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You are on page 1of 63

A DISSERTATION

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the

Requirements for the award of degree

Of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY

In

CIVIL ENGINEERING

(With specialization in Structural Engineering)

By

SAURABH CHAUHAN

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE

ROORKEE-247667 (INDIA)

MAY, 2016

i

CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION

It is to certify that this work has been carried out in the period from June, 2015 to April, 2016

under the supervision of Dr.VipulPrakash, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian

Institute of Technology Roorkee.

Date: (SaurabhChauhan)

Place: Roorkee. Enrolment No. 14523029

CERTIFICATE

It is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my

knowledge.

Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee

for his invaluable guidance and continuous encouragement during preparation of this

dissertation.

I would like to thank all my friends and well wishers, for their help and encouragement to

complete this report.I would like to record my sincere gratitude for the blessings of my parents

for their encouragement and moral support during the course of this study. My hearty thanks are

for all those who, directly or indirectly, guided me in every bit of completion of this report.

Date:

Place: Roorkee SAURABH CHAUHAN

ii

ABSTRACT

Folded plates are very efficient structures which have many advantages. There are

various methods available for the analysis of folded plate structures. Some of the popular

methods are the Simpson’s Method and the Whitney’s Method. These methods are accurate for

the design purposes but these are very lengthy and cumbersome. Moreover large quantity of data

can lead to errors and also for analyzing folded plates for different data will take too much time.

Hence there should be a computer model for analyzing the folded plates.

This dissertation work presents analysis of reinforced concrete folded plates by

developing a model based on Simpson’s Method. Programmes have been developed by me in

MATLAB for the analysis of folded plates. The results of these programmes are verified by

developing a Finite Element model in ABAQUS. Various shapes of folded plates are analyzed

by using the MATLAB programmes with varying cross-sectional parameters and graphs are

plotted.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION ................................................................................................. i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................. ii

NOTATIONS .................................................................................................................................. x

CHAPTER 1 ................................................................................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1

CHAPTER 2 ................................................................................................................................... 4

iv

2.2 HISTORICAL REVIEW .................................................................................................. 6

CHAPTER 3 ................................................................................................................................... 7

CHAPTER 4 ................................................................................................................................. 12

SECTIONAL PARAMETERS .............................................................................................. 22

CHAPTER 5 ................................................................................................................................. 41

CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 41

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 42

APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................... 43

A.2. MATLAB CODE FOR NORTH LIGHT SHAPE FOLDED PLATE ............ 47

v

LIST OF FIGURES

3.1 Actual folded plate roof 7

3.2 End Unit 8

3.3 Interior Unit 8

3.4 Developed section of end unit of folded plate 9

3.5 Bending Moment Diagram 9

4.1 Example 1 12

4.2 End unit, Example 1 12

4.3 Interior unit, Example 1 15

4.4 Example 2 16

4.5 Cross section of Example 2 16

4.6 Example3 18

4.7 End unit, Example 3 18

4.8 Interior unit, Example 3 21

4.9 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 22

folded plates at mid span of end unit

4.10 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 22

folded plates at quarter span of end unit

4.11 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 23

folded plates at mid span of end unit

4.12 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 23

folded plates at quarter span of end unit

4.13 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 24

folded plates at mid span of interior unit

4.14 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 24

folded plates at quarter span of interior unit

4.15 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 24

folded plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit

4.16 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 25

plates at mid span of end unit

4.17 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 25

plates at quarter span of end unit

4.18 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 26

plates at mid span of end unit

4.19 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 26

plates at quarter span of end unit

4.20 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 27

plates at mid span of interior unit

4.21 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 27

plates at quarter span of interior unit

vi

4.22 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 27

plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit

4.23 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 28

folded plates at mid span of end unit

4.24 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 28

folded plates at quarter span of end unit

4.25 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 29

folded plates at mid span of end unit

4.26 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 29

folded plates at quarter span of end unit

4.27 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 30

folded plates at mid span of interior unit

4.28 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 30

folded plates at quarter span of interior unit

4.29 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 30

folded plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit

4.30 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 31

folded plates at mid span of end unit

4.31 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 31

folded plates at quarter span of end unit

4.32 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 32

folded plates at mid span of end unit

4.33 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 32

folded plates at quarter span of end unit

4.34 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 33

folded plates at mid span of interior unit

4.35 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of 33

folded plates at quarter span of interior unit

4.36 Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of 33

folded plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit

4.37 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 34

plates at mid span of end unit

4.38 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 34

plates at quarter span of end unit

4.39 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 35

plates at mid span of end unit

4.40 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 35

plates at quarter span of end unit

4.41 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 36

plates at mid span of interior unit

4.42 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span of folded 36

plates at quarter span of interior unit

4.43 Variation of transverse moments with respect to span of folded 36

plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit

4.44 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to size of fold of 37

folded plates at mid span of end unit

vii

4.45 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to size of fold of 37

folded plates at quarter span of end unit

4.46 Variation of transverse moments with respect to size of fold of 37

folded plates at mid span of end unit

4.47 Variation of transverse moments with respect to size of fold of 37

folded plates at quarter span of end unit

4.48 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to size of fold of 38

folded plates at mid span of interior unit

4.49 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to size of fold of 38

folded plates at quarter span of interior unit

4.50 Variation of transverse moments with respect to size of folded 38

plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit

4.51 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 39

folded plates at mid span of end unit

4.52 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 39

folded plates at quarter span of end unit

4.53 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 39

folded plates at mid span of end unit

4.54 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 39

folded plates at quarter span of end unit

4.55 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 40

folded plates at mid span of interior unit

4.56 Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold of 40

folded plates at quarter span of interior unit

4.57 Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold of 40

folded plates at mid span and quarter span of interior unit

viii

LIST OF TABLES

4.2 Plate loads (values in kg/m span) 13

4.3 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 13

4.4 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 14

4.5 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 14

4.6 Stress resultants at interior unit 15

4.7 Longitudinal stresses at interior units 15

4.8 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 17

4.9 Plate loads (values in kg/m span) 17

4.10 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 17

4.11 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 17

4.12 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 17

4.13 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 19

4.14 Plate loads (values in kg/m span) 19

4.15 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 19

4.16 Transverse moments at joints (values in kg-m/m) 20

4.17 Longitudinal Stresses (kg/𝑐𝑚2 ) 20

4.18 Stress resultants at interior span 21

4.19 Longitudinal stresses at interior unit 21

ix

NOTATIONS

A1 Area of bending moment diagram of span 1-2

A2 Area of bending moment diagram of span 2-3

A3Area of bending moment diagram of span 3-4

BMn Bending moment of plate n due to bending in longitudinal direction

𝑏𝑛 Width of plate n

I1 Second moment of area of span 1-2

I2 Second moment of area of span 2-3

L0 Length of span 0-1

L1 Length of span 1-2

L2 Length of span 2-3

L3 Length of span 3-4

Mn Transverse moment at joint n

𝑀1𝑠 Transverse moment at joint 1 calculated by compatibility equations

Pn Plate load for plate n

Rn Reaction at the joint n

𝑡𝑛 Thickness of plate n

Tn Shear force at joint n

W1 Total load at span 0-1

W2 Total load at span 1-2

W3 Total load at span 2-3

X1 Distance between centroid of bending moment diagram of span 1-2 and joint 1

X2 Distance between centroid of bending moment diagram of span 2-3 and joint 3

𝑓1 Longitudinal stress at joint 1

𝑑 Deflection of plate

𝜃 Rotation of plate

𝜃𝑚 ,𝑛 Rotation of plate m due to applying unit rotation at the plate for case n

𝜑 Angle of a plate with respect to horizontal

𝛼 Angle of deflection between two plates measured in clockwise direction

x

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

Folded plates consist of a series of rectangular plates placed inclined to each other and

joined monolithically along their longitudinal edges. The folded plates can be made into various

shapes. Some of the common shapes are north light type, V type, trapezoidal type and trough

type folded plates. V type folded plates are simplest but it might not provide enough area of

concrete on the compression side moreover it might not provide enough area for reinforcement to

be accommodated in the tension side. Therefore, trough shaped folded plates are more common.

Z shaped folded plates can serve the purpose of north light roofs in factories.

1

1.1.2 Advantages of Folded Plates

They can be made for large spans.

They are cheaper than cylindrical shells due to their easiness in formwork.

They are aesthetically good.

External loads are resisted by folded plates by two actions : ‘slab action’ and ‘beam

action’. In slab action, transverse bending of slabs takes place. Due to external loads and

transverse bending of slabs, the reactions at the joints are created but there is no external support

at the joints, so these reactions are counteracted by plate loads. These plate loads causes

longitudinal bending of plates in their own plane which is known as plate action.

To develop a computer model for the analysis of reinforced cement concrete folded

plates.

To develop programmes in MATLAB for the analysis of different shapes of folded plates

based on Simpson’s method of analysis of folded plates.

To validate the computer model by making Finite Element model in ABAQUS.

To analyze different shapes of folded plates for varying cross-sectional parameters and

span of folded plates.

To plot the results of analysis in the form of graphs with respect to the cross- sectional

parameters and span

1.3 METHODOLGY

In this dissertation a computer model is made on the basis of Simpson’s method of analysis of

reinforced concrete folded plates. In this method structural action of folded plates is based on

slab action and beam action. In slab action, transverse bending of slabs takes place and hence

loads are transferred to the joints. The slabs are large in depth and relatively small in thickness

hence offers high resistance to bending in their own plane but are flexible out of their planes. The

in plane bending of plates due to plate loads is known as plate action or beam action.

2

1.4 ORGANISATION OF DISSERTATION

The work presented in this dissertation has been divided into six chapters

Chapter 1Introduces about the folded plates, sets out objectives and describes the methodology

used in this dissertation work.

Chapter 2Gives a review of the literature related to the analysis of folded plates. The method of

analysis of reinforced cement concrete folded plates is discussed.

Chapter 3 Presents the detailed model of analysis of folded plates.

Chapter 4 Deals with the application of proposed model of analysis of folded plates. Validation

examples are included in this chapter and graphs of analysis results are plotted with respect to

varying cross-sectional parameters are plotted.

Chapter 5 Conclusions of the present study are provided in this chapter.

3

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

The folded plate roofs are analysed by slab beam method.

The structural action of folded plates consist of two parts, first is the slab action and the

second is the beam action. In slab action, transverse bending of slabs take place and hence loads

are transferred to the joints. The slabs are large in depth and relatively small in thickness hence

offer high resistance to bending in their own plane but are flexible out of their planes.

The loads are transferred to the diaphragms due to the longitudinal bending of slabs in their own

plane. This action is known as plate action.

Primary analysis and Secondary analysis.

In Primary analysis folded plates are analyzed under the external loads without taking

into consideration the effect of yielding of edges. Transverse bending of slabs take place under

the external loads. These slabs are assumed to be supported on non-yielding joints. This action of

transverse bending of slabs is similar to the action of bending of continuous beams. Transverse

moments are calculated and then joint reactions are calculated considering the effect of external

loading and transverse moments. These reactions are applied in opposite direction in the joints as

there are no external supports present at the joints and then resolved in the plate directions to

give the plate loads. The plates are first assumed to be bending independently in their own plane

in the longitudinal direction which gives stresses in the edges in the longitudinal direction and

then stress compatibility is taken into account by considering shear forces at the edges. These

stresses so calculated are by assuming joints do not deflect. The in plane bending of these plates

causes deflections of plates which are calculated to calculate the rotation of plates. These rotation

of plates causes relative rotation at the joints which cannot be possible since joints are monolithic

4

in construction. Therefore, secondary analysis is required for taking into account compatibility

conditions.

In secondary analysis, unit moments are applied at the mid span at the joints one by one

in succession which are assumed to vary sinusoidallyalong the length. These unit moments gives

rise to reactions at the joints which in turn give rise to plate loads, longitudinal stresses,

longitudinal shears, plate deflections and plate rotations. Relative rotations at joints are

calculated to form compatibility equations to give the actual transverse moments at joints and

thereby the secondary analysis effect. Then stresses are calculated to give complete solution.

1. The material is homogeneous, elastic and isotropic.

2. The joints are rigid and the structure is monolithic in construction.

3. Each plate is of rectangular shape and is uniform in thickness.

4. Each plate behaves as a one way slab in transverse direction i.e. the length of the plates is

more than two times the width of the plates.

5. For a simply supported structure under uniformly distributed load, the elastic curve of the

structure is indistinguishable from a sine curve.

The purpose of analysis is to find out :

1. Transverse moments at the joints. These are calculated to find out the reinforcement

requirements in transverse direction.

2. Plate loads. These are calculated for designing traverses.

3. Longitudinal stresses at the joints. These are calculated to find out the reinforcement

requirements in the longitudinal direction.

5

2.2 HISTORICAL REVIEW

The use of folded plates was first employed in Germany in deep coal bunkers in 1924.

Ehlers published his first paper on folded plates structural analysis in 1930. In this analysis, the

plates were assumed to be hinged to each other at the junctions which prevented longitudinal

sliding between plates but allowed rotation between plates. Due to this the transverse moments

were not considered. In 1932, Gruber presented a rigorous theory which considered rigidity of

joints. He found out that large errors could be made in results if rigidity of the joints were

neglected. In the next few years many European engineers made contributions for the folded

plate analysis. The methods developed by European engineers were mostly based on elastic

theory which led to algebraic and differential equations. After World War second engineers of

USA got interested in folded plate structures. After 1947, engineers of USA had made various

contributions to simplify the analysis of folded plates developing numerical procedures which

were very useful for design.

Winter and Pei, presented the procedure of stress distribution in a paper in 1947. But this method

ignored the joints displacements. In 1954, Gaafar presented a simple method for folded plates

analysis taking joints displacements into consideration. In 1958, Simpson presented a method for

analyzing folded plates which became very popular in design offices. Whitney presented a

method for analyzing folded plates which was a modification of the method originally propose

by Girkmann.Yitzhaki and Vlasov have also presented methods for analyzing folded plates. All

the methods used for analyzing folded plates are discussed in detail in American Society of Civil

Engineers (ASCE) Task Committee on Folded Plate Construction [7]. Among the various

methods available for analyzing folded plates, Simpson’s [1] and Whitney’s [5] methods are

more popular.

6

CHAPTER 3

In a folded plate structure there is a series of thin rectangular plates connected rigidly

along their edges and spanning between the traverses. It is a very difficult job to apply the

concept of folded plates theory to the complete structure and calculate the stress resultants.

However, it is not necessary to apply the concept of folded plates theory on the whole structure

as the effects of free and outer edges deflections is not significant after fourth joint. The folded

plate structure can thus be reduced to smaller model for making the analysis simple.

The transverse strip of unit length behaves as continuous slab resting on elastic supports

with outer edges deflecting larger than the interior edges. In the interior units the deflections of

the edges are nearly equal hence the transverse moments can be calculated fairly by using the

theory of continuous slabs resting on rigid supports and the longitudinal stress in the joints can

be calculated by using theory of bending of beams. Therefore, the folded plates theory is applied

to end units only.

The actual folded plate structure is divided into two parts : the end units and the interior

units. The end units are analyzed by using the folded plates theory and the interior units are

analyzed by using the conventional beam theory.

7

Fig.3.2End Unit

Fig.3.3Interior Unit

For interior units joints 4 and 4’ can be assumed to be rigid as there is sufficient rigidity

achieved upto joint 4.

8

For the end units transverse moments can be found out by using moment distribution

method, but three moments theorem can also be used in order to get closed expression.

𝐿1 𝐿2 𝐿3 𝐴1 ∗ 𝑋1 𝐴2 ∗ 𝑋2

𝑀1 ∗ + 2 ∗ 𝑀2 ∗ + 𝑀3 ∗ =6∗ +

𝐼1 𝐼2 𝐼3 𝐼1 ∗ 𝐿1 𝐼2 ∗ 𝐿2

9

Similarly, theorem of three moments can be applied to joints 2-3-4 and 3-4-4’

respectively. This will provide three equations with three unknowns which can be calculated

𝑀1 − 𝑀2

𝑅1 = 𝑊0 + 𝑊1 −

𝐿1 ∗ cos ∅

𝑊1 𝑊2 𝑀1 − 𝑀2

𝑅2 = + +

2 2 𝐿1 ∗ cos ∅

𝑊2 𝑊3 𝑀2 − 𝑀3 𝑀3 − 𝑀4

𝑅3 = + + −

2 2 𝐿2 𝐿3 ∗ cos ∅

Since, actually there is no external support at the joints so these reactions are applied

equal and opposite at the joints. Now plate loads can be calculated by resolving these reactions.

𝑃1 = 𝑅1 ∗ cot ∅

1

𝑃2 = − ∗ 𝑅1 + 𝑅2

sin ∅

𝑃3 = cot ∅ ∗ 𝑅2 − 𝑅3

1

𝑃4 = ∗ (𝑅3 + 𝑅4 )

sin ∅

After calculating plate loads, bending moment for longitudinal bending can be calculated

𝐿2

𝐵𝑀1 = 𝑃1 ∗

8

𝐿2

𝐵𝑀2 = 𝑃2 ∗

8

𝐿2

𝐵𝑀3 = 𝑃3 ∗

8

𝐿2

𝐵𝑀4 = 𝑃4 ∗

8

10

Now, the longitudinal stresses can be calculated but the effect of shear should also be

taken into consideration for stress compatibility. Three stress theorem can be used for calculating

shear force at the edges of the plates.

Applying three stress theorem at joints 0-1-2

𝑇0 1 1 𝑇2 𝐵𝑀1 𝐵𝑀2

+ 2 ∗ 𝑇1 ∗ + + = 3∗ +

𝑡1 ∗ 𝑏1 𝑡1 ∗ 𝑏1 𝑡2 ∗ 𝑏2 𝑡3 ∗ 𝑏3 𝑡1 ∗ 𝑏1 𝑡2 ∗ 𝑏22

2

Similary, applying three stress theorem at joints 1-2-3, 2-3-4, 3-4-5 respectively. This

will provide four equations with four variables which can be solved to get the values of shear

forces.

After calculating bending moments and shear forces, the longitudinal stresses can be

found.

2 3 ∗ 𝐵𝑀1

𝑓1 = ∗ + 𝑇0 − 𝑇2

𝑡1 ∗ 𝑏1 𝑏1

1

𝑑𝑛 = ∗ 𝑓𝑏 − 𝑓𝑡

9.6

Now, the plate rotations can be found out by using the formula [3]

1 𝑑𝑛+1 𝑑𝑛 −1

𝜃𝑛 = ∗ (𝑑𝑛 cot 𝛼𝑛 + cot 𝛼𝑛−1 − − )

𝑏𝑛 sin 𝛼𝑛 sin 𝛼𝑛−1

For secondary analysis unit rotations are provided at each plateone by one. Then, the

transverse moments are calculated and all the same procedure is repeated for each case. After

calculating the plate rotations, relative rotation at the joints are calculated for each case. For

secondary analysis rotations will be varying sinusoidally[2] along the span. Then the

compatibility equations are formed.

𝜃2 ∗ 𝜃31 + 𝜃3 ∗ 𝜃32 + 𝜃4 ∗ 𝜃33 = 𝜃3

𝜃2 ∗ 𝜃41 + 𝜃3 ∗ 𝜃42 + 𝜃4 ∗ 𝜃43 = 𝜃4

By solving these equations the transverse moments at the joints are determined. By

getting these values, the stress resultants for the secondary analysis can be found. The final

values of stress resultants can be found by adding the values of primary analysis and secondary

analysis.

For interior units the analysis can be carried out by using the conventional bending theory

for beams.

By using all these equations a program is made in MATLAB in which geometrical

properties of folded plates and loading are input to get the values of stress resultants.

11

CHAPTER 4

4.1.1. EXAMPLE 1

Span=20m, Width of fold=4m, Height of fold =1.6m, Thickness of the horizontal

plates=10cm, Thickness of the inclined plates=12.5cm, M20 grade of concrete,

liveload =75kg/m2[8], finishing load =60kg/m2.

Fig.4.1 Example 1

12

Results for End Unit(At mid span)

M1 -8.95 0 -8.95

M2 -152.07 -932.07 -1084.13

M3 -104.67 -960.00 -1064.67

M4 -108.04 461.24 353.20

P1 435.63 -582.54 -146.91

P2 -1652.73 98.77 -1553.96

P3 328.56 -445.41 -116.86

P4 1317.56 98.77 1416.33

Stresses Analysis Analysis Result Results

f0 1482.44 -1568.16 -85.72 -73.75

f1 -351.11 303.17 -47.93 -44.34

f2 230.38 -182.37 48.02 45.45

f3 -25.95 80.54 54.59 51.34

f4 -19.25 -32.00 -51.25 -48.13

13

Results for End Unit(At L/4 span )

Transverse

Moment At L/4 span At L/8 span

M1 -8.95 -8.95

M2 -811.14 -508.75

M3 -783.49 -472.04

M4 218.11 68.47

ABAQUS Results

Longitudinal Stresses At L/4 span At L/4 span

f0 2.98 3.21

f1 -48.95 -49.03

f2 43.83 43.87

f3 37.49 37.51

f4 -37.07 -37.51

14

Results for Interior Unit

Transverse moment

(Kg-m/m span)

M4 -5.97 -5.97

M5 -112.26 -112.26

M6 -104.70 -104.70

Plate load

(Kg/m span)

P5 0.00 0.00

P6 1485.14 1485.14

Stress

(kg/cm2) At mid span At L/4 span At mid span At L/4 span

ft -52.33 -39.25 -51.31 -38.65

fb 52.33 39.25 51.31 38.65

15

4.1.2. EXAMPLE 2

Span=15m, Width of fold=5m, Height of fold =2m, Thickness of the horizontal

plates=10cm, Thickness of the inclined plates=12.5cm, Angle of glazing=78.69 degrees, M20

grade of concrete,

liveload =75kg/m2[8], finishing load =60kg/m2.

Fig.4.4 Example 2

Fig.4.5Example 2

16

Results for End Unit(At mid span)

Moments Analysis Analysis Result

M1 -11.86 0 -11.86

M2 -219.18 183.81 -35.36

P1 241.99 178.53 420.52

P2 1222.38 -253.84 968.55

P3 -3252.38 560.46 -2691.92

Stresses Analysis Analysis Result

f0 -45.10 0.00 -45.09 -40.77

f1 47.14 -0.05 47.09 -44.81

f2 -45.13 0.00 -45.14 -41.02

f3 40.58 0.11 40.70 38.68

Transverse Moment

At L/4 span At L/8 span

M1 -11.86 -11.86

M2 -89.20 -148.83

f0 65.25 63.17

f1 11.31 10.29

f2 -46.68 -44.75

17

4.1.3. EXAMPLE 3

Span=18m, Width of fold=4.5m, Height of fold =1.8m, Thickness of the inclined

plates=10cm, Thickness of the end plate=12.5cm, Angle of glazing=40 degrees, M20 grade

of concrete,

live load =75kg/m2[8], finishing load =60kg/m2.

Fig.4.6Example 3.

18

Results for End Unit(At mid span)

Moments Analysis Analysis

M1 -1308.70 0.00

M2 136.89 6.69

M3 -344.98 -26.46

Analysis Analysis

P1 -1838.90 -2.38

P2 1940.10 -11.79

P3 -1231.10 -9.41

Longitudinal Analysis Analysis Result

Stresses

f0 -45.10 0.00 -45.09 -40.77

f1 47.14 -0.05 47.09 45.81

f2 -45.13 0.00 -45.14 -43.02

f3 40.58 0.11 40.70 38.68

19

Results at L/4 span and L/8 span

Transverse

Moments

At L/4 span At L/8 span

M1 -1308.70 -1308.70

M2 141.63 139.46

M3 -363.69 -355.11

Stresses At L/4 span At L/4 span

f0 -33.82 -29.58

f1 35.32 33.11

f2 -33.85 -31.77

f3 30.52 29.51

20

Results for Interior Unit (At mid span)

Table.4.18 Stress resultants at interior unit

At L/4

Stress Resultants At mid span span

Transverse

moment (kg-m/m)

M -184.36 -184.36

P 1573.90 1573.90

Longitudinal ABAQUS Results

Stress (kg/cm2) At mid span At L/4 Span At mid span At L/4 span

ft -46.07 -34.55 -42.34 -32.53

fb 46.07 34.55 42.34 32.53

21

4.2. VARIATION OF STRESS RESULTANTS WITH RESPECT TO CROSS -

SECTIONAL PARAMETERS

Values of stress resultants are plotted with respect to different cross-sectional parameters.

END UNIT (Fig.4.2)

Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of folded plates

100.00

90.00

Longitudinal stress (kg/cm2)

80.00 f0 (comp.)

f1 (comp.)

70.00

f2 (tensile)

60.00 f3 (tensile)

50.00 f4 (comp.)

40.00

90 100 110 120 130

Thickness (mm)

Fig.4.9At mid span

60.00

50.00

Longitudinal stress (kg/cm2)

f0 (tensile)

40.00

f1 (comp.)

30.00 f2 (tensile)

20.00 f3 (tensile)

f4 (comp.)

10.00

0.00

90 100 110 120 130

Thickness (mm)

22

Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of folded plates

1400

1200

Transverse moment (kg-m/m)

1000

M1 (hogging)

800

M2 (hogging)

600 M3 (hogging)

M4 (sagging)

400

200

0

90 100 110 120 130

Thickness (mm)

1000

900

Transverse moment (kg-m/m)

800

700

600 M1 (hogging)

500 M2 (hogging)

400 M3 (hogging)

300 M4 (sagging)

200

100

0

90 100 110 120 130

Thickness (mm)

23

INTERIOR UNIT (Fig.4.3)

Variation of longitudinal stress at top and bottom with respect to thickness of folded plate

24

Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span

25

Variation of transverse moments with respect to span

26

INTERIOR UNIT

Variation longitudinal stresses with respect to span

27

END UNIT

Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold

28

Variation of transverse moments with respect to height of fold

29

INTERIOR UNIT

Variation of longitudinal stress at top and bottom with respect to height of fold

60

Height of fold

50

40

30 f

(at

20 top

a…

10

0

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Height of fold (m)

30

4.2.2. V-shape folded plate

END UNIT(Fig.4.7)

Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to thickness of folded plates

31

Variation of transverse moments with respect to thickness of folded plates

32

INTERIOR UNIT(Fig.4.8)

Variation of longitudinal stress at top and bottom with respect to thickness of folded plate

50

thickness

45

40 f (at

top…

35

30

90 100 110 120 130

Thickness (mm)

Fig.4.34At mid span Fig.4.35At quarter span

33

END UNIT

Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to span

34

Variation of transverse moments with respect to span

35

INTERIOR UNIT

Variation of longitudinal stress at top and bottom fibres with respect to span

36

Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to fold size. (fold width and height increased in

same ratio)

37

INTERIOR UNIT

Longitudinal stress at top and bottom fibres with respect to fold size

38

Variation of longitudinal stresses with respect to height of fold

39

INTERIOR UNIT

Longitudinal stress at top and bottom fibres with respect to height of fold

40

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

The model for analysis of folded plates is based on the Simpson’s method for the analysis of

reinforced concrete folded plate structures. The programme developed in MATLAB gives

satisfactory results for the analysis of folded plate structures.

It has been observed by the results of analysis that the more is the height of the fold, the more is

the capacity of the structure to resist loads. But there is a limit for providing the fold height since

we cannot incline the plates more than 45 degrees (from the horizontal) for reinforced concrete

material, else double shuttering should be provided so that concrete does not flow.

It’s been observed that the angle of inclination for the RCC folded plates should be between 35

to 45 degrees from the horizontal. We cannot provide angle less than 35 degrees since structure

becomes inefficient as the stresses increases by decreasing the angle of inclination.

It has been observed that the longitudinal stresses in the folded plates reduces by increasing the

fold size but there is a limit to the fold size since transverse moments increases by increasing the

fold size.

41

REFERENCES

1. Simpson, H., Design of Folded Plate Roofs, Journal Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 84,

January 1958.

2. Gaafar, I. Hipped Plate Analysis considering joint displacements, Paper 269, ASCE, Vol.

119, pp. 743-784, 1954.

3. Ramaswamy, G.S., Design and Construction of Concrete Shell Roofs, McGraw Hill

Book Company, New York, 1958.

4. Verghese, P.C., Design of concrete shells and folded plates, PHI Learning Private

Limited, New Delhi, 2011.

5. Whitney Charles S., Boyd G., Anderson and Harold Birnbaum, Reinforced Concrete

Folded Plate Construction Proc. ASCE, Vol. 85 ST. 8 Oct. 1959.

6. Varyani U. H. and Taneja, Design tables for folded plates, Today and Tomorrow’s

Publishers, New Delhi.

7. IS: 2210-1962, Criteria for the design of reinforced concrete shell structures and folded

plates, Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi.

8. IS: 875 (part 2) – 1987, Code of practice for Design Loads (other than earthquakes) For

Buildings and Structures.

9. Phase I Report on Folded Plate Construction, Report of the Task Committee on Folded

Plate Construction, Journal Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 60, pp.365, ST6, December,

1963.

42

APPENDIX

L=input('Span of folded plate roof(m) =')

s=input('Base width of folded plate(m) =')

H=input('Height of fold(m)=')

t=input('Thickness of inclined plate(m) =')

x=input('Ratio of horizontal plate thickness to inclined plate thickness=')

p=input('Ratio of lower horizontal plate width to total fold width=')

q=input('Ratio of upper horizontal plate width to lower horizontal plate=')

y=input('Density of concrete(kg/m3) =')

f=input('Finishing load(kg/m2) =')

wL=input('Live load(kg/m2) =')

E=input('Elasticity modulus of concrete(kg/m2)=')

fi=atan((2*H)/(s*(1-p-q*p)))

i=H/(s*sin(fi))

l=p/i

u=(q*p)/i

wD1=x*t*y

wD=t*y

w1=wD1+f+wL

w=wD+f+wL

r=w1/w

M10=-(r*i^2*u^2*w*s^2)/8

mat1=[2*(1+(l/(x^3))) l/(x^3) 0;l/(x^3) 2*(1+(l/(x^3))) 1;0 1 2+(3*u)/(x^3)]

mat2=[-.25*w*(i*s)^2*(cos(fi)+r*(l/x)^3-r*u^2/2);-

.25*w*(i*s)^2*(cos(fi)+r*(l/x)^3);-.25*w*(i*s)^2*(cos(fi)+r*(u/x)^3)]

M0=mat1\mat2

R10=w*i*s*(.5*r*u+.5)-((M10-M0(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

R20=w*i*s*(.5*r*u+.5)+((M10-M0(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))-((M0(1,1)-

M0(2,1))/(l*i*s))

R30=w*i*s*(.5*r*u+.5)+((M0(1,1)-M0(2,1))/(l*i*s))-((M0(2,1)-

M0(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

R40=w*i*s*(.5*r*u+.5)+((M0(2,1)-M0(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

P10=R10*cot(fi)

P20=-(1/sin(fi))*(R10+R20)

P30=cot(fi)*(R20-R30)

P40=(1/sin(fi))*(R30+R40)

bm10=P10*(L^2)/8

bm20=P20*(L^2)/8

bm30=P30*(L^2)/8

bm40=P40*(L^2)/8

matt1=[2*(1+2/(x*u)) 1 0 0;1 2*(1+1/(x*l)) 1/(x*l) 0;0 1/(x*l) 2*(1+1/(x*l))

1;0 0 1 (2+1/(x*u))]

matt2=[(3/(i*s))*((4*bm10)/(x*u^2)+bm20);(3/(i*s))*(bm20+bm30/(x*l^2));(3/(i*

s))*(bm30/(x*l^2)+bm40);(3/(i*s))*(bm40)]

T0=matt1\matt2

f00=-(4/(x*t*u*i*s))*(T0(1,1)-(6*bm10)/(u*i*s))

f10=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T0(1,1)+T0(2,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm20))

f20=-(2/(i*s*t*x*l))*(2*T0(2,1)+T0(3,1)-(3/(l*i*s))*(bm30))

f30=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T0(3,1)+T0(4,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm40))

f40=-(2/(x*t*u*i*s))*T0(4,1)

d10=(1/4.8)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f00-f10)

d20=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f10-f20)

43

d30=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f20-f30)

d40=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f30-f40)

ia20=(1/(i*s*sin(fi)))*(d30-d10)

ia30=(1/(l*i*s*sin(fi)))*(-2*d30*cos(fi)+d20+d40)

ia40=(d30/(i*s*sin(fi)))

mat3=[(E*t^3)/(2*i*s);0;0]

M1=mat1\mat3

M11=0

R11=-((M11-M1(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

R21=((M11-M1(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))-((M1(1,1)-M1(2,1))/(l*i*s))

R31=((M1(1,1)-M1(2,1))/(l*i*s))-((M1(2,1)-M1(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

R41=((M1(2,1)-M1(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

P11=R11*cot(fi)

P21=-(1/sin(fi))*(R11+R21)

P31=cot(fi)*(R21-R31)

P41=(1/sin(fi))*(R31+R41)

bm11=P11*(L^2)/(pi^2)

bm21=P21*(L^2)/(pi^2)

bm31=P31*(L^2)/(pi^2)

bm41=P41*(L^2)/(pi^2)

matt3=[(3/(i*s))*((4*bm11)/(x*u^2)+bm21);(3/(i*s))*(bm21+bm31/(x*l^2));(3/(i*

s))*(bm31/(x*l^2)+bm41);(3/(i*s))*(bm41)]

T1=matt1\matt3

f01=-(4/(x*t*u*i*s))*(T1(1,1)-(6*bm11)/(u*i*s))

f11=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T1(1,1)+T1(2,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm21))

f21=-(2/(i*s*t*x*l))*(2*T1(2,1)+T1(3,1)-(3/(l*i*s))*(bm31))

f31=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T1(3,1)+T1(4,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm41))

f41=-(2/(x*t*u*i*s))*T1(4,1)

d11=(2/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f01-f11)

d21=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f11-f21)

d31=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f21-f31)

d41=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f31-f41)

ia21=(1/(i*s*sin(fi)))*(d31-d11)

ia31=(1/(l*i*s*sin(fi)))*(-2*d31*cos(fi)+d21+d41)

ia41=(d31/(i*s*sin(fi)))

mat4=[-(E*t^3)/(2*i*s);(E*t^3)/(2*i*s);0]

M2=mat1\mat4

M12=0

R12=-((M12-M2(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

R22=((M12-M2(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))-((M2(1,1)-M2(2,1))/(l*i*s))

R32=((M2(1,1)-M2(2,1))/(l*i*s))-((M2(2,1)-M2(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

R42=((M2(2,1)-M2(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

P12=R12*cot(fi)

P22=-(1/sin(fi))*(R12+R22)

P32=cot(fi)*(R22-R32)

P42=(1/sin(fi))*(R32+R42)

bm12=P12*(L^2)/(pi^2)

bm22=P22*(L^2)/(pi^2)

bm32=P32*(L^2)/(pi^2)

bm42=P42*(L^2)/(pi^2)

matt4=[(3/(i*s))*((4*bm12)/(x*u^2)+bm22);(3/(i*s))*(bm22+bm32/(x*l^2));(3/(i*

s))*(bm32/(x*l^2)+bm42);(3/(i*s))*(bm42)]

T2=matt1\matt4

f02=-(4/(x*t*u*i*s))*(T2(1,1)-(6*bm12)/(u*i*s))

f12=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T2(1,1)+T2(2,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm22))

f22=-(2/(i*s*t*x*l))*(2*T2(2,1)+T2(3,1)-(3/(l*i*s))*(bm32))

f32=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T2(3,1)+T2(4,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm42))

44

f42=-(2/(x*t*u*i*s))*T2(4,1)

d12=(2/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f02-f12)

d22=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f12-f22)

d32=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f22-f32)

d42=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f32-f42)

ia22=(1/(i*s*sin(fi)))*(d32-d12)

ia32=(1/(l*i*s*sin(fi)))*(-2*d32*cos(fi)+d22+d42)

ia42=(d32/(i*s*sin(fi)))

mat5=[0;-(E*t^3)/(2*i*s);(E*t^3)/(2*i*s)]

M3=mat1\mat5

M13=0

R13=-((M13-M3(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

R23=((M13-M3(1,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))-((M3(1,1)-M3(2,1))/(l*i*s))

R33=((M3(1,1)-M3(2,1))/(l*i*s))-((M3(2,1)-M3(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

R43=((M3(2,1)-M3(3,1))/(i*s*cos(fi)))

P13=R13*cot(fi)

P23=-(1/sin(fi))*(R13+R23)

P33=cot(fi)*(R23-R33)

P43=(1/sin(fi))*(R33+R43)

bm13=P13*(L^2)/(pi^2)

bm23=P23*(L^2)/(pi^2)

bm33=P33*(L^2)/(pi^2)

bm43=P43*(L^2)/(pi^2)

matt5=[(3/(i*s))*((4*bm13)/(x*u^2)+bm23);(3/(i*s))*(bm23+bm33/(x*l^2));(3/(i*

s))*(bm33/(x*l^2)+bm43);(3/(i*s))*(bm43)]

T3=matt1\matt5

f03=-(4/(x*t*u*i*s))*(T3(1,1)-(6*bm13)/(u*i*s))

f13=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T3(1,1)+T3(2,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm23))

f23=-(2/(i*s*t*x*l))*(2*T3(2,1)+T3(3,1)-(3/(l*i*s))*(bm33))

f33=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T3(3,1)+T3(4,1)-(3/(i*s))*(bm43))

f43=-(2/(x*t*u*i*s))*T3(4,1)

d13=(2/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f03-f13)

d23=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f13-f23)

d33=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f23-f33)

d43=(1/pi^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f33-f43)

ia23=(1/(i*s*sin(fi)))*(d33-d13)

ia33=(1/(l*i*s*sin(fi)))*(-2*d33*cos(fi)+d23+d43)

ia43=(d33/(i*s*sin(fi)))

mata1=[(ia21-1) ia22 ia23;ia31 (ia32-1) ia33;ia41 ia42 (ia43-1)]

mata2=[-ia20;-ia30;-ia40]

ia=mata1\mata2

M1s=0

M2s=ia(1,1)*M1(1,1)+ia(2,1)*M2(1,1)+ia(3,1)*M3(1,1)

M3s=ia(1,1)*M1(2,1)+ia(2,1)*M2(2,1)+ia(3,1)*M3(2,1)

M4s=ia(1,1)*M1(3,1)+ia(2,1)*M2(3,1)+ia(3,1)*M3(3,1)

P1s=ia(1,1)*P11+ia(2,1)*P12+ia(3,1)*P13

P2s=ia(1,1)*P21+ia(2,1)*P22+ia(3,1)*P23

P3s=ia(1,1)*P31+ia(2,1)*P32+ia(3,1)*P33

P4s=ia(1,1)*P41+ia(2,1)*P42+ia(3,1)*P43

f0s=ia(1,1)*f01+ia(2,1)*f02+ia(3,1)*f03

f1s=ia(1,1)*f11+ia(2,1)*f12+ia(3,1)*f13

f2s=ia(1,1)*f21+ia(2,1)*f22+ia(3,1)*f23

f3s=ia(1,1)*f31+ia(2,1)*f32+ia(3,1)*f33

f4s=ia(1,1)*f41+ia(2,1)*f42+ia(3,1)*f43

M1=M10+M1s

M2=M0(1,1)+M2s

M3=M0(2,1)+M3s

45

M4=M0(3,1)+M4s

P1=P10+P1s

P2=P20+P2s

P3=P30+P3s

P4=P40+P4s

angle=fi*180/pi

f0=(f00+f0s)/10000

f1=(f10+f1s)/10000

f2=(f20+f2s)/10000

f3=(f30+f3s)/10000

f4=(f40+f4s)/10000

MLby41=M10+sin(pi/4)*M1s

MLby42=M0(1,1)+sin(pi/4)*M2s

MLby43=M0(2,1)+sin(pi/4)*M3s

MLby44=M0(3,1)+sin(pi/4)*M4s

PLby41=P10+sin(pi/4)*P1s

PLby42=P20+sin(pi/4)*P2s

PLby43=P30+sin(pi/4)*P3s

PLby44=P40+sin(pi/4)*P4s

fLby40=(.75*f00+sin(pi/4)*f0s)/10000

fLby41=(.75*f10+sin(pi/4)*f1s)/10000

fLby42=(.75*f20+sin(pi/4)*f2s)/10000

fLby43=(.75*f30+sin(pi/4)*f3s)/10000

fLby44=(.75*f40+sin(pi/4)*f4s)/10000

MLby81=M10+sin(pi/8)*M1s

MLby82=M0(1,1)+sin(pi/8)*M2s

MLby83=M0(2,1)+sin(pi/8)*M3s

MLby84=M0(3,1)+sin(pi/8)*M4s

PLby81=P10+sin(pi/8)*P1s

PLby82=P20+sin(pi/8)*P2s

PLby83=P30+sin(pi/8)*P3s

PLby84=P40+sin(pi/8)*P4s

fLby80=(.4375*f00+sin(pi/8)*f0s)/10000

fLby81=(.4375*f10+sin(pi/8)*f1s)/10000

fLby82=(.4375*f20+sin(pi/8)*f2s)/10000

fLby83=(.4375*f30+sin(pi/8)*f3s)/10000

fLby84=(.4375*f40+sin(pi/8)*f4s)/10000

h1=((1+l*x)*(i*s*sin(fi)))/(2+l*x+u*x)

h2=((1+u*x)*(i*s*sin(fi)))/(2+l*x+u*x)

Ixx=(1/6)*(i^3*s^3*t*(sin(fi))^2)*(1+6*x*(u*(1+l*x)^2+l*(1+u*x)^2+.5*x*(u-

l)^2)/(2+l*x+u*x)^2)

Z1=Ixx/h1

Z2=Ixx/h2

W=w*i*s*(2+r*l+r*u)

BM=w*i*s*(2+r*l+r*u)*L^2/8

ft=(-BM/Z1)/10000

fb=(BM/Z2)/10000

mati1=[2*(1+u/x^3) 1;1 (2+(3*l)/x^3)]

mati2=[-.25*w*(i*s)^2*((2/3)*r*(u/x)^3+cos(fi));-

.25*w*(i*s)^2*(r*(u/x)^3+cos(fi))]

Mi=mati1\mati2

Mi4=-r*w*(u*i*s)^2/12

Mi5=Mi(1,1)

Mi6=Mi(2,1)

P5=0

P6=w*i*s*(2+r*l+r*u)/(2*sin(fi))

MLby4i4=Mi4

46

MLby4i5=Mi5

MLby4i6=Mi6

PLby4i5=0

PLby4i6=P6

ftLby4=.75*ft

fbLby4=.75*fb

MLby8i4=Mi4

MLby8i5=Mi5

MLby8i6=Mi6

PLby8i5=0

PLby8i6=P6

ftLby8=.4375*ft

ftLby8=.4375*fb

L=input('Span of folded plate roof(m) =')

s=input('Base width of folded plate(m) =')

H=input('Height of fold(m)=')

t=input('Thickness of inclined plate(m) =')

x=input('Ratio of horizontal plate thickness to inclined plate thickness=')

p=input('Ratio of horizontal intercept of inclined plate to total fold

width=')

bet=input('Angle of glazing wrt horizontal =')

y=input('Density of concrete(kg/m3) =')

f=input('Finishing load(kg/m2) =')

wL=input('Live load(kg/m2) =')

E=input('Elasticity modulus of concrete(kg/m2)=')

j=s/H

fi=atan(1/(j*p))

i=p/cos(fi)

be=bet*pi/180

u=(1/(2*i))*(1-p-(cot(be))/j)

l=(1/(2*i*j))*((1/sin(be))-.5)

wD=y*t

wD1=x*y*t

w=wD+f+wL

w1=wD1+f+wL

r=w1/w

M10=-r*.5*l^2*i^2*cos(be)*w*s^2

M20=-(.5*i^2/(2*u+3))*(.5*(u^3+cos(fi))-r*l^2*u*cos(be))*w*s^2

R10=w*i*s*(r*l+.5*u)-(M10-M20)/(u*i*s)

R20=.5*w*i*s*(1+u)+(M10-M20)/(u*i*s)

P10=R10/sin(be)

P20=-(R10*cot(be)-R20*cot(fi))

P30=-2*R20/sin(fi)

BM10=P10*L^2/8

BM20=P20*L^2/8

BM30=P30*L^2/8

mat1=[2*(1/(x*l)+1/u) 1/u;1/u (2/u+3)]

mat2=[(3/(i*s))*(BM10/(x*l^2)+BM20/u^2);(3/(i*s))*(BM20/(u^2)+BM30)]

T0=mat1\mat2

T10=T0(1,1)

T20=T0(2,1)

f00=-(2/(x*t*l*i*s))*(T10-3*BM10/(l*i*s))

47

f10=-(2/(t*u*i*s))*(2*T10+T20-3*BM20/(u*i*s))

f20=-(6/(t*i*s))*(T20-BM30/(i*s))

d10=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f00-f10)

d20=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f10-f20)

d30=(1/4.8)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*f20

ia20=(1/(u*i*s))*(d20*(cot(be)+cot(fi))-d10/sin(be)-d30/sin(fi))

M11=0

M21=(.5/(2*u+3))*E*t^3/(i*s)

R11=-(M11-M21)/(u*i*s)

R21=-R11

P11=R11/sin(be)

P21=-(R11*cot(be)-R21*cot(fi))

P31=-2*R21/sin(fi)

BM11=P11*L^2/(pi)^2

BM21=P21*L^2/(pi)^2

BM31=P31*L^2/(pi)^2

mat3=[(3/(i*s))*(BM11/(x*l^2)+BM21/u^2);(3/(i*s))*(BM21/(u^2)+BM31)]

T1=mat1\mat3

T11=T1(1,1)

T21=T1(2,1)

f01=-(2/(x*t*l*i*s))*(T11-3*BM11/(l*i*s))

f11=-(2/(t*u*i*s))*(2*T11+T21-3*BM21/(u*i*s))

f21=-(6/(t*i*s))*(T21-BM31/(i*s))

d11=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f01-f11)

d21=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*u*i*s))*(f11-f21)

d31=(2/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*f21

ia21=(1/(u*i*s))*(d21*(cot(be)+cot(fi))-d11/sin(be)-d31/sin(fi))

ia2=ia20/(1-ia21)

M1s=ia2*M11

M2s=ia2*M21

P1s=ia2*P11

P2s=ia2*P21

P3s=ia2*P31

f0s=ia2*f01

f1s=ia2*f11

f2s=ia2*f21

M1=M10+M1s

M2=M20+M2s

P1=P10+P1s

P2=P20+P2s

f0=f00+f0s

f1=f10+f1s

f2=f20+f2s

MLby41=M10+sin(pi/4)*M1s

MLby42=M20+sin(pi/4)*M2s

PLby41=P10+sin(pi/4)*P1s

PLby42=P20+sin(pi/4)*P2s

fLby40=.75*f00+sin(pi/4)*f0s

fLby41=.75*f10+sin(pi/4)*f1s

fLby42=.75*f20+sin(pi/4)*f2s

MLby81=M10+sin(pi/8)*M1s

MLby82=M20+sin(pi/8)*M2s

PLby81=P10+sin(pi/8)*P1s

PLby82=P20+sin(pi/8)*P2s

fLby80=.4375*f00+sin(pi/8)*f0s

fLby81=.4375*f10+sin(pi/8)*f1s

fLby82=.4375*f20+sin(pi/8)*f2s

48

A.3. MATLAB CODE FOR VEE SHAPE FOLDED PLATE

L=input('Span of folded plate roof(m) =')

s=input('Base width of folded plate(m) =')

H=input('Height of fold(m)=')

t=input('Thickness of inclined plate(m) =')

x=input('Ratio of end plate thickness to intermediate plate thickness=')

l=input('Ratio of end plate width to intermediate plate width=')

bet=input('Angle of glazing wrt horizontal =')

y=input('Density of concrete(kg/m3) =')

f=input('Finishing load(kg/m2) =')

wL=input('Live load(kg/m2) =')

E=input('Elasticity modulus of concrete(kg/m2)=')

j=s/H

fi=atan(1/(.5*j))

i=1/(j*sin(fi))

be=bet*pi/180

wD=y*t

wD1=x*y*t

w=wD+f+wL*cos(fi)

w1=wD1+f+wL*cos(be)

r=w1/w

M10=-(.5*r*l^2*i^2*cos(be))*w*s^2

mat1=[4 1;1 2]

mat2=[(-cos(fi)+r*l^2*cos(be))*.5*i^2*w*s^2;(-.25*cos(fi)*i^2)*w*s^2]

M0=mat1\mat2

M20=M0(1,1)

M30=M0(2,1)

R10=w*i*s*(r*l+.5)-(M10-M20)/(i*s*cos(fi))

R20=w*i*s+(M10-M20)/(i*s*cos(fi))-(M20-M30)/(i*s*cos(fi))

R30=w*i*s+2*(M20-M30)/(i*s*cos(fi))

P10=-R10*cos(fi)/(sin(fi+be))

P20=R10*cos(be)/(sin(fi+be))+.5*R20/sin(fi)

P30=-.5*(R20+R30)/sin(fi)

BM10=P10*(L^2)/8

BM20=P20*(L^2)/8

BM30=P30*(L^2)/8

matt1=[2*(1/(l*x)+1) 1;1 4]

matt2=[(3/(i*s))*(BM10/(l^2*x)+BM20);(3/(i*s))*(BM20+BM30)]

T0=matt1\matt2

T10=T0(1,1)

T20=T0(2,1)

f00=-(2/(x*l*i*s*t))*(T10-3*BM10/(l*i*s))

f10=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T10+T20-3*BM20/(i*s))

f20=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T20-3*BM30/(i*s))

f30=-(2/(i*s*t))*(-T20+3*BM30/(i*s))

d10=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f00-f10)

d20=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f10-f20)

d30=(1/9.6)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f20-f30)

ia20=(1/(i*s))*(d20*(cot(2*fi)-cot(fi+be))+d10/sin(fi+be)-d30/sin(2*fi))

ia30=-(d20+d30)/(i*s*sin(2*fi))

M11=0

M21=(1/7)*(E*t^3)/(i*s)

M31=-(1/14)*(E*t^3)/(i*s)

R11=-(M11-M21)/(i*s*cos(fi))

R21=(M11-M21)/(i*s*cos(fi))-(M21-M31)/(i*s*cos(fi))

R31=2*(M21-M31)/(i*s*cos(fi))

49

P11=-R11*cos(fi)/(sin(fi+be))

P21=R11*cos(be)/(sin(fi+be))+.5*R21/sin(fi)

P31=-.5*(R21+R31)/sin(fi)

BM11=P11*L^2/(pi)^2

BM21=P21*L^2/(pi)^2

BM31=P31*L^2/(pi)^2

matt3=[(3/(i*s))*(BM11/(l^2*x)+BM21);(3/(i*s))*(BM21+BM31)]

T1=matt1\matt3

T11=T1(1,1)

T21=T1(2,1)

f01=-(2/(x*l*i*s*t))*(T11-3*BM11/(l*i*s))

f11=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T11+T21-3*BM21/(i*s))

f21=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T21-3*BM31/(i*s))

f31=-(2/(i*s*t))*(-T21+3*BM31/(i*s))

d11=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f01-f11)

d21=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f11-f21)

d31=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f21-f31)

ia21=(1/(i*s))*(d21*(cot(2*fi)-cot(fi+be))+d11/sin(fi+be)-d31/sin(2*fi))

ia31=-(d21+d31)/(i*s*sin(2*fi))

M12=0

M22=(-3/14)*(E*t^3)/(i*s)

M32=(5/14)*(E*t^3)/(i*s)

R12=-(M12-M22)/(i*s*cos(fi))

R22=(M12-M22)/(i*s*cos(fi))-(M22-M32)/(i*s*cos(fi))

R32=2*(M22-M32)/(i*s*cos(fi))

P12=-R12*cos(fi)/(sin(fi+be))

P22=R12*cos(be)/(sin(fi+be))+.5*R22/sin(fi)

P32=-.5*(R22+R32)/sin(fi)

BM12=P12*L^2/(pi)^2

BM22=P22*L^2/(pi)^2

BM32=P32*L^2/(pi)^2

matt4=[(3/(i*s))*(BM12/(l^2*x)+BM22);(3/(i*s))*(BM22+BM32)]

T2=matt1\matt4

T12=T2(1,1)

T22=T2(2,1)

f02=-(2/(x*l*i*s*t))*(T12-3*BM12/(l*i*s))

f12=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T12+T22-3*BM22/(i*s))

f22=-(2/(i*s*t))*(2*T22-3*BM32/(i*s))

f32=-(2/(i*s*t))*(-T22+3*BM32/(i*s))

d12=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*l*i*s))*(f02-f12)

d22=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f12-f22)

d32=(1/(pi)^2)*(L^2/(E*i*s))*(f22-f32)

ia22=(1/(i*s))*(d22*(cot(2*fi)-cot(fi+be))+d12/sin(fi+be)-d32/sin(2*fi))

ia32=-(d22+d32)/(i*s*sin(2*fi))

mata1=[(ia21-1) ia22;ia31 (ia32-1)]

mata2=[-ia20;-ia30]

ia=mata1\mata2

ia2=ia(1,1)

ia3=ia(2,1)

M1s=ia2*M11+ia3*M12

M2s=ia2*M21+ia3*M22

M3s=ia2*M31+ia3*M32

P1s=ia2*P11+ia3*P12

P2s=ia2*P21+ia3*P22

P3s=ia2*P31+ia3*P32

f0s=ia2*f01+ia3*f02

f1s=ia2*f11+ia3*f12

50

f2s=ia2*f21+ia3*f22

f3s=ia2*f31+ia3*f32

angle=fi*180/pi

M1=M10+M1s

M2=M20+M2s

M3=M30+M3s

P1=P10+P1s

P2=P20+P2s

P3=P30+P3s

f0=(f00+f0s)/10000

f1=(f10+f1s)/10000

f2=(f20+f2s)/10000

f3=(f30+f3s)/10000

MLby41=M10+sin(pi/4)*M1s

MLby42=M20+sin(pi/4)*M2s

MLby43=M30+sin(pi/4)*M3s

PLby41=P10+sin(pi/4)*P1s

PLby42=P20+sin(pi/4)*P2s

PLby43=P30+sin(pi/4)*P3s

fLby40=(.75*f00+sin(pi/4)*f0s)/10000

fLby41=(.75*f10+sin(pi/4)*f1s)/10000

fLby42=(.75*f20+sin(pi/4)*f2s)/10000

fLby43=(.75*f30+sin(pi/4)*f3s)/10000

MLby81=M10+sin(pi/8)*M1s

MLby82=M20+sin(pi/8)*M2s

MLby83=M30+sin(pi/8)*M3s

PLby81=P10+sin(pi/8)*P1s

PLby82=P20+sin(pi/8)*P2s

PLby83=P30+sin(pi/8)*P3s

fLby80=.4375*f00+sin(pi/8)*f0s

fLby81=.4375*f10+sin(pi/8)*f1s

fLby82=.4375*f20+sin(pi/8)*f2s

fLby83=.4375*f30+sin(pi/8)*f3s

BM=.25*w*i*s*L^2

Ixx=(1/6)*t*i^3*s^3*(sin(fi))^2

Zxx=(1/3)*t*i^2*s^2*sin(fi)

ft=(-BM/Zxx)/10000

fb=-ft

M=-(1/12)*w*i^2*s^2*cos(fi)

P=w*i*s/sin(fi)

MLby4=M

PLby4=P

ftLby4=.75*ft

fbLby4=.75*fb

MLby8=M

PLby8=P

ftLby8=.4375*ft

fbLby8=.4375*fb

51

52

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