Genetically Modified Food

Chris Chiu
Teacher: Mr Foster

What are Genetically Modified Foods?

• Genetic • GM

Engineering: The deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material foods: They are foods which are produced by crops that their genetic make up has been modified/changed to improve their agricultural qualities. Eg: Pest resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops.

Properties of FlavrSavr

• The

FlavrSavr tomato aimed to have a longer shelf life than conventional tomatoes and could be picked when ripe and transported without bruising. tomato was engineered by using antisense technology. The method of gene silencing interferes with the production of specific proteins in the plants.

• The

Other Genetically Modified Foods
GM Crop Modified Properties and Picture

Soybeans
Resistant to glyphosate and glufosinate herbicides

Rice (Golden Rice )
Contains high amounts of Vitamin A (betacarotene)

Cotton
Pest resistant

Advantages of Genetically Modified Foods?
• • •
Genetic engineering is just another step along the path of genetic improvement, which began with people selectively breeding plants and animals thousands of years ago Adding one new gees is a tiny change to the overall genetic makeup of a living thing. Many plants and animals have tens or hundreds of thousands of genes. With respect to genetically modified food, the Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA requires thorough testing of all GM foods prior to them being able to be sold. It must be at least as safe as their conventional counterparts- offering all the benefits of conventional foods with no additional risks. These tests include examining whether the food has additional allergens or toxins as a result of the genetic modification process. There are strict guidelines in place to control the manufacturing and release and the use of genetically modified organisms. The Australian Government, through various regulatory agencies, approves the monitors the use of gene technology.

Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Foods?

Genetic modification is not natural. The deliberate selection of genes and their transfer between species that are sometimes completely unrelated only happens very rarely among plants and animals, Gene technology is quite different from the agricultural techniques that have gone before, because these mainly involved crosses within a species or between very close related species. It can arbitrarily upset a functioning group of genes. It is, in effect, tampering with complex systems that we still don’t fully understand. Added genes could make ‘safe’ plants produce toxins or allergy-causing substances. Also, we predict what might happen when groups of genes are broken up by the insertion of ‘foreign’ genes into a plant. Often marker genes actually make a substance that destroys certain antibiotics. If such an antibiotic resistance gene moved from a GM plant to a bacterium that causes human disease, that antibiotic may no longer be useful for treating the disease. Traditional breeding techniques have already given us larger harvests and better crops. There is still more that can be done using these tried and tested methods without resorting to risky new technologies.

• • • •

Natural Selection vs Artificial Selection

• The

process where organisms better adapted to their environment tend to have a greater survival rate and produce more offspring.

• Artificial selection or selective breeding is
intention breeding for certain traits or combination of traits.

What is Brassica oleracea?
Cabbage

Broccoli

Kale

Impacts of Genetically Modified Foods
Advantages
•GM
crop plants can be made so that their cultivation has much less impact on the environment. For example, GM plants designed to carry the gene for the production of a natural insecticide, for example, Bt cotton, can cut the use of sprayed pesticides on farms, which is good news for many species that were previously affected by traditional pesticide spraying.

Disadvantages
•What’s
to stop genes from a GMO spreading into other closely related species? If closely related weeds breed with a herbicide tolerant crop species, then weeds could acquire the gene for resistance to the weedkiller, creating weeds which are herbicide tolerant

will still be faced with pests becoming resistant to pesticides, even if they are engineered into crops. Therefore GM crops don’t offer much advantage over existing ways of •Herbicide resistance in GM plants is that the modified dealing with pests. plants are made resistant to a relatively benign chemical, which can then be sprayed in larger doses so that it is •The use of herbicide tolerant crops may encourage farmers effective against weeds without having to use far more toxic to use more herbicide. In addition, the companies that compounds. produce herbicide tolerant crops often manufacture the corresponding herbicide- locking farmers into a single •Crop plants can have genes from hardier plants added to supplier. them, thereby allowing them to tolerate salinity, drought or poor soil. This means that agriculture need not always use •Feeding the world is more to do with politics and economics the best land or damage non-agricultural species in the area. than agriculture There are food surpluses in wealthy countries. But poor countries and poor people can’t afford to •Eventual plant types will become more nutritious, yield buy this food.

•Farmers

bigger harvests, but at the same time are more resistant to disease and to stresses like drought. Domestic animals •The much publicized promise of new crop varieties feeding the world in the Green Revolution of the 1970s still hasn’t would also become more productive and make more less. eliminated starvation.

•Countries

whose lands were previously too poor to be Gene technology is coming from big companies. Are they • used for agriculture would be able to grow their own food, doing this research more for their own profits than to benefit leading to increased food security. the world?

Bibliography
• • • • • • • • • • • •
Book: Butler, M., Hopkins, D. & Willis, J. 2001, Physics 2, Macmillan Education Australia, South Yarra Websites: Genetic Engineering Advantages & Disadvantages- Genetics and Evolution: viewed 30 August 2010, http://www.biology-online.org/2/13_genetic_engineering.htm Cotton Image- viewed 31 August 2010, http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/clothing/pictures/ cotton.jpg Soybean Image- viewed 31 August 2010, http://www.bombayharbour.com/productimage/Soybean/ Soybean.jpg Golden Rice Image- viewed 31 August 2010, http://www.goldenjockey.com/images/golden-rice.jpg Tomato Image- viewed 31 August 2010, http://www.open.salon.com/files/800pxcapay_heirloom_tomatoes_at_slow_food_nation1236978263.jpg Cabbage Image- viewed 31 August 2010, http://www.healthwizard.in/wp-content/uploads/ 2009/10/cabbage2.jpg Broccoli Image- viewed 31 August 2010, http://binbrain.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/ broccoli.jpg Kale Image- viewed 31 August 2010, http://www.skrewtips.com/img/inside_products_kale.jpg FlavrSavr Information- viewied 31 August 2010, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FlavrSavr

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