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Team Members: Faith Harper, Emily Hommel,

Cold Spray Nozzle Cooling


Pediatric Needle Guidance
Anahis Kechejian , Ashleigh Peterson

Advisors: Dr. Sandra J. Shefelbine


Sponsor: Dr. Henry Cheng

Background Problem Statement Prototype Testing


Arterial cannulation – inserting a needle and catheter into Arterial cannulation is a difficult procedure for physicians to perform on infants due to their small size.
an artery to access the blood stream The team designed a system that would enable physicians to reliably insert a catheter into an infant’s Phantom Design:
• Used to monitor vital signs • Pork was selected as the phantom
radial artery on the first attempt. material based on ultrasound testing
• Difficult in infants because they are so small
• Current technique relies on hand-eye coordination and tactile feel of needle insertion
• Multiple attempts to pierce artery cause arterial spasm – makes
subsequent attempts much harder
Final System Prototype • Arteries simulated using 1.2 mm OD
silicone tubing
Pork Phantom Setup
How to use the system: Needle Guide
1. Insert baby arm into system V Accuracy Major Takeaways
Design Iterations (mm)
2. Find the artery with the
1st iteration • Fully constrain probe
ultrasound, measure depth 1 1.45 ± 0.21
“d” using ultrasound • Increase track height
3. Set the “x” distance of the • Add alignment features to center probe
2 0.26 ± 0.07 • Lock needle guide position
needle guide according to the
depth • Create two needle guides at different angles to
3 0.14 ± 0.09 access full physiological range
Current Cannulation 4. Puncture artery
Technique (left) 5. Proceed with catheterization • Make final design with medically safe and easily
4 0.13 ± 0.08
Baby’s Wrist (above) 6. Remove needle guide sterilized material, constrain infant wrist
7. Remove probe mount
Radial artery is located at second crease of the wrist 2nd iteration
• Infant radial artery size: 0.8 – 1.2 mm in diameter • Shallow angle for Final Prototype Validation Testing
• Infant radial artery depth: 1.2 – 4.5 mm beneath the skin large probe 5

Depth measured with


Baseplate 4.5

ultrasound (mm)
• Magnetic strips hold
Mechanical Guidance𝑑 =× tan 𝜃
system in place
• Mount can be easily
4

3.5
removed with 3
• System eliminated degrees of freedom that lead to error pounds of force 3
• Aligned ultrasound probe with needle guide
• Measured depth of artery with ultrasound • Experimental Depth
2.5
• Used scale on track to set x-position; this corresponds to a 3rd iteration - Theoretical Depth
needle depth based on the equation below Ultrasound Alignment: • Thumb screws to fix 2
• Based on error propagation analysis, probe angle was the An upper shell was 3D printed to match the position 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

greatest source of inaccuracy geometry of the probe via image processing, • Deeper angle for Depth on scale (mm)
and thermoplastic beads were used to larger depth range
𝑷𝒓𝒐𝒃𝒆 𝑾𝒊𝒅𝒕𝒉 further constrain the probe. • Contoured to match
𝒅= + 𝒙 + ∆𝒎𝒐𝒖𝒏𝒕 × 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽 needle
𝟐
Track
The surface of the track has a
Variables scale that marks the “x” position
of the needle guide according to
d Depth of artery
trigonometry.
x Distance set by
physician
4th iteration
θ Angle of needle
• Two-guide system for
guide Scale
full depth range
Δ Space added by • 11° and 20°
the thickness of
the probe mount

Trigonometry and
variable definitions for 1st Iteration Setup (above)
mechanical guidance Final Iteration Setup (right)
system Back view of system; 3D printed alignment Probe center aligned
shell and thermoplastic beads hold probe with needle guide

Medical Imaging Exploration Conclusion


Ultrasound Imaging: Infrared (IR) Imaging: A mechanical guidance system was created that references an
Ultrasound: Infrared: ultrasound image to target the radial artery on an infant’s wrist,
Ultrasound measures the depth of an artery beneath the Blood is a natural contrast agent, so it is visible in the infrared spectrum. The team explored IR imaging • 2mm max
skin. The system used ultrasound as the primary mode • Readily for arteries using a MATLAB simulation and testing with IR filters, ultimately deciding not to pursue IR. ensuring that physicians access the artery on the first attempt.
available depth of artery After four design iterations, the accuracy of the system was 0.13
of imaging the artery. detection
• High physician mm, and the success rate is 90% on the first attempt..
adoption • Complex signal
• Only one plane processing
needed to

is imaged
Detects motion distinguish
veins and
Acknowledgements
• Organic shape
Arteries of probe is arteries The team would like to thank Dr. Henry Cheng. a pediatric cardiologist
difficult to • Pigmentation at Boston Children’s Hospital who brought this problem to our
design around of skin effects
Human wrist under Simulation results for 970nm (left) and contrast
attention, the Bouvé Exercise Science lab for ultrasound probe use, and
Monte Carlo Simulation
Pediatric Probe Ultrasound Image IR test setup setup in MATLAB 635nm(right) wavelength Dr. Fang and Dr. Niedre for assistance with IR.