑅2
sin ∅

𝑃3 = cot ∅ ∗ 𝑅2 − 𝑅3

1
𝑃4 = ∗ (𝑅3 + 𝑅4 )
sin ∅

After calculating plate loads, bending moment for longitudinal bending can be calculated

𝐿2
𝐵𝑀1 = 𝑃1 ∗
8
𝐿2
𝐵𝑀2 = 𝑃2 ∗
8
𝐿2
𝐵𝑀3 = 𝑃3 ∗
8
𝐿2
𝐵𝑀4 = 𝑃4 ∗
8

10
Now, the longitudinal stresses can be calculated but the effect of shear should also be
taken into consideration for stress compatibility. Three stress theorem can be used for calculating
shear force at the edges of the plates.
Applying three stress theorem at joints 0-1-2
𝑇0 1 1 𝑇2 𝐵𝑀1 𝐵𝑀2
+ 2 ∗ 𝑇1 ∗ + + = 3∗ +
𝑡1 ∗ 𝑏1 𝑡1 ∗ 𝑏1 𝑡2 ∗ 𝑏2 𝑡3 ∗ 𝑏3 𝑡1 ∗ 𝑏1 𝑡2 ∗ 𝑏22
2

Similary, applying three stress theorem at joints 1-2-3, 2-3-4, 3-4-5 respectively. This
will provide four equations with four variables which can be solved to get the values of shear
forces.
After calculating bending moments and shear forces, the longitudinal stresses can be
found.

2 3 ∗ 𝐵𝑀1
𝑓1 = ∗ + 𝑇0 − 𝑇2
𝑡1 ∗ 𝑏1 𝑏1

After calculating longitudinal stresses, plate deflections can be found out


1
𝑑𝑛 = ∗ 𝑓𝑏 − 𝑓𝑡
9.6

Now, the plate rotations can be found out by using the formula [3]

1 𝑑𝑛+1 𝑑𝑛 −1
𝜃𝑛 = ∗ (𝑑𝑛 cot 𝛼𝑛 + cot 𝛼𝑛−1 − − )
𝑏𝑛 sin 𝛼𝑛 sin 𝛼𝑛−1

For secondary analysis unit rotations are provided at each plateone by one. Then, the
transverse moments are calculated and all the same procedure is repeated for each case. After
calculating the plate rotations, relative rotation at the joints are calculated for each case. For
secondary analysis rotations will be varying sinusoidally[2] along the span. Then the
compatibility equations are formed.

𝜃2 ∗ 𝜃21 + 𝜃3 ∗ 𝜃22 + 𝜃4 ∗ 𝜃23 = 𝜃2


𝜃2 ∗ 𝜃31 + 𝜃3 ∗ 𝜃32 + 𝜃4 ∗ 𝜃33 = 𝜃3
𝜃2 ∗ 𝜃41 + 𝜃3 ∗ 𝜃42 + 𝜃4 ∗ 𝜃43 = 𝜃4

By solving these equations the transverse moments at the joints are determined. By
getting these values, the stress resultants for the secondary analysis can be found. The final
values of stress resultants can be found by adding the values of primary analysis and secondary
analysis.

For interior units the analysis can be carried out by using the conventional bending theory
for beams.
By using all these equations a program is made in MATLAB in which geometrical
properties of folded plates and loading are input to get the values of stress resultants.

11
CHAPTER 4

NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1. VALIDATION EXAMPLES

4.1.1. EXAMPLE 1

Trough Shaped Folded Plate


Span=20m, Width of fold=4m, Height of fold =1.6m, Thickness of the horizontal
plates=10cm, Thickness of the inclined plates=12.5cm, M20 grade of concrete,
liveload =75kg/m2[8], finishing load =60kg/m2.

Fig.4.1 Example 1

Fig.4.2 End unit Example 1

12
Results for End Unit(At mid span)

Table.4.1Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m)

Transverse Moments Primary Analysis Secondary Analysis Final Result


M1 -8.95 0 -8.95
M2 -152.07 -932.07 -1084.13
M3 -104.67 -960.00 -1064.67
M4 -108.04 461.24 353.20

Table.4.2Plate loads (values in kg/m span)

Plate Loads Primary Analysis Secondary Analysis Final Result


P1 435.63 -582.54 -146.91
P2 -1652.73 98.77 -1553.96
P3 328.56 -445.41 -116.86
P4 1317.56 98.77 1416.33

Table.4.3Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 )

Longitudinal Primary Secondary Final ABAQUS


Stresses Analysis Analysis Result Results
f0 1482.44 -1568.16 -85.72 -73.75
f1 -351.11 303.17 -47.93 -44.34
f2 230.38 -182.37 48.02 45.45
f3 -25.95 80.54 54.59 51.34
f4 -19.25 -32.00 -51.25 -48.13

13
Results for End Unit(At L/4 span )

Table.4.4Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m)

Transverse
Moment At L/4 span At L/8 span
M1 -8.95 -8.95
M2 -811.14 -508.75
M3 -783.49 -472.04
M4 218.11 68.47

Table.4.5Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 )

ABAQUS Results
Longitudinal Stresses At L/4 span At L/4 span
f0 2.98 3.21
f1 -48.95 -49.03
f2 43.83 43.87
f3 37.49 37.51
f4 -37.07 -37.51

14
Results for Interior Unit

Fig.4.3 Interior unit, Example 1

Table.4.6 Stress resultants at interior unit

Stress Resultants At mid span At L/4 span


Transverse moment
(Kg-m/m span)
M4 -5.97 -5.97
M5 -112.26 -112.26
M6 -104.70 -104.70

Plate load
(Kg/m span)
P5 0.00 0.00
P6 1485.14 1485.14

Table.4.7. Longitudinal stresses at interior units

Longitudinal ABAQUS Results


Stress
(kg/cm2) At mid span At L/4 span At mid span At L/4 span
ft -52.33 -39.25 -51.31 -38.65
fb 52.33 39.25 51.31 38.65

15
4.1.2. EXAMPLE 2

Five plate north light folded plate


Span=15m, Width of fold=5m, Height of fold =2m, Thickness of the horizontal
plates=10cm, Thickness of the inclined plates=12.5cm, Angle of glazing=78.69 degrees, M20
grade of concrete,
liveload =75kg/m2[8], finishing load =60kg/m2.

Fig.4.4 Example 2

Fig.4.5Example 2

16
Results for End Unit(At mid span)

Table.4.8Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m)

Transverse Primary Secondary Final


Moments Analysis Analysis Result
M1 -11.86 0 -11.86
M2 -219.18 183.81 -35.36

Table.4.9Plate loads (values in kg/m span)

Plate Loads Primary Analysis Secondary Analysis Final Result


P1 241.99 178.53 420.52
P2 1222.38 -253.84 968.55
P3 -3252.38 560.46 -2691.92

Table.4.10Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 )

Longitudinal Primary Secondary Final ABAQUS Results


Stresses Analysis Analysis Result
f0 -45.10 0.00 -45.09 -40.77
f1 47.14 -0.05 47.09 -44.81
f2 -45.13 0.00 -45.14 -41.02
f3 40.58 0.11 40.70 38.68

Results at L/4 span and L/8 span

Table.4.11Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m)

Transverse Moment
At L/4 span At L/8 span
M1 -11.86 -11.86
M2 -89.20 -148.83

Table.4.12Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) (At L/4 span)

Longitudinal Stresses ABAQUS Results


f0 65.25 63.17
f1 11.31 10.29
f2 -46.68 -44.75

17
4.1.3. EXAMPLE 3

V – shaped folded plate


Span=18m, Width of fold=4.5m, Height of fold =1.8m, Thickness of the inclined
plates=10cm, Thickness of the end plate=12.5cm, Angle of glazing=40 degrees, M20 grade
of concrete,
live load =75kg/m2[8], finishing load =60kg/m2.

Fig.4.6Example 3.

Fig.4.7 End unit, Example 3.

18
Results for End Unit(At mid span)

Table.4.13Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m)

Transverse Primary Secondary


Moments Analysis Analysis

M1 -1308.70 0.00

M2 136.89 6.69

M3 -344.98 -26.46

Table.4.14Plate loads (values in kg/m span)

Plate Loads Primary Secondary


Analysis Analysis

P1 -1838.90 -2.38
P2 1940.10 -11.79
P3 -1231.10 -9.41

Table.4.15Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 )

Primary Secondary Final ABAQUS Results


Longitudinal Analysis Analysis Result
Stresses
f0 -45.10 0.00 -45.09 -40.77
f1 47.14 -0.05 47.09 45.81
f2 -45.13 0.00 -45.14 -43.02
f3 40.58 0.11 40.70 38.68

19
Results at L/4 span and L/8 span

Table.4.16Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m)

Transverse
Moments
At L/4 span At L/8 span
M1 -1308.70 -1308.70
M2 141.63 139.46
M3 -363.69 -355.11

Table.4.17Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 )

Longitudinal Abaqus Results


Stresses At L/4 span At L/4 span
f0 -33.82 -29.58
f1 35.32 33.11
f2 -33.85 -31.77
f3 30.52 29.51

20
Results for Interior Unit (At mid span)

Fig.4.8 Interior unit, Example 3


Table.4.18 Stress resultants at interior unit
At L/4
Stress Resultants At mid span span
Transverse
moment (kg-m/m)
M -184.36 -184.36

Plate load (kg/m )

P 1573.90 1573.90

Table.4.19 Longitudinal stresses at interior unit


Longitudinal ABAQUS Results
Stress (kg/cm2) At mid span At L/4 Span At mid span At L/4 span
ft -46.07 -34.55 -42.34 -32.53
fb 46.07 34.55 42.34 32.53

21
4.2. VARIATION OF STRESS RESULTANTS WITH RESPECT TO CROSS -
SECTIONAL PARAMETERS
Values of stress resultants are plotted with respect to different cross-sectional parameters.

4.2.1. Trough shape folded plate


END UNIT (Fig.4.2)
Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of folded plates

Longitudinal stresses vs. Thickness


100.00

90.00
Longitudinal stress (kg/cm2)

80.00 f0 (comp.)
f1 (comp.)
70.00
f2 (tensile)
60.00 f3 (tensile)
50.00 f4 (comp.)

40.00
90 100 110 120 130
Thickness (mm)
Fig.4.9At mid span

Longitudinal stresses vs. Thickness


60.00

50.00
Longitudinal stress (kg/cm2)

f0 (tensile)
40.00
f1 (comp.)
30.00 f2 (tensile)

20.00 f3 (tensile)
f4 (comp.)
10.00

0.00
90 100 110 120 130
Thickness (mm)

Fig.4.10At quarter span

22
Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of folded plates

Tranverse moments vs. Thickness


1400

1200
Transverse moment (kg-m/m)

1000
M1 (hogging)
800
M2 (hogging)
600 M3 (hogging)
M4 (sagging)
400

200

0
90 100 110 120 130
Thickness (mm)

Fig.4.11At mid span

Transverse moments vs. Thickness


1000
900
Transverse moment (kg-m/m)

800
700
600 M1 (hogging)
500 M2 (hogging)
400 M3 (hogging)
300 M4 (sagging)
200
100
0
90 100 110 120 130

Thickness (mm)

Fig.4.12At quarter span

23
INTERIOR UNIT (Fig.4.3)

Variation of longitudinal stress at top and bottom with respect to thickness of folded plate

Fig.4.13 At mid span Fig.4.14 At quarter span

Variation of Transverse moment with respect to thickness of folded plate

Fig.4.15At mid and quarter span

24
Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span

Fig.4.16At mid span

Fig.4.17At quarter span

25
Variation of transverse moments with respect to span

Fig.4.18 At mid span

Fig.4.19 At quarter span

26
INTERIOR UNIT
Variation longitudinal stresses with respect to span

Fig.4.20At mid span Fig.4.21At quarter span

Variation of transverse moments with respect to span

Fig.4.22At mid and quarter span

27
END UNIT
Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold

Fig.4.23 At mid span

Fig.4.24 At quarter span

28
Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold

Fig.4.25At mid span

Fig.4.26 At quarter span

29
INTERIOR UNIT

Variation of longitudinal stress at top and bottom with respect to height of fold

Longitudinal stress vs.


60
Height of fold

Longitudinal stress (kg/cm2)


50

40

30 f
(at
20 top
a…
10

0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Height of fold (m)

Fig.4.27At mid span Fig.4.28 At quarter span

Variation transverse moment with respect to height of fold

Fig.4.29At mid and quarter span

30
4.2.2. V-shape folded plate
END UNIT(Fig.4.7)
Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of folded plates

Fig.4.30At mid span

Fig.4.31At quarter span

31
Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of folded plates

Fig.4.32At mid span

Fig.4.33At quarter span

32
INTERIOR UNIT(Fig.4.8)
Variation of longitudinal stress at top and bottom with respect to thickness of folded plate

Longitudinal stresses vs.


50
thickness

Longitudinal stress (kg/cm2)


45

40 f (at
top…
35

30
90 100 110 120 130
Thickness (mm)
Fig.4.34At mid span Fig.4.35At quarter span

Variation of transverse moment with respect to thickness of folded plates

Fig.4.36At mid and quarter span

33
END UNIT
Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span

Fig.4.37 At mid span

Fig.4.38At quarter span

34
Variation of transverse moments with respect to span

Fig.4.39At mid span

Fig.4.40At quarter span

35
INTERIOR UNIT
Variation of longitudinal stress at top and bottom fibres with respect to span

Fig.4.41 At mid span Fig.4.42At quarter span

Variation of transverse moment with respect to span

Fig.4.43At mid and quarter span

36
Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to fold size. (fold width and height increased in
same ratio)

Fig.4.44At mid span Fig.4.45At quarter span

Fig.4.46At mid span Fig.4.47At quarter span

37
INTERIOR UNIT
Longitudinal stress at top and bottom fibres with respect to fold size

Fig.4.48At mid span Fig.4.49At quarter span

Variation of transverse moment with respect to fold size

Fig.4.50 At mid and quarter span

38
Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold

Fig.4.51At mid span Fig.4.52At quarter span

Transverse moments with respect to height of fold

Fig.4.53At mid span Fig.4.54 At quarter span

39
INTERIOR UNIT
Longitudinal stress at top and bottom fibres with respect to height of fold

Fig.4.55At mid span Fig.4.56At quarter span

Variation of transverse moment with respect to height of fold

Fig.4.57At mid and quarter span

40
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

The model for analysis of folded plates is based on the Simpson’s method for the analysis of
reinforced concrete folded plate structures. The programme developed in MATLAB gives
satisfactory results for the analysis of folded plate structures.
It has been observed by the results of analysis that the more is the height of the fold, the more is
the capacity of the structure to resist loads. But there is a limit for providing the fold height since
we cannot incline the plates more than 45 degrees (from the horizontal) for reinforced concrete
material, else double shuttering should be provided so that concrete does not flow.
It’s been observed that the angle of inclination for the RCC folded plates should be between 35
to 45 degrees from the horizontal. We cannot provide angle less than 35 degrees since structure
becomes inefficient as the stresses increases by decreasing the angle of inclination.
It has been observed that the longitudinal stresses in the folded plates reduces by increasing the
fold size but there is a limit to the fold size since transverse moments increases by increasing the
fold size.

41
REFERENCES
1. Simpson, H., Design of Folded Plate Roofs, Journal Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 84,
January 1958.
2. Gaafar, I. Hipped Plate Analysis considering joint displacements, Paper 269, ASCE, Vol.
119, pp. 743-784, 1954.
3. Ramaswamy, G.S., Design and Construction of Concrete Shell Roofs, McGraw Hill
Book Company, New York, 1958.
4. Verghese, P.C., Design of concrete shells and folded plates, PHI Learning Private
Limited, New Delhi, 2011.
5. Whitney Charles S., Boyd G., Anderson and Harold Birnbaum, Reinforced Concrete
Folded Plate Construction Proc. ASCE, Vol. 85 ST. 8 Oct. 1959.
6. Varyani U. H. and Taneja, Design tables for folded plates, Today and Tomorrow’s
Publishers, New Delhi.
7. IS: 2210-1962, Criteria for the design of reinforced concrete shell structures and folded
plates, Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi.
8. IS: 875 (part 2) – 1987, Code of practice for Design Loads (other than earthquakes) For
Buildings and Structures.
9. Phase I Report on Folded Plate Construction, Report of the Task Committee on Folded
Plate Construction, Journal Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 60, pp.365, ST6, December,
1963.

42
APPENDIX

A.1. MATLAB CODE FOR TROUGH SHAPED FOLDED PLATE


L=input('Span of folded plate roof(m) =')
s=input('Base width of folded plate(m) =')
H=input('Height of fold(m)=')
t=input('Thickness of inclined plate(m) =')
x=input('Ratio of horizontal plate thickness to inclined plate thickness=')
p=input('Ratio of lower horizontal plate width to total fold width=')
q=input('Ratio of upper horizontal plate width to lower horizontal plate=')
y=input('Density of concrete(kg/m3) =')
f=input('Finishing load(kg/m2) =')
wL=input('Live load(kg/m2) =')
E=input('Elasticity modulus of concrete(kg/m2)=')
fi=atan((2*H)/(s*(1-p-q*p)))
i=H/(s*sin(fi))
l=p/i
u=(q*p)/i
wD1=x*t*y
wD=t*y
w1=wD1+f+wL
w=wD+f+wL
r=w1/w
M10=-(r*i^2*u^2*w*s^2)/8
mat1=[2*(1+(l/(x^3))) l/(x^3) 0;l/(x^3) 2*(1+(l/(x^3))) 1;0 1 2+(3*u)/(x^3)]
mat2=[-.25*w*(i*s)^2*(cos(fi)+r*(l/x)^3-r*u^2/2);-
.25*w*(i*s)^2*(cos(fi)+r*(l/x)^3);-.25*w*(i*s)^2*(cos(fi)+r*(u/x)^3)]
M0=mat1\mat2
R10=w*i*s*(.5*r*u+.5)-((M10-M0(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
R20=w*i*s*(.5*r*u+.5)+((M10-M0(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))-((M0(1,1)-
M0(2,1))/(l*i*s))
R30=w*i*s*(.5*r*u+.5)+((M0(1,1)-M0(2,1))/(l*i*s))-((M0(2,1)-
M0(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
R40=w*i*s*(.5*r*u+.5)+((M0(2,1)-M0(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
P10=R10*cot(fi)
P20=-(1/sin(fi))*(R10+R20)
P30=cot(fi)*(R20-R30)
P40=(1/sin(fi))*(R30+R40)
bm10=P10*(L^2)/8
bm20=P20*(L^2)/8
bm30=P30*(L^2)/8
bm40=P40*(L^2)/8
matt1=[2*(1+2/(x*u)) 1 0 0;1 2*(1+1/(x*l)) 1/(x*l) 0;0 1/(x*l) 2*(1+1/(x*l))
1;0 0 1 (2+1/(x*u))]
matt2=[(3/(i*s))*((4*bm10)/(x*u^2)+bm20);(3/(i*s))*(bm20+bm30/(x*l^2));(3/(i*
s))*(bm30/(x*l^2)+bm40);(3/(i*s))*(bm40)]
T0=matt1\matt2
f00=-(4/(x*t*u*i*s))*(T0(1,1)-(6*bm10)/(u*i*s))
f10=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T0(1,1)+T0(2,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm20))
f20=-(2/(i*s*t*x*l))*(2*T0(2,1)+T0(3,1)-(3/(l*i*s))*(bm30))
f30=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T0(3,1)+T0(4,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm40))
f40=-(2/(x*t*u*i*s))*T0(4,1)
d10=(1/4.8)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f00-f10)
d20=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f10-f20)

43
d30=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f20-f30)
d40=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f30-f40)
ia20=(1/(i*s*sin(fi)))*(d30-d10)
ia30=(1/(l*i*s*sin(fi)))*(-2*d30*cos(fi)+d20+d40)
ia40=(d30/(i*s*sin(fi)))
mat3=[(E*t^3)/(2*i*s);0;0]
M1=mat1\mat3
M11=0
R11=-((M11-M1(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
R21=((M11-M1(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))-((M1(1,1)-M1(2,1))/(l*i*s))
R31=((M1(1,1)-M1(2,1))/(l*i*s))-((M1(2,1)-M1(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
R41=((M1(2,1)-M1(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
P11=R11*cot(fi)
P21=-(1/sin(fi))*(R11+R21)
P31=cot(fi)*(R21-R31)
P41=(1/sin(fi))*(R31+R41)
bm11=P11*(L^2)/(pi^2)
bm21=P21*(L^2)/(pi^2)
bm31=P31*(L^2)/(pi^2)
bm41=P41*(L^2)/(pi^2)
matt3=[(3/(i*s))*((4*bm11)/(x*u^2)+bm21);(3/(i*s))*(bm21+bm31/(x*l^2));(3/(i*
s))*(bm31/(x*l^2)+bm41);(3/(i*s))*(bm41)]
T1=matt1\matt3
f01=-(4/(x*t*u*i*s))*(T1(1,1)-(6*bm11)/(u*i*s))
f11=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T1(1,1)+T1(2,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm21))
f21=-(2/(i*s*t*x*l))*(2*T1(2,1)+T1(3,1)-(3/(l*i*s))*(bm31))
f31=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T1(3,1)+T1(4,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm41))
f41=-(2/(x*t*u*i*s))*T1(4,1)
d11=(2/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f01-f11)
d21=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f11-f21)
d31=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f21-f31)
d41=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f31-f41)
ia21=(1/(i*s*sin(fi)))*(d31-d11)
ia31=(1/(l*i*s*sin(fi)))*(-2*d31*cos(fi)+d21+d41)
ia41=(d31/(i*s*sin(fi)))
mat4=[-(E*t^3)/(2*i*s);(E*t^3)/(2*i*s);0]
M2=mat1\mat4
M12=0
R12=-((M12-M2(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
R22=((M12-M2(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))-((M2(1,1)-M2(2,1))/(l*i*s))
R32=((M2(1,1)-M2(2,1))/(l*i*s))-((M2(2,1)-M2(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
R42=((M2(2,1)-M2(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
P12=R12*cot(fi)
P22=-(1/sin(fi))*(R12+R22)
P32=cot(fi)*(R22-R32)
P42=(1/sin(fi))*(R32+R42)
bm12=P12*(L^2)/(pi^2)
bm22=P22*(L^2)/(pi^2)
bm32=P32*(L^2)/(pi^2)
bm42=P42*(L^2)/(pi^2)
matt4=[(3/(i*s))*((4*bm12)/(x*u^2)+bm22);(3/(i*s))*(bm22+bm32/(x*l^2));(3/(i*
s))*(bm32/(x*l^2)+bm42);(3/(i*s))*(bm42)]
T2=matt1\matt4
f02=-(4/(x*t*u*i*s))*(T2(1,1)-(6*bm12)/(u*i*s))
f12=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T2(1,1)+T2(2,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm22))
f22=-(2/(i*s*t*x*l))*(2*T2(2,1)+T2(3,1)-(3/(l*i*s))*(bm32))
f32=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T2(3,1)+T2(4,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm42))

44
f42=-(2/(x*t*u*i*s))*T2(4,1)
d12=(2/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f02-f12)
d22=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f12-f22)
d32=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f22-f32)
d42=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f32-f42)
ia22=(1/(i*s*sin(fi)))*(d32-d12)
ia32=(1/(l*i*s*sin(fi)))*(-2*d32*cos(fi)+d22+d42)
ia42=(d32/(i*s*sin(fi)))
mat5=[0;-(E*t^3)/(2*i*s);(E*t^3)/(2*i*s)]
M3=mat1\mat5
M13=0
R13=-((M13-M3(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
R23=((M13-M3(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))-((M3(1,1)-M3(2,1))/(l*i*s))
R33=((M3(1,1)-M3(2,1))/(l*i*s))-((M3(2,1)-M3(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
R43=((M3(2,1)-M3(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))
P13=R13*cot(fi)
P23=-(1/sin(fi))*(R13+R23)
P33=cot(fi)*(R23-R33)
P43=(1/sin(fi))*(R33+R43)
bm13=P13*(L^2)/(pi^2)
bm23=P23*(L^2)/(pi^2)
bm33=P33*(L^2)/(pi^2)
bm43=P43*(L^2)/(pi^2)
matt5=[(3/(i*s))*((4*bm13)/(x*u^2)+bm23);(3/(i*s))*(bm23+bm33/(x*l^2));(3/(i*
s))*(bm33/(x*l^2)+bm43);(3/(i*s))*(bm43)]
T3=matt1\matt5
f03=-(4/(x*t*u*i*s))*(T3(1,1)-(6*bm13)/(u*i*s))
f13=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T3(1,1)+T3(2,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm23))
f23=-(2/(i*s*t*x*l))*(2*T3(2,1)+T3(3,1)-(3/(l*i*s))*(bm33))
f33=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T3(3,1)+T3(4,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm43))
f43=-(2/(x*t*u*i*s))*T3(4,1)
d13=(2/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f03-f13)
d23=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f13-f23)
d33=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f23-f33)
d43=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f33-f43)
ia23=(1/(i*s*sin(fi)))*(d33-d13)
ia33=(1/(l*i*s*sin(fi)))*(-2*d33*cos(fi)+d23+d43)
ia43=(d33/(i*s*sin(fi)))
mata1=[(ia21-1) ia22 ia23;ia31 (ia32-1) ia33;ia41 ia42 (ia43-1)]
mata2=[-ia20;-ia30;-ia40]
ia=mata1\mata2
M1s=0
M2s=ia(1,1)*M1(1,1)+ia(2,1)*M2(1,1)+ia(3,1)*M3(1,1)
M3s=ia(1,1)*M1(2,1)+ia(2,1)*M2(2,1)+ia(3,1)*M3(2,1)
M4s=ia(1,1)*M1(3,1)+ia(2,1)*M2(3,1)+ia(3,1)*M3(3,1)
P1s=ia(1,1)*P11+ia(2,1)*P12+ia(3,1)*P13
P2s=ia(1,1)*P21+ia(2,1)*P22+ia(3,1)*P23
P3s=ia(1,1)*P31+ia(2,1)*P32+ia(3,1)*P33
P4s=ia(1,1)*P41+ia(2,1)*P42+ia(3,1)*P43
f0s=ia(1,1)*f01+ia(2,1)*f02+ia(3,1)*f03
f1s=ia(1,1)*f11+ia(2,1)*f12+ia(3,1)*f13
f2s=ia(1,1)*f21+ia(2,1)*f22+ia(3,1)*f23
f3s=ia(1,1)*f31+ia(2,1)*f32+ia(3,1)*f33
f4s=ia(1,1)*f41+ia(2,1)*f42+ia(3,1)*f43
M1=M10+M1s
M2=M0(1,1)+M2s
M3=M0(2,1)+M3s

45
M4=M0(3,1)+M4s
P1=P10+P1s
P2=P20+P2s
P3=P30+P3s
P4=P40+P4s
angle=fi*180/pi
f0=(f00+f0s)/10000
f1=(f10+f1s)/10000
f2=(f20+f2s)/10000
f3=(f30+f3s)/10000
f4=(f40+f4s)/10000
MLby41=M10+sin(pi/4)*M1s
MLby42=M0(1,1)+sin(pi/4)*M2s
MLby43=M0(2,1)+sin(pi/4)*M3s
MLby44=M0(3,1)+sin(pi/4)*M4s
PLby41=P10+sin(pi/4)*P1s
PLby42=P20+sin(pi/4)*P2s
PLby43=P30+sin(pi/4)*P3s
PLby44=P40+sin(pi/4)*P4s
fLby40=(.75*f00+sin(pi/4)*f0s)/10000
fLby41=(.75*f10+sin(pi/4)*f1s)/10000
fLby42=(.75*f20+sin(pi/4)*f2s)/10000
fLby43=(.75*f30+sin(pi/4)*f3s)/10000
fLby44=(.75*f40+sin(pi/4)*f4s)/10000
MLby81=M10+sin(pi/8)*M1s
MLby82=M0(1,1)+sin(pi/8)*M2s
MLby83=M0(2,1)+sin(pi/8)*M3s
MLby84=M0(3,1)+sin(pi/8)*M4s
PLby81=P10+sin(pi/8)*P1s
PLby82=P20+sin(pi/8)*P2s
PLby83=P30+sin(pi/8)*P3s
PLby84=P40+sin(pi/8)*P4s
fLby80=(.4375*f00+sin(pi/8)*f0s)/10000
fLby81=(.4375*f10+sin(pi/8)*f1s)/10000
fLby82=(.4375*f20+sin(pi/8)*f2s)/10000
fLby83=(.4375*f30+sin(pi/8)*f3s)/10000
fLby84=(.4375*f40+sin(pi/8)*f4s)/10000
h1=((1+l*x)*(i*s*sin(fi)))/(2+l*x+u*x)
h2=((1+u*x)*(i*s*sin(fi)))/(2+l*x+u*x)
Ixx=(1/6)*(i^3*s^3*t*(sin(fi))^2)*(1+6*x*(u*(1+l*x)^2+l*(1+u*x)^2+.5*x*(u-
l)^2)/(2+l*x+u*x)^2)
Z1=Ixx/h1
Z2=Ixx/h2
W=w*i*s*(2+r*l+r*u)
BM=w*i*s*(2+r*l+r*u)*L^2/8
ft=(-BM/Z1)/10000
fb=(BM/Z2)/10000
mati1=[2*(1+u/x^3) 1;1 (2+(3*l)/x^3)]
mati2=[-.25*w*(i*s)^2*((2/3)*r*(u/x)^3+cos(fi));-
.25*w*(i*s)^2*(r*(u/x)^3+cos(fi))]
Mi=mati1\mati2
Mi4=-r*w*(u*i*s)^2/12
Mi5=Mi(1,1)
Mi6=Mi(2,1)
P5=0
P6=w*i*s*(2+r*l+r*u)/(2*sin(fi))
MLby4i4=Mi4

46
MLby4i5=Mi5
MLby4i6=Mi6
PLby4i5=0
PLby4i6=P6
ftLby4=.75*ft
fbLby4=.75*fb
MLby8i4=Mi4
MLby8i5=Mi5
MLby8i6=Mi6
PLby8i5=0
PLby8i6=P6
ftLby8=.4375*ft
ftLby8=.4375*fb

A.2. MATLAB CODE FOR NORTH LIGHT SHAPE FOLDED PLATE


L=input('Span of folded plate roof(m) =')
s=input('Base width of folded plate(m) =')
H=input('Height of fold(m)=')
t=input('Thickness of inclined plate(m) =')
x=input('Ratio of horizontal plate thickness to inclined plate thickness=')
p=input('Ratio of horizontal intercept of inclined plate to total fold
width=')
bet=input('Angle of glazing wrt horizontal =')
y=input('Density of concrete(kg/m3) =')
f=input('Finishing load(kg/m2) =')
wL=input('Live load(kg/m2) =')
E=input('Elasticity modulus of concrete(kg/m2)=')
j=s/H
fi=atan(1/(j*p))
i=p/cos(fi)
be=bet*pi/180
u=(1/(2*i))*(1-p-(cot(be))/j)
l=(1/(2*i*j))*((1/sin(be))-.5)
wD=y*t
wD1=x*y*t
w=wD+f+wL
w1=wD1+f+wL
r=w1/w
M10=-r*.5*l^2*i^2*cos(be)*w*s^2
M20=-(.5*i^2/(2*u+3))*(.5*(u^3+cos(fi))-r*l^2*u*cos(be))*w*s^2
R10=w*i*s*(r*l+.5*u)-(M10-M20)/(u*i*s)
R20=.5*w*i*s*(1+u)+(M10-M20)/(u*i*s)
P10=R10/sin(be)
P20=-(R10*cot(be)-R20*cot(fi))
P30=-2*R20/sin(fi)
BM10=P10*L^2/8
BM20=P20*L^2/8
BM30=P30*L^2/8
mat1=[2*(1/(x*l)+1/u) 1/u;1/u (2/u+3)]
mat2=[(3/(i*s))*(BM10/(x*l^2)+BM20/u^2);(3/(i*s))*(BM20/(u^2)+BM30)]
T0=mat1\mat2
T10=T0(1,1)
T20=T0(2,1)
f00=-(2/(x*t*l*i*s))*(T10-3*BM10/(l*i*s))

47
f10=-(2/(t*u*i*s))*(2*T10+T20-3*BM20/(u*i*s))
f20=-(6/(t*i*s))*(T20-BM30/(i*s))
d10=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f00-f10)
d20=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f10-f20)
d30=(1/4.8)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*f20
ia20=(1/(u*i*s))*(d20*(cot(be)+cot(fi))-d10/sin(be)-d30/sin(fi))
M11=0
M21=(.5/(2*u+3))*E*t^3/(i*s)
R11=-(M11-M21)/(u*i*s)
R21=-R11
P11=R11/sin(be)
P21=-(R11*cot(be)-R21*cot(fi))
P31=-2*R21/sin(fi)
BM11=P11*L^2/(pi)^2
BM21=P21*L^2/(pi)^2
BM31=P31*L^2/(pi)^2
mat3=[(3/(i*s))*(BM11/(x*l^2)+BM21/u^2);(3/(i*s))*(BM21/(u^2)+BM31)]
T1=mat1\mat3
T11=T1(1,1)
T21=T1(2,1)
f01=-(2/(x*t*l*i*s))*(T11-3*BM11/(l*i*s))
f11=-(2/(t*u*i*s))*(2*T11+T21-3*BM21/(u*i*s))
f21=-(6/(t*i*s))*(T21-BM31/(i*s))
d11=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f01-f11)
d21=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f11-f21)
d31=(2/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*f21
ia21=(1/(u*i*s))*(d21*(cot(be)+cot(fi))-d11/sin(be)-d31/sin(fi))
ia2=ia20/(1-ia21)
M1s=ia2*M11
M2s=ia2*M21
P1s=ia2*P11
P2s=ia2*P21
P3s=ia2*P31
f0s=ia2*f01
f1s=ia2*f11
f2s=ia2*f21
M1=M10+M1s
M2=M20+M2s
P1=P10+P1s
P2=P20+P2s
f0=f00+f0s
f1=f10+f1s
f2=f20+f2s
MLby41=M10+sin(pi/4)*M1s
MLby42=M20+sin(pi/4)*M2s
PLby41=P10+sin(pi/4)*P1s
PLby42=P20+sin(pi/4)*P2s
fLby40=.75*f00+sin(pi/4)*f0s
fLby41=.75*f10+sin(pi/4)*f1s
fLby42=.75*f20+sin(pi/4)*f2s
MLby81=M10+sin(pi/8)*M1s
MLby82=M20+sin(pi/8)*M2s
PLby81=P10+sin(pi/8)*P1s
PLby82=P20+sin(pi/8)*P2s
fLby80=.4375*f00+sin(pi/8)*f0s
fLby81=.4375*f10+sin(pi/8)*f1s
fLby82=.4375*f20+sin(pi/8)*f2s

48
A.3. MATLAB CODE FOR VEE SHAPE FOLDED PLATE
L=input('Span of folded plate roof(m) =')
s=input('Base width of folded plate(m) =')
H=input('Height of fold(m)=')
t=input('Thickness of inclined plate(m) =')
x=input('Ratio of end plate thickness to intermediate plate thickness=')
l=input('Ratio of end plate width to intermediate plate width=')
bet=input('Angle of glazing wrt horizontal =')
y=input('Density of concrete(kg/m3) =')
f=input('Finishing load(kg/m2) =')
wL=input('Live load(kg/m2) =')
E=input('Elasticity modulus of concrete(kg/m2)=')
j=s/H
fi=atan(1/(.5*j))
i=1/(j*sin(fi))
be=bet*pi/180
wD=y*t
wD1=x*y*t
w=wD+f+wL*cos(fi)
w1=wD1+f+wL*cos(be)
r=w1/w
M10=-(.5*r*l^2*i^2*cos(be))*w*s^2
mat1=[4 1;1 2]
mat2=[(-cos(fi)+r*l^2*cos(be))*.5*i^2*w*s^2;(-.25*cos(fi)*i^2)*w*s^2]
M0=mat1\mat2
M20=M0(1,1)
M30=M0(2,1)
R10=w*i*s*(r*l+.5)-(M10-M20)/(i*s*cos(fi))
R20=w*i*s+(M10-M20)/(i*s*cos(fi))-(M20-M30)/(i*s*cos(fi))
R30=w*i*s+2*(M20-M30)/(i*s*cos(fi))
P10=-R10*cos(fi)/(sin(fi+be))
P20=R10*cos(be)/(sin(fi+be))+.5*R20/sin(fi)
P30=-.5*(R20+R30)/sin(fi)
BM10=P10*(L^2)/8
BM20=P20*(L^2)/8
BM30=P30*(L^2)/8
matt1=[2*(1/(l*x)+1) 1;1 4]
matt2=[(3/(i*s))*(BM10/(l^2*x)+BM20);(3/(i*s))*(BM20+BM30)]
T0=matt1\matt2
T10=T0(1,1)
T20=T0(2,1)
f00=-(2/(x*l*i*s*t))*(T10-3*BM10/(l*i*s))
f10=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T10+T20-3*BM20/(i*s))
f20=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T20-3*BM30/(i*s))
f30=-(2/(i*s*t))*(-T20+3*BM30/(i*s))
d10=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f00-f10)
d20=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f10-f20)
d30=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f20-f30)
ia20=(1/(i*s))*(d20*(cot(2*fi)-cot(fi+be))+d10/sin(fi+be)-d30/sin(2*fi))
ia30=-(d20+d30)/(i*s*sin(2*fi))
M11=0
M21=(1/7)*(E*t^3)/(i*s)
M31=-(1/14)*(E*t^3)/(i*s)
R11=-(M11-M21)/(i*s*cos(fi))
R21=(M11-M21)/(i*s*cos(fi))-(M21-M31)/(i*s*cos(fi))
R31=2*(M21-M31)/(i*s*cos(fi))

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P11=-R11*cos(fi)/(sin(fi+be))
P21=R11*cos(be)/(sin(fi+be))+.5*R21/sin(fi)
P31=-.5*(R21+R31)/sin(fi)
BM11=P11*L^2/(pi)^2
BM21=P21*L^2/(pi)^2
BM31=P31*L^2/(pi)^2
matt3=[(3/(i*s))*(BM11/(l^2*x)+BM21);(3/(i*s))*(BM21+BM31)]
T1=matt1\matt3
T11=T1(1,1)
T21=T1(2,1)
f01=-(2/(x*l*i*s*t))*(T11-3*BM11/(l*i*s))
f11=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T11+T21-3*BM21/(i*s))
f21=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T21-3*BM31/(i*s))
f31=-(2/(i*s*t))*(-T21+3*BM31/(i*s))
d11=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f01-f11)
d21=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f11-f21)
d31=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f21-f31)
ia21=(1/(i*s))*(d21*(cot(2*fi)-cot(fi+be))+d11/sin(fi+be)-d31/sin(2*fi))
ia31=-(d21+d31)/(i*s*sin(2*fi))
M12=0
M22=(-3/14)*(E*t^3)/(i*s)
M32=(5/14)*(E*t^3)/(i*s)
R12=-(M12-M22)/(i*s*cos(fi))
R22=(M12-M22)/(i*s*cos(fi))-(M22-M32)/(i*s*cos(fi))
R32=2*(M22-M32)/(i*s*cos(fi))
P12=-R12*cos(fi)/(sin(fi+be))
P22=R12*cos(be)/(sin(fi+be))+.5*R22/sin(fi)
P32=-.5*(R22+R32)/sin(fi)
BM12=P12*L^2/(pi)^2
BM22=P22*L^2/(pi)^2
BM32=P32*L^2/(pi)^2
matt4=[(3/(i*s))*(BM12/(l^2*x)+BM22);(3/(i*s))*(BM22+BM32)]
T2=matt1\matt4
T12=T2(1,1)
T22=T2(2,1)
f02=-(2/(x*l*i*s*t))*(T12-3*BM12/(l*i*s))
f12=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T12+T22-3*BM22/(i*s))
f22=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T22-3*BM32/(i*s))
f32=-(2/(i*s*t))*(-T22+3*BM32/(i*s))
d12=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f02-f12)
d22=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f12-f22)
d32=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f22-f32)
ia22=(1/(i*s))*(d22*(cot(2*fi)-cot(fi+be))+d12/sin(fi+be)-d32/sin(2*fi))
ia32=-(d22+d32)/(i*s*sin(2*fi))
mata1=[(ia21-1) ia22;ia31 (ia32-1)]
mata2=[-ia20;-ia30]
ia=mata1\mata2
ia2=ia(1,1)
ia3=ia(2,1)
M1s=ia2*M11+ia3*M12
M2s=ia2*M21+ia3*M22
M3s=ia2*M31+ia3*M32
P1s=ia2*P11+ia3*P12
P2s=ia2*P21+ia3*P22
P3s=ia2*P31+ia3*P32
f0s=ia2*f01+ia3*f02
f1s=ia2*f11+ia3*f12

50
f2s=ia2*f21+ia3*f22
f3s=ia2*f31+ia3*f32
angle=fi*180/pi
M1=M10+M1s
M2=M20+M2s
M3=M30+M3s
P1=P10+P1s
P2=P20+P2s
P3=P30+P3s
f0=(f00+f0s)/10000
f1=(f10+f1s)/10000
f2=(f20+f2s)/10000
f3=(f30+f3s)/10000
MLby41=M10+sin(pi/4)*M1s
MLby42=M20+sin(pi/4)*M2s
MLby43=M30+sin(pi/4)*M3s
PLby41=P10+sin(pi/4)*P1s
PLby42=P20+sin(pi/4)*P2s
PLby43=P30+sin(pi/4)*P3s
fLby40=(.75*f00+sin(pi/4)*f0s)/10000
fLby41=(.75*f10+sin(pi/4)*f1s)/10000
fLby42=(.75*f20+sin(pi/4)*f2s)/10000
fLby43=(.75*f30+sin(pi/4)*f3s)/10000
MLby81=M10+sin(pi/8)*M1s
MLby82=M20+sin(pi/8)*M2s
MLby83=M30+sin(pi/8)*M3s
PLby81=P10+sin(pi/8)*P1s
PLby82=P20+sin(pi/8)*P2s
PLby83=P30+sin(pi/8)*P3s
fLby80=.4375*f00+sin(pi/8)*f0s
fLby81=.4375*f10+sin(pi/8)*f1s
fLby82=.4375*f20+sin(pi/8)*f2s
fLby83=.4375*f30+sin(pi/8)*f3s
BM=.25*w*i*s*L^2
Ixx=(1/6)*t*i^3*s^3*(sin(fi))^2
Zxx=(1/3)*t*i^2*s^2*sin(fi)
ft=(-BM/Zxx)/10000
fb=-ft
M=-(1/12)*w*i^2*s^2*cos(fi)
P=w*i*s/sin(fi)
MLby4=M
PLby4=P
ftLby4=.75*ft
fbLby4=.75*fb
MLby8=M
PLby8=P
ftLby8=.4375*ft
fbLby8=.4375*fb

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