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Local scenario
• Over the past 10 years, generation of Malaysia MSW has
increased more than 91% [8].
• In 2001, estimated 5.475 million tons of solid waste
generated which is about 0.81 kg/capita/day [9] while in
main cities, the figure escalated to 1.7 kg/capita/day[10].
• The highest average generation rate per capita of MSW was
reported in Penang at 1.1 kg/capita/day [11]. A report found
that about 7.34 million tons of solid wastes were generated in
Penang on 2006, enough to fill up 42 buildings [6].
Dasar pengurusan Sisa Pepejal Negara
• Mewujudkan sistem pengurusan sisa pepejal yang menyeluruh,
bersepadu, kos efektif, mapan dan diterima masyarakat yang
mementingkan pemeliharaan alam sekitar, pemilihan teknologi yang
mampu bayar dan menjamin kesihatan awam; dan
• Melaksanakan PSP berdasarkan ‘waste management hierarchy’ yang
memberi keutamaan kepada pengurangan sisa melalui 3R, rawatan
perantaraan dan pelupusan akhir.
• OBJEKTIF 1 Pengurusan sisa pepejal yang bersepadu dan kos efektif yang meliputi
kutipan dan pengangkutan, rawatan perantaraan dan pelupusan.
• OBJEKTIF 2 Pengurangan sisa pepejal isi rumah, komersial, perindustrian,
keinstitusian, awam dan pembinaan melalui 3R.
• OBJEKTIF 3 Perkhidmatan yang efisien dan kos yang efektif melalui penswastaan,
kawalseliaan yang cekap dan standard yang seragam.
• OBJEKTIF 4 Pemilihan teknologi yang telah terbukti, mampu bayar dari segi capex &
opex serta mesra alam.
• OBJEKTIF 5 Menjamin pemeliharaan alam sekitar dan kesihatan awam.

• OBJEKTIF 6 Pewujudan perundangan dan institusi bagi pengurusan sisa pepejal.

SWM Acts & Regulations
Global Scenario
• Current global MSW generation levels are
approximately 1.3 billion tonnes per year, and are
expected to increase to approximately 2.2 billion
tonnes per year by 2025.
• This represents a significant increase in per capita
waste generation rates, from 1.2 to 1.42 kg per
person per day in the next fifteen years.
SW characteristics
• Putrescible waste – animal and vegetable waste
resulting from food prep. This type of waste
decomposes rapidly and may quickly produce bad
• Municipal solid waste – common garbage i.e.
durable/non-durable goods, containers, packaging,
food wastes, yard trimmings, organic wastes etc.
In-class Example
• Given:

Population = 253,000
MSW = 2180 ton · wk-1
325 trucks · wk-1
2 loads · truck-1 · d-1
Truck capacity = 4.5 ton
Operation = 5 d · wk-1
a. MSW generated per person

2180 ton  wk 1 wk  5 d   1.723 kg  capita

1 1
 d 1
253 ,000 people 1 ton 1000 kg 
b. Average load and capacity of each truck

2180 ton  wk 1
 0 .67 ton  load 1
Average load =
2load  truck 1
 
 d 1 5 d  325 truck  wk 1 
Capacity = 0.67ton
 100 %  14.9%
c. Volume of MSW disposed each week

V 
2180ton  wk 1000 kg  ton   8226 m
1 1
 wk
265 kg  m

Density for
Loose combustible solid waste = 115 kg.m3
Collected solid waste = 180-450 kg.m3
Compacted solid waste (landfill) = 350-500 kg.m3
Well compacted solid waste = 600-750 kg.m3
• VID 1

• VID 2

Municipal Solid Waste Management; The Integrated

• Combustion - Excess oxygen
• Pyrolysis - Inert
• Gasification - Partial combustion, O2 below
stoichiometric requirement
Sanitary Landfill Disposal
Land disposal method that practice
appropriate engineering techniques and waste
management system in minimizing
environmental hazards by spreading the waste
to the smallest practical volume, and applying
and compacting cover material on daily based
SLD Operation
• Area method operation
• 3-step process:
• Spreading the waste
• Compacting
• Covering
Regulations for Landfill Disposal
• Environmental Quality (Control of Pollution From Solid Waste Transfer
Station And Landfill) Regulations 2009
• Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007

• Environmental Quality (Declared Activities) (Open Burning) Order

Landfill Design
• To estimate the volume required for a landfill, it is necessary to know
the amount of refuse (rubbish & garbage – residential source) being
produced and the density of the in-place, compacted refuse. Salvato
(1972) recommend a formula of the following form to estimate the
annual volume required.
In-class Example
• Calculate the area required for a new landfill site
with a projected life of 30 years for a population of
300,000 generating 2.5 kg/capita/day. The density
of the compacted waste is 500 kg/m3. The height of
the landfill cannot exceed 15 m.
• Volume of landfill necessary:

(300000 people )(2.5kg / capita / day ) 3

 1500 m / day
500 kg / m
• For 30 years:
V = (1500m3/day)(365 days/year)(30 years) =
Max heigh 15 m, therefore the area needed is:
16,425,000 m3/15 m = 1,095,000 m2 = 109.5 ha

This is equivalent to 205 FIFA standard football

• A liquid that passes through the landfills, extracts dissolved
and suspended matter from the waste material.
• To prevent leachate seepage into groundwater, landfills must
be lined accordingly by using approved materials.
• Approved liners – geommebrane PVC, HDPE,CPE,EPDM
• Soil layer (clay) under geomembrane acts as a foundation
for the geomembrane and as a backup for a control of
leachate flow to the groundwater.
Leachate Collection
• Designed by sloping the floor of the landfill to a grid of underdrain
pipes that are placed above the geomembrane
Leachate Treatment
• Flexible, with multistage units that can treat
leachate from young and old landfills, which have
very different characteristics
• Reduction of BOD and COD
• Removal of halogenated hydrocarbons, metals,
• Removal of salts, especially in leachate from old
Methane & Other Gas Production
• Main gaseous emitted from a landfill:
• Methane
• CO2

• Early Stage: Predominant CO2 (aerobic decomposition of waste) + N2

• Matured Stage: Almost Equal CO2 & Methane

• Inmethanogenic phase, N2 decreases. Once methanogenesis

completed, methane generation will cease.
• Methane > 40% is explosive in the presence of O2

• Adverse effect to nearby crops.

• Heat content for pure methane ~ 37750 kJ/m3.

• Heat content for diluted methane at landfill ~ 16000-20000 kJ/m3.

Landfill Gas (LFG) Collection System
• Active systems provide a pressure gradient to force the gas from the
• Passive systems allow a natural pressure gradient to build up, which
causes the gas to move from the cells into the collection devices.
• LFG can be recovered for energy generation.

• Open combustion using flares to dispose LFG

• Thermal incinerator to burn LFG to CO2 & H2O.

In-Class Example
Landfill Closure
• Major function
• Prevent moisture from entering the finished landfill

• Consists of
• Surface layer
• To provide suitable soil for plants to grow
• Biotic barrier
• to prevent roots of plants from penetrating the hydraulic barrier
• Drainage layer
• Serves as a leachate collection system, channelling leachate to a
grid of perforated pipes
• Consists of
• Hydraulic barrier
• To prevent the movement of water from the landfill
• Foundation layer
• To support the landfill and protect the geomembrane
liner from the rough aggregate used in the gas control
• Gas control
• Serves as a gas collection system, channelling gases to a
grid of perforated pipes and to the surface of the landfill
• Post-closure
• Require maintenance
• Because of uneven settling
• Maintaining good drainage
• Uses
• Recreational purposes (parks, playgrounds, golf courses)
• Parking lots and storage areas
• Avoid
• Construction on buildings because of uneven settling and
gas evolution.
Municipal/Public Concerns on SLD
• Leachate – underground water contamination

• Decomposition of waste to form gases that may be toxic to life forms

• SLD – potential breading ground for disease vectors

• Detrimental effect to aesthetical surrounding – eye view & odour,